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Sample records for inch thick steel

  1. Recommendations for protecting against failure by brittle fracture: Category II and III ferritic steel shipping containers with wall thickness greater than four inches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report provides criteria for selecting ferritic steels that would prevent brittle fracture in Category II and III shipping containers with wall thickness greater than 4 inches. These methods are extensions of those previously used for Category II and III containers less than 4 inches thick and Category I containers more than 4 inches thick

  2. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  3. Heavy section steel technology program. Technical report No. 36. The irradiated fracture toughness of ASTM A533, Grade B, Class 1 steel measured with a four inch thick compact tension specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The fracture toughness of an ASTM A533-B four inch thick compact tension specimen irradiated to approximately 3.8 x 10 19 n/cm 2 (E greater than 1 MeV) at 550 0 F was determined to be 80 ksi √in at a test temperature of 200 0 F. Smaller 0.394 inch thick fracture specimens were tested prior to the large specimen test to aid in establishing the test temperature and to compare the fracture transition of large and small irradiated specimens. The K/sub Ic.394/ toughness transition as measured at 100 ksi √in was observed at a temperature of 210 0 F; plate RW and WR orientations were comparable. Fracture toughness behavior of the small specimens closely predicts the large specimen behavior in the transition region. 23 references. (U.S.)

  4. Plane strain fracture toughness tests on 2.4 and 3.9-inch-thick maraging steel specimens at various yield strength levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. M.; Repko, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Tests of bend and compact specimens were conducted according to ASTM Tentative Method E 399-70T on a 200 grade maraging steel over a range of yield strengths from 123 to 234 ksi. The toughness of any given yield strength level was greater for the overaged condition than for the underaged. Some results which met the specimen size requirements of the method were distinctly lower than corresponding results from larger specimens. Inconsistencies in both validation and invalidation of results by the requirement for linearity of the test record were also noted.

  5. Thick tool steel coatings with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2007-01-01

    This paper concentrates on thick and crack-free laser clad coatings (up to 3 mm). The coating material is a chromium-molybdenum-tungsten-vanadium alloyed high-speed steel that shows high wear resistance, high compressive strength, good toughness, very good dimensional stability on heat treatment and

  6. 77 FR 64478 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ....D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.148 inch wall thickness (gage 9) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.500 inch O.D. and 0.203 inch wall thickness... investigation is Zenith Birla (India) Limited (previously known as Zenith Steel Pipes and Industries Ltd...

  7. Vision-based surface defect inspection for thick steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Dongseob; Kim, KyuHwan; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-05-01

    There are several types of steel products, such as wire rods, cold-rolled coils, hot-rolled coils, thick plates, and electrical sheets. Surface stains on cold-rolled coils are considered defects. However, surface stains on thick plates are not considered defects. A conventional optical structure is composed of a camera and lighting module. A defect inspection system that uses a dual lighting structure to distinguish uneven defects and color changes by surface noise is proposed. In addition, an image processing algorithm that can be used to detect defects is presented in this paper. The algorithm consists of a Gabor filter that detects the switching pattern and employs the binarization method to extract the shape of the defect. The optics module and detection algorithm optimized using a simulator were installed at a real plant, and the experimental results conducted on thick steel plate images obtained from the steel production line show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Test of 6-inch-thick pressure vessels. Series 2. Intermediate test vessels V-3, V-4, and V-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.H.; Merkle, J.G.; Raftenberg, M.N.; Robinson, G.C.; Smith, J.E.

    1975-11-01

    The second series of intermediate vessel tests were crack initiation fracture tests of 6-in.-thick 39-in.-OD steel vessels with sharp surface flaws approximately 2 1 / 2 in. deep by 8 in. long in the longitudinal weld seams of the test cylinders. Fracture was initiated by means of hydraulic pressurization. One vessel was tested at each of three temperatures: 75, 130, and 190 0 F. Pretest analyses were made to predict the failure pressures and strains. Fracture toughness data obtained by equivalent-energy analysis of precracked Charpy-V tests and compact-tension specimen tests were used in the fracture analyses. The vessels behaved generally as had been expected. Posttest fracture analyses were also performed for each vessel. Detailed discussions of the fracture analysis methods developed in support of the vessel tests described are included. 34 references

  9. Application of Industrial XRF Coating Thickness Analyzer for Phosphate Coating Thickness on Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Sokolov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of industrial application of an online X-ray fluorescence coating thickness analyzer for measuring the thickness of phosphate coatings on moving steel strips are considered in the article. The target range of coating thickness to be measured is from tens to hundreds of mg/m2 in a measurement time of 10 s. The measurement accuracy observed during long-duration factory acceptance test was 10–15%. The coating thickness analyzer consists of two XRF gauges, mounted above and below the steel strip and capable of moving across the moving strip system for their suspension and relocation and electronic control unit. Fully automated software was developed to automatically and continuously (24/7 control both gauges, scanning both sides of the steel strip, and develop and test methods for measuring new coatings. It allows performing offline storage and retrieval of the measurement results, remotely controlling the analyzer components and measurement modes from a control room. The developed XRF coating thickness analyzer can also be used for real-time measurement of other types of coatings, both metallic and non-metallic.

  10. Ductile fracture behavior of 6-inch diameter type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel piping containing a through-wall or part-through crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Kaneko, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Norio.

    1986-05-01

    The double ended guillotine break philosophy in the design base accident of the nuclear power plant is considered to be overly conservative from the view point of piping design. Through the past experiences and developments of the fabrication, inspection, and operation of nuclear power plants, it has been recognized that the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept can be justified in the LWR pressure boundary pipings. In order to verify the LBB concept, extensive experimental and theoretical works are being conducted in many countries. Furthermore, a revised piping design standard, in which LBB concept is introduced, is under preparation in Japan, U.S.A., and European countries. At JAERI, a research program to investigate the unstable ductile fracture behavior of LWR piping under bending load has been carried out as a part of the LBB verification researches since 1983. This report summarizes the result of the ductile fracture tests conducted at room temperature in 1983 and 84. The 6-inch diameter pipes of type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel pipe with a through-wall or part-through crack were tested under bending load with low or high compliance condition at room temperature. Pipe fracture data were obtained from the test as regards to load- displacement curve, crack extension, net section stress, J-resistance curve, and so on. Besides, the influence of the compliance on the fracture behavior was examined. Discussions are performed on the ductile pipe fracture criterion, flaw evaluation criterion, and LBB evaluation method. (author)

  11. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  12. Development of low-cost welding procedures for thick sections of HY-150 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P. M.; Snow, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Low cost welding procedures were developed for welding 6-inch thick HY-150 steel to be used in the manufacture of large diameter motor case Y rings and nozzle attachment flanges. An extensive investigation was made of the mechanical and metallurgical properties and fracture toughness of HY-150 base plate and welds made with manual shielded metal arc process and semi-automatic gas metal arc process in the flat position. Transverse tensiles, all-weld metal tensiles, Charpy V-notch specimens and edge notched bend specimens were tested in the course of the program. In addition metallographic studies and hardness tests were performed on the weld, weld HAZ and base metal. The results of the work performed indicate that both the shielded metal arc and gas metal arc processes are capable of producing consistently sound welds as determined by radiographic and ultrasonic inspection. In addition, the weld metal, deposited by each process was found to exhibit a good combination of strength and toughness such that the selection of a rolled and welded procedure for fabricating rocket motor case components would appear to be technically feasible.

  13. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact : Experimental Investigation II

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1999-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel armour plate at different obliquities has been investigated. Ballistic experiments were conducted in the velocity range 300-800 mls at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° obliquity .A steel, conical projectile or 6.1 mm diameter was impacted on a 10 mm thick steel armour plate. At 30° and 45° obliquity, the plate offers protection up to a striking velocity of 800 mls. At zero obliquity, the plate provides protection below 6~ m/s. The depth of penetration decreases with...

  14. Investigation of the safety testing of extraordinary thick steel material for pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajmelka, K.

    1978-10-01

    With increasing size of nuclear reactors it was necessary to increase the wall thickness of the reactor pressure vessels. So, for example the wall thickness of the pressure vessel of the LWR pressurized water reactor type with 1.200.000 kW performance is 250 mm. The fabrication of these extraordinary thick steel plates is accurately carried out, nevertheless it is very important to control the characteristics of strength. For this reason extraordinarily thick steel plates of forged manganese-molybdenum-nickel steel produced in Japan and used for the production of reactor pressure vessels was utilized. The aim of this investigation is to know if and how the K sub(IR)- values correspond to the actual regulation for the prevention of brittle fracture and to determine the characteristics. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Applicability of newly developed 610MPa class heavy thickness high strength steel to boiler pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Norihiko; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Ishii, Jun [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Kajigaya, Ichiro [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Totsuka, Takehiro; Miyazaki, Takashi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Aioi (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Construction of a 350 MW Class PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) boiler plant is under planning in Japan. Design temperature and pressure of the vessel are maximum 350 C and 1.69 MPa, respectively. As the plate thickness of the vessel exceeds over 100 mm, high strength steel plate of good weldability and less susceptible to reheat cracking was required and developed. The steel was aimed to satisfy the tensile strength over 610 MPa at 350 C after postweld heat treatment (PWHT), with good notch toughness. The authors investigated the welding performances of the newly developed steel by using 150 mm-thick plate welded by pulsed-MAG and SAW methods. It was confirmed that the newly developed steel and its welds possess sufficient strength and toughness after PWHT, and applicable to the actual pressure vessel.

  16. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact: Experimental Investigation .

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-01-01

    The ballistic behaviour of thick steel amlOW- plate has been investigated at different obliquity when impacted by an ogive-shaped steel projectile. The ballistic experiments have been conducted in the velocity range 300-800 m/s. Both the thickness of the target plate and the diameter of the projectile were 20 Inm. At 30 and 45. obliquity 20 mm plate provides full protection at 800 m/s, whereas at 0 and 15. obliquity, the plate provides protection up to 600 m/s. At 15 and 30° obliquity, the pl...

  17. The use of the Deep Kerfer for thick, steel-reinforced concrete cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzimenti, D.M.; Vlad, P.M.; Landau, B.

    1989-08-01

    This paper describes the project during which cutting operations were performed on thick, steel-reinforced concrete structures using the Deep Carfare System. The project involved making modifications to the Equipment Decontamination Room, a cell in the former nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, as one phase of the Vitrification Facility Construction. 23 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 114 and 137 pliers with a controlled force (0.2 N and then 30 secondary photos were taken in the same conditions. The circumference of crown margins in primary (group A and secondary (group B photos were assessed by a digitizer system. Comparing the circumferences of crown margins in primary and secondary photos showed a significant decrease after crimping. Thickness of 30 random points on the crown margins of a crown similar to mentioned cases was measured by SEM (×150. Then similar procedures including taking a primary photo, crimping and taking a secondary photo was done for the sample crown. After significant reduction in margin circumference, thickness of 30 other random points on the crown margin were measured by SEM. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns was reduced by 7.3% which was significant (P<0.001. On the other hand the mean marginal thickness of sample stainless steel crown showed 18µ increase. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns (3M, Ni-Cr showed a significant decrease after crimping. It is concluded that crimping the stainless steel crowns even for precrimped ones seems necessary.

  19. A new approach to alloy compensation in a thickness measurement of high-tensile steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Choi, Cheol Hee

    2013-06-01

    In on-line manufacturing iron-making process, several kinds of element are mixed in iron in order to meet the required quality for a final product. In this paper, the results show that the alloy compensation method is needed to improve accuracy required at thickness gauge, that is, ±0.5% at the target thickness. In addition, the alloy compensation method in measurement will be proposed in the form of correction function of each element weight percentage to be alloyed using the analyzed result of MCNP simulation program. Finally, an automatic thickness compensation method applied to the high-tensile steel product during manufacturing is introduced. (authors)

  20. Laser cutting performances for thick steel specimens studied by molten metal removal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Toyama, Shin'ichi

    2017-01-01

    Laser cutting performances for thick carbon steel and stainless steel specimens up to 300 mm in thickness were studied to dismantle large steel objects. The cutting performances were summarized based on the assist gas flow rate and the front kerf width, and the range for appropriate cutting conditions was shown. Gas pressure in the kerf region required for molten metal removal was estimated from the pressure loss on the kerf surface, which depended on the gas flow rate and the kerf width. The relation to keep sufficient gas pressure in the kerf well corresponded to the experimental relations for appropriate cutting. Drag force to the molten metal on the kerf surface was also estimated, which varied by the structures and materials. The behaviors such as cavity formation and its expansion in the kerf region at the unsuccessful cutting trials were well explained. The results are informative for the development of the laser cutting technology applied to the thick steel specimen for the nuclear decommissioning. (author)

  1. Estimation of shell thickness in a continuously cast steel billet using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.; Pandey, J.C.; Kaur, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the continuous casting of steel, one of the factors which limits the rate of faster withdrawal of the casting from the mould is the thickness of the solid shell below the mould. If the shell can not contain the liquid pool, breakouts occur and process of casting disrupts. Estimates of shell thickness have been made on the basis of heat- transfer considerations. The shell thickness could also be delineated, to some extent, by adding radiotracers during casting and subsequently determining the dispersion of radioactivity by autoradiography. The paper presents the results of the estimation of shell thickness based on the heat-transfer model and validation of the model by plant trials using radiotracers. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Microstructure Development during Roughing and Intermediate Cooling of Thick HTP Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kevin; Maubane, Rorisang

    The microstructural development during roughing and early finishing of thick, high Nb-Ti steels containing high and low Mn contents has been investigated for conventional cold charging (CCR) and quasi compact strip production (CSP) conditions. Multi-pass rolling simulations were performed, followed by interrupted accelerated cooling, to study the "as-coiled" ferrite/pearlite microstructure. Local heterogeneous regions, LHR, were often found after CSP simulations, but not after CCR where the microstructure was generally uniform. Coarse, local heterogeneous regions can be prevented in HTP steels though complete recrystallization of the as-cast austenite during and after roughing by i) applying sufficient strain at roughing temperatures above the TiNb(C,N) precipitation region, ii) slow intermediate cooling and iii) using high Mn contents to suppress precipitation. For thick HTP skelp, the initiation of dynamic recrystallization is of little use in avoiding LHR due to limited strain available for completing the necklacing process.

  3. Creep properties in similar weld joint of a thick-walled P92 steel pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Svobodová, M.; Kvapilová, Marie; Král, Petr; Horváth, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-12 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09518S; GA MPO FR-TI4/406 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 9–12%Cr steels * Creep testing * High temperature creep * Thick-walled pipe * Welding Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  4. Effect of vibratory stress relief during welding of thick stainless steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, S.; David, S. A.; Wang, X. L.; Hubbard, C. R.; Holden, T. M.; Root, J. H.

    1993-12-01

    Residual strains were measured in two welded 25-mm thick plates of type 304 stainless steel by the neutron diffraction technique. The filler metal employed to weld these plates was type 308 stainless steel. One of the two welds was prepared without any vibratory stress relief treatment and the other was vibrated at a frequency below the resonant condition which gives a fraction the resonant amplitude during welding. In both plates the largest residual stress component found in the heat affected zone and in the base metal is along the fusion joint (longitudinal) and is found at the boundary between the weld zone and the heat affected zone. This longitudinal component is 300 +/- 50 MPa in tension. The associated normal stress was close to zero and the transverse stress was 80 +/- 50 MPa. Variations in residual stresses with thickness through the base metal plate were small. The treated plate and untreated plate showed nearly identical patterns of stress distribution. Differences in the measured stresses between the vibratory-stress-relief treated and the untreated plates fall within the error bars of the stress determination in these particular 25 mm thick 300-type stainless steel plates.

  5. Ultrasonic stress evaluation through thickness of a stainless steel pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, Yashar; Pirzaman, Hamed Salimi; Raeisi, Mohammadreza Hadizadeh; Najafabadi, Mehdi Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates ultrasonic method in stress measurement through thickness of a pressure vessel. Longitudinal critically refracted (L CR ) waves are employed to measure the welding residual stresses in a vessel constructed from austenitic stainless steel 304L. The acoustoelastic constant is measured through a hydro test to keep the pressure vessel intact. Hoop and axial residual stresses are evaluated by using different frequency range of ultrasonic transducers. The welding processes of vessel shell and caps are simulated by a 3D finite element (FE) model which is validated by hole-drilling method. The residual stresses calculated by FE simulation are then compared with those obtained from the ultrasonic measurement while a good agreement is observed. It is demonstrated that the residual stresses through thickness of the stainless steel pressure vessel can be evaluated by combining FE and L CR method (known as FEL CR method). - Highlights: • The main goal is ultrasonic evaluation of through thickness stresses. • Welding processes of a stainless steel pressure vessel are modelled by FE. • The hole-drilling method is used to validate the FE results. • Residual stresses are measured by four different series of ultrasonic transducers. • The comparison between ultrasonic and FE results show an acceptable agreement

  6. Eddy current testing technology research of aluminum coating thickness on stainless steel tube inwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaona; Hao Xingui

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic testing method of coating layer thickness of stainless steel tube is built up using eddy current testing technology. It is determined that others-contrast point-type probe is adopted, by comparing the detection performance of self-contrast and others-contrast type probes. To effectively solve the lift-off effect between dynamic detection, 3 nylon (4 m long per piece) is distributed by 120° in the circumferential direction of tube to be tested, which ensure the rotational alignment and avoid point-type probe lifting off the tube inner surface. And the special tighten clamping fixture is used for fixing stainless steel tube; so, the dynamic transmission device is designed and realized. Accuracy study under the condition of different frequency and gain is carried out using multi-frequency detection technology. At the same time, the detection precision under quadratic curve and exponential curve calibration modal is compared. And then, test parameters and curve generated model is determined to achieve the best accuracy. Finally, spiral scanning eddy current method is achieved for testing the aluminium cladding thickness on stainless steel tube inwall. The accuracy of detecting the thickness of coating layer by this method is ±3μm, the instability of rotating tooling is lower than 10%. This method achieved the domestic leading level. (authors)

  7. Shear localization in 4340 steel with different microstructure using Thick Wall Cylinder method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Navarro, Pedro; Chiu, Po-Hsun; Higgins, Andrew; Serge, Matthew; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2017-06-01

    Initiation and self-organization of shear bands in 4340 steel with initial low (2789 MPa) and high (5420 MPa) microhardnesses, but similar thermophysical properties, is studied using explosively driven Thick Wall Cylinder method and numerical simulations. In experiments low hardness 4340 steel demonstrated the initiation of a pattern of shear bands at global effective strain of about 0.53, which did not significantly change with increase of global strain up to 0.8. High microhardness 4340 steel demonstrated extremely different post-critical behavior. At global strain 0.56 a few well-developed shear bands propagated through the sample with their transformation into crack pattern at larger global strain 0.83. The propagation mechanism of shear bands in high hardness 4340 steel is explained by the interfacial microcracking between inclusions and matrix. Johnson-Cook material model with damage correctly predicted the dramatic change of shear bands pattern at similar global strains with change of initial properties of steel in numerical simulations. The pattern of shear bands was dependent on the number of initial material defects introduced by scaling of yield strength of mesh elements. P.F.N. wants to thank CONACYT-UCMEXUS for the funding.

  8. Effect of Spot and Stud Welding on ESR 4340 Steel Armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    solid flux were used. For spot welds , AISI 1015 steel sheet 0.058 inch thick and 304 stainless steel sheet 0.075 inch thick were used. Composition of•the...3/8 inch and 1/2 inch. Studs were of AISI 1022 and 304 stainless steels. For each composition, 1/4-inch-diameter and 3/8-inch-diameter studs with...0.007 0.005 0.22 1.90 0.79 0.25 AISI 1015 0.15-0.18 0.30-0.60 0.040 0.050 max max AISI 1022 0.18-0.23 0.7 -1 .0 0.040 0.050 max max 304 S.S. 0.08 max

  9. Eddy Current COPV Overwrap and Liner Thickness Measurement System and Data Analysis for 40-Inch Kevlar COPVs SN002 and SN027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the health assessment of flight spare 40in diameter Kevlar composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) SN002 and SN027 an eddy current characterization of the composite and liner thickness change during pressurization was requested under WSTF-TP-1085-07.A, "Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System P/N MC282-0082-0101 S/N 002 and Orbital Maneuvering System P/N MC282-0082-001 S/N 027 COPV Health Assessment." The through the thickness strains have been determined to be an important parameter in the analysis of the reliability and likelihood of stress rupture failure. Eddy current techniques provide a means to measure these thicknesses changes based upon the change in impedance of an eddy current sensor mounted on the exterior of the vessel. Careful probe and technique design have resulted in the capability to independently measure the liner and overwrap thickness changes to better than +/- 0.0005 in. at each sensor location. Descriptions of the inspection system and test results are discussed.

  10. Process stability during fiber laser-arc hybrid welding of thick steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaziv, Ivan; Frostevarg, Jan; Akselsen, Odd M.; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Thick steel plates are frequently used in shipbuilding, pipelines and other related heavy industries, and are usually joined by arc welding. Deep penetration laser-arc hybrid welding could increase productivity but has not been thoroughly investigated, and is therefore usually limited to applications with medium thickness (5-15 mm) sections. A major concern is process stability, especially when using modern welding consumables such as metal-cored wire and advanced welding equipment. High speed imaging allows direct observation of the process so that process behavior and phenomena can be studied. In this paper, 45 mm thick high strength steel was welded (butt joint double-sided) using the fiber laser-MAG hybrid process utilizing a metal-cored wire without pre-heating. Process stability was monitored under a wide range of welding parameters. It was found that the technique can be used successfully to weld thick sections with appropriate quality when the parameters are optimized. When comparing conventional pulsed and the more advanced cold metal transfer pulse (CMT+P) arc modes, it was found that both can provide high quality welds. CMT+P arc mode can provide more stable droplet transfer over a limited range of travel speeds. At higher travel speeds, an unstable metal transfer mechanism was observed. Comparing leading arc and trailing arc arrangements, the leading arc configuration can provide higher quality welds and more stable processing at longer inter-distances between the heat sources.

  11. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A study on the impediment of thickness diminution of Carbon steel tube by using a applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Kim, Jong Hui; Cho, Wan Sik; Hong, Sung Min; Park, Yun Won

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic properties of the carbon steel tube which is used as the pipe laying of cooling water in nuclear power plant were measured to research the impediment of thickness diminution of carbon steel tube. Magnetic field distribution of carbon steel tube in the applied magnetic field was simulated by computer program. On the basis of the simulation results, Alnico 5DG and Alnico 5 were selected as the permanent magnets applicable to the carbon steel tube. Sm2Co17 magnet was used to compare the performance of permanent magnets. The experimental apparatus similar to the draining environment of cooling water in nuclear power plant was also manufactured in order to research the impediment of thickness diminution of carbon steel carbon tube

  13. Observation of the molten metal behaviors during the laser cutting of thick steel specimens using attenuated process images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Molten metal behaviors during the laser cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel specimens up to 300 mm in thickness were observed to dismantle large steel objects for the nuclear decommissioning, where attenuated process images from both steels were observed for detailed process analysis. Circular and rod-like molten metal structures were observed at the laser irradiated region depending on the assist gas flow conditions. Molten metal blow-off and flow processes were observed as cutting processes. The observations were explained by the aerodynamic interaction of the melted surface layer. The method is useful for the detailed observation of the molten metal behaviors, and the results are informative to understand and optimize the laser cutting process of very thick steel specimens. (author)

  14. Acoustic emission test on a 25mm thick mild steel pressure vessel with inserted defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.; Dawson, D.G.; Hanley, D.J.; Kirby, N.

    1976-12-01

    Acoustic emission measurements have been taken on an experimental mild steel vessel with 4 inserted defects ranging in severity up to 90% of through thickness. The vessel was subjected to a series of pressure excursions of increasing magnitude until failure occurred by extension of the largest inserted defect through the vessel wall. No acoustic emission was detected throughout any part of the tests which would indicate the presence of such serious defects or of impending failure. Measurements of acoustic emission from metallurgical specimens are included and the results of post test inspection using conventional NDT and metallographic techniques are reported. (author)

  15. Laser welding of 3 mm thick laser-cut AISI 304 stainless steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, Rakesh; Rao, B. Tirumala; Tiwari, Pragya; Nath, A. K.; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet; Chaudhari, S. M.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the laser weldability of laser-cut 3 mm thick AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel sheet (using oxygen as an assist gas). For minimizing heat input during laser cutting, which is an important factor influencing the thickness of the oxide layer on the cut surface, laser cutting was performed in pulsed mode. The results of the study demonstrated that although the laser welding of laser-cut specimens did not result in the formation of weld defects, the resultant laser weldments exhibited reduced ductility with respect to base metal and bead-on-plate laser weldments. Laser-cut and laser-welded specimens also displayed higher notch sensitivity than the base metal. However, laser-cut and laser-welded specimens still possessed enough ductility to pass guided bend tests.

  16. An analysis of the joints’ properties of thick-grained steel welded by the SAW and ESW methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of properties of welded joints of thick-grained steel of P460NH type used more and more often in the modern constructions. A process of examining a technology of welding has been carried out on the thick-walled butt joints of sheet metal by two methods of welding namely submerged arc welding (SAW - 121 and electroslag (ESW - 722. The article deals with a topic of optimizing a process of welding thick-walled welded joints of fine-grained steel due to their mechanical properties and efficiency.

  17. The effect of zinc thickness on corrosion film breakdown of Colombian galvanized steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Amador, A.; E Torres Ramirez, J.; Cabrales-Villamizar, P. A.; Laverde Cataño, D.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    This work studies the corrosion behaviour of Colombian galvanized steel in solutions of chloride and sulphate ions. The effect of the thickness and exposure time on the film’s breakdown susceptibility and protectiveness of the corrosion products were studied using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion products were analysed using SEM-EDS and XRD. The samples with a higher thickness level in the zinc film (Z180) have the lowest corrosion rate. In this case, one of the products that was formed by the chemical reactions that occurred was Zinc hydroxide, which exhibits a passive behaviour as observed in the Pourbaix curves of the obtained potentials and in how the different Ph levels of the solutions worked. The sheets with the highest thickness (Z180) had the best performance, since at the end of the study they showed the least amount of damage on the surface of the zinc layer. This is because the thickness of the zinc layer favours the formation of simonkolleite, which is the corrosion product that protects the material under the conditions of the study.

  18. Microstructural and Mechanical Study of Press Hardening of Thick Boron Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujante, J.; Garcia-Llamas, E.; Golling, S.; Casellas, D.

    2017-09-01

    Press hardening has become a staple in the production of automotive safety components, due to the combination of high mechanical properties and form complexity it offers. However, the use of press hardened components has not spread to the truck industry despite the advantages it confers, namely affordable weight reduction without the use of exotic materials, would be extremely attractive for this sector. The main reason for this is that application of press hardened components in trucks implies adapting the process to the manufacture of thick sheet metal. This introduces an additional layer of complexity, mainly due to the thermal gradients inside the material resulting in though-thickness differences in austenitization and cooling, potentially resulting in complex microstructure and gradient of mechanical properties. This work presents a preliminary study on the press hardening of thick boron steel sheet. First of all, the evolution of the sheet metal during austenitization is studied by means of dilatometry tests and by analysing the effect of furnace dwell time on grain size. Afterwards, material cooled using different cooling strategies, and therefore different effective cooling rates, is studied in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. Initial results from finite element simulation are compared to experimental results, focusing on the phase composition in through thickness direction. Results show that industrial-equivalent cooling conditions do not lead to gradient microstructures, even in extreme scenarios involving asymmetrical cooling.

  19. Reliability of thickness of oxide layer of stainless steels with chromium using cellular automaton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, K. C.; Chen, Y.; Yu, G. P.; Hung, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    A cellular automaton (CA) model based on the stochastic approach was proposed to simulate the process of oxidation and corrosion of stainless steels with different contents of chromium in-flowing lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). Chromium is a crucial alloying element added in stainless steels and nickel based alloys which have been proposed to be used in advanced nuclear reactors to improve resistance of the oxidation and corrosion. To verify the reliability of the thickness of the oxide layer by CA model, the influence of the stochastic character on the simulating results was investigated as changing parameter of chromium content of structure material in this study. Ten independent simulations were run for each specific environment. A stable and reasonable results were obtained according to the chi-square of goodness-of-fit test, the chi-square of the thickness of oxide layer for each case were significant smaller than critical chi-square value with a confidence level of 95% (Χ 2 α, v = Χ 2 0.05,9 = 16.92). (authors)

  20. Effect of PTA Hardfaced Interlayer Thickness on Ballistic Performance of Shielded Metal Arc Welded Armor Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2013-03-01

    Ballistic performance of armor steel welds is very poor due to the usage of low strength and low hardness austenitic stainless steel fillers, which are traditionally used to avoid hydrogen induced cracking. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of plasma transferred arc hardfaced interlayer thickness on ballistic performance of shielded metal arc welded armor steel weldments. The usefulness of austenitic stainless steel buttering layer on the armor grade quenched and tempered steel base metal was also considered in this study. Joints were fabricated using three different thickness (4, 5.5, and 7 mm) hardfaced middle layer by plasma transferred arc hardfacing process between the top and bottom layers of austenitic stainless steel using shielded metal arc welding process. Sandwiched joint, in addition with the buttering layer served the dual purpose of weld integrity and ballistic immunity due to the high hardness of hardfacing alloy and the energy absorbing capacity of soft backing weld deposits. This paper will provide some insight into the usefulness of austenitic stainless steel buttering layer on the weld integrity and plasma transferred arc hardfacing layer on ballistic performance enhancement of armor steel welds.

  1. Steel products for pressure purposes - Quality requirements - Part 8: Plates of weldable fine grain steels with high proof stress supplied in the normalized or quenched and tempered condition (thicknesses from 3 to 70 mm)

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Steel products for pressure purposes - Quality requirements - Part 8: Plates of weldable fine grain steels with high proof stress supplied in the normalized or quenched and tempered condition (thicknesses from 3 to 70 mm)

  2. Examination of the X-ray piping diagnostic system using EGS4 (measuring the thickness of a steel pipe with rust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, G.

    2001-01-01

    In a series of papers entitled 'Examination of the X-ray piping diagnostic system using EGS4' presented the proceedings of the EGS4 users' meetings, I discussed the possibility of measuring the thickness of piping walls with rust. In the present paper, I describe, based on our earlier results, how the thickness of steel pipes with rust can be measured. I conducted EGS4 simulation to measure the thickness of a combination of steel and rust and made an energy absorption diagram for this combination. The equivalent thickness of steel was obtained through experiments and the system operation. The thickness of the steel determined by using the diagram agreed well with the actual steel thickness obtained by the experiments. In the future, we will focus on how to automate this measurement procedure and how to use the same procedure to measure the thickness of pipes filled with water. (author)

  3. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  4. Experimental Characterization of Electron Beam Welded SAE 5137H Thick Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattire, Prakash; Bhawar, Valmik; Thakare, Sandeep; Patil, Sachin; Mane, Santosh; Singh, Rajkumar, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    Electron beam welding is known for its narrow weld zone with high depth to width ratio, less heat affected zone, less distortion and contamination. Electron beam welding is fusion welding process, where high velocity electrons impinge on material joint to be welded and kinetic energy of this electron is transformed into heat upon impact to fuse the material. In the present work electron beam welding of 60 mm thick SAE 5137H steel is studied. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of electron beam welded joint of SAE 5137H were evaluated. Mechanical properties are analysed by tensile, impact and hardness test. Metallurgical properties are investigated through optical and scanning electron microscope. The hardness traverse across weld zone shows HV 370-380, about 18% increase in the tensile strength and very low toughness of weld joint compared to parent metal. Microstructural observation shows equiaxed dendrite in the fusion zone and partial grain refinement was found in the HAZ.

  5. Resistance Spot Welding of Steel Sheets of the Same and Different Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance welding ranks among progressive and in practice often used manufacturing techniques of rigid joints. It is applied in single‑part production, short‑run production as well as in mass production. The basis of this method is in the utilization of the Joulean heat, which arises at the passage of current through connected sheets at collective influence of compressive force. The aim of the carried out tests was the determination of the dependence between the rupture force of spot welds made using steel sheets of the same and different thickness for different welding conditions. For carrying out of this aim 360 assemblies were prepared. The sheets (a total of 720 pieces of dimensions 100 × 25 mm and thickness of 0.8 mm, 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm were made from low carbon steel. In the place determined for welding the test specimens were garnet blasted and then degreased with acetone. The welding of two specimens always of the same (0.8+0.8 mm, 1.5+1.5 mm a 3.0+3.0 mm and different (0.8 + 1.5 mm, 0.8+3.0 mm a 1.5+3.0 mm thickness was carried out using the welding machine type BV 2,5.21. At this type the welding current value is constant (Imax = 6.4 kA. The welding time (the time of the passage of the current was changed in the whole entirety, namely 0.10 s, 0.15 s, 0.20 s, 0.25 s, 0.3 s, 0.4 s, 0.6 s, 0.8 s, 1.0 s, 1.3 s, 1.6 s and 2.0 s. The compressive force was chosen according to the thickness of the connected sheets in the range from 0.8 to 2.4 kN. From the results of carried out tests it follows that using the working variables recommended by the producer we obtain the quality welds. But it we use the longer welding times, we can obtain stronger welds, namely up to 21 % compared to welds made using working variables recommended by the producer.

  6. Flexural performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) ribbed slab with various topping thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Fadhillah Abdul; Bakar, Afidah Abu; Hashim, Mohd Hisbany Mohd; Ahmad, Hazrina

    2017-11-01

    Ribbed slab provides lighter slab than an equivalent solid slab which helps in reducing the weight with its voids. However, in order to overcome the drawbacks in the construction process, the application of steel fibre reinforcement concrete (SFRC) is seen as an alternative material to be used in the slab. This study is performed to investigate the behaviour of SFRC as the main material in ribbed slab, omitting the conventional reinforcements, under four-point bending test. Three equivalent samples of ribbed slabs were prepared for this study with variations in the topping thickness of 100, 75 and 50 mm. The flexural strength of ribbed slab with 100 mm topping shows similar loading carrying capacity with the 75mm topping while 50 mm gave the lowest ultimate loading. First cracks for all slabs occurred at the topping. The cracks began from the external ribs and propagates toward the internal rib. Incorporation of steel fibres help in giving a longer deflection softening than a sudden brittle failure, thus proves its ability to increase energy absorption capacity and improving cracking behaviour.

  7. Mehanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints in Thick Gage CA6NM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafan, Sheida; Wanjara, Priti; Gholipour, Javad; Champliaud, Henri; Mathieu, Louis

    2017-10-01

    Design of hydroelectric turbine components requires high integrity welds (without detectable volumetric defects) in heavy gage sections of stainless steel materials, such as ASTM A743 grade CA6NM—a low carbon 13% Cr-4% Ni martensitic stainless steel that is manufactured in cast form. In this work, 90-mm-thick plates of CA6NM were joined using a single-pass autogenous electron beam (EB) welding process and the mechanical properties were evaluated in the as-welded condition to characterize the performance of the joints. The static tensile properties that were evaluated in two directions—transverse and longitudinal to the EB weld seam—demonstrated conformance of the joints with the requirements of the ASME Section IX standard. The Charpy impact energies of the EB welds—measured at -18 °C on samples with V-notch roots located in the fusion and heat-affected zones—met the minimum requirements of 27 J specified in ASME Section VIII standard. In addition, bend tests that were conducted on the entire weld cross section displayed no discontinuities on the tension side of the bent joints. Hence, the developed EB welding process was demonstrated to render high-performance joints and promises key advantages for industrialization, such as cost savings through reductions in consumable material, production time and labor intensity.

  8. The influence of plate thickness on the welding residual stresses from submerged arc welding in offshore steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    to an improved design, which consequently may be included in future norms and standards. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) was used to make a fully penetrated butt weld in 10 mm and 40 mm thick steel plates with the same welding parameters as used in the production procedures. The base material is thermomechanical hot...

  9. Formability of dual-phase steels in deep drawing of rectangular parts: Influence of blank thickness and die radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana María Camacho; Regueras, José María Gutiérrez

    2017-10-01

    The new goals of automotive industry related with environment concerns, the reduction of fuel emissions and the security requirements have driven up to new designs which main objective is reducing weight. It can be achieved through new materials such as nano-structured materials, fibre-reinforced composites or steels with higher strength, among others. Into the last group, the Advance High Strength Steels (AHSS) and particularly, dual-phase steels are in a predominant situation. However, despite of their special characteristics, they present issues related to their manufacturability such as springback, splits and cracks, among others. This work is focused on the deep drawing processof rectangular shapes, a very usual forming operation that allows manufacturing several automotive parts like oil pans, cases, etc. Two of the main parameters in this process which affect directly to the characteristics of final product are blank thickness (t) and die radius (Rd). Influence of t and Rd on the formability of dual-phase steels has been analysed considering values typically used in industrial manufacturing for a wide range of dual-phase steels using finite element modelling and simulation; concretely, the influence of these parameters in the percentage of thickness reduction pt(%), a quite important value for manufactured parts by deep drawing operations, which affects to its integrity and its service behaviour. Modified Morh Coulomb criteria (MMC) has been used in order to obtain Fracture Forming Limit Diagrams (FFLD) which take into account an important failure mode in dual-phase steels: shear fracture. Finally, a relation between thickness reduction percentage and studied parameters has been established fordual-phase steels, obtaining a collection of equations based on Design of Experiments (D.O.E) technique, which can be useful in order to predict approximate results.

  10. Effect of main layer thickness on the response of multi layer bonded steel butt joint under Charpy impact test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical analysis of the main layer thickness on the impact response of the steel butt joint bonded by multi-layer under the Charpy impact test is investigated using the elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM. The results obtained from numerical simulation show that both the elastic strain and plastic strain occurred at the point near the upper or lower surface decreased significantly when the main layer thickness increased from 0.1 mm to 0.4 mm. The value of the normal stress Sx and the von Mises equivalent stress Seqv is increased first when the main layer thickness increased and then it decreased significantly when the main layer thickness is greater than 0.2 mm. There is a strong value fluctuation for stress Seqv at the point 0.5 mm away from the upper surface when the main layer thickness is greater than 0.2 mm.

  11. Joining Thick Section Aluminum to Steel with Suppressed FeAl Intermetallic Formation via Friction Stir Dovetailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza E Rabby, MD; Ross, Kenneth A.; Overman, Nicole R.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Mcdonnell, Martin; Whalen, Scott A.

    2018-04-17

    A new solid-phase technique called friction stir dovetailing (FSD) has been developed for joining thick section aluminum to steel. In FSD, mechanical interlocks are formed at the aluminum-steel interface and are reinforced by metallurgical bonds where intermetallic growth has been uniquely suppressed. Lap shear testing shows superior strength and extension at failure compared to popular friction stir approaches where metallurgical bonding is the only joining mechanism. High resolution microscopy revealed the presence of a 40-70 nm interlayer having a composition of 76.4 at% Al, 18.4 at% Fe, and 5.2 at% Si, suggestive of limited FeAl3 intermetallic formation.

  12. An effective thickness proposal for strength evaluation of one-side pitted steel plates under uniaxial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorareh Hadj Mohammad Esmaeil Nouri

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into the post-buckling behaviour and ultimate strength of imperfect pitted steel plates used in ship and other marine-related structures. A series of elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses is performed on pitted steel plates. The effects of pitting corrosion on one side of the plates are introduced into the finite element models. The effects on plate compressive strength as a result of parametric variation of the pitting corrosion geometry are evaluated. A proposal on the effective thickness is concluded in order to estimate the ultimate strength and explore the post-buckling behaviour of pitted steel plates under uniaxial compression.

  13. Protecting against failure by brittle fracture in ferritic-steel shipping containers greater than four-in. thick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.W.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents methods for protecting against brittle fracture spent-fuel shipping containers made from ferritic-steel forgings greater than four in. thick. Both fracture arrest and fracture initiation criteria were examined as bases for establishing requirements for the design and selection of materials for shipping containers. This report also includes a discussion of the brittle-fracture sensitivity of the containers to various processes used in container fabrication. 19 figures, 3 tables

  14. High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Yazdian, N.; Ma, J.; Kovacevic, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this investigation, two laser-based welding techniques, autogenous laser welding (ALW) and laser welding assisted with a cold wire (LWACW), were applied to join thick plates of a structural steel (A36) in a horizontal narrow gap butt joint configuration. The main practical parameters including welding method and laser power were varied to get the sound weld with a requirement to achieve a full penetration with the reinforcement at the back side of weld in just one pass. The weld-bead shape, cross-section and mechanical properties were evaluated by profilometer, micro-hardness test and optical microscope. In order to investigate the stability of laser-induced plasma plume, the emitted optical spectra was detected and analyzed by the spectroscopy analysis. It was found that at the laser power of 7 kW a fully penetrated weld with a convex back side of weld could be obtained by the LWACW. The microstructural examinations showed that for the ALW the acicular ferrite and for the LWACW the pearlite were formed in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The prediction of microstructure based on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and cooling curves obtained by thermocouple measurement were in good agreement with each other. According to the plasma ionization values obtained from the spectroscopy analysis the plume for both processes was recognized as dominated weakly ionized plasma including the main vaporized elemental composition. At the optimum welding condition (LWACW at the laser power of 7 kW) the fluctuation of the electron temperature was reduced. The spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that at the higher laser power more of the elemental compositions such as Mn and Fe were evaporated.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jian; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Zhixiong; Barbaro, Frank; Jiang, Laizhu; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on friction stir welding of 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate. • We produce high-quality joints with special tool and optimised welding parameters. • We compare microstructure and mechanical properties of steel and joint. • Friction stir welding is a method that can maintain the properties of joint. - Abstract: In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of a friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate were investigated. The 5.4 mm thick plates with excellent properties were welded at a constant rotational speed and a changeable welding speed using a composite tool featuring a chosen volume fraction of cubic boron nitride (cBN) in a W–Re matrix. The high-quality welds were successfully produced with optimised welding parameters, and studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and standard hardness and impact toughness testing. The results show that microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints are affected greatly, which is mainly related to the remarkably fine-grained microstructure of equiaxed ferrite that is observed in the friction stir welded joint. Meanwhile, the ratios of low-angle grain boundary in the stir zone regions significantly increase, and the texture turns strong. Compared with the base material, mechanical properties of the joint are maintained in a comparatively high level

  16. Effect Of Age And Concrete Cover Thickness On Steel Reinforcement Corrosion At Splash Zone In Reinforced Concrete Hydraulic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M. Al- Galawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of reinforcing steel bars in reinforced concrete is considered as one of the biggest problems that face countries overlooking to the Arabian Gulf including Iraq. The research aims to study the effect of the corrosion of steel bars in concrete structures that are exposed to wetting and drying via waves. Reinforced concrete samples were exposed to marine simulated environment for 90 days using prepared system for this purpose. At the end of exposure period polarization test was implemented to measure the actual corrosion rate in each sample. After that the corrosion process was accelerated using impressed current technique by applying a constant electric current DC to the reinforcing bars. Depending on the corrosion current in natural conditions which was measured in polarization test periods of exposing samples to accelerated corrosion current so as to maintain virtual exposure ages of 5 and 25 years of exposure to natural corrosion were calculated. The results showed a remarkable increase in the corrosion current of steel bars in samples that had lower concrete cover thickness. The increase in the cover thickness from 20mm to 40 and 65 mm had a significant effect on reducing the corrosion current at the age of 90 days to about 70 of its original value in both cases. At the virtual exposure age of 5 years the reduction percentage in the corrosion current resulted from increasing cover thickness from 20mm to 40 and 65 mm were 43 and 79 respectively.

  17. Loading and fracture response of CFRP-to-steel adhesively bonded joints with thick adherents – Part I: Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2013-01-01

    There is a gap in the existing standardized testing procedures (ASTM and ISO) for evaluating the stiffness and strength of composite-to-metal adhesively bonded joints. Thus, there is much effort made in this field towards understanding the impact of the geometric parameters to the loading...... and fracture response of such joints, but limited to joints with thin adherents. On this basis, the present work provides an experimental parametric study of adhesively bonded Single Lap Joint geometries between thick dissimilar adherents. For this purpose, mild steel and CFRP laminates have been considered...

  18. Change of Precipitation Behavior and Impact Toughness with Depths in Quenched Thick SAF 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiale, Godwin Kwame; Kim, Doo-Hyun; Yang, Won-Jon; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Oh, Yong-Jun

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the change of precipitation behavior and impact resistance as a function of depth from the surface of thick block of SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel with the thickness (T) of 200 mm after water quenching from 1050 °C. The amount of detrimental sigma phase increased smoothly until the depth of 0.25T, followed by a rapid increase from 0.25T to the center. However, the impact strength decreased significantly with only 1.3% of area fraction of sigma phase as the depth increased past 0.1T. Based on fractography analysis for the samples at such small depth ranges, the distance between the sigma phase particles affected the relative amount of initiating brittle cracks in front of the notch and was one of the crucial factors that dramatically reduced impact resistance with depth.

  19. Development of the neutron diffraction method for stress measurements in thick steel samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Em, V. T.; Woo, W.; Seong, B.-S.; Mikula, P.

    2016-09-01

    The results of development of neutron method for stress measurements in bulk steel components are considered. Enhancement of the maximum available path length (∼⃒85mm) was achieved by using optimized bent perfect silicon crystal monochromators, position sensitive detectors and neutron wavelengths, corresponding to the minimums of neutron total cross section near Bragg edges.

  20. Effect of Niobium on the Ferrite Continuous-Cooling-Transformation (CCT) Curve of Ultrahigh-Thickness Cr-Mo Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Na, Hyesung; Kim, Byunghoon; Kim, Dongjin; Kang, Chungyun

    2013-06-01

    Pressure vessels made for petrochemical and power plants using Cr-Mo steel must be thick (≥400 mm) and have high tensile strength (≥600 MPa). However, the tensile strength in the middle portion of the vessel is very low as a result of ferrite formation. Therefore, research was performed to study the ferrite transformation that occurs in the middle portion of high-thickness Cr-Mo steel when Nb is added to it. The ferrite-formation start time of the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) curve decreased with an increase in Nb content until the latter reached 0.05 pct. On cooling from the austenitizing temperature, some of the NbC present at the austenitizing temperature of 1203 K (930 °C) goes into austenite solution in the temperature range of 1173 K to 1073 K (900 °C to 800 °C). However, the ferrite curve shifted to the left for the alloy containing 0.075 pct Nb. It is postulated that the surplus NbC could act as ferrite nucleation sites despite the lower cooling rate. As a result, the hardenability improved in the order of the following Nb content: 0.05 pct, 0.025 pct, 0 pct, and 0.075 pct.

  1. Effects of processing optimisation on microstructure, texture, grain boundary and mechanical properties of Fe–17Cr ferritic stainless steel thick plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jian, E-mail: jh595@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Huijun; Zhu, Zhixiong [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Jiang, Laizhu; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200431 (China)

    2014-10-20

    The relationships between microstructure, texture, grain boundary and tensile strength, Charpy impact toughness of (Nb+Ti+V) stabilised Fe–17Cr ferritic stainless steel thick plates were investigated by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, tensile and Charpy impact testing. The results show that for Fe–17Cr ferritic stainless steel thick plate, the addition of warm rolling procedure leads to refinement of grain size, modification of texture, and then optimisation of grain boundary, including grain boundary character distribution and grain boundary connectivity. Meanwhile, the mechanical testing results indicate that optimal transformation that warm rolling procedure brings to Fe–17Cr ferritic steel thick plate is beneficial to its mechanical properties.

  2. Dependency of anti-ferro-magnetic coupling strength on Ru spacer thickness of [Co/Pd]{sub n}-synthetic-anti-ferro-magnetic layer in perpendicular magnetic-tunnel-junctions fabricated on 12-inch TiN electrode wafer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Kyo-Suk [MRAM Center, Department of Electronics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., San #16 Banwol-dong, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Tae-Hun; Park, Jea-Gun, E-mail: parkjgL@hanyang.ac.kr [MRAM Center, Department of Electronics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-21

    We investigated the Ru spacer-thickness effect on the anti-ferro-magnetic coupling strength (J{sub ex}) of a [Co/Pd]{sub n}-synthetic-anti-ferro-magnetic layer fabricated with Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 6}B{sub 2}/MgO based perpendicular-magnetic-tunneling-junction spin-valves on 12-in. TiN electrode wafers. J{sub ex} peaked at a certain Ru spacer-thickness: specifically, a J{sub ex} of 0.78 erg/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 nm, satisfying the J{sub ex} criteria for realizing the mass production of terra-bit-level perpendicular-spin-transfer-torque magnetic-random-access-memory. Otherwise, J{sub ex} rapidly degraded when the Ru spacer-thickness was less than or higher than 0.6 nm. As a result, the allowable Ru thickness variation should be controlled less than 0.12 nm to satisfy the J{sub ex} criteria. However, the Ru spacer-thickness did not influence the tunneling-magneto-resistance (TMR) and resistance-area (RA) of the perpendicular-magnetic-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) spin-valves since the Ru spacer in the synthetic-anti-ferro-magnetic layer mainly affects the anti-ferro-magnetic coupling efficiency rather than the crystalline linearity of the Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 6}B{sub 2} free layer/MgO tunneling barrier/Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 6}B{sub 2} pinned layer, although Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 6}B{sub 2}/MgO based p-MTJ spin-valves ex-situ annealed at 275 °C achieved a TMR of ∼70% at a RA of ∼20 Ω μm{sup 2}.

  3. Experimental investigation of the thickness effect for large as-welded SAW S355 steel specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Ólafur Magnús; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Berggreen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The presented work aims to investigate and establish a pre-cise, thorough and detailed database from series of experi-mental testing of submerged arc welded (SAW) specimens of various thicknesses typically applied in ships and offshore structures and foundations. Welded structures of all sizes...... and shapes exhibit fatigue failure primarily in the welded region, rather than in the base material, due to imperfections and flaws relating to the welding procedure. The welded region has therefore received much attention from universities, re-search institutions along with industry as it is of significant...

  4. Through-Thickness Residual Stress Profiles in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds: A Combined Experimental and Prediction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, J.; Moat, R. J.; Paddea, S.; Francis, J. A.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Bouchard, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Economic and safe management of nuclear plant components relies on accurate prediction of welding-induced residual stresses. In this study, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness of austenitic stainless steel welds has been measured using neutron diffraction and the contour method. The measured data are used to validate residual stress profiles predicted by an artificial neural network approach (ANN) as a function of welding heat input and geometry. Maximum tensile stresses with magnitude close to the yield strength of the material were observed near the weld cap in both axial and hoop direction of the welds. Significant scatter of more than 200 MPa was found within the residual stress measurements at the weld center line and are associated with the geometry and welding conditions of individual weld passes. The ANN prediction is developed in an attempt to effectively quantify this phenomenon of `innate scatter' and to learn the non-linear patterns in the weld residual stress profiles. Furthermore, the efficacy of the ANN method for defining through-thickness residual stress profiles in welds for application in structural integrity assessments is evaluated.

  5. Compressive Deformation Behavior of Thick Micro-Alloyed HSLA Steel Plates at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee J.-H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior of a heavy micro-alloyed high-strength low-alloy (HSLA steel plate was studied by performing compression tests at elevated temperatures. The hot compression tests were carried out at temperatures from 923 K to 1,223 K with strain rates of 0.002 s−1 and 1.0 s−1. A long plateau region appeared for the 0.002 s−1 strain rate, and this was found to be an effect of the balancing between softening and hardening during deformation. For the 1.0 s−1 strain rate, the flow stress gradually increased after the yield point. The temperature and the strain rate-dependent parameters, such as the strain hardening coefficient (n, strength constant (K, and activation energy (Q, obtained from the flow stress curves were applied to the power law of plastic deformation. The constitutive model for flow stress can be expressed as σ = (39.8 ln (Z – 716.6 · ε(−0.00955ln(Z + 0.4930 for the 1.0 s−1 strain rate and σ = (19.9ln (Z – 592.3 · ε(−0.00212ln(Z + 0.1540 for the 0.002 s−1 strain rate.

  6. Some elevated temperature tensile and strain-controlled fatigue properties for a 9%Cr1Mo steel heat treated to simulate thick section material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Jacques, S.

    Current interest has been expressed in the usage of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel, particularly for UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) steam generator tubeplates. This paper presents the results of some preliminary mechanical property test work on a single cast of the steel, heat treated to simulate heavy ruling sections encompassing thicknesses likely to be met in the CDFR context. The microstructures of the simulated thick section material were found to remain predominantly as tempered martensite even at the slowest transformation cooling rates used (50 deg. C/h). The effect of microstructure is reflected in the elevated temperature proof stress, tensile strength and strain-controlled fatigue endurance which were found to be comparable with the properties established for thin section normalised and tempered 9%Cr1%Mo steel. These results are extremely encouraging and, taken in conjunction with the results from other simulation work on this material, further demonstrate the potential of thick section 9%Cr1%Mo steel. (author)

  7. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  8. Synthetic aperture focusing technique in real-time and tandem operation for thick section steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Hall, T.E.; Reid, L.D.; Mart, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on a program underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to move the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) from the laboratory into the field for the purpose of inspecting light-water reactor (LWR) components. The SAFT technology was developed to produce high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio images of ultrasonic anomalies in materials. Other researchers have been involved in developing the 2-D or line SAFT technology, but the one thing that has limited the acceptance of 38-D SAFT is the slow processing rates. This paper describes how a special purpose processor can be used to achieve processing rates of 10 A-scans/second or larger. The tandem mode has been successfully used with SAFT but only on this materials. This paper also describes how to effectively implement the tandem mode for thick section materials

  9. Explosive cutting of thick-walled steel pipes in the reactor HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, H.; Freund, H.U.

    1990-01-01

    Cutting of a real pipe system by explosive technique has been tested and proven feasible inside the HDR reactor containment. Circumferential cuts were performed on a pipe loop with 400 mm diameter, 20 mm wall thickness. The cutting tool consists of an array of modular explosive charges which are wrapped around the pipe in a collar like mode. Mounting of the charge array is performed manually in a quick and easy way. In order to retain the fragments originating from the charge a fragment retaining structure was used in the experiments. This ring shape structure (fragment catcher) also substantially reduces the explosive blast load on the immediate vicinity. However, handling a fragment catcher of 700 kg weight requires a pulley or crane and, consequently, rather restricts the application of this technique. In addition to the control of the fragments and the blast wave in the area of cutting operation the transient load on the pipe system and on the reactor containment structure has to be kept below critical values. In principle, the load produced in pipe cutting by explosive methods must be subdivided into the local and the global loads acting on the HDR. The various contributions of the dynamic loading have been measured and analyzed carefully. Fourier analyses conducted on the basis of displacement measurements indicate the frequencies. The ground mode, of the long pipe branch are between 2.5 Hz and 3.5 Hz, and for the second ground mode, between 7.5 Hz and 8.5 Hz. Predictions of the axial momentum on the basis of short pipe segment cutting are a factor of 3 too high in the calculated deflection of the separated pipe ends, while the calculated pipe excitation frequencies (2.5 to 10 Hz) are in rather good agreement with the measurement. (orig./GL)

  10. Effects of titanium on ferrite continuous cooling transformation curves of high-thickness Cr-Mo steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Na, Hye-Sung; Park, Gi-Deok; Kim, Byung-Hoon; Song, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chung-Yun

    2013-09-01

    The effect of Ti on the ferrite-phase transformation in the middle portion of high-thickness Cr-Mo steel vessels was studied. The phase diagrams and ferrite continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were calculated thermodynamically, and dilatometry tests were performed to determine the start and finish times of the ferrite transformation. When the Ti concentration was 0.015 mass%, Δ( F s - F f ) of ferrite CCT curve decreased owing to an increase in the concentration of Mn dissolved as a result of (Mn, Ti) oxide formation. When the Ti concentration was 0.03 mass% or greater, the ferrite CCT curves shifted considerably to the right along the time axis owing to an increase in Ti oxide formation and the precipitation of Ti4C2S2, both of which affect the concentration of Mn dissolved in the austenite matrix. As a result, a completely bainitic structure was obtained when the Ti concentration was 0.03 mass% or greater.

  11. Progressive tool flank wear and surface roughness when turning AISI 1017 mild steel using reduced thickness inserts in finishing cutting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Zakaria, Mohd Hafizu; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Ghazalli, Zakri

    2017-12-01

    Tool wear is a major aspect in metal cutting, especially during steel machining. This studies the capability of 1 mm thick uncoated tungsten carbide insert during the turning of AISI 1017 mild steel. The reduction of insert thickness will lead to a more economical and efficient use of material and energy during fabrication, operation, and disposal of the cutting insert. Axial machining trials have been performed using the finishing cutting conditions. Tool flank wear and workpiece surface roughness were analysed using an optical microscope and contact perthometer device, respectively. The data of flank wear and surface roughness achieved were used to analyse the capability of replacing 4 mm thick cutting inserts with 1 mm thick cutting inserts. The results showed that the flank wear and the surface roughness of conventional inserts performed better as compared to the 1 mm thick insert with a significant difference of 5.74 % and 1.57 %. Thus, the experimental study shows that the 1 mm thick insert performed as good as a conventional cutting insert in terms of tool life and surface roughness quality.

  12. Final thickness reduction and development of Goss texture in C- and Al-free Fe-3%Si-0.1%Mn-0.012%S electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun Jee; Heo, Nam Hoe; Koo, Yang Mo

    2017-11-01

    The correlation between final thickness reduction and development of Goss texture has been investigated in a C- and Al-free Fe-3%Si electrical steel. During final annealing, the annealing texture is transited from {110}⊥ND to {100}⊥ND texture with increasing final thickness reduction. This is due to the decrease in primary grain size after pre-annealing with increasing final thickness reduction which accelerates the selective growth rate of the {100} grains at the expense of the other {hkl} grains. At an optimal final thickness reduction of 75.8%, the high magnetic induction of 1.95 Tesla, which arises from the sharp {110} Goss texture and is comparable to that of conventional grain-oriented electrical steels, is obtained from the C- and Al-free Fe-3%Si-0.1%Mn electrical steel. Such a high magnetic property is produced through the surface-energy-induced selective grain growth of the Goss grains under the lower surface-segregated condition of sulfur which makes the surface energy of the {110} plane lowest among the {hkl} planes.

  13. Measurement of void swelling in thick non-uniformly irradiated 304 stainless steel blocks using nondestructive ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Okita, T.; Isobe, Y.; Etoh, J.; Sagisaka, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Freyer, P.D.; Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J.M.K.; Porter, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Void swelling is of potential importance in PWR austenitic internals, especially in components that will see higher doses during plant lives beyond 40 years. Proactive surveillance of void swelling is required to identify its emergence before swelling reaches levels that cause high levels of embrittlement and distortion. Non-destructive measurements of ultrasonic velocity can measure swelling at fractions of a percent. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for PWR application we have investigated five blocks of 304 stainless steel that were irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor. These blocks were of hexagonal cross-section, with thickness of about 50 mm and lengths of about 218-245 mm. They were subjected to significant axial and radial gradients in gamma heating, temperature and dpa rate, producing complex internal distributions of swelling, reaching about 3.5% maximum at an off-center mid-core position. Swelling decreases both the density and the elastic moduli, thereby impacting the ultrasonic velocity. Concurrently, carbide precipitates form, producing increases in density and decreases in elastic moduli. Using blocks from both low and high dpa levels it was possible to separate the ultrasonic contributions of voids and carbides. Time-of-flight ultrasonic measurements were used to non-destructively measure the internal distribution of void swelling. These distributions were confirmed using non-destructive profilometry followed by destructive cutting to provide density change and electron microscopy data. It was demonstrated that the four measurement types produce remarkably consistent results. Therefore ultrasonic measurements offer great promise for in-situ surveillance of voids in PWR core internals. (authors)

  14. 77 FR 19635 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ....D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.148 inch wall thickness (gage 9) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.500 inch O.D. and 0.203 inch wall thickness... operating the agriculture, fisheries, industry, tourism, education, health and traditional crafts sectors...

  15. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  16. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  17. 10-inch planar optic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Leo; Veligdan, James T.

    1996-05-01

    A planar optic display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (1 to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A digital micromirror device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  18. Steel Strapping Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haas, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    ... (ARDEC) to perform salt-fog accelerated-aging testing on 1 - 1/4-inch steel strapping to determine whether Delta, style III, painted seals are a suitable alternative to currently utilized seals...

  19. Test procedure for the Master-Lee and the modified Champion four inch hydraulic cutters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Master-Lee and the modified Champion 4 Inch hydraulic cutters are being retested to gather and document information related to the following: determine if the Master-Lee cutters will cut the trunnions of an Aluminum fuel canister and a Stainless Steel fuel canister; determine if the Master-Lee cutters will cut 1 1/2 inch diameter fire hose; determine if the modified Champion 4 inch blade will cut sections of piping; and determine the effectiveness of the centering device for the Champion 4 Inch cutters. Determining the limitations of the hydraulic cutter will aid in the process of debris removal in the K-Basin. Based on a previous test, the cutters were returned to the manufacturer for modifications. The modifications to the Champion 4 Inch Cutter and further testing of the Master-Lee Cutter are the subjects of these feature tests

  20. Noninvasive in-process thickness measurement of an organic layer on steel using x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, J.

    1992-01-01

    The motivation for this work was the need for a non-contacting composition-independent in-process technique for rapidly measuring the mass per unit area (open-quotes surface densityclose quotes) of a continuous slab of organic material prepared on a stainless steel base. It was essential that the technique be adaptable to eventual implementation for on-line process control

  1. The effect of surface preparation on the behaviour of double strap adhesive joints with thick steel adherents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, K.N.; Tsouvalis, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major factors determining the integrity of an adhesive bond is the preparation of the bonding surfaces. The present study is an experimental investigation of the effect of the surface preparation procedure on the response of a steel-to-steel double strap adhesive joint. Two procedures...... for preparing the bonding surfaces are investigated, namely grit blasting (GB) and simple sandpaper (SP). The behaviour of the joints, in terms of the force-displacement and strains-displacement responses was monitored and compared for both cases. The joints with SP surface preparation exhibited slightly lower...... stiffness and lower strength than the joints with GB surface preparation, while the latter failed at a lower displacement. In both cases, failure initiated at the free edges of the joints and the dominating failure mode was interfacial. In addition to the above experimental measurements, results are also...

  2. Neutron diffraction residual stress measurements on girth-welded 304 stainless steel pipes with weld metal deposited up to half and full pipe wall thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, R.D.; Hutchings, M.T.; James, J.A.; Ganguly, S.; Mizuno, R.; Ogawa, K.; Okido, S.; Paradowska, A.M.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The residual stress distribution has been measured in two girth-welded austenitic stainless steel pipe weldments using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. One had weld filler metal deposited up to half the pipe wall thickness, and one had weld metal deposited up to full pipe wall thickness. The aim of the work is to evaluate the evolution in residual stress profile on filling the weld, on which there is little experimental data, and where the selection of the correct hardening model used in finite element modelling can benefit greatly from an understanding of the intermediate residual stresses partway through the welding operation. The measured residual stresses are compared with those calculated by finite element modelling and measured using X-ray diffraction. The results show a change in the measured hoop stress at the weld toe from tension to compression between the half- and fully-filled weld. The finite element results show an overprediction of the residual stress, which may be a consequence of the simple isotropic hardening model applied. The results have implications for the likely occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in this important type of pipe-to-pipe weldment. Highlights: ► 304 steel girth welded with weld metal to half and full pipe wall thickness. ► Residual stresses measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction, and modelled by FE. ► Weld toe residual σ hoop changes from tensile to compressive from half to fully-filled. ► FE model for the fully-filled weld gives higher stress levels than those measured. ► Discrepancy is attributed to the isotropic hardening model used.

  3. A Correlation between the Ultimate Shear Stress and the Thickness Affected by Intermetallic Compounds in Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy–Stainless Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Picot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Friction Stir Welding (FSW was applied to join a stainless steel 316L and an aluminum alloy 5083. Ranges of rotation and translation speeds of the tool were used to obtain welding samples with different heat input coefficients. Depending on the process parameters, the heat generated by FSW creates thin layers of Al-rich InterMetallic Compound (IMC mainly composed of FeAl3, identified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Traces of Fe2Al5 were also depicted in some samples by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Monotonous tensile tests performed on the weld joint show the existence of a maximum mechanical resistance for a judicious choice of rotation and translation speeds. It can be linked to an affected zone of average thickness of 15 µm which encompass the presence of IMC and the chaotic mixing caused by plastic deformation in this area. A thickness of less than 15 µm is not sufficient to ensure a good mechanical resistance of the joint. For a thickness higher than 15 µm, IMC layers become more brittle and less adhesive due to high residual stresses which induces numerous cracks after cooling. This leads to a progressive decrease of the ultimate shear stress supported by the bond.

  4. The influence of steel roughness and granulation on the accuracy of part thickness measurement by means of ultrasounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontea, S.; Baltanoiu, M.

    1974-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement of the thickness of one-sided parts can be successfully conducted with the aid of ultrasounds. Using an ultrasonic defectoscope equipped with a highly precise device for thickness measurement, the experimental results obtained and the parameters that influence them are discussed. It is known that the manner of attaching the probe to the surface to be tested is influenced by the roughness of the surface. Likewise, in view of the fact that measurement results are influenced by the velocity of ultrasounds in the material to be investigated, they are also conditioned by the size of the structure. These factors and the manner in which they influence measurement results are also described.

  5. Thickness and multi-axial stress creep rupture criteria of the Type IV component of a ferritic steel weld

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhurst, R James; Vakili-Tahami, Farid; Mustata, Radu; Hayhurst, David

    2004-01-01

    The paper summarises previously derived constitutive parameters for the temperatures 575, 590, 600, 620 and 640oC. Values of the multi-axial stress rupture parameter are reviewed and recorded. This constitutive parameter set is used to determine the thickness of the Type IV material zone to be 0.7mm. Next, values of Type IV multi-axial stress rupture parameter are determined for a wide range of butt-welded pipe and crosswelded uni-axial specimens, and an interpolation equation has been derive...

  6. Structural safety test and analysis of type IP-2 transport packages with bolted lid type and thick steel plate for radioactive waste drums in a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jeong Mook

    2007-01-01

    If a type IP-2 transport package were to be subjected to a free drop test and a penetration test under the normal conditions of transport, it should prevent a loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents and a more than 20% increase in the maximum radiation level at any external surface of the package. In this paper, we suggested the analytic method to evaluate the structural safety of a type IP-2 transport package using a thick steel plate for a structure part and a bolt for tying a bolt. Using an analysis a loss or disposal of the radioactive contents and a loss of shielding integrity were confirmed for two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages to transport radioactive waste drums from a waste facility to a temporary storage site in a nuclear power plant. Under the free drop condition the maximum average stress at the bolts and the maximum opening displacement of a lid were compared with the tensile stress of a bolt and the steps in a lid, which were made to avoid a streaming radiation in the shielding path, to evaluate a loss or dispersal of radioactive waste contents. Also a loss of shielding integrity was evaluated using the maximum decrease in a shielding thickness. To verify the impact dynamic analysis for free drop test condition and evaluate experimentally the safety of two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages, free drop tests were conducted with various drop directions

  7. Numerical investigation on residual stress distribution and evolution during multipass narrow gap welding of thick-walled stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Zhang, J.X.; Xue, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We performed pass-by-pass simulation of stresses for welding of thick-walled pipes. → The distributions and evolution of the residual stresses are demonstrated. → After the groove is filled to a height, the through-wall stress is almost unchanged. - Abstracts: The detailed pass-by-pass finite element (FE) simulation is presented to investigate the residual stresses in narrow gap multipass welding of pipes with a wall thickness of 70 mm and 73 weld passes. The simulated residual stress on the outer surface is validated with the experimental one. The distribution and evolution of the through-wall residual stresses are demonstrated. The investigated results show that the residual stresses on the outer and inner surfaces are tensile in the weld zone and its vicinity. The through-wall axial residual stresses at the weld center line and the HAZ line demonstrate a distribution of bending type. The through-wall hoop residual stress within the weld is mostly tensile. After the groove is filled to a certain height, the peak tensile stresses and the stress distribution patterns for both axial and hoop stresses remain almost unchanged.

  8. Characterization of thick plasma spray tungsten coating on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H for high heat flux armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahiro, Y.; Mitsuhara, M.; Tokunakga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Hirai, T.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Nakashima, H.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of plasma spray tungsten coatings on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H made by vacuum plasma spray technique (VPS) and air plasma spray technique (APS) were examined in this study to evaluate the possibility as plasma-facing armor. The VPS-W/F82H showed superior properties. The porosity of the VPS-W coatings was about 0.6% and most of the pores were smaller than 1-2 μm and joining of W/F82H and W/W was fairly good. Thermal load tests indicated high potential of this coating as plasma-facing armor under thermal loading. In case of APS-W/F82H, however, porosity was 6% and thermal load properties were much worse than VPS-W/F82H. It is likely that surface oxidation during plasma spray process reduced joining properties. Remarkably, both coatings created soft ferrite interlayer after proper heat treatments probably due to high residual stress at the interfaces after the production. This indicates the potential function of the interlayer as stress relieve and possible high performance of such coating component under thermal loads.

  9. Characterization of thick plasma spray tungsten coating on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H for high heat flux armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, Y.; Mitsuhara, M.; Tokunakga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Hirai, T.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Nakashima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Two types of plasma spray tungsten coatings on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H made by vacuum plasma spray technique (VPS) and air plasma spray technique (APS) were examined in this study to evaluate the possibility as plasma-facing armor. The VPS-W/F82H showed superior properties. The porosity of the VPS-W coatings was about 0.6% and most of the pores were smaller than 1-2 μm and joining of W/F82H and W/W was fairly good. Thermal load tests indicated high potential of this coating as plasma-facing armor under thermal loading. In case of APS-W/F82H, however, porosity was 6% and thermal load properties were much worse than VPS-W/F82H. It is likely that surface oxidation during plasma spray process reduced joining properties. Remarkably, both coatings created soft ferrite interlayer after proper heat treatments probably due to high residual stress at the interfaces after the production. This indicates the potential function of the interlayer as stress relieve and possible high performance of such coating component under thermal loads.

  10. Determination of the most favourable operating techniques for the radiography of very thick steel plates (98 to 238 mm) by means of the 6-MeV linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesbre, F.; Levillain, M.; Cocoual, N.

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of a 6 MeV linear accelerator applied to the radiography of very thick steel plates are analysed and compared to the results obtained with cobalt 60 sources. The influence of the operating technique (screens and filters) is discussed [fr

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance spot welded dissimilar thickness DP780/DP600 dual-phase steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongqiang; Wei, Ajuan; Qiu, Xiaoming; Chen, Jianhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine changes of microstructure of dissimilar thickness DP600/DP780 joints. • The hardness profile of RSW joints can be predicted by the equation. • Failure modes, peak load and energy describes the mechanical properties of joints. • The nugget diameter is the key factor of transition between the failure modes. - Abstract: In this study, resistance spot welding (RSW) experiments were performed in order to evaluate the microstructure and mechanical properties of single-lap joints between DP780 and DP600. The results show that the weld joints consist of three regions including base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ). The grain size and martensite volume fractions increase in the order of BM, HAZ and FZ. The hardness in the FZ is significantly higher than hardness of base metals. Tensile properties of the joints were described in terms of the failure modes and static load-carrying capabilities. Two distinct failure modes were observed during the tensile shear test of the joints: interfacial failure (IF) and pullout failure (PF). The FZ size plays a dominate role in failure modes of the joints

  12. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  13. Effect of the Die Temperature and Blank Thickness on the Formability of a Laser-Welded Blank of a Boron Steel Sheet with Removing Al-Si Coating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions has been a major focus in the automobile industry to address various environmental issues. In particular, studies on parts comprised of high strength sheets and light car bodies are ongoing. Accordingly, this study examined the use of boron steel, which is commonly used in high strength sheets. Boron steel is a type of sheet used for hot stamping parts. Although it has high strength, the elongation is inferior, which reduces its crash energy absorption capacity. To solve this problem, two sheets of different thickness were welded so the thin sheet would absorb crash energy and the thick sheet would work as a support. Boron steel, however, may show weakening at the welding spot due to the Al-Si coating layer used to prevent oxidation from occurring during the welding process. Therefore, a certain part of the coating layer of a double-thickness boron steel sheet that is welded in the hot stamping process is removed through laser ablation, and the formability of the hot-work was examined.

  14. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of 10-mm-Thick Cast Martensitic Stainless Steel CA6NM: As-Welded Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh; Cao, Xinjin; Pham, Xuan-Tan; Wanjara, Priti; Fihey, Jean-Luc

    2016-07-01

    Cast CA6NM martensitic stainless steel plates, 10 mm in thickness, were welded using hybrid laser-arc welding. The effect of different welding speeds on the as-welded joint integrity was characterized in terms of the weld bead geometry, defects, microstructure, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact energy. Significant defects such as porosity, root humping, underfill, and excessive penetration were observed at a low welding speed (0.5 m/min). However, the underfill depth and excessive penetration in the joints manufactured at welding speeds above 0.75 m/min met the specifications of ISO 12932. Characterization of the as-welded microstructure revealed untempered martensite and residual delta ferrite dispersed at prior-austenite grain boundaries in the fusion zone. In addition, four different heat-affected zones in the weldments were differentiated through hardness mapping and inference from the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary phase diagram. The tensile fracture occurred in the base metal for all the samples and fractographic analysis showed that the crack path is within the martensite matrix, along primary delta ferrite-martensite interfaces and within the primary delta ferrite. Additionally, Charpy impact testing demonstrated slightly higher fracture energy values and deeper dimples on the fracture surface of the welds manufactured at higher welding speeds due to grain refinement and/or lower porosity.

  15. Thermodynamic Alloy Design of High Strength and Toughness in 300 mm Thick Pressure Vessel Wall of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-sung Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, there is an increasing need for high-capacity, high-efficiency, and environmentally friendly power generation systems. The environmentally friendly integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC technology has received particular attention. IGCC pressure vessels require a high-temperature strength and creep strength exceeding those of existing pressure vessels because the operating temperature of the reactor is increased for improved capacity and efficiency. Therefore, high-pressure vessels with thicker walls than those in existing pressure vessels (≤200 mm must be designed. The primary focus of this research is the development of an IGCC pressure vessel with a fully bainitic structure in the middle portion of the 300 mm thick Cr-Mo steel walls. For this purpose, the effects of the alloy content and cooling rates on the ferrite precipitation and phase transformation behaviors were investigated using JMatPro modeling and thermodynamic calculation; the results were then optimized. Candidate alloys from the simulated results were tested experimentally.

  16. Analysis of mechanisms of underfill in full penetration laser welding of thick stainless steel with a 10 kW fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjun; Zhang, Zheng; Tang, Kun; Mao, Cong; Hu, Yongle; Chen, Genyu

    2018-01-01

    With the aim to explore the formation mechanisms of surface underfill, full penetration laser welding of thick stainless steel was conducted, with the use of a 10 kW fiber laser. A modified ;sandwich; specimen was used, so as to directly observe the dynamic behaviors of the keyhole, vapor plume, and melt pool with the formation of underfills. On the basis of the experimental investigations, the formation mechanisms of the underfills at the top surface and bottom surface were analyzed. The results show that the downward flow of the molten metal caused by the recoil momentum is a crucial driver for formation of the underfill on the top surface. At full penetration of the melt, a deep underfill with a periodic wide-narrow-wide serrated pattern is formed on the top surface of the weld owing to the periodic fluctuation of the rear keyhole wall. At full penetration of the keyhole, the formation of a deep underfill on the top surface of the weld and undercut on the bottom surface of the weld is presented with massive direct melt loss from the weld pool.

  17. Development of a New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) Ferritic Steels for Industrial Process Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Mann; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2005-04-06

    The project described in this report dealt with improving the materials performance and fabrication for hydrotreating reactor vessels, heat recovery systems, and other components for the petroleum and chemical industries. These reactor vessels can approach ship weights of about 300 tons with vessel wall thicknesses of 3 to 8 inches. They are typically fabricated from Fe-Cr-Mo alloy steels, containing 1.25 to 12% chromium and 1 to 2% molybdenum. The goal of this project was to develop Fe-Cr-W(V) steels that can perform similar duties, in terms of strength at high temperatures, but will weigh less and thereby save energy.

  18. Development of advanced transverse thickness profile control of thin hard steel strips at tandem cold rolling mill; Reikan tandem mill ni okeru nan`atsuenzai no koseido profile seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruta, T.; Akagi, I.; Mizushima, N. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes an advanced transverse thickness profile control method of thin hard steel strips at tandem cold rolling mill in the Mizushima Works of Kawasaki Steel Corporation. The work roll profile was optimized by the profile control of cold rolling using a one-side tapered work roll sifting method, to expand the profile control range in transverse direction of steel strip. Based on the data measured by the profile meter set at outlet of hot roll mill, the work roll sifting position can be controlled in response to the size of hot-rolled strip crown. A feed-forward edge drop control system and a feed-back edge control system using an edge drop sensor set at outlet of mill were established. Consequently, high thickness accuracy in transverse direction was achieved within 0.5% in a steady rolling state and within 0.8% in a non-steady rolling state over the full length of the thin hard steel strip product. 14 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. METHODS: Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p < 0.05 to assess force, resilience, and elastic modulus. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference in the forces generated, resilience and elastic modulus were found between the 0.032-in 0.036-in thicknesses (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Appliances made of low-nickel stainless steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  20. LAB3 Cosmic Ray Test Stand Analysis of Steel Stack Supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cease, H.

    1998-01-01

    A cosmic ray test stand is being constructed at Lab 3. The stand consists of two stacks of steel plates one resting on top of the other. The top stack is composed of 6 plates of steel making an overall stack size of 34.5-inch x 40-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack also has 6 layers of plate making an overall size of approximately 49.5-inch x 82-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack is supported with three support legs. See drawing 3823.000ME-900428 for the individual plate orientation. The minimum support leg size and necessary welds between plates are determined.

  1. XPS, XRD and laser Raman analysis of surface modified of 6150 steel substrates for the deposition of thick and adherent diamond-like carbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, William de Melo; Carneiro, Jose Rubens Goncalves, E-mail: williammelosilva@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus [Associate Laboratory of Sensors and Materials, National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Although the 6150 steel has an excellent fatigue and impact resistance, it is unsuitable to operate it when the corrosion is a limited factor. We propose here a sequence of steel pre-treatment by carburizing, carbonitriding and nitriding in order to improve the poor adhesion between Diamond Like-Carbon coatings on steel. This sequence is our attempt to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and DLC through the graded interface. This work demonstrates the quantitative analysis of the molecules present at surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallographic structures are investigated by X-ray diffraction which shows the formation of carbides and nitride phases. Raman spectroscopy reveals the carburizing surface characteristics where DLC coating is nucleated and grown at the substrate. At the end of the analysis it is possible to verify which molecules and phases are formed on the steel surface interface after each step of pre-treatment. (author)

  2. XPS, XRD and laser raman analysis of surface modified of 6150 steel substrates for the deposition of thick and adherent diamond-like carbon coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William de Melo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the 6150 steel has an excellent fatigue and impact resistance, it is unsuitable to operate it when the corrosion is a limited factor. We propose here a sequence of steel pre-treatment by carburizing, carbonitriding and nitriding in order to improve the poor adhesion between Diamond Like-Carbon coatings on steel. This sequence is our attempt to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and DLC through the graded interface. This work demonstrates the quantitative analysis of the molecules present at surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallographic structures are investigated by X-ray diffraction which shows the formation of carbides and nitride phases. Raman spectroscopy reveals the carburizing surface characteristics where DLC coating is nucleated and grown at the substrate. At the end of the analysis it is possible to verify which molecules and phases are formed on the steel surface interface after each step of pre-treatment.

  3. Standard reference radiographs for steel fusion welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed. 1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows: Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness. Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness. Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport t...

  4. Development of a Versatile Laser Ultrasonic System and Application to On-Line Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentrictiy of Steel Seamless Mechanical Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, R.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Damiano, B.; Bingham, P.R.; Gee, T.F.; Tucker, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Hileman, M.; Emery, M.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Hardy, J.E.; Weaver, K.; Crutcher, R.; Kolarik, R.V., II; Vandervaart, R.H.

    2002-04-24

    Researchers at the Timken Company conceived a project to develop an on-line instrument for wall thickness measurement of steel seamless mechanical tubing based on laser ultrasonic technology. The instrument, which has been installed and tested at a piercing mill, provides data on tube eccentricity and concentricity. Such measurements permit fine-tuning of manufacturing processes to eliminate excess material in the tube wall and therefore provide a more precisely dimensioned product for their customers. The resulting process energy savings are substantial, as is lowered environmental burden. The expected savings are $85.8 million per year in seamless mechanical tube piercing alone. Applied across the industry, this measurement has a potential of reducing energy consumption by 6 x 10{sup 12} BTU per year, greenhouse gas emissions by 0.3 million metric tons carbon equivalent per year, and toxic waste by 0.255 million pounds per year. The principal technical contributors to the project were the Timken Company, Industrial Materials Institute (IMI, a contractor to Timken), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Timken provided mill access as well as process and metallurgical understanding. Timken researchers had previously developed fundamental ultrasonic analysis methods on which this project is based. IMI developed and fabricated the laser ultrasonic generation and receiver systems. ORNL developed Bayesian and wavelet based real-time signal processing, spread-spectrum wireless communication, and explored feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. The resulting instrument has successfully measured production tubes at one of Timken's piercing mills. This report concentrates on ORNL's contribution through the CRADA mechanism. The three components of ORNL's contribution were met with mixed success. The real-time signal-processing task accomplished its goal of improvement in detecting time of flight information with a minimum of false data. The

  5. Determination of the effective thickness of a porous electrode in a flow-through reactor: effect of the specific surface area of stainless steel fibres, used as a porous cathode, during the deposition of Ag(I) ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Montes de Oca, José Luis; Oropeza Guzmán, Mercedes T.; Ponce de León Albarrán, Carlos; González García, José; Frías Ferrer, Ángel

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the use of potential distribution analysis during the deposition of metal ions, at limiting current conditions and determines the optimum electrode thickness at which no hydrogen evolution occurs. The potential distribution studies were carried out on stainless-steel fibres of three different surface areas. The fibres were used as cathodic porous electrodes during the deposition of Ag(I) ions contained in 0.1 mol dm? 3 KNO3 and 0.6 mol dm? 3 NH4OH electrolyte. The compari...

  6. Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; S. D. Snow

    2005-01-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates (10 to 200 per second) during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these materials under dynamic (impact) loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. The goal of the work presented in this paper was to improve understanding of moderate strain rate phenomena on these materials. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and relatively large test specimens (1/2-inch thick), initial test efforts focused on the tensile behavior of specific stainless steel materials during impact loading. Impact tests of 304L and 316L stainless steel test specimens at two different strain rates, 25 per second (304L and 316L material) and 50 per second (304L material) were performed for comparison to their quasi-static tensile test properties. Elevated strain rate stress-strain curves for the two materials were determined using the impact test machine and a ''total impact energy'' approach. This approach considered the deformation energy required to strain the specimens at a given strain rate. The material data developed was then utilized in analytical simulations to validate the final elevated stress-strain curves. The procedures used during testing and the results obtained are described in this paper

  7. Manufacturing Systems Demonstration: Bimetallic Friction STIR Joining of AA6061 and High Hardness Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    water-cooled laboratory abrasive saw. The final 0.48-in. thick x 2.0-in. wide x 5-in. long joint coupons were then waterjet cut into bimetallic...parameter development stage used 3/16-inch thick x ½-inch wide x 2-inch long transverse test specimens that had been cut perpendicular to the joint

  8. Through-the-thickness residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction in inoxidizable martensitic steel samples with and without tungsten carbide coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rogante, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 5 (2009), s. 650-656 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 13Cr4Ni steel * residual stress * Coating Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.793, year: 2009

  9. The effect of hot bending and thermal ageing on creep and microstructure evolution in thick-walled P92 steel pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Svobodová, M.; Čmakal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 644, SEP (2015), s. 297-309 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010260; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Steel * Thermomechanical processing * Mechanical characterization * Electron microscopy * Ageing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015

  10. Technological impact in steels degree API 5L X-70 for the manufacture of resistant ducts of 36 inches of diameter to the bitter gas; Impacto tecnologico de aceros grado API 5L X-70 para la fabricacion de ductos de 36 pulgadas de diametro resistentes al gas amargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo Perez, G.; Garcia Galan, S.; Perez Campos, R.; Juarez Islas, J.A. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-03-01

    Several steel plates in the as-hot rolled plus cooled condition were studied, in order to evaluate the impact of the steelmaking route and the controlled thermomechanical processing plus the cooling media. The steelmaking route to produce the slabs involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously cast. After soaking, a controlled thermomechanical processing the resulting steel plates cooled in air showed a banded structure, which sometimes presented a central segregation region. The worst plates with a central segregation region showed intermetallic compounds in it. After modifications of the steelmaking route and the controlled thermomechanical/cooling schedule, a steel plate with a ferritic microstructure plus 0.5% in vol of bainite was obtained. This microstructure together with the resulting mechanical properties, fulfilled the API grade 5LX-70 properties, required by the petroleum industry. [Spanish] Se evaluo el impacto del proceso en la fabricacion de planchones de acero grado APIX-70, asimismo, el proceso de deformacion termomecanico controlado, mas enfriamiento de placas. El proceso para producir los planchones involucra el uso de 100% de hierro esponja, el cual es alimentado a un horno electrico, desgasificado al vacio y colado continuamente. Al planchon resultante se le aplica un programa de laminacion en caliente controlado y a las placas resultantes se le aplica un enfriamiento al aire o acelerado. La mayoria de las placas enfriadas al aire mostraron una estructura bandeada, algunas presentaron una region con segregacion central y otras las segregacion central mas la presencia de intermetalicos. Despues de modificar el proceso de fabricacion del acero, su control termomecanico y su programa de enfriamiento, se obtuvo una placa con una microestructura ferrifica mas un 0.5% en volumen de bainita. Esta microestructura junto con el resultado de sus propiedades mecanicas

  11. The Six-Inch Lunar Atlas A Pocket Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Don

    2009-01-01

    The Six-Inch Lunar Atlas has been designed specifically for use in the field by lunar observers so it’s perfect for fitting into an observer’s pocket! The author’s own lunar photographs were taken with a 6-inch (150mm) telescope and CCD camera, and closely match the visual appearance of the Moon when viewed through 3-inch to 8-inch telescopes. Each picture is shown oriented "as the Moon really is" when viewed from the northern hemisphere, and is supplemented by exquisite computer sketches that list the main features. Two separate computer sketches are provided to go with each photograph, one oriented to appear as seen through an SCT telescope (e.g. the Meade and Celestron ranges), the other oriented for Newtonian and refracting telescopes. Observers using the various types telescopes will find it extremely helpful to identify lunar features as the human brain is very poor at making "mirror-image" visual translations.

  12. Aerosol Research Branch (ARB) 48 inch Lidar Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ARB_48_IN_LIDAR data set contains data collected from a 48-inch lidar system located at NASA Langley Research Center. Each granule consists of one year of data....

  13. Heat transfer enhancement of flow insulator by combined stainless steel fibrous and wire net porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantikomol, P.; Polsongkram, M.; Apisitpinyo, W.; Poowadin, T.

    2018-01-01

    The present research article aims to propose the heat transfer enhancement of the flow insulator using combined fibrous and wire net stainless steel porous material. The stainless fibrous plate with porosity of 0.9292 was combined to the stainless steel wire net having pore per inch (PPI) of 16 and total thickness of 30 mm. Two models of the arranging porous plates were prepared, which were model BA and model AB. Each porous plate segment had the same thickness. The examined porous plate model have porosities of 0.8452. The porous plate was placed normal to the flow direction. The air was used as working fluid heated by 5 kW electric heater, which was controlled by the automatic temperature control. Type-K thermocouples were employed to measure the air temperatures. The temperature at front of the porous plate was varied to be 350, 450, and 550°C. The air flow rate was varied in the range of 4-12 m3/hr. The experimental result showed that the temperature drop across the porous plate and the thermal efficiency increase with the inlet temperature. The air velocity slightly affects the temperature profile inside the test section at the upstream side of the porous plate but greatly affects temperature inside the porous plate. In consideration of the arranging porous plate, placing of the stainless steel wire net at the upstream side and placing the stainless steel fibrous at downstream side (model BA) results in the highest temperature drop and the highest thermal efficiency. At Re 733 and inlet temperature 550°C for model BA at 30 mm thickness, the thermal efficiency was 50%. It was shown that the combined stainless steel fibrous and stainless steel wire net porous material could be a good flow insulator.

  14. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial... LABELING ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. (a) For calculating the conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound...

  15. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Altaf Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated canine retraction was undertaken to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance between titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires. Results and Conclusion: We compared the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires, with the help of Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student′s "t" test, and post hoc multiple range test at level of <0.05 showed statistically significant difference in the mean values of all groups. Results demonstrated that the titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot had no significant variations in frictional résistance. The self-ligating bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the other groups. The titanium bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the stainless steel brackets.

  17. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T., E-mail: thomas.bergauer@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Dragicevic, M.; König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Hacker, J.; Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-09-11

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  18. Use of well points to determine the thickness and extent of floating product atop the water table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, T.L.; Lewis, R.; Gilmore, T.; Hoffmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The release of petroleum products to the ground water is a widespread problem. Conventional plume tracking techniques are to drill wells and measure product thickness and extent. In this study, well points were installed to rapidly and inexpensively determine the thickness and extent of floating product atop the water table. Spills and leaks of JP-4 have produced a discrete full layer atop the water table at one site at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska. The 0.2- to 1.3-foot-thick layer was identified in two ground water monitoring wells at a depth of approximately 10 feet. The layer is contained within unconsolidated glaciofluvial sands and gravels. A comprehensive assessment of the product thickness and extent was necessary for the site remedial investigation/feasibility study. The emplacement of additional monitoring wells was discouraged because of time and budget constraints. The fuel layer was delineated with 18 screened well points. The points consist of 2-inch-diameter galvanized steel pipe. The points were driven into the floating products with a hollow-stem auger rig sampling hammer. The product thickness was measured with an interface probe. The presence of floating product could be measured immediately after emplacement; the product thickness measurements typically stabilized within three days. The product thickness compared favorably with those measured in adjacent monitoring wells

  19. Stress corrosion cracking of A515 grade 60 carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.L.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of welding method plate thickness, and subsequent stress relief treatment on the stress corrosion cracking propensity of ASTM A515 Grade 60 carbon steel plate exposed to a 5 M NaNO 3 solution at 190 0 F for eight weeks. It was found that all weld coupons receiving no thermal stress relief treatment cracked within eight weeks; all weld coupons given a vibratory stress relief cracked within eight weeks; two of the eight weld coupons stress relieved at 600 0 F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; none of the weld coupons stress relieved at 1100 0 F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; and that cracking was generally more severe in coupons fabricated from 7/8 inch plate by shielded metal arc welding than it was in coupons fabricated by other welding methods. (U.S.)

  20. Damping test results for straight sections of 3-inch and 8-inch unpressurized pipes. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    EG and G Idaho is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Pressure Vessel Research Committee in supporting a final position on revised damping values for structural analyses of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a series of vibrational tests on unpressurized 3-in. and 8-in. Schedule 40 carbon steel piping was conducted to determine the changes in structural damping due to various parametric effects. The 33-ft straight sections of piping were supported at the ends. Additionally, intermediate supports comprising spring, rod, and constant-force hangers, as well as a sway brace and snubbers, were used. Excitation was provided by low-force-level hammer impacts, a hydraulic shaker, and a 50-ton overhead crane for snapback testing. Data was recorded using acceleration, strain, and displacement time histories. This report presents test results showing the effect of stress level and type of supports on structural damping in piping.

  1. Damping test results for straight sections of 3-inch and 8-inch unpressurized pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    EG and G Idaho is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Pressure Vessel Research Committee in supporting a final position on revised damping values for structural analyses of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a series of vibrational tests on unpressurized 3-in. and 8-in. Schedule 40 carbon steel piping was conducted to determine the changes in structural damping due to various parametric effects. The 33-ft straight sections of piping were supported at the ends. Additionally, intermediate supports comprising spring, rod, and constant-force hangers, as well as a sway brace and snubbers, were used. Excitation was provided by low-force-level hammer impacts, a hydraulic shaker, and a 50-ton overhead crane for snapback testing. Data was recorded using acceleration, strain, and displacement time histories. This report presents test results showing the effect of stress level and type of supports on structural damping in piping

  2. A final report on the performance achieved by non-destructive testing of defective butt welds in 50mm thick Type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.; Hudgell, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report concludes a programme of work started approximately eight years ago to fabricate deliberately defective austenitic downhand welds in 50 mm thick Type 316 plate and then to examine them non-destructively under ideal laboratory conditions. After completing and reporting the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), the specimens were subjected to detailed metallography to locate, identify and size all the planned and unplanned flaws in the welds. The report gives the final analysis of this exercise on the relative merits of X-radiography, pulse echo ultrasonics and the time-of-flight technique for the detection, location and sizing of weld flaws. It was found that X-radiography and pulse echo ultrasonics were the best techniques for flaw detection but neither technique was reliable for flaw sizing. The time-of-flight technique provided accurate sizing data but the location of the flaws had to be known to identify the diffracted signals from the extremities of the flaws due to the poor signal to noise ratio. Observations are also reported on the fabrication of deliberately defective austenitic welds for use as reference specimens in the FR programme. (author)

  3. The effect of SiC powder mixing electrical discharge machining on white layer thickness, heat flux and fatigue life of AISI D2 die steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Khazraji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying the effect of powder mixing electrical discharge machining (PMEDM parameters using copper and graphite electrodes on the white layer thickness (WLT, the total heat flux generated and the fatigue life. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to plan and design the experimental work matrices for two groups of experiments: for the first EDM group, kerosene dielectric was used alone, whereas the second was treated by adding the SiC micro powders mixing to dielectric fluid (PMEDM. The total heat flux generated and fatigue lives after EDM and PMEDM models were developed by FEM using ANSYS 15.0 software. The graphite electrodes gave a total heat flux higher than copper electrodes by 82.4%, while using the SiC powder and graphite electrodes gave a higher total heat flux than copper electrodes by 91.5%. The lowest WLT values of 5.0 µm and 5.57 µm are reached at a high current and low current with low pulse on time using the copper and graphite electrodes and the SiC powder, respectively. This means that there is an improvement in WLT by 134% and 110%, respectively, when compared with the use of same electrodes and kerosene dielectric alone. The graphite electrodes with PMEDM and SiC powder improved the experimental fatigue safety factor by 7.30% compared with the use of copper electrodes and by 14.61% and 18.61% compared with results using the kerosene dielectric alone with copper and graphite electrodes, respectively.

  4. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders--2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) is stored in over 62,000 containment cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. Over 4,800 of the cylinders at Portsmouth were recently moved there from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The cylinders range in age up to 56 years and come in various models, but most are 48-inch diameter 'thin-wall'(312.5 mil) and 'thick-wall' (625 mil) cylinders and 30-inch diameter '30A' (including '30B') cylinders with 1/2-inch (500 mil) walls. Most of the cylinders are carbon steel, and they are subject to corrosion. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) manages the cylinders to maintain them and the DUF{sub 6} they contain. Cylinder management requirements are specified in the System Requirements Document (LMES 1997a), and the activities to fulfill them are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (LMES 1997b). This report documents activities that address DUF{sub 6} cylinder management requirements involving measuring and forecasting cylinder wall thicknesses. As part of these activities, ultrasonic thickness (UT) measurements are made on samples of cylinders. For each sampled cylinder, multiple measurements are made in an attempt to find, approximately, the minimum wall thickness. Some cylinders have a skirt, which is an extension of the cylinder wall to protect the head (end) and valve. The head/skirt interface crevice is thought to be particularly vulnerable to corrosion, and for some skirted cylinders, in addition to the main body UT measurements, a separate suite of measurements is also made at the head/skirt interface. The main-body and head/skirt minimum thickness data are used to fit models relating minimum thickness to cylinder age, nominal thicknesses, and cylinder functional groups defined in terms of plant site, storage yard

  5. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of Custom 455 stainless steel alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical and stress corrosion properties are presented of vacuum melted Custom 455 stainless steel alloy bar (1.0-inch diameter) and sheet (0.083-inch thick) material aged at 950 F, 1000 F, and 1050 F. Low temperature mechanical properties were determined at temperatures of 80 F, 0 F, -100 F, and -200 F. For all three aging treatments, the ultimate tensile and 0.2 percent offset yield strengths increased with decreasing test temperatures while the elongation held fairly constant down to -100 F and decreased at -200 F. Reduction in Area decreased moderately with decreasing temperature for the longitudinal round (0.250-inch diameter) specimens. Notched tensile strength and charpy V-notched impact strength decreased with decreasing test temperature. For all three aging treatments, no failures were observed in the unstressed specimens or the specimens stressed to 50, 75, and 100 percent of their yield strengths for 180 days of alternate immersion testing in a 3.5 percent NaCl solution. As indicated by the results of tensile tests performed after alternate immersion testing, the mechanical properties of Custom 455 alloy were not affected by stress or exposure under the conditions of the evaluation.

  6. Impact Tensile Testing of Stainless Steels at Various Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. Morton

    2008-03-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern (1 to 300 per second) are not well documented. However, research is being performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to quantify these characteristics. The work presented herein discusses tensile impact testing of dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens. Both base material and welded material specimens were tested at -20 oF, room temperature, 300 oF, and 600 oF conditions. Utilizing a drop weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch and 1/2-inch thick dog bone-shaped test specimens, a strain rate range of approximately 4 to 40 per second (depending on initial temperature conditions) was achieved. Factors were determined that reflect the amount of increased strain energy the material can absorb due to strain rate effects. Using the factors, elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials at various strain rates and temperatures were generated. By incorporating the strain rate elevated true stress-strain material curves into an inelastic finite element computer program as the defined material input, significant improvement in the accuracy of the computer analyses was attained. However, additional impact testing is necessary to achieve higher strain rates (up to 300 per second) before complete definition of strain rate effects can be made for accidental drop events and other similar energy-limited impulsive loads. This research approach, using impact testing and a total energy analysis methodology to quantify strain rate effects, can be applied to many other materials used in government and industry.

  7. 49 CFR 178.59 - Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of steel. Materials must be... exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination. (4) Yield strength may not exceed 73...

  8. FDG gamma camera PET equipped with one inch crystal and XCT. Assessment of myocardial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beheshti, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ., General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET CT Centre, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Linz (Austria); Khorsand, A.; Graf, S. [Dept. of Cardiology, Medical Univ., General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Dobrozemsky, G. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria); Oezer, S.; Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Univ., General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Pirich, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine und Endocrinology, Paracelsus Private Medical Univ., SALK, Salzburg (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Metabolic imaging with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is actually considered as the best method to detect and quantitatively assess myocordial tissue viability. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of FDG gamma camera positron emission tomography (GCPET) imaging equipped with one inch NaI crystals in comparison to FDG dedicated PET (dPET) imaging as a ''gold standard'' in phantom and clinical studies. Patients, methods: nineteen patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent both imaging modalities. Phantom and clinical GCPET imaging were performed with a dual-headed, coincidence based gamma camera equipped with 1 inch thick NaI crystals and an X-ray tube (XCT) for attenuation correction (AC), as well as with a dedicated PET scanner with AC. {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies were performed for assessment of myocardial perfusion, with AC. Results: phantom studies showed a significant relation in segmental activity between FDG imaging with AC using GCPET and dPET (r = 0.91, p < 0.001). In clinical studies with AC correlation coefficients of mean segmental FDG uptake and regional defect size were r = 0.87 (p < 0.0001) and r = 0.83 (p < 0.0001), respectively. In regional analysis close agreement was even found in the most attenuated regions of the heart if AC was used in GCPET imaging. The overall agreement for detection of viable myocardium was 81% between FDG-dPET (AC) and FDG-GCPET (AC) and 74% between FDG-dPET (AC) and FDG-GCPET (NC). Conclusions: suggests that the assessment of myocardial metabolism by means of FDG is feasible with a coincidence based gamma camera equipped with 1 inch thick NaI crystal if AC is performed. The results reveal a close concordance and agreement between FDG-dPET (AC) and FDG-GCPET (AC) as compared to FDG-GCPET (NC). (orig.)

  9. Production of medical radioisotopes in ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures, targets, and costs are discussed for the production of iodine-123 at the ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron. The cyclotron is a fixed frequency machine producing 22-MeV proton beams with currents of 3 mA. Flat plate targets are used in the bombardment of readily fabricated metals when highest production rates are necessary, while capsule targets are used when flat plate coatings are difficult or when high production rates are not required. Window targets with metal foils or powders, inorganic compounds, or isotopically enriched materials are also used. (PMA)

  10. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joints measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki.

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distributions in a 4 inch diameter carbon steel pipe welded joint were measured by neutron diffraction technique. The results showed that the residual stress distributed near the weld metal, namely within about 30mm. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa throughout the pipe wall thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 40 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. These residual stress distributions were compared with those measured by the X-ray diffraction technique and strain gauge method, and they agreed with each other. (author)

  11. Evaluation criteria of structural steel reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zav'yalov, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Different low-carbon and medium-carbon structural steels are investigated. It is stated that steel reliability evaluation criteria depend on the fracture mode, steel suffering from the brittle fracture under the influence of the stresses (despite their great variety) arising in articles during the production and operation. Fibrous steel fracture at the given temperature and article thickness says about its high ductility and toughness and brittle fractures are impossible. Brittle fractures take place in case of a crystalline and mixed fracture with a predominant crystalline component. Evaluation methods of article and sample steel structural strength differing greatly from real articles in a thickness (diameter) or used at temperatures higher than possible operation temperatures cannot be reliability evaluation criteria because at a great thickness (diameter) and lower operation temperatures steel fracture and its strain mode can change resulting in a sharp reliability degradation

  12. Stainless Steel Cladding Of Structural Steels By CO2 Laser Welding Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovico, A.; Daurelio, G.; Arcamone, O.

    1989-01-01

    Steel cladding processes are usually performed in different ways: hot roll cladding, strip cladding, weld cladding, explosion forming. For the first time, a medium power (2 KW c.w.) CO2 laser was used to clad structural steels (Fe 37C), 3 and 5 mm thick, with austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 and AISI 316), 0.5 and 1.5 mm thick. The cladding technique we have developed uses the laser penetration welding process.

  13. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  14. Remote target removal for the Oak Ridge 86-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A remotely operated target remover has been plaed in operation at the 86-Inch Cyclotron located in Oak Ridge. The system provides for the remote removal of a target from inside the cyclotron, loading it into a cask, and the removal of the cask from the 1.5 m (5-ft) shielding walls. The remote system consists of multiple electrical and pneumatically operated equipment which is designed for controlled step-by-step operation, operated with an electrical control panel, and monitored by a television system. The target remover has reduced the radiation exposures to operating personnel at the facility and has increased the effective operating time. The system is fast, requires a minimum of skill to operate, and has demonstrated both reliability and durability

  15. Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.P.; Onesto, A.T.; DeVita, V.

    1987-02-01

    This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis

  16. Basic mechanical properties of layered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with identifying attributes of layered steel materials (damask steel with the help of mechanical tests. Experimentally verify basic mechanical properties of layered steel and subsequently assessed it in comparison with the values obtained for the classic steel materials. In conclusion, there are listed the possibilities of using multilayer steel materials in technical practice, depending on the economics of production.The damask steel was prepared by forge welding from a packet consisting of 17 layers (9 layers of tool steel 19 133 (ČSN with the thickness of 6 mm and 8 layers 80NiCr11 steel in the form of saw bands with the thickness of 1.2 mm. The packet was cut into 8 parts, folded 3 times and forged together, which provided damask steel with 136 layers. The resulting steel bars were used to make semi-finished products with the approximate dimensions of the test specimens. For evaluation of mechanical properties were applied the following tests: tensile test, Charpy impact test, hardness and microhardness measurementsThe results of tests proved that the properties of damask steel are dependent not only on the direction led impact quality forge weld layers and content iof nhomogeneities in the place of discord, but also on the quenching and tempering temperature, resp. on the choice of quenching bath, which determine the final structure of steel and the resulting hardness, respectively microhardness.

  17. Strain-based design procedures for spiral-welded steel tubes in combined walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, A.M.; van Es, S.H.J.; Vasilikis, D; Karamanos, SA; Dubina, D.; Ungureanu, V.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the structural behaviour of large-diameter spiral-welded steel tubes under bending, a full scale experimental program has been performed, consisting of thirteen 42-inch diameter, spiral-welded steel tubes with D/t ratios ranging between 65 and 120. Additionally, numerical studies have

  18. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  19. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following formula: P=(2 St/D)×F×E×T P=Design pressure in pounds per square inch (kPa) gauge. S=Yield strength in... external loads in accordance with § 192.103 may not be included in computing design pressure. F=Design...

  20. Development of 8-inch Key Processes for Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyou Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the construction of the 8-inch fabrication line, advanced process technology of 8-inch wafer, as well as the fourth-generation high-voltage double-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor (DMOS+ insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT technology and the fifth-generation trench gate IGBT technology, have been developed, realizing a great-leap forward technological development for the manufacturing of high-voltage IGBT from 6-inch to 8-inch. The 1600 A/1.7 kV and 1500 A/3.3 kV IGBT modules have been successfully fabricated, qualified, and applied in rail transportation traction system.

  1. Pendulum impact tests of wooden and steel highway guardrail posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Jarvis D. Michie

    1974-01-01

    Impact strength characteristics of southern pine, red oak, and steel highway guardrail posts were evaluated in destructive impact testing with a 4,000-pound pendulum at the Southwest Research Institute. Effects were recorded with high-speed motion-picture equipment. Comparisons were based on reactions to the point of major post failure. Major comparisons of 6x6-inch...

  2. Evaluation of the x-ray fluorescence method of precious metal plating thickness measurements. Technological spinoff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.S.; Hearn, N.K.; Pettie, C.B.

    1975-09-01

    It is shown that gold and silver plating thickness measurements made using an x-ray spectrograph could be closely correlated with thicknesses measured from sectional samples. Good correlations were also shown for single overlays of gold over silver when each layer was less than 0.0003 inch thick

  3. Lowell Observatory's 24-inch Clark Refractor: Its History and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kevin; Nye, Ralph; Rosenthal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In 1895, Percival Lowell hired eminent telescope maker Alvan G. Clark to build a 24-inch refractor. Lowell intended the telescope intitally for observing Mars in support of his controversial theories about life on that planet. Clark finished the telescope within a year and at a cost of $20,000. Lowell and his staff of assistants and astronomers began observing through it on July 23, 1896, setting off a long and productive career for the telescope.While Lowell's Mars studies dominated early work with the Clark, V.M. Slipher by the 1910s was using it to observe planetary rotations and atmospheric compositions. He soon revolutionized spectroscopic studies, gathering excruciatingly long spectra - some in excess of 40 hours - of the so-called white nebula and determining startling radial velocities, evidence of an expanding universe. In the 1960s, scientists and artists teamed up on the Clark and created detailed lunar maps in support of the Apollo program.In recent decades, the Clark has played a central role in the education programs at Lowell, with general public audiences, students, and private groups all taking advantage of this unique resource.With this nearly 120 years of contant use, the Clark had been wearing down in recent years. The telescope was becoming more difficult to move, old electrical wiring in the dome was a fire hazard, and many of the telescope's parts needed to be repaired or replaced.In 2013, Lowell Observatory began a fundraising campaign, collecting $291,000 to cover the cost of dome and telescope renovation. Workers removed the entire telescope mount and tube assembly from the dome, examining every part from tube sections to individuals screws. They also stabilized the dome, adding a water vapor barrier and new outer wall while reinforcing the upper dome. The project lasted from January, 2014 through August, 2015. The facility reopened for daytime tours in September, 2015 and evening viewing the following month.

  4. 16 CFR 460.20 - R-value per inch claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false R-value per inch claims. 460.20 Section 460.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.20 R-value per inch claims. In labels, fact sheets, ads, or other promotional...

  5. Orthopedic stretcher with average-sized person can pass through 18-inch opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothschuetz, F. X.

    1966-01-01

    Modified Robinson stretcher for vertical lifting and carrying, will pass through an opening 18 inches in diameter, while containing a person of average height and weight. A subject 6 feet tall and weighing 200 pounds was lowered and raised out of an 18 inch diameter opening in a tank to test the stretcher.

  6. Torque expression of 0.018 and 0.022 inch conventional brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Eliades, T.; Katsaros, C.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the moments generated with low- and high-torque brackets. Four different bracket prescription-slot combinations of the same bracket type (Mini Diamond(R) Twin) were evaluated: high-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch and low-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch.

  7. Comparison of silicon strip tracker module size using large sensors from 6 inch wafers

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Two large silicon strip sensor made from 6 inch wafers are placed next to each other to simulate the size of a CMS outer silicon tracker module. On the left is a prototype 2 sensor CMS inner endcap silicon tracker module made from 4 inch wafers.

  8. High-temperature kilning of southern pine poles, timbers, lumber, and thick veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1973-01-01

    At dry-bulb temperatures above the boiling point of water, with large wet-bulb depressions and high air velocities, southern pine prodcuts can be dried quickly. In an impingement-jet kiln at 300o F., veneer 3/8-inch to 5/8-inch thick can be brought to 10 percent moisture content in 40 to 75 minutes. Drying times for lumber arte linearly related...

  9. Kinetics of borided gear steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    element content. Consequently, diffusion rate of boron atoms perpendicular to surface of GS18 is higher than that of GS32. The lower activation energy is obtained in the longer layer thickness. (Uslu et al 2007). Activation energy values obtained in this study vary in accordance with the chemical compo- sition of steels.

  10. Kinetics of borided gear steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1745 to 2034 HV0,05 respectively, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated steels GS18 ..... The thickness values of boride layers with respect to boriding time and temperatures. determine the .... Campos I, Ramirez G, Figueroa U, Martinez J and Morales O 2007 Evaluation of boron mobility on the phases FeB ...

  11. A Fixture for Compressive Tests of Thin Sheet Metal Between Lubricated Steel Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-04-01

    figure, The width of the paok was reduced about 1/64 inch by light cuts with a surface grinden apd the paok was turned . NACA TN No. 1022 5 ● over and was...RESULTSOFCOMPRESSIVET STSOF0.054-INCH1025CARBONSTEELSHEET, ~NSVE&E SPECIWZNS peoimen number CIT CF6T C21T C22T KindOf testor lateral support Paok -do-- Steel

  12. Thermomechanical Processing and Texture Development in Ni-Cr-Mo and Mn-Mo-B Armor Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Materials and Experiments Steel Composition and Ingot Dimensions Two 500-pound (227 kg) heats, one for each steel, were melted and cast in vacuum into two...ingots 7 by 12 by 24 inches (180 by 305 by 610 mm). Results of ladle and check analyses are shown in Table I. The chemical compositions of these two...5Ni-Si-Cu-Mo steel, one 500-pound heat was vacuum melted and cast into an ingot, 7 by 12 by 24 inches in dimension. The chemical composition of this

  13. MT. BIGELOW 61-INCH IMAGES OF 9P/TEMPEL 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 6 images of 9P/Tempel 1 obtained on five nights in 1994 using a visual CCD mounted on the 61-inch Kuiper telescope of the Mt. Bigelow...

  14. Project W320 52-inch diameter equipment container load test: Test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the load tests performed on-site and off-site to structural qualify the 52-inch equipment containers designed and fabricated under Project W-320

  15. Experimental Study on Mechanical Behavior of Shear Connectors of Square Concrete Filled Steel Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyun Qiao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantitatively evaluate the shear-bearing capacity of shear connectors of square concrete filled steel tube (CFST, push-out tests on 14 square CFSTs with shear connectors have been carried out. Among the 14 CFSTs, there are 13 specimens with steel plate connectors and one specimen with steel bar connectors. The following factors are investigated to figure out their influences on the performance of CFSTs, which are the width to thickness ratio of steel tube, thickness of steel plate, length of steel plate, strength of concrete, welding condition of steel plate, number of steel plate layer and interlayer spacing. The test results show that the ultimate bearing capacity and the elastic stiffness increase with decreasing width to thickness ratio of the steel tube, and increasing thickness and length of the steel plate. With increasing concrete strength, the ultimate bearing capacity also increases. However, the welding condition has no effect on the ultimate bearing capacity. The ultimate bearing capacity of the CFST with double-layer steel plate is greater than that with single-layer steel plate. The ultimate bearing capacity of steel bar type shear connector is 87% greater than that of the steel plate type shear connector, and the steel bar specimen shows good ductility. A formula for calculating the shear-bearing capacity of shear connectors has been developed, and the calculated shear-bearing capacities are in good agreement with the test data.

  16. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  17. Experimental and numerical approach on fracture behaviour of four inches diameter carbon-manganese cracked welded pipes in four point bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semete, P.; Faidy, C.; Lautier, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    EDF has conducted a research programme to demonstrate the fracture resistance of carbon-manganese welded pipes. The main task of this programme consisted of testing three four inches diameter (114.3 mm O.D.) thin welded pipes (8.56 mm thick) which are representative of those of the sites. The three pipes were loaded under four point bending at a quasi-static rate at -20 C till their maximum bending moment was reached. This paper presents the experimental results, finite element calculations and their comparison with the simplified fracture assessment method of the RSE-M Code. (author)

  18. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent

  19. The Influence of Calcium Carbonate Composition and Activated Carbon in Pack Carburizing Low Carbon Steel Process in The Review of Hardness and Micro Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafni; Hadi, Syafrul; Edison

    2017-12-01

    Carburizing is a way of hardening the surface by heating the metal (steel) above the critical temperature in an environment containing carbon. Steel at a temperature of the critical temperature of affinity to carbon. Carbon is absorbed into the metal form a solid solution of carbon-iron and the outer layer has high carbon content. When the composition of the activator and the activated charcoal is right, it will perfect the carbon atoms to diffuse into the test material to low carbon steels. Thick layer of carbon Depending on the time and temperature are used. Pack carburizing process in this study, using 1 kg of solid carbon derived from coconut shell charcoal with a variation of 20%, 10% and 5% calcium carbonate activator, burner temperature of 950 0C, holding time 4 hours. The test material is low carbon steel has 9 pieces. Each composition has three specimens. Furnace used in this study is a pack carburizing furnace which has a designed burner box with a volume of 1000 x 600 x 400 (mm3) of coal-fired. Equipped with a circulation of oxygen from the blower 2 inches and has a wall of refractory bricks. From the variation of composition CaCO3, microstructure formed on the specimen with 20% CaCO3, better diffusion of carbon into the carbon steel, it is seen by the form marten site structure after quenching, and this indicates that there has been an increase of or adding carbon to in the specimen. This led to the formation of marten site specimen into hard surfaces, where the average value of hardness at one point side (side edge) 31.7 HRC

  20. Development of gamma spectroscopy employing NaI(Tl) detector 3 inch x 3 inch and readout electronic of flash-ADC/FPGA-based technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Vo Hong [HCMC-National Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Ton Duc Thang Univ., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Hung, Nguyen Quoc [HCMC-National Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Khai, Bui Tuan [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2015-05-15

    n this article the development of a gamma spectroscopy system is described using a scintillation detector NaI(Tl) of 3 inch x 3 inch. The readout electronic for the spectroscopy is built from the fast analog-digital conversion of Flash Analog-Digital Converter (Flash-ADC) 250 MHz - 8 bits resolution, and the embedded Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. The embedded VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code for FPGA is built in such a way that it works as a multi channel analyser (MCA) with 4096 Digital Charge Integration (DCI) channels. A pulse generator with frequency varying from Hz up to 12 kHz is used to evaluate the time response of the system. Two standard radioisotope sources of {sup 133}Ba and {sup 152}Eu with multi gamma energies ranging from several tens keV to MeV are used to evaluate the linearity and energy resolution of the system.

  1. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    70 mm (0.4 x 0.4 x 2.8 in.) in L orientation with a Charpy notch at the mid-length for SCC test under four-point bending (ASTM F 1624- 95) TESTS ...MAXIMUM STRESS INTENSITY, Kmax, IN HIGH STRENGTH STEELS For the fatigue test in 3.5% NaCl solution, the FCG per cycle, da/dN, is converted to the...NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009

  2. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  3. Modélisation du procédé de soudage hybride Arc / Laser par une approche level set application aux toles d'aciers de fortes épaisseurs A level-set approach for the modelling of hybrid arc/laser welding process application for high thickness steel sheets joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmaison Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage hybride Arc/Laser est une solution aux assemblages difficiles de tôles de fortes épaisseurs. Ce procédé innovant associe deux sources de chaleur : un arc électrique produit par une torche MIG et une source laser placée en amont. Ce couplage améliore le rendement du procédé, la qualité du cordon et les déformations finales. La modélisation de ce procédé par une approche Level Set permet une prédiction du développement du cordon et du champ de température associé. La simulation du soudage multi-passes d'une nuance d'acier 18MnNiMo5 est présentée ici et les résultats sont comparés aux observations expérimentales. The hybrid arc/laser welding process has been developed in order to overcome the difficulties encountered for joining high thickness steel sheets. This innovative process gathers two heat sources: an arc source developed by a MIG torch and a pre-located laser source. This coupling improves the efficiency of the process, the weld bead quality and the final deformations. The Level-Set approach for the modelling of this process enables the prediction of the weld bead development and the temperature field evolution. The simulation of the multi-passes welding of a 18MnNiMo5 steel grade is detailed and the results are compared to the experimental observations.

  4. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    . Developing a Hegelian inspired historical-sociological approach this paper however argues that national and transnational societies emerged simultaneously and in a co-evolutionary and mutually supportive fashion. In most European settings national societies did not become the central horizon of individuals...... of the European steel industry....

  5. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  6. Comparision of Incidental Reflection From Containerized Maintenance/Housekeeping Solutions and One Inch of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); MacQuigg, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids which will be analyzed as water that may be present under normal conditions of an operation. The reactivity worth is compared to the reactivity worth due to I-inch of close-fitting 4n water reflection and I-inch of close-fitting radial water reflection. Both have been used to bound incidental reflection by 2-liter bottles in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that, when the maintenance/housekeeping fluids are containerized the reactivity increase from a configuration which is bounding of normal conditions (up to eight bottles modeled with 2-liters of solution at varying diameter) is bound by I-inch of close fitting 4n water relection.

  7. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  8. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  9. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  10. The thickness of glaciers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vokey, Marshall W

    2015-01-01

    Basic formulae and results of glacier physics appearing in glaciology textbooks can be derived from first principles introduced in algebra-based first year physics courses. We discuss the maximum thickness of alpine glaciers and ice sheets and the relation between maximum thickness and length of an ice sheet. Knowledge of ordinary differential equations allows one to derive also the local ice thickness. (paper)

  11. The thickness of glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vokey, Marshall W.

    2015-09-01

    Basic formulae and results of glacier physics appearing in glaciology textbooks can be derived from first principles introduced in algebra-based first year physics courses. We discuss the maximum thickness of alpine glaciers and ice sheets and the relation between maximum thickness and length of an ice sheet. Knowledge of ordinary differential equations allows one to derive also the local ice thickness.

  12. Pitting corrosion behaviour of diamond coated tool steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijnsters, J.G.; Rao, R.V.S.; Shankar, P.; Enckevort, W.J.P. van; Schermer, J.J.; Gebert, A.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2005-01-01

    Using a hot filament chemical vapour deposition reactor, diamond films of approximately 2-3 mum in thickness were deposited on tool steel specimens with three different interlayer systems, namely CrN, Si and borided steel. The morphology, defect densities and residual stresses of the diamond films

  13. Evaluation of 3 Inch SN-219 Failure and S and SX Tank Farm Saltwell Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSEN, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of direct buried piping currently in use or designated for future Saltwell pumping in S and SX Farms. Documented evaluation of failed S-103 saltwell pumping transfer line 3 inch SN-219. This evaluation is intended to reflect current status of Saltwell piping, when taken in context with referenced documents

  14. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended

  15. Interim results: fines recycle testing using the 4-inch diameter primary graphite burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.

    1975-05-01

    The results of twenty-two HTGR primary burner runs in which graphite fines were recycled pneumatically to the 4-inch diameter pilot-plant primary fluidized-bed burner are described. The result of the tests showed that zero fines accumulation can easily be achieved while operating at plant equivalent burn rates. (U.S.)

  16. Influence of the Microstructure of the Corrosion Performance of DP Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farias Moreno, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Weight reduction of car bodies can be achieved by application of steel components with a lower thickness; however mechanical properties (for constructive and safety reasons) must be maintained, which can be achieved by using (U)HSS steels. These steels have been designed and optimized for improved

  17. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  18. Thermomechanical history measurements on Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; Turpin, R.; West, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal and strain histories were recorded for three 40-cm-diameter (16 inch), Type 304L stainless steel (SS), schedule 40 (1.27 cm thickness) pipe girth welds. Two weld groove preparations were standard V grooves while the third was a narrow groove configuration. The welding parameters for the three pipe welds simulated expected field practice as closely as possible. The narrow gap weld was completed in four continuous passes while the other two welds required six and nine (discontinuous) passes, due to the use of different weld wire diameters. Thermomechanical history measurements were taken on the inner counterbore surface, encompassing the weld centerline and heat-affected zone (HAZ), as well as 10 cm of inner counterbore surface on either side of the weld centerline; a total of 47 data acquisition instruments were used for each weld. These instruments monitored: (1) weld shrinkages parallel to the pipe axis; (2) surface temperatures; (3) surface strains parallel to weld centerline; and (4) radial deformations. Results show that the weld and HAZ experienced cyclic deformation in the radial direction during welding, indicating that the final residual stress distribution in multi-pass pipe weldments is not axisymmetric. Measured radial and axial deformations were smaller for the narrow gap groove than for the standard V grooves, suggesting that the narrow gap groove weldment may have lower residual stress levels than the standard V groove weldments. This study provides the experimental database and a guideline for further computational modeling work

  19. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method by using computer code ANSYS was employed to determine plastic collapse load. By comparing the results with uniform thickness assumption, a reduction factor was.

  20. Constructing kinetics fatigue diagrams using testing results obtained on a machine with rigid loading for specimens of various thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simin'kovich, V.N.; Gladkij, Ya.N.; Deev, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Bending tests of 40KhS steel specimens, tempered at 200 and 500 deg C, are conducted to investigate the possible effects of specimen thickness on fatigue crack growth. Kinetic fatigue diagrams are constructed using the investigation results. An increase in crack growth with thickness is observed only in high-tempered specimens. Changes in specimen thickness do not affect crack growth in 40KhS low-tempered steel [ru

  1. Thickness evaluation using a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Kim, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracies in the thickness evaluation using radiography, a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness has been proposed, and experimental verification of the proposed relationship was carried out by using the X- and γ-ray radiographs of two carbon steel step wedges. A new parameter, the logarithmic gradient of film density, was defined in order to express the characteristics of the radiographic film for wider range of film density. A new relationship between the film density and the penetrated thickness were formulated using the logarithmic gradient of the film density. In experiment, the logarithmic gradient of the film density was independent on both the exposure and the film density and measured for the radiographic film used in the present work from the slope of the fitting lines for the same penetrated thickness. Experimental results verifies the accuracy of the proposed relationship between film density and the penetrated thickness for the range of film density from 1.0 to 3.5. The thickness can be more accurately determined by using the proposed relationship and the parameters determined by experiment. It is also found that the γ-ray having simple energy spectrum is more appropriate radiation source for the evaluation of the thickness from the film density of the radiograph

  2. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  3. Fabrication of 0.5-inch diameter FBR mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Benecke, M.W.; McCord, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Large diameter (0.535 inch) mixed oxide fuel pellets for Fast Breeder Reactor application were successfully fabricated by the cold-press-and-sinter technique. Enriched UO 2 , PuO 2 -UO 2 , and PuO 2 -ThO 2 compositions were fabricated into nominally 90% theoretical density pellets for the UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 compositions, and 88% and 93% T.D. for the PuO 2 -ThO 2 compositions. Some processing adjustments were required to achieve satisfactory pellet quality and density. Furnace heating rate was reduced from 200 to 50 0 C/h for the organic binder burnout cycle for the large, 0.535-inch diameter pellets to eliminate pellet cracking during sintering. Additional preslugging steps and die wall lubrication during pressing were used to eliminate pressing cracks in the PuO 2 -ThO 2 pellets

  4. Health physics challenges involved with opening a "seventeen-inch" concrete waste vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick T; Pizzulli, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the various activities involved with opening a sealed legacy "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault and the health physics challenges and solutions employed. As part of a legacy waste stream that was removed from the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault labeled 1-95 was moved to the new Waste Management Facility for ultimate disposal. Because the vault contained 239Pu foils with a total activity in excess of the transuranic waste limits, the foils needed to be removed and repackaged for disposal. Conventional diamond wire saws could not be used because of facility constraints, so this project relied mainly on manual techniques. The planning and engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to open the vault and remove the waste while keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  5. A Novel Heat Treatment Process for Surface Hardening of Steel: Metal Melt Surface Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-sheng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiaowei; Li, Jiehua; Li, Jun; Xia, Mingxu; Li, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    A novel heat treatment process for surface hardening of steel has been demonstrated and named as "metal melt surface hardening (MMSH)." A surface layer with a thickness of about 400 μm and a hardness of about 700 HV has been achieved by ejecting AISI 304 stainless steel melt at a temperature of about 1783 K (1510 °C) onto the 40Cr steel surface. This proposed MMSH provides a very promising application for surface hardening of steel.

  6. Schlesinger's Telescope: A Brief History of the Yale 26-inch Refractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Altena, W. F.; Hoffleit, E. D.

    2003-08-01

    Frank Schlesinger began planning for the establishment of a southern observatory when he arrived at Yale in 1920. After discussing the possibility of a location in Auckland, New Zealand and gathering site survey observations for a four-month period, he decided to select a site in Johannesburg, South Africa. A large photographically corrected 26-inch objective was ground, polished and completed by James McDowell in 1923, while the telescope was built largely in the Yale shops in New Haven. Schlesinger left New Haven in 1924 with the lens, and the telescope followed shortly thereafter. Installation of the 26-inch refractor was completed in early June and dedicated by the Prince of Wales on June 22, 1924. The principal observational program for the 26-inch refractor was the determination of parallaxes of the bright stars and it was continued until 1952, when the telescope was moved to Mt. Stromlo due to the deteriorating sky conditions in Johannesburg. The parallax program continued at Mt. Stromlo until 1963 when the telescope was donated to the Commonwealth Observatory and the Yale-Columbia project moved to Argentina, Columbia having joined with Yale in 1943. Approximately 70,000 plates were taken with the refractor for the parallax programs and about 2,000 stellar parallaxes determined. The Schlesinger 26-inch refractor was destroyed by a firestorm on January 18, 2003, along with the other telescopes on Mount Stromlo, the workshop, library and many of the residences. This event was a sad ending to a telescope that played a major role in defining our knowledge of the distances, motions and masses of the brighter stars during the first half of the 20th century.

  7. Design of a 18F production system at ORNL 86-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, M.C.; Barreto, F.; Datesh, J.R.; Goldstein, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    A target system for the production of 18 F by proton bombardment of H 2 18 O was designed for the ORNL 86-inch cyclotron facility. The system consists of concentric titanium and aluminum cylinders. Oxygen-18-enriched H 2 O circulates through the inner titanium cylinder and through an external heat exchanger with cooling water flowing in the annulus. Yields of 5.0 curies are expected for a 250-μA proton beam current and 24-min irradiation time

  8. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corrosion is a long-term, inevitable process, lessens the thickness and load carrying capacity of structures. Old steel structures are more vulnerable to buckling, yielding and fracture due to corrosion. In lieu of a detailed analysis, average thickness assumption is employed for general type of corrosion. However, the ...

  9. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steel plate that has been exposed to corrosive environments exhibits characteristically irreg- ular surfaces and one ... Maximum thickness diminution is assumed as the extreme largest corrosion depth and minimum thickness ... to measure ordinates of corroded plates in all possible environment-structure systems in order to ...

  10. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed underwater cutting technique for 4.2 mm thick zircaloy pressure tubes and up to 6 mm thick steel using fibre-coupled 250 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This underwater cutting technique will be highly useful in various nuclear applications as well as in dismantling/repair of ship and pipe lines ...

  11. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  12. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  13. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  15. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center's 14 X 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A.

    1994-01-01

    A history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) George C. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 14 x 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel is presented. Its early and continuing role in the United States space program is shown through highlights of the tunnel's history and the major programs tested in the tunnel over the past 40 years. The 14-Inch Tunnel has its beginning with the Army in the late 1950's under the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA). Such programs as the Redstone, Jupiter, Pershing, and early Saturn were tested in the 14-Inch Tunnel in the late 1950's. America's first launch vehicle, the Jupiter C, was designed and developed using the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel. Under NASA, the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel has made large contributions to the Saturn, Space Transportation System, and future launch vehicle programs such as Shuttle-C and the National Launch System. A technical description of the tunnel is presented for background information on the type and capabilities of the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel. The report concludes in stating: the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel as in speed of sound; transonic, at or near the speed of sound the past, will continue to play a large but unseen role in he development of America's space program.

  16. Properties of 8-inch photomultiplier tubes for a large volume imaging water Cerenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehler, Ch.

    1996-01-01

    In the Institut fuer Kernphysik I conceptional studies for a possible succession project for the KARMEN-ν-detector are performed. This design studies propose to build a large volume 1300 t imaging water Cerenkov detector. The main goal of this experiment will be the investigation of ν-e - -scattering in the medium energy range up to 50 MeV. The sensitive surface of this detector will be instrumented with about 3000 8-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMT) providing a coverage of 20%. In the framework of this detector design, studies of the properties of hemispherical 8-inch phototubes have been investigated in this work. The topic was to optimise the quality of the important PMT properties like time- and energy-resolution which are crucial to achieve the required spatial and angular resolutions. A second task of this work was to construct a test facility for the PMT, with the possibility to test large quantities. Monte Carlo calculations show that the required detector resolutions of σ E /E(E e ≤50 MeV)=5.2%+47%/√E, σ t (E e ∼30 MeV)=0.6 ns, σ x (E e ∼30 MeV)=13 cm, σ Θ (E e ∼30 MeV)=20 , can be achieved if the phototubes have a transit-time spread less than 1 ns. Up to now, two different 8-inch tubes are available and have been tested, the HAMAMATSU R5912 and the EMI 9353. (orig.)

  17. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Photometric Typing Analyses of Three Young Supernovae with the Robotic Palomar 60-Inch Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, Anne M.; Fox, Derek B.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Moon, Dae-Sik; Harrison, Fiona A.

    2004-01-01

    We present photometric typing analyses of three young supernovae observed with the Robotic 60-inch Telescope at Palomar Observatory (P60). This represents the first time that such photo-typing has been attempted, in a blind fashion, on newly-discovered supernovae. For one of the target supernovae, SN2004cs, our photometry provided the first constraint on the SN type, which we predicted would be type Ia. To the contrary, however, our subsequent Keck spectroscopy shows it to be an unusual type ...

  19. Nanomanipulation of 2 inch wafer fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.; Eichhorn, Volkmar; Carlson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are typically defined by electron beam lithography (EBL), and hence limited to small areas due to the low throughput. To obtain wafer‐scale fabrication we propose large area thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A 2‐inch stamp master is defined using EBL for subsequent......, efficient production of wafer‐scale/larger arrays of CNTs has been achieved. The CNTs have been deposited by wafer‐scale plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of C2H2/NH3. Substrates containing such nanotubes have been used to automate nanorobotic manipulation sequences of individual CNTs...

  20. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

  1. The 88-Inch Cyclotron: A One-Stop Facility for Electronics Radiation and Detector Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kireeff Covo, M.; Albright, R. A.; Ninemire, B. F.; Johnson, M. B.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Benitez, J. Y.; Todd, D. S.; Xie, D. Z.; Perry, T.; Phair, L.; Bernsteiny, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Harasty, M.; Harrig, K. P.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.; Bushmaker, A.; Walker, D.; Oklejas, V.; Hopkins, A. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Chen, J.; Cronin, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    In outer space down to the altitudes routinely flown by larger aircrafts, radiation can pose serious issues for microelectronics circuits. The 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a sector-focused cyclotron and home of the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects Facility, where the effects of energetic particles on sensitive microelectronics are studied with the goal of designing electronic systems for the space community. This paper describes the flexibility of the facility and its capabilities for testing the bombardment of electronics by heavy ions, light ions, and neutrons. Experimental capabilities for the generation of neutron beams from deuteron breakups and radiation testing of carbon nanotube field effect transistor will be discussed.

  2. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Thermomechanical and Heat Hardening of Building Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odesskii, P. D.; Rudchenko, A. V.; Shabalov, I. P.

    2005-03-01

    Hardening treatment of steels used in welded metal structures like steelwork of industrial and civil buildings, towers, poles, reservoirs, railway bridge girders, cranes, construction machines, truck bodies, etc. is considered. The structures mentioned are produced from rolled stock supplied by metallurgy in an annual amount of tens of million of tons. In the first turn these are plates, shapes, rolled bars and sections, and pipes with different wall thickness and cross section. A classification of steels for metallic structures with respect to chemical composition and microstructure is presented.

  4. High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, we will transition MicroLink's 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable...

  5. Stand Development 25 Years after a 9.0-inch Diameter-Limit First Cutting In Appalachian Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; N. I. Lamson

    1977-01-01

    This report is a case history of stand development 25 years after a 9.0-inch diameter-limit cutting in a primarily second growth 40- to 45-year-old Appalachian hardwood stand. Some old residual trees from the early 1900 logging era were scattered throughout the stand. In 1950, a 9.0-inch diameter-limit cutting removed 8,650 board feet per acre and reduced the basal...

  6. Correlation Between Shear Punch and Tensile Strength for Low-Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi, R.; Sadeghi, M.

    2013-02-01

    The deformation behavior of AISI 1015 low-carbon steel, and AISI 304 stainless steel sheets was investigated by uniaxial tension and the shear punch test (SPT). Both materials were cold rolled to an 80% thickness reduction and subsequently annealed in the temperature range 25-850 °C to produce a wide range of yield and ultimate strength levels. The correlations between shear punch and tensile yield and ultimate stresses were established empirically. Different linear relationships having different slopes and intercepts were found for the low-carbon and stainless steel sheets, and the possible parameters affecting the correlation were discussed. It was shown that, within limits, yield and tensile strength of thin steel sheets can be predicted from the shear data obtained by the easy-to-perform SPT.

  7. A new alignment procedure for the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Booth, John A.; Doss, David; Loubser, Egan; O'Connor, James E.; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Worters, Hannah L.

    2016-07-01

    Considerable effort has gone into improving the performance and reliability of the SAAO's 74-inch telescope. This included replacing the telescope encoders, refining the pointing model and increasing the telescope throughput. The latter involved re-aluminising the primary and formulating a procedure to ensure optimal alignment of the telescope mirrors. To this end, we developed the necessary hardware and techniques to ensure that such alignment is achieved and maintained, particularly following re-aluminising of the mirrors. In essence, the procedure involves: placing a Taylor Hobson Alignment Telescope on the mechanical rotation axis of the 74-inch (which we define to be the optical axis, since the Cassegrain instruments attach to the associated turntable), then adjusting the tip/tilt of the secondary mirror to get it onto that axis and, lastly, adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to eliminate coma. An eyepiece (or wavefront camera) is installed at the Cassegrain port for this final step since comatic star images indicate the need to tip/tilt the primary mirror to align it to the secondary. Tuning out any brightness gradients seen in an out-of-focus image of a bright star may also be used for feedback when adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to null coma.

  8. A PROTOTYPE FOUR INCH SHORT HYDRIDE (FISH) BED AS A REPLACEMENT TRITIUM STORAGE BED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.; Shanahan, K.; Heung, L.

    2011-02-23

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi{sub 4.15}Al{sub 0.85} material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  9. Artist autonomy in a digital era: The case of Nine Inch Nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2009 presentation by Michael Masnick (CEO and founder of insight company Floor64 entitled ‘How Trent Reznor and Nine Inch Nails represent the Future of the Music Business’ brought the success of the business models employed by Reznor in distributing Nine Inch Nails’ music into the spotlight. The present review provides a comprehensive timeline of the band circa 2005-2010, evaluating the success of the distribution methods employed in accordance with Masnick’s (2009 proposed business model of connecting with fans and providing them with a reason to buy. The model is conceptualised in the wider context in which Reznor’s distribution methods take place (including a brief consideration of Radiohead’s much cited pay-what-you- want model, addressing the perceived gaps in the model by exploring the involvement of musical preferences; age and consumer purchasing behavior and fan worship. Implications are discussed concerning the applicability of the model for new and emerging bands.

  10. Separation Efficiency of Nagar Parker China Clay Using Two Inch Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani Pathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance efficiency of two inch hydrocyclone has been investigated, using the Nagar Parker china clay. Raw china clay was initially washed with tap water and -75 ?m size fraction was separated through wet sieving. Washed china clay of -75 ?m was used as feed sample in hydrocyclone tests. Solids concentration in slurry was kept as 2.5%. 45 tests were conducted with different combinations of pressure, vortex finder and spigot. Three sizes of spigot viz. 3.2, 2.2 and 1.5mm and three sizes of vortex finder viz. 7.00, 5.5 and 3.00mm were used. Hydrocyclone rig was operated at five different pressures viz. 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 psi in conjunction with various combinations of vortex finder and spigot. Laser light scattering technique was used for particle size analysis of O/F (Overflow and U/F (Underflow products. Separation efficiency of the hydrocyclone, for various combinations of Vortex Finder, Spigot and operating pressure, was determined for two size fractions, i.e. less than ten micron and less than twenty micron, present in O/F and U/F products. From the results it was concluded that the best separation efficiency of 2 inch hydrocyclone is achieved by using the vortex finder of 7.0mm size and spigot of 1.5mm size. It was also concluded that the separation efficiency of the hydrocyclone decreases by increasing the pressure.

  11. Thickness measurement by using cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Chul; Yoon, Chan Hoon; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Jong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic thickness measurement is a non-destructive method to measure the local thickness of a solid element, based on the time taken for an ultrasound wave to return to the surface. When an element is very thin, it is difficult to measure thickness with the conventional ultrasonic thickness method. This is because the method measures the time delay by using the peak of a pulse, and the pulses overlap. To solve this problem, we propose a method for measuring thickness by using the power cepstrum and the minimum variance cepstrum. Because the cepstrums processing can divides the ultrasound into an impulse train and transfer function, where the period of the impulse train is the traversal time, the thickness can be measured exactly. To verify the proposed method, we performed experiments with steel and, acrylic plates of variable thickness. The conventional method is not able to estimate the thickness, because of the overlapping pulses. However, the cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing that divides a pulse into an impulse and a transfer function can measure the thickness exactly.

  12. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  13. Strengthening Circular Holesin Web of Steel I-Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Wafi Ali Al-Thabhawee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of making circular hole in web of existing steel I-beam on stiffness response and Ultimate Load Capacity (ULC in addition how to strengthen this hole using steel ring stiffener. The experimental investigation has focused on testing four steel I-beam cases under concentrated point loads. The first one was tested steel I-beam with solid web as a reference (Control case and the other three specimens were tested by making circular hole in web of steel I-beam without and with steel ring stiffeners. The experimental results demonstrate that the ULC and stiffness of steel I-beams significantly decrease with making a hole in web. Accordant of experimental work, it can be noted that behavior of steel I-beam with stiffening opening web using steel ring is satisfactory agreement with behavior of steel I-beam with solid web ( before cutting hole. To simulate the experimental cases, the nonlinear finite element model (NFEM using ANSYS ver.11 software was adopted in this study. The numerical resultsof load-deflection response and distribution stress along the examined beams have been compared with experimental tests. In general, good agreement between the (NFEM and experimental results has been obtained. The purposed of NFEM has been done for implementation a parametric study to investigate the effects of three parameters: size, location of opening web and thickness of stiffener steel ring. It was found that the ULC of steel I-beam with opening web dropped almost linearly with the increase in hole diameter of web at ratio of diameter hole to beam depth (D/H greater than (0.5. Therefore, it can be recommended to usesteel ring stiffeners to strengthen steel I-beam with opening web which have diameter greater than half depth of this beam (0.5H.

  14. Ultra clean steel for advanced linepipe applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckhaus, R.; Lachmund, H. [AG der Dillinger Huttenwerke, Dillingen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The grade of steel produced at the Dillinger Hutte (DH) steel plant in Germany ranges from regular to high strength structural steel for marine engineering, boiler making, crane construction and linepipe for offshore applications. In 2004, microalloyed steel grades represented nearly 66 per cent of the total production, while non alloyed graded steel had a share of 17 per cent, followed by 14 per cent for hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) resistant steel grades for use in sour gas pipelines. Several major investments have been made at the DH steel plant since the late 1990s to guarantee the highest standard of production facilities. The main units in the plant are the hot metal desulphurization unit, two 185 t BOF converters, 3 ladle stirring and alloying units, 3 tank degassers and a single unit and twin vessel VOD. The BOF process has been optimized by a newly developed lime addition process and by variations in lance tip geometry. The 3 state-of-the-art VOD tank degassers at the DH steel plant make it possible to achieve the metallurgical requirements for low content sulphur, nitrogen and hydrogen. Three continuous vertical bending, solid core casting machines improve the already high levels of cleanliness. The vertical part assures maximum cleanliness after solidification and before bending. A 400 mm thick slab can be produced with model controlled dynamic soft reduction. The accurate alignment of the casters assures that segregation and microporosity are minimized. In addition, special cooling, bending and straightening methods are used to eliminate surface and internal cracks. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Enhancement of Stainless Steel's Mechanical Properties via Carburizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Alias, S. K.; Abdullah, B.; Hafiz Mohd Bakri, Mohd.; Hafizuddin Jumadin, Muhammad; Mat Shah, Muhammad Amir

    2016-11-01

    Carburizing process is a method to disperse carbon into the steel surface in order to enhance its mechanical properties such as hardness and wear resistance. This paper study investigates the effect of carburizing temperature to the carbon dispersion layer in stainless steel. The standard AISI 304 stainless steel was carburized in two different temperatures which were 900°C and 950°C. The effect of carbon dispersion layers were observed and the results indicated that the increasing value of the average dispersion layer from 1.30 mm to 2.74 mm thickness was found to be related to increment of carburizing holding temperature . The increment of carbon thickness layer also resulted in improvement of hardness and tensile strength of carburized stainless steel.

  16. Trends in steel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants

  17. Experimental investigations on steel-concrete composite columns for varying parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, V.; Vivek, D.; Neelima, Kancharla; Karthikeyan, B.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the experimental investigations on steel tubes filled with different types of concrete are presented. Steel tubes filled with fibre reinforced concrete using lathe waste and steel tube with concerned confined with steel mesh were investigated. The combinations were compared with steel tubes with conventional concrete. A total of 4 concrete filled steel tube (CFST) combinations were made with tubes of diameter 100 mm with wall thickness 1.6 mm and a height of 300 mm. Axial compression test to examine the resisting capacity of the columns and push-out test for noting the bond strength were performed. Coupon tests were also conducted to determine the mechanical properties of steel. The structural behaviour of the composite columns was evaluated from on the test results. It was observed that steel tube filled fibre reinforced possessed better bond strength and resistance to axial load.

  18. Revisited the mathematical derivation wall thickness measurement of pipe for radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, A.R.; Amir, S.M.M. [Non Destructive Testing(NDT) Group, Industrial Technology Div., Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2007-07-01

    Wall thickness measurement of pipe is very important of the structural integrity of the industrial plant. However, the radiography method has an advantage because the ability of penetrating the insulated pipe. This will have economic benefit for industry. Moreover, the era of digital radiography has more advantages because the speed of radiographic work, less exposure time and no chemical used for film development. Either the conventional radiography or digital radiology, the wall thickness measurement is using the tangential radiography technique (TRT). In case, of a large diameter, pipe (more than inches) the determination maximum penetration wall thickness must be taken into the consideration. This paper is revisited the mathematical derivation of the determination of wall thickness measurement based on tangential radiography technique (TRT). The mathematical approach used in this derivation is the Pythagoras theorem and geometrical principles. In order to derive the maximum penetration wall thickness a similar approach is used. (authors)

  19. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  20. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 0.80-1.40 1.35/1.65. Phosphorus 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.035 max 0.04 max. Sulfur 0.05... Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus. (c) Identification of material. Material must... not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination. (l) Acceptable results for...

  1. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, V.; Weiss, A.; Vizel, A.; Ran, E.; Aizik, F.

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH) armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile's core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  2. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  3. Response of steel box columns in fire conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yahyai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of elevated temperatures on the mechanical properties of steel, brings the importance of investigating the effect of fire on the steel structures anxiously. Columns, as the main load-carrying part of a structure, can be highly vulnerable to the fire. In this study, the behavior of steel gravity columns with box cross section exposed to fire has been investigated. These kinds of columns are widely used in common steel structures design in Iran. In current study, the behavior of such columns in fire conditions is investigated through the finite element method. To perform this, the finite element model of a steel column which has been previously tested under fire condition, was prepared. Experimental loading and boundary conditions were considered in the model and was analyzed. Results were validated by experimental data and various specimens of gravity box columns were designed according to the Iran’s steel buildings code, and modeled and analyzed using Abaqus software. The effect of width to thickness ratio of column plates, the load ratio and slenderness on the ultimate strength of the column was investigated, and the endurance time was estimated under ISO 834 standard fire curve. The results revealed that an increase in width to thickness ratio and load ratio leads to reduction of endurance time and the effect of width to thickness ratio on the ultimate strength of the column decreases with temperature increase.

  4. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  5. Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J.; Glasgow, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 16 O 8+ . Total external intensities of these beams range from 10 12 particles/s for 6 Li 3+ to 0.1 particles/s for 16 O 8+ . Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed

  6. LOFT transient thermal analysis for 10 inch primary coolant blowdown piping weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    A flaw in a weld in the 10 inch primary coolant blowdown piping was discovered by LOFT personnel. As a result of this, a thermal analysis and fracture mechanics analysis was requested by LOFT personnel. The weld and pipe section were analyzed for a complete thermal cycle, heatup and Loss of Coolant Experiment (LOCE), using COUPLE/MOD2, a two-dimensional finite element heat conduction code. The finite element representation used in this analysis was generated by the Applied Mechanics Branch. The record of nodal temperatures for the entire transient was written on tape VSN=T9N054, and has been forwarded to the Applied Mechanics Branch for use in their mechanical analysis. Specific details and assumptions used in this analysis are found in appropriate sections of this report

  7. Development and characterization of a CCD camera system for use on six-inch manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logory, L.M.; Bell, P.M.; Conder, A.D.; Lee, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed, constructed, and fielded a compact CCD camera system for use on the Six Inch Manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages on all active SIM-based diagnostics. The unit's electronic package is constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity using proprietary printed circuit board technology, thus reducing the size of the overall camera and improving its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova laser target chamber. The camera has been calibrated and found to yield a linear response, with superior dynamic range and signal-to-noise levels as compared to T-Max 3200 optic film, while providing real-time access to the data. Limiting factors related to fielding such devices on Nova will be discussed, in addition to planned improvements of the current design

  8. The thickness effects of the side-grooved CCT specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kenji; Kikuchi, Masanori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    J IC tests were carried out on SUS 316 steel by means of the JSME R-curve method as well as the JSME stretched-zone width (SZW) method. The effects of side-grooves on the J in value at the onset of stable crack growth were investigated using CCT specimens of two thicknesses (B = 1 mm and 2 mm). The ratio of the net thickness to the gross thickness was maintained at 0.5. The J in values of the side-grooved CCT specimens of both thicknesses were considerably smaller than those of the 1 TCT specimen. The J in value of the side-grooved specimen of 2 mm thickness was smaller than that of the standard CCT specimen. Further, as the thickness of the specimen became thinner, the J in value decreased. In the case of 1 mm-thick CCT specimens with or without a side-groove, the contraction percentage of thickness was very large so that it was not appropriate to use these specimens for the fracture toughness test. In the case of the thin or side-grooved CCT specimens, the J-value, which is evaluated from the load versus displacement curve using Rice's formula, cannot estimate the J-integral at the central part of the specimen. Therefore, a J-integral estimation method would have to be established using 3-D elastic-plastic analysis. (author)

  9. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  10. Martensitic — Ferritic steels and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prnka, T.; Mazanets, K.; Zil'bernagel', A.

    1981-07-01

    Biphase low-carbon low-alloy steels (0.065-0.13% C, 1-2% Mn, 0.3-1.5% Si, 0.5% Cr, with 0.1% V or 0.1-0.4% Mo) are presently used in the form of strips up to 10 mm thick for parts manufactured by cold pressing (automobile parts such as disks and wheel rims).

  11. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  12. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  13. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  14. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  15. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  16. Gating techniques for ultrasonic thickness testing using flaw detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, P., E-mail: paul@hollowayndt.com [Holloway NDT & Engineering Inc., Georgetown, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidance on settings and methods, in particular the careful use of gating, to ensure accuracy of thickness testing on corroded steel and other metallic components. Specific applications include boiler tubes, tank floors, piping and vessels where the testing is performed from the OD or top surfaces, inspecting for metal loss due to corrosion on the opposite side. (author)

  17. Advanced gamma spectrum processing technique applied to the analysis of scattering spectra for determining material thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Duc Tam; VNUHCM-University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Huynh Dinh Chuong; Tran Thien Thanh; Vo Hoang Nguyen; Hoang Thi Kieu Trang; Chau Van Tao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an advanced gamma spectrum processing technique is applied to analyze experimental scattering spectra for determining the thickness of C45 heat-resistant steel plates. The single scattering peak of scattering spectra is taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of single scattering photons. Based on these results, the thickness of steel plates is determined with a maximum deviation of real thickness and measured thickness of about 4 %. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP5 code is also performed to cross check the results, which yields a maximum deviation of 2 %. These results strongly confirm the capability of this technique in analyzing gamma scattering spectra, which is a simple, effective and convenient method for determining material thickness. (author)

  18. The retention of iodine in stainless steel sample lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.J.; Deir, C. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Ball, J.M. [Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    Following an accident in a multi-unit CANDU nuclear generating station, decontamination of air vented from containment would play a critical role in minimizing the release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of gas phase iodine in containment air would be measured using the post accident radiation monitoring system, requiring that air samples be passed through a considerable length of tubing to a remote location where the desired measurements could safely be made. A significant loss of iodine, due to adsorption on the sample line surfaces, could greatly distort the measurement. In this study, the retention of I{sub 2}(g) on stainless steel was evaluated in bench scale experiments in order to evaluate, and if possible minimise, the extent of any such line losses. Experiments at the University of Toronto were performed using 6 inch lengths of 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing. Air, containing I-131 labelled I{sub 2}(g), ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} mol/dm{sup 3} and relative humidity (:RH) from 20 to 90 %, was passed through tubing samples maintained at temperatures ranging from 25 to 90{degrees}C. Adsorption at low gas phase iodine concentrations differed substantially from that at higher concentrations. The rate of deposition was proportional to the gas phase concentration, giving support to the concept of a first order deposition velocity. The surface loading increased with increasing relative humidity, particularly at low RH values, while the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. Surface water on the steel may play an important role in the deposition process. The chemisorbed iodine was located primarily in areas of corrosion. Furthermore, water used to wash the steel contained Fe, Mn and iodine in the form of iodide, suggesting that I{sub 2} reacted to form metal iodides. The deposition of I{sub 2} was also found to depend on the initial surface condition.

  19. Dynamic laser piercing of thick section metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-01-01

    Before a contour can be laser cut the laser first needs to pierce the material. The time taken to achieve piercing should be minimised to optimise productivity. One important aspect of laser piercing is the reliability of the process because industrial laser cutting machines are programmed for the minimum reliable pierce time. In this work piercing experiments were carried out in 15 mm thick stainless steel sheets, comparing a stationary laser and a laser which moves along a circular trajectory with varying processing speeds. Results show that circular piercing can decrease the pierce duration by almost half compared to stationary piercing. High speed imaging (HSI) was employed during the piercing process to understand melt behaviour inside the pierce hole. HSI videos show that circular rotation of the laser beam forces melt to eject in opposite direction of the beam movement, while in stationary piercing the melt ejects less efficiently in random directions out of the hole.

  20. Fabrication, testing and analysis of steel/composite DLS adhesive joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nashim, S.; Nisar, J.; Tsouvalis, N.

    2009-01-01

    0/90 WR GFRP and 0/90 UD CFRP laminates and steel. The focus here is on CFRP/steel joint due to availability of test data. The thickness of the outer adherend varies from 3 mm to 6 mm. Shear overlaps of 25-200mm were considered. The overall objectives are (i) to assess the quality of the standard...

  1. Possibility of use small size specimens for toughness evaluation of pressure vessel steels in surveillance programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.; Soulat, P.

    1979-01-01

    In order to caracterize fracture toughness evolution of pressure vessel steels under irradiation, two types of small size specimens able to be introduced in surveillance capsules were studied: small (12.5 mm thick) CT specimens and precracked Charpy. Size effects on determination of J1C on irradiated and unirradiated steel are studied using 12.5 and 25 mm thick CT specimens. Kid is measured using precracked Charpy specimens on several pressure vessels irradiated and unirradiated

  2. Optimum Insulation Thickness for Walls and Roofs for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings in Lahore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBGHA SIDDIQUE SIDDIQUE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is the most effective energy saving measure for cooling in buildings. Therefore, the main subject of many engineering investigations is the selection and determination of the optimum insulation thickness. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness on external walls and roofs is determined based on the peak cooling loads for an existing residential building in Lahore, Pakistan. Autodesk® Revit 2013 is used for the analysis of the building and determination of the peak cooling loads. The analysis shows that the optimum insulation thickness to reduce peak cooling loads up to 40.1% is 1 inch for external walls and roof respectively.

  3. Efficiency, behavior, and clinical properties of superelastic NiTi versus multistranded stainless steel wires: a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Satpal S; Shetty, V Surendra; Mogra, Subraya; Varghese, Joseph; Sandhu, Jasleen; Sandhu, Jagpreet S

    2012-09-01

    To investigate efficiency, behavior, and properties of superelastic NiTi vs multistranded stainless steel wires in Begg and preadjusted edgewise appliance (PEA) under moderate to severe crowding conditions. Ninety-six participants (48 male, 48 female), aged 12-18 years old (mean age  =  15.2 ± 1.95), with moderate (≤ 6 mm; mean  =  5.3 ± 0.48) to severe (> 6 mm; mean  =  7.9 ± 0.66) initial crowding were distributed into four groups: superelastic NiTi PEA (n  =  24), superelastic NiTi Begg (n  =  24), multistranded (coaxial) stainless steel PEA (n  =  25), and multistranded (coaxial) stainless steel Begg (n = 23). In this study, 0.16-inch superelastic (austenitic active) NiTi and 0.175-inch multistranded (six stranded, coaxial) stainless steel wires were used in a 0.022-inch slot (Roth prescription) PEA and Begg appliance with a follow-up of six weeks. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in reduction of crowding between superelastic NiTi PEA and multistranded (coaxial) stainless steel PEA groups, but reduction in crowding was significantly greater in the superelastic NiTi Begg group compared with the multistranded (coaxial) stainless steel Begg group with F (3, 44)  =  8.896, P NiTi performed significantly better than multistranded (coaxial) stainless steel wire in the Begg appliance. However, in PEA, there was no significant difference.

  4. A New Understanding on AC Corrosion of Pipeline Steel in Alkaline Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Du, C. W.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of X80 pipeline steel at various frequencies AC was investigated in carbonate/bicarbonate solution using the polarization curve, EIS test, Mott-Schottky curve and immersion tests. A new understanding on AC corrosion of the steel in alkaline environment is proposed. Decreasing AC frequency negatively shifts the corrosion potential and increases the corrosion rate of steel, as well as corrosion pits occur more readily. The superimposed AC shifts the critical pitting potential negatively and degrades the passivity of the steel. AC reduces the compactness and uniformity of the passive film formed on the steel and increases the possibility of the breakdown of the film, as well decreases the film thickness. The application of AC could prevent the passive film forming on the surface of X80 steel and result in a destructive effect on the film formed on the steel surface, especially at the low-frequency AC.

  5. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  6. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  7. The Berkeley accelerator space effects facility (BASE) - A newmission for the 88-inch cyclotron at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, M.A.

    2005-09-06

    In FY04, the 88-Inch Cyclotron began a new operating mode that supports a local research program in nuclear science, R&D in accelerator technology and a test facility for the National Security Space (NSS) community (the U.S. Air Force and NRO). The NSS community (and others on a cost recovery basis) can take advantage of both the light- and heavy-ion capabilities of the Cyclotron to simulate the space radiation environment. A significant portion of this work involves the testing of microcircuits for single event effects. The experimental areas within the building that are used for the radiation effects testing are now called the Berkeley Accelerator and Space Effects (BASE) facility. Improvements to the facility to provide increased reliability, quality assurance and new capabilities are underway and will be discussed. These include a 16 AMeV ''cocktail'' of beams for heavy ion testing, a neutron beam, more robust dosimetry, and other upgrades.

  8. Design evaluation of the 20-cm (8-inch) secondary burner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing 20-cm (8-inch) engineering-scale secondary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) secondary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype secondary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling subsystems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes internal gas cooling of the burner, retains the existing heating subsystem for design compatibility, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated.

  9. Performance and Flowfield Measurements on a 10-inch Ducted Rotor VTOL UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Preston; Tung, Chee

    2004-01-01

    A ducted fan VTOL UAV with a 10-inch diameter rotor was tested in the US Army 7-by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test conditions covered a range of angle of attack from 0 to 110 degrees to the freestream. The tunnel velocity was varied from 0 (simulating a hover condition) to 128 ft/sec in propeller mode. A six-component internal balance measured the aerodynamic loads for a range of model configurations. including the isolated rotor, the isolated duct, and the full configuration of the duct and rotor. For some conditions, hotwire velocity surveys were conducted along the inner and outer surface of the duct and across the downstream wake. In addition, fluorescent oil flow visualization allowed the flow separation patterns inside and outside of the duct to be mapped for a few test conditions. Two different duct shapes were tested to determine the performance effects of leading edge radius. For each duct, a range of rotor tip gap from 1%R to 4.5%R was tested to determine the performance penalty in hover and axial flight. Measured results are presented in terms of hover performance, hover performance in a crosswind, and high angle of attack performance in propeller mode. In each case, the effects of both tip gap and duct leading edge radius are illustrated using measurements. Some of the hover performance issues were also studied using a simple analytical method, and the results agreed with the measurements.

  10. Experimental performance of an internal resistance heater for Langley 6-inch expansion tube driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heating characteristics of an internal resistance heating element was conducted in the driver of the Langley 6-inch expansion tube to obtain actual operating conditions, to compare these results to theory, and to determine whether any modification need be made to the heater element. The heater was operated in pressurized helium from 138. MN/sq m to 62.1 MN/sq m. This investigation revealed large temperature variations within the heater element caused primarily by area reductions at insulator locations. These large temperature variations were reduced by welding small tabs over all grooves. Previous predictions of heater element and driver gas temperature were unacceptable so new equations were derived. These equations predict element and gas temperature within 10 percent of the test data when either the constant power cycle or the interrupted power cycle is used. Visual observation of the heater element, when exposed to the atmosphere with power on, resulted in a decision to limit the heater element to 815 K. Experimental shock Mach numbers are in good agreement with theory.

  11. Summary of LaRC 2-inch Erectable Joint Hardware Heritage Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Watson, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    As the National Space Transportation System (STS, also known as the Space Shuttle) went into service during the early 1980's, NASA envisioned many missions of exploration and discovery that could take advantage of the STS capabilities. These missions included: large orbiting space stations, large space science telescopes and large spacecraft for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. The missions required structures that were significantly larger than the payload volume available on the STS. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) conducted studies to design and develop the technology needed to assemble the large space structures in orbit. LaRC focused on technology for erectable truss structures, in particular, the joint that connects the truss struts at the truss nodes. When the NASA research in large erectable space structures ended in the early 1990's, a significant amount of structural testing had been performed on the LaRC 2-inch erectable joint that was never published. An extensive set of historical information and data has been reviewed and the joint structural testing results from this historical data are compiled and summarized in this report.

  12. Design evaluation of the 20-cm (8-inch) secondary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing 20-cm (8-inch) engineering-scale secondary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) secondary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype secondary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling subsystems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes internal gas cooling of the burner, retains the existing heating subsystem for design compatibility, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated

  13. Development of the Software for 30 inch Telescope Control System at KHAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, B.-S.; Kim, S.-J.; Jang, M.; Min, S.-W.; Seol, K.-H.; Moon, K.-S.

    2006-12-01

    Even though 30inch optical telescope at Kyung Hee Astronomy Observatory has been used to produce a series of scientific achievements since its first light in 1992, numerous difficulties in the operation of the telescope have hindered the precise observations needed for further researches. Since the currently used PC-TCS (Personal Computer based Telescope Control system) software based on ISA-bus type is outdated, it doesn't have a user friendly interface and make it impossible to scale. Also accumulated errors which are generated by discordance from input and output signals into a motion controller required new control system. Thus we have improved the telescope control system by updating software and modifying mechanical parts. We applied a new BLDC (brushless DC) servo motor system to the mechanical parts of the telescope and developed a control software using Visual Basic 6.0. As a result, we could achieve a high accuracy in controlling of the telescope and use the userfriendly GUI (Graphic User Interface).

  14. Detection of Internal Metal Loss in Steel Pipes and Storage Tanks via Magnetic-Based Fiber Optic Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahmoud, Safieh; Shiryayev, Oleg; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2018-03-08

    A monitoring solution was developed for detection of material loss in metals such as carbon steel using the force generated by permanent magnets in addition to the optical strain sensing technology. The working principle of the sensing system is related to the change in thickness of a steel plate, which typically occurs due to corrosion. As thickness decreases, the magnetostatic force between the magnet and the steel structure also decreases. This, in turn, affects the strain measured using the optical fiber. The sensor prototype was designed and built after verifying its sensitivity using a numerical model. The prototype was tested on steel plates of different thicknesses to establish the relationship between the metal thickness and measured strain. The results of experiments and numerical models demonstrate a strong relationship between the metal thickness and the measured strain values.

  15. Effect of Steel Fibres Distribution on Impact Resistance Performance of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Syamsir, Agusril; Shao Yang, Chen; Beddu, Salmia; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Itam, Zarina; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the effect of the mesh distribution on the impact performance of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced with varied thickness and fraction volume subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at 0.57 m height has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the effect of the mesh distribution on the impact resistance SFRC for various slab thickness and fraction volume. Random fibre distribution is the more effective than the top and bottom fibre distribution in terms of absorption of impact energy, crack resistance, the ability to control crack formation and propagation against impact energy.

  16. The Stress Corrosion Resistance and the Cryogenic Temperature Mechanical Behavior of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33) Stainless Steel Parent and Welded Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion results of 18-3 Mn (Nitronic 33)stainless steel, longitudinal and transverse, as received and as welded (TIG) material specimens manufactured from 0.063 inch thick sheet material, were described. The tensile test results indicate an increase in ultimate tensile and yield strengths with decreasing temperature. The elongation remained fairly constant to -200 F, but below that temperature the elongation decreased to less than 6.0% at liquid hydrogen temperature. The notched tensile strength (NTS) for the parent metal increased with decreasing temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. Below -320 F the NTS decreased rapidly. The notched/unnotched (N/U) tensile ratio of the parent material specimens remained above 0.9 from ambient to -200 F, and decreased to approximately 0.65 and 0.62, respectively, for the longitudinal and transverse directions at liquid hydrogen temperature. After 180 days of testing, only those specimens exposed to the salt spray indicated pitting and some degradation of mechanical properties.

  17. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  18. Behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs with steel fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarimah, A. O.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the potential effect of steel fiber added into reinforced concrete slabs. Four-point bending test is conducted on six slabs to investigate the structural behaviour of the slabs by considering two different parameters; (i) thickness of slab (ii) volume fraction of steel fiber. The experimental work consists of six slabs, in which three slabs are designed in accordance to Eurocode 2 to fulfil shear capacity characteristic, whereas, the other three slabs are designed with 17% less thickness, intended to fail in shear. Both series of slabs are added with steel fiber with a volume fraction of Vf = 0%, Vf = 1% and Vf = 2% in order to study the effect and potential of fiber to compensate the loss in shear capacity. The slab with Vf = 0% steel fiber and no reduction in thickness is taken as the control slab. The experimental result suggests promising improvement of the load carrying capacity (up to 32%) and ductility (up to 87%) as well as delayed in crack propagation for the slabs with Vf = 2%. In addition, it is observed that addition of fibers compensates the reduction in the slab thickness as well as changes the failure mode of the slab from brittle to a more ductile manner.

  19. Overdevelopment tests in steel gammagraphy with cobalt 60 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinotti, C.; Cocoual, N.

    1985-01-01

    In the case of radiographic control of important thickness of steels, rapidity and image quality characteristics of overdeveloped radiographic films have been studied. Conditions have been fixed allowing to get a sensitive reduction of exposition times without modifying the radiogram quality [fr

  20. Towards commercialization of fast gaseous nitrocarburising stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method for fast and versatile low temperature nitrocarburising of stainless steel has recently been invented by the present authors. Selected results obtained with this new surface hardening process are presented. It is shown that it is possible to obtain a case thickness of 20 μm...

  1. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  2. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  3. Ultrahigh Carbon Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Wadsworth, "On the Bulat (Damascus Steels)", Bull. Metals Museum, 4 (1979), pp. 7-23. A 17...34 ’ ." ." ." . .’~.. ." .- .. . .. ,..-.. . . . . -. . . . . .’% ,d ,".. r~~; -W .- & .j2!* . * ~ (8) J. Wadsworth and 0. D. Sherby, "On the Bulat - Damascus Steels Re- visited", Prog. Mater. Sci., 25

  4. The structure of the alphinizing coat on alloy steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of the structure of the coat alphinizing in AlSi5 silumin on alloy steels: acid-proof 1H18N9T (X6CrNiTi18-10 and high speed SW18 (HS18-0-1 were presented. The temperature of the alphinizing bath was amounts to750±5°C, and immersion time of the element τ = 180s. It was shown, that there is the different “g” coat thickness on testing steels. On the 1H18N9T steel it amounts to g = 52μm, and on the SW18 steel – g = 203μm. Regardless of a grade of testing alloy steels the coat consist of three layers with diversified phasic structure. There is different chemical composition of coat layers on testing steels. The first layer from the base consist of AlFe phase containing alloy addictions of steels: Cr and Ni (1H18N9T and W, V and Cr (SW18. On this layer crystallize the second layer of intermetallic phases. It is the phase containing the main alloy addiction of steels: AlFeCr (1H18N9T and AlFeW (SW18. The last, outside layer consist of silumin containing AlFeNi intermetallic phases on the 1H18N9T steel and AlFeW on the SW18 steel. Regardless of the grade of testing steels there is Si element in all layers of the coat. There are morphological differences in tested layers. The second layer (AlFeW phase inside the coat on the SW18 steel consist of faced crystals growing into in outside silumin layer. On the 1H18N9T steel a boundary between transient and outside layer is more uniform. Free separations of intermetallic phases inside silumin layer on the 1H18N9T steel have lamellar and on the SW18 steel – faced form.

  5. Ion nitriding in 316=L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Calderon, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Ion nitriding is a glow discharge process that is used to induce surface modification in metals. It has been applied to 316-L austenitic stainless steel looking for similar benefits already obtained in other steels. An austenitic stainless steel was selected because is not hardenable by heat treatment and is not easy to nitride by gas nitriding. The samples were plastically deformed to 10, 20, 40, 50 AND 70% of their original thickness in order to obtain bulk hardening and to observe nitrogen penetration dependence on it. The results were: an increase of one to two rockwell hardness number (except in 70% deformed sample because of its thickness); an increase of even several hundreds per cent in microhardness knoop number in nitrided surface. The later surely modifies waste resistance which would be worth to quantify in further studies. Microhardness measured in an internal transversal face to nitrided surface had a gradual diminish in its value with depth. Auger microanalysis showed a higher relative concentration rate C N /C F e near the surface giving evidence of nitrogen presence till 250 microns deep. The color metallography etchant used, produced faster corrosion in nitrited regions. Therefore, corrosion studies have to be done before using ion nitrited 316-L under these chemicals. (Author)

  6. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of space shuttle main propulsion feed line 17-inch disconnect valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max; Pearce, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    A steady incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) viscous flow analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion External Tank (ET)/Orbiter (ORB) propellant feed line quick separable 17-inch disconnect flapper valves for liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2). The main objectives of the analysis were to predict and correlate the hydrodynamic stability of the flappers and pressure drop with available water test data. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer codes were procured at no cost from the public domain, and were modified and extended to carry out the disconnect flow analysis. The grid generator codes SVTGD3D and INGRID were obtained. NASA Ames Research Center supplied the flow solution code INS3D, and the color graphics code PLOT3D. A driver routine was developed to automate the grid generation process. Components such as pipes, elbows, and flappers can be generated with simple commands, and flapper angles can be varied easily. The flow solver INS3D code was modified to treat interior flappers, and other interfacing routines were developed, which include a turbulence model, a force/moment routine, a time-step routine, and initial and boundary conditions. In particular, an under-relaxation scheme was implemented to enhance the solution stability. Major physical assumptions and simplifications made in the analysis include the neglect of linkages, slightly reduced flapper diameter, and smooth solid surfaces. A grid size of 54 x 21 x 25 was employed for both the LO2 and LH2 units. Mixing length theory applied to turbulent shear flow in pipes formed the basis for the simple turbulence model. Results of the analysis are presented for LO2 and LH2 disconnects.

  7. Ballistic Behaviour of Tempered Steel Armour Plates under Plane Strain Condition .

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the ballistic behaviour of tempered steel armour plates under plane strain condition at normal angle of attack. A conical-shaped steel projectile of 6.1 mmdiameter was impacted on 20 mm thick steel annour plates of 350, 450 and 550 Hv hardness, in the velocity range 200 -700 m/s at zero obliquity. Ballistic performance measured in terms of the depthof penetration indicates that, under plane strain condition, behavio1Do" f 550 Hv steel plate is better than ...

  8. Behavior of partially defected R.C columns strengthened using steel jackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaban Abdel-Hay

    2015-08-01

    The main parameters studied were the type of steel jacket used and height of partial strengthened part of column. One of the tested specimens was a control specimen and the other six were partially strengthened with different types of steel jackets such as using 4 steel angles at corners connected with straps, using external ties with different spacings, and using 4 steel plates with different thicknesses welded together and connected to column by anchor bolts. Finally, the experimental results were analyzed and compared with results obtained from finite element analysis using ANSYS program.

  9. Microstructure of a 1Cr 1Mo 1/4V Steel after Long Service

    OpenAIRE

    Isao, MASUMOTO; Sivakumaran, WIGNARAJAH; Hiroshi, TSUJIMURA; Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University; Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University; Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University

    1985-01-01

    Following a previous paper which reported significant deterioration in the notch toughness and high temperature strength and ductility of a 1Cr 1Mo 1/4 V cast steel after service in a steam valve for 74,000 hours at 839° K (566℃), this report studies the microstructure of this service exposed steel, comparing it with that of virgin steel. The service exposed steel contained considerably coarser carbides in the matrix and thick elongated films of M_C_6, type carbides were frequently observed o...

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Silanes Films to Protect Electrogalvanized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seré, Pablo R.; Egli, Walter; Di Sarli, Alejandro R.; Deyá, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    Silanes are an interesting alternative to chromate-based surface treatments for temporary protection of electrogalvanized steel. In this work, the protective behavior of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MTMO), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO), or 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO) films applied on electrogalvanized automotive quality steel sheets has been studied. The silane coating morphology, composition, and porosity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray fluorescence, immersion in copper sulfate, and cyclic voltammetry. The corrosion protection was evaluated by polarization curves, electrochemical noise measurements, electrochemical impedance spectrometry, and accelerated humidity chamber tests. The results showed that the silanes protect temporarily electrogalvanized steel from corrosion. MTMO forms a relatively thick and cracked film. AMEO and GLYMO films were so thin that they could not be observed by SEM but silicon was detected by EDS. MTMO provided good temporary protection, being an alternative to replace Cr(VI) as protector of electrogalvanized steel.

  11. Sheet thickness required for protection against the impact of a missile generated by a tornado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prats, F.; Fernandez, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    The tornado generated missiles are classified in three categories: piece of pipe, car and a solid sphere. These missiles can impact class structures outer areas of the plant, possibly causing damage. Specifically, can pierce tanks located within reach class and losing the required integrity of these structures. Therefore, in this paper we review the issue of the required thickness to ensure that no loss of integrity of the tanks. The paper focuses on the evaluation of the required thickness of steel sheets.

  12. Developments in niobium steels for linepipe applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Bergmann, B.; Chaussy, L.

    1982-11-01

    Current niobium containing steels being produced for line pipe applications, developed over the last ten years, demonstrate an excellent respoNse to heavy deformation at low temperatures, which results in an optimum balance of yield strength and toughness. However, it has long been recognized that excessive use of controlled rolling involves production penalties and contributes to the characteristic anisotropy present in rolled products. Thus, changes in rolling procedures would be desirable if they minimized delays or reduced directionality thereby resulting in further improvement of secondary properties, such as through thickness ductility and hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) tendency in sour gas environments. Present steel development is focused on transformation strengthening or increased precipitation hardening. Coupled with the trend to even lower carbon ( [pt

  13. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  14. Development of a noise filter for radiation thickness gagemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, C. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a filter which attenuates sensor noises of radiation thickness gagemeters of the fifth stand of TCM No. 1 in Pohang steel works. The thickness control loop for the fifth stand is modelled as a system for filter design, where the system input is the speed control input and the system output is the gagemeter output. In the design of a filter, the system is described by an ARMAX(AutoRegressive Moving-Average with auXiliary input) model. The parameters of this model are then estimated by using a recursive least square method. Secondly, the ARMAX model, the estimated system, is transformed into an observer canonical state space form. Thirdly, Kalman filtering is applied to obtain optimal estimates of the state and hence those of thickness measurements of steel strips. In addition, a separate low pass filter is designed, which is directly applicable to the gagemeter outputs. Finally, the designed filter algorithms are implemented and tested on a VMEbus board computer under VxWorks real-time operating system. (author)

  15. Design of steel cylindrical tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Hlastec, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the area of steel shell structures. Presented is the design process of steel cylindrical tanks using Eurocode standards. I dealt with the plastic limit states and stability limit state of steel shell structures. A program for the calculation of cylindrical steel tanks for the limit state of strength and stability is made in Matlab. The focus of this work is on understanding the design process of cylindrical steel tanks and creating a computer program in Matlab. Create...

  16. Application of X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF): thickness and chemical composition determination of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a procedure is described for thickness and quantitative chemical composition of thin films by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) using Fundamental Parameters method. This method was validated according to quality assurance standard and applied sample Al, Cr, TiO2, Ni, ZrO2 (single thickness) and Ni/Cr (double thickness) on glass; Ni on steel and metallic zinc and TiO2 on metallic iron (single thickness), all the sample were prepared for physical deposition of vapor (PVD). The thickness had been compared with Absorption (FRX-A) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) methods; the result showed good efficiency of the fundamental parameters method. Sample structural characteristics analyzed by X ray diffraction (XRD) showed any influence in the thickness determinations. (author)

  17. Optimizing Facility Configurations and Operating Conditions for Improved Performance in the NASA Ames 24 Inch Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Cruden, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) is a shock tube wherein the driver gas can be heated by an electric arc discharge. The electrical energy is stored in a 1.2 MJ capacitor bank. Four inch and 24 inch diameter driven tubes are available. The facility is described and the need for testing in the 24 inch tube to better simulate low density NASA mission profiles is discussed. Three test entries, 53, 53B and 59, are discussed. Tests are done with air or Mars gas (95.7% CO2/2.7% N2/1.6% Ar) at pressures of 0.01 to 0.14 Torr. Velocities spanned 6.3-9.2 km/s, with a nominal center of 7 km/s. Many facility configurations are studied in an effort to improve data quality. Various driver and driven tube configurations and the use of a buffer section between the driver and the driven tube are studied. Diagnostics include test times, time histories of the shock light pulses and tilts of the shock wave off the plane normal to the tube axis. The report will detail the results of the various trials, give the best configuration/operating conditions found to date and provide recommendations for further improvements. Finally, diaphragm performance is discussed.

  18. Strength Comparison of Flawed Single-Layer and Multilayer AISI 301 Stainless Steel Pressure Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierce, William

    1965-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the strengths of single-layer and multilayer scale model tanks of AISI 301 stainless steel containing sharp notches and having the same total wall thickness...

  19. To Evaluate the Effect of Steel Strengtheners on Fracture Resistance of Heat Cured Methyl Methacrylic Resin - An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The incorporation of thick steel strengtheners few millimetres apart and perpendicular to anticipated line of fracture will produce significant resistance to flexure and reduce the likelihood of fracture of the acrylic resin denture base.

  20. Tantalum-modified Stellite 6 thick coatings : microstructure and mechanical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnia, A.; Ghaini, F. Malek; Rao, J. C.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Thick Co-based coatings with different contents of tantalum were prepared by simultaneous powder feeding laser cladding technique on 304 stainless steel substrate, with the Ta wt% being 0, 2, 7 and 12. Laser processing was carried out with a continuous 3.3 kW Yt:YAG fiber laser. Microstructural

  1. Evaluation of the map accuracy thickness defects by computer analysis of the radiography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawszczak, J.; Wocial, A.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the sensitivity map radiography for the local profiles of the surface steel plate with artificial of the thickness defects were presented of the paper. Errors of these method estimation and they sources were presented also. Usefulness of this mapping radiography during field investigations for paper and film carriers were discussed and concluded. (author)

  2. Microstresses and microstructure in thick cobalt-based laser deposited coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, U.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    Microstresses in a thick laser clad Co-based coating on steel substrate were investigated with 3D X-ray microscopy using an intense synchrotron microfocused beam. The microstructure was examined with tight microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy

  3. Installation for semiautomatic air-plasma metal cutting up to 6 mm thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejder, B.D.; Tkachev, M.V.; Rozhnov, V.S.; Budakov, A.A.; Shevchuk, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    SA401M2 installation for semiautomatic air-plasma cutting is described. Results of metallographic investigations and gas analysis of cutting edges of low-carbon steel are presented. It is shown that SA401M2 installation provides separation of metal up to 6 mm thickness at 45-85A current when nozzle is resting on a sample

  4. Analysis and discussion on several problems when testing the thickness of reinforcement cover of concrete component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanhua, Zhang; Guiling, Ji; Lijie; Zhaobo, Zhang; Na, Han; Jing, Zhao; Tan, Li; Zhaorui, Liu

    2018-03-01

    Reinforcement cover of concrete component plays a very important role to ensure the durability of various types of structures and the effective anchorage between steel reinforcement and concrete. This paper discusses and analyzes the problems occurred when testing the thickness of reinforcement cover of concrete component, so as to provide reference and help for related work.

  5. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  6. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  7. Metallurgy: Printing steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Iain

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing has been used to fabricate a common stainless steel, which imparts a unique microstructure to this material, making it stronger and more ductile than that produced with conventional methods.

  8. Effect of fluoride mouthwash on tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, D. I.; Anggani, H. S.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Patients with orthodontic treatment are commonly recommended to use a fluoride mouthwash for maintaining their oral hygiene and preventing dental caries. However, fluoride may affect the characteristics of stainless steel orthodontic archwires used during treatment. The effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to know the effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Examine the tensile strength of 0.016 inch stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersion in 0.05%, 100 ml fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min. There is no statistically significant difference in the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersed in fluoride mouthwash. The p-values on immersion fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min consecutively are 0.790; 0.742; and 0.085 (p > 0.05). The use of fluoride mouthwash did not have an effect on the tensile strength of stainless Steel orthodontic archwires.

  9. Study to define NDE research for inspection of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.

    1978-08-01

    After the boiling water reactor (BWR) stress corrosion cracking incidents on 4- and 10-inch stainless steel piping, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) organized a round-robin ultrasonic examination of piping removed from service (TPS-75-609). Five inspection teams participated in this program, using both a standard procedure and the individual team procedure. The original intent was to section the piping after the program to evaluate the effectiveness of state-of-the-art ultrasonics in finding stress corrosion cracking. The sectioning was delayed, however, to allow research and development (R and D) groups time to perform basic measurements aimed at determining optimum search unit and instrument characteristics for the ultrasonic examination of stainless steel piping and to study the applicability of various advanced inspection methods. This additional effort was funded as part of an EPRI technical planning study (TPS-75-620), A Study to Define NDE Research for Inspection of Stainless Steels. Inspection methods evaluated in this study included (1) processing of manual scan data using a miniature programmable calculator (Aerojet Nuclear); (2) investigation into the performance characteristics of three experimental ultrasonic transducers (Battelle-Columbus Laboratories); (3) analysis of fundamental ultrasonic response data from intergranular stress corrosion cracks in stainless steels (Southwest Research Institute); and (4) a feasibility study of advanced signal processing and pattern recognition for analyzing flaws in stainless steel piping (Ultrasonics International). The results of the studies compiled in the report have indicated the direction for future research and development and have formed the basis for the recently initiated EPRI Research Project 892, Ultrasonic System Optimization

  10. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  11. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  12. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    crack growth (FCG) test (ASTM E 647-95a) - square bar specimen of 0.4x0.4x2.8 in. in L-orientation with a Charpy notch at the mid- length for SCC...Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steel by the Increment Loading Technique. Fractography: After the stress-life fatigue tests , the fracture surface morphology...NAWCADPAX/TR-2011/162 HIGH NITROGEN STAINLESS STEEL by E. U. Lee R. Taylor 19 July 2011 Approved for

  13. Ferrium M54 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    coated specimens of Ferrium M54 steel were subjected to electrochemical measurement, microstructure examination, mechanical testing in air, fatigue...counsel on fatigue crack growth testing . NAWCADPAX/TIM-2014/292 1 INTRODUCTION High strength steels developed in the 1940’s and 1950’s... Charpy notch at the mid-length for SCC test under four-point bending (ASTM F 1624) - flat plate specimen of 4 x 4 x 1/8 in. for electrochemical

  14. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  15. Mechanism for selective growth in electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun Jee; Heo, Nam Hoe; Kwon, Se Kyun; Koo, Yang Mo

    2018-01-01

    Through the competitive selective growth process between {100}, {110}, and {111} grains during final annealing which is governed by the primary grain size and the surface segregation concentration of sulfur, the sharp {110} annealing texture can be developed in a C-and Al-free Fe-3%Si-0.1%Mn electrical steel. Generally, the selective growth of the {110} grains occurs actively under the low surface segregation concentration of sulfur. In spite of the surface energy disadvantage, the selective growth of a {hkl} grain can however occur, if the {hkl} grain size is larger than the critical grain size linearly proportional to the strip thickness.

  16. Corrosion of Ultrasonic spot Welded Joints of Magnesium to Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, Michael L.

    Mixed-metal joining, especially between magnesium and steel, is one of the critical technologies in achieving light-weighting vehicle body construction. However, galvanic corrosion between mixed metal joints is inevitable but not well quantified. In this study, 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 was joined to 0.8 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) mild steel by ultrasonic spot welding in lap-shear configuration. No specific corrosion protection was applied in order to study worst-case conditions for corrosion behavior. The approach used an automotive cyclic corrosion test — Ford Arizona Proving Ground Equivalent Corrosion Cycle (APGE), which includes cycles of dipping in a salt bath, air drying, then holding in constant humidity environment. Lap-shear strength of the joints decreased linearly with the exposure cycles. All the joints were either taken out of test cycle for mechanical test or they separated within the humidity chamber before 25th cycle. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Mg(OH)2 deposit in the crevice between the AZ31 and steel sheets and on the surface of the AZ31. The deposit grew thicker with cycles with exerting enough force to deform the AZ31 and HDG steel and causing a gradual opening of joints. The corrosion of the AZ31 was localized and nonuniform. The most severe corrosion occurred not at the intersection of AZ31 and the steel but rather 15-20 mm away from the spot welds.

  17. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-03-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24 in. x 24 in. x 10 in. schedule 160 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. are described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 100 psi and 7000 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 15,084 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  18. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  19. Evaluation of induced defetcs in AISI 304 a steel test pieces using conventional and non conventional ultrasonic inspection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Prato, Edda C

    2006-01-01

    The use of patterns of reference in the evaluation of pieces by non destructive methods, particularly with ultrasonic techniques, is indispensable because the features of this pattern's defects can be correlated with those found in pieces that are in service. In the industry, stainless steels, particularly Type 340 austenitic steels, are widely used in some systems for their excellent mechanical properties in corrosive mediums. But these same pieces may have discontinuities and defects in the welded regions, that occur mainly during production and installation and are also due to subsequent operating conditions. Volumetric inspection techniques reveal the integrity of a material in its thickness and detect internal discontinuities that are not visible on the surface of the piece. Conventional and non conventional ultrasonic techniques are used most often now and among the non conventional techniques is Ultrasonic Spectroscopy [1-2]. Ultrasonic spectroscopy aims to determine the dependence of the properties and characteristics of the material under study with the frequency. These may be geometric in origin (thickness of layers, size, shape and direction of the discontinuity) or inherent (attenuation, dispersion, absorption). The dependence of the frequency is usually connected to some microscopic geometric properties, such as the grain size in polycrystalline materials. In the characterization and detection of discontinuities, the frequency spectrum of an ultrasonic pulse contains information about the shape, size and direction of a discontinuity [1-3]. Therefore, the ultrasonic spectral analysis is very important for the characterization of materials and contributes to the study and evaluation of the ultrasonic signals [4-6]. This study evaluates the behavior of the ultrasonic signals obtained from patterns of welded pieces of AISI 304 stainless steel by using conventional and non conventional methods of ultrasonic inspection. Welded test pieces of AISI 304

  20. Effects of pre-cold work on the intergranular corrosion in HAZ of type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.P.; Hong, J.H.; Chi, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    The annealed specimens and the 10% cold-worked specimens have been welded and the base metal, the HAZ, and the weld metal of each specimen have been cut to measure the corrosion rates according to Practice A through Practice E of ASTM A 262. It is obtained that the corrosion rates of the base metal, the HAZ, and the weld metal in the 65 % boiling nitric acid were 12.11 mpy, 40.25 mpy, and 10.55 mpy respectively for the annealed specimens and 435.21 mpy, 480.72 mpy, and 10.55 mpy respectively for the 10% cold-worked specimens and the HAZ measured from the fusion line of the weld was extended from 4mm to 7mm for the annealed specimens and from 3mm to 6.8mm for the 10% cold-worked specimens in the case of 3.5mm-thick specimens and 25 +-5 KJ/inch of heat input. It has been confirmed through the experiments that: 1. The cold work has an effect reducing sensitization in the HAZ since the ratio of corrosion rate of the HAZ to the base metal of the 10% cold-worked specimens is smaller than that of the annealed specimens. 2. The results can be explained not by the Cr-depletion theory and the electro-chemical theory but by the strain theory, and 3. The sensitization tests of ASTM A 262 can be a method to judge the quality of the austenitic stainless steels

  1. Magnetic properties and recrystallization texture of phosphorus-added non-oriented electrical steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, I.; Yashiki, H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of phosphorus on magnetic properties and recrystallization texture has been investigated in non-oriented electrical steel sheets to develop low core loss and high permeability core materials. Specimens with different phosphorus contents were cold-rolled to various thicknesses, i.e. with various cold-rolling reductions, and annealed for recrystallization and grain growth. Although magnetic induction of the steel with low phosphorus content dramatically dropped with reducing thickness, i.e. with increasing in cold-rolling reduction, that of the steel with high phosphorus content only slightly decreased. The most effective way to reduce core loss was to reduce thickness of electrical steel sheets. Therefore, phosphorus-added thin gauge non-oriented electrical steel sheets have achieved low core loss and high permeability. The typical magnetic properties of phosphorus-added non-oriented electrical steel sheets 0.27mm in sheet thickness were 16.6W/kg in W 10/400 and 1.73T in B 50 . These excellent magnetic properties were due to the recrystallization texture control. {111} component in recrystallization texture was suppressed by the phosphorus segregation at initial grain boundaries. Accordingly, phosphorus would greatly contribute to the improvement of magnetic properties

  2. The Spot Weldability of Carbon Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al-Mukhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The specimens of thickness 0.8 mm carbon steel number 1.8902 in a strip form were welded. The strips of lap joints and curved peeljoints configurations have been welded. The welding parameters such as weld current and weld time have been investigated. The relation between the weld area and the joint strength properties has been presented. The obtained results were showing that the weld joint strength and the molten area (weld nugget volume highly increase with the increasing of weld current. Therefore, the correlation between the maximum load (joint strength and area has been given. The reliable weldability under the tensile and shearing loading was considered. Therefore, the new limits of weldability have been presented to consider these two types of loading. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with the empirical relations that consider the sheet thickness only.

  3. 30MM GAU-8 Thin-Wall Steel Cartridge Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    1OB22 steel, cold extrusion Quality B, 0.10 maximum Si. The ladle analysis of the steel provided is as follows: Heat No. C Mn P S Si B 237870 0.18 0.87...is preferred and should be specified: Element Ladle Analysis (%) C 0.18-0.23 Mn 0.80-1.10 P 0.030 Maximum S 0.040 Maximum Si 0.10 Maximum B 0.0005...mouth had been increased in thickness to meet bullet pull requirements, and this per- mitted abandonment of the earlier process requiring a cast lead

  4. Forces in the presence of ceramic versus stainless steel brackets with unconventional vs conventional ligatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    To compare the forces resulting from four types of bracket/ligature combinations: ceramic brackets and stainless steel brackets combined with unconventional elastomeric ligatures (UEL) and conventional elastomeric ligatures (CEL) during the leveling and aligning phases of orthodontic therapy. The testing model consisted of five 0.022-inch preadjusted brackets (second premolar, first premolar, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor) for each of the two bracket types. The canine bracket was welded to a sliding bar that allowed for different amounts of offset in the gingival direction. The forces generated by a 0.014-inch superelastic nickel titanium wire in the presence of either the UEL or CEL bracket/ligature systems at different amounts of upward canine misalignment (1.5 mm, 3 mm, 4.5 mm, and 6 mm) were recorded. Significant differences were found between UEL and CEL systems for all tested variables (P < .01) with the exception of the canine misalignment of 1.5 mm. The average amount of recorded force in the presence of CEL was negligible with 3.0 mm or greater of canine misalignment. On the contrary, during alignment, a force available for tooth movement was recorded in the presence of both ceramic and stainless steel brackets when associated with UEL. The type of ligature used influenced the actual amount of force released by the orthodontic system significantly more than the type of bracket used (stainless steel vs ceramic).

  5. Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation.

  6. Mössbauer spectroscopy under acoustical excitation: thick target effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, E. K.; Yurichuk, A. A.; Vagizov, F. G.; Mubarakshin, Sh. I.; Valiullin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    A new model of Mössbauer absorption (transmission) spectra with an adequate analysis of the possible effects of acoustic excitation in the thick targets is proposed. In particular, the dependence of the line width of acoustical satellites on the degree of phase correlation of the sound oscillations of resonant nuclei in the target is established by calculations and confirmed in experiment. Such a model is stimulated by an increase in the informativeness of the Mössbauer experiments, using thick samples in ultrasound (US) field, and by possible applications of this research technique. The test measurements of Mössbauer absorption spectra on stainless steel are carried out. The fitting of these spectra confirms the relevance of modifications of the model base of Mössbauer processes in US field.

  7. AIS/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating New Routes To Steel Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Alan W. Camb; Prof. Anthony Rollett

    2001-08-31

    To determine the potential for strip casting in the steel industry and to develop the fundamental knowledge necessary to allow the role of strip casting in the modern steel industry to be understood. Based upon a study of carbon steel strip castings that were either produced for the program at British Steel or were received from a pre-commercial production machine, the following conclusions were made. Strip casting of carbon steels is technically feasible for sheet material from slightly less than 1 mm thick to 3 mm thick, and, assuming that it is economically viable, it will be first applied in carbon steel markets that do not require stringent surface quality or extensive forming. The potential of strip casting as a casting process to be developed for steel castings is very high as the cast strip has some very novel characteristics. Direct cast carbon strip has better surface quality, shape and profile than any other casting process currently available. The more rapidly solidified structure of direct cast strip tends to be strong with low ductility; however, with adequate thermal treatment, it is possible to develop a variety of properties from the same grade. The process is more amenable at this time to production tonnages per year of the order of 500,000 tons and as such will first find niche type applications. This technology is an additional technology for steel production and will be in addition to, rather than a replacement for, current casting machines.

  8. Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in SA508 Gr4N High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minchul; Park, Sanggyu; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure of Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel is a mixture of tempered martensite and tempered lower bainite and that of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel is predominantly tempered upper bainite. Higher strength and toughness steels are very attractive as an eligible RPV steel, so several researchers have studied to use the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel for the NPP application. Because of the thickness of reactor vessel, there are large differences in austenitizing cooling rates between the surface and the center locations of thickness in RPV. Because the cooling rates after austenitization determine the microstructure, it would affect the mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, and it may lead to inhomogeneous characteristics when the commercial scale of RPV is fabricated. In order to apply the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel to RPV, it is necessary to evaluate the changes of microstructure and mechanical properties with varying phase fractions in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of martensite and bainite fractions on mechanical properties in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were examined by controlling the cooling rate after austenitization. First of all, continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagram was established from the dilatometric analyses. Then, the phase fractions at each cooling rate were quantitatively evaluated. Finally, the mechanical properties were correlated with the phase fraction, especially fraction of martensite in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel

  9. A theoretical analysis of the response of an air-cored eddy current coil for remote oxide thickness measurements on reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1979-10-01

    It is shown how the impedance of an air-cored eddy current coil in close proximity to an oxidised steel component may be calculated. Representative values were selected for the oxide thickness, lift off, operating frequency, conductivities and permeabilities of the oxide coating and steel base. The values of these parameters in the calculations were allowed to vary between suitable limits to quantify the effect of each one on coil impedance. The results of the calculations are used to determine the most suitable conditions for the measurement of oxide thickness on steel components using an air-cored eddy current probe. (author)

  10. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  11. Characterization of AISI 4140 borided steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.; López-Perrusquia, N.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.

    2010-02-01

    The present study characterizes the surface of AISI 4140 steels exposed to the paste-boriding process. The formation of Fe 2B hard coatings was obtained in the temperature range 1123-1273 K with different exposure times, using a 4 mm thick layer of boron carbide paste over the material surface. First, the growth kinetics of boride layers at the surface of AISI 4140 steels was evaluated. Second, the presence and distribution of alloying elements on the Fe 2B phase was measured using the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry (GDOES) technique. Further, thermal residual stresses produced on the borided phase were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The fracture toughness of the iron boride layer of the AISI 4140 borided steels was estimated using a Vickers microindentation induced-fracture testing at a constant distance of 25 μm from the surface. The force criterion of fracture toughness was determined from the extent of brittle cracks, both parallel and perpendicular to the surface, originating at the tips of an indenter impression. The fracture toughness values obtained by the Palmqvist crack model are expressed in the form KC( π/2) > KC > KC(0) for the different applied loads and experimental parameters of the boriding process.

  12. Low carbon manganese-nickel-niobium steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Hulka, K.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental heats of a low carbon-manganese-0.5% nickel-0.15% niobium steel have been rolled to plates between 13.5 and 50 mm thickness and to a 16 mm hot strip. Various combinations of soaking temperatures form 1100 0 C to 1300 0 C and of finish rolling temperatures between 710 0 C and 930 0 C have been investigated. From mechanical properties obtained, one can conclude that the investigated steel composition provides very good properties e.g. for pipe steels X65 to X75. In particular, the toughness at low temperature is outstanding despite relaxed rolling conditions. Metalographic and special investigations such as electron microscopy, texture evaluation and chemical extraction, correlated with applied rolling schedules and the mechanical properties obtained resulted in a comprehensive understanding about the benefits of high niobium metallurgy combined with nickel addition. All practically applied welding processes generated mechanical properties, in particular toughness of the weldment, that meet arctic specifications.(Author) [pt

  13. Chemical and microstructural diversity of steel grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorc, B.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show, using theoretical and practical analyses, chemical and microstructural differences among individual types of steel grades 355 found in the market. The mechanical properties required for these steels are achieved by alloying or thermomechanical treatment. It was found that the individual types of this steel are poorly weldable, particularly those of large thickness.

    El objetivo del artículo es presentar, en base a un análisis teórico y práctico, las diferencias químicas y microestructurales entre los diferentes tipos de aceros calidad 355 que pueden encontrarse en el mercado. Las características mecánicas requeridas en estos aceros se consiguen con aleaciones, o bien a través de tratamientos termo-mecánicos.Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que determinados tipos de acero son más difíciles de soldar, en especial cuando se trata de espesores grandes.

  14. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D [Rolla, MO; Peter, Jorg J [McMinnville, OR; Robertson, David G. C. [Rolla, MO; Thomas, Brian G [Champaign, IL; Zhang, Lifeng [Trondheim, NO

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  15. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  16. Peculiarities and problems of determination of the predicted durability term of steel constructions coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Іванович Ковальов

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of predicted durability term of steel constructions coatings using accelerated tests and experimental determination of steel constructions coatings fire-resistance after weather testings is raised in the article. The benefits and drawbacks of steel constructions in present-day building industry and construction design are introduced. The factors influencing steel constructions fire resistance increase are presented. The article shows that the most advanced and ideal for the protection of steel constructions is using the agents that expand and blow up under the temperature influence, forming thus a porous structure on the surface to be protected. The stages to receive the necessary indexes of predicted durability term of steel constructions coatings as well as methods to carry out climate tests both in the heated and unheated premises are described. For experimental determination of steel constructions coatings fire resistance it is suggested to use the method based on the experimental determination of the temperature of a steel plate with fire-resistant coating in the conditions of high temperatures typical of a fire, and on the solution of inverse and direct tasks of heat conduction for determination of thermal and physical characteristics of fire-resistant coatings and dependence of minimum coating thickness on the thickness of the steel plate, durability of fire impact and the steel critical temperature value. It is concluded that there is the necessity to develop the methodological support that makes it possible to estimate the coatings fire-resistance after or in the process of carrying out the accelerated climate tests as compared to the control examples. The list of problems that come into being while determining the steel constructions coatings fire-resistance after the climate tests is distinguished as well as the purpose of the future researches and tasks that should be solved

  17. Hole expansion test of third generation steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Julen; Mendiguren, Joseba; Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Sáenz

    2017-10-01

    The trend towards the implementation of new materials in the chassis of the automobiles is considerably making more complex the manufacturing of the components that built it up. In this scenario materials with higher strengths and lower formabilities are daily faced by tool makers and component producers what reduces the process windows and makes the forming processes to be in the limits of the materials. One of the concerns that tool makers must face during the definition of the tools is the expansion ratios that the holes in the sheet may reach before producing a breakage due to the stretching of the material (also known as edge cracks). For the characterization of such limits, a standard test, the hole expansion test, can be applied so that the limits of the material are known. At the present study, hole expansion tests of a third generation steel, Fortiform1050 with a thickness of 1.2 millimeters have been carried out and compared them to a mild steel, DX54D with a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. A comparison for each material in terms of technology used to punch the hole, mechanical punching vs laser cutting has also been conducted. In addition, the measurement technique (online measurement vs offline measurement) followed in the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) identification has also been analyzed. Finally, differences between both materials and techniques are presented.

  18. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K.; Witherell, C.; McGregor, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 μm stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1 μm, and preferably 0.5 μm, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 μm steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 μm steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015% at 0.3 μm and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03% penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. We also present the results of our evaluation of competing technologies with metallic and ceramic powder

  19. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K.; Witherell, C.; McGregor, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1 {mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015% at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03% penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. We also present the results of our evaluation of competing technologies with metallic and

  20. Effect of processing parameters on scale formation during hot steel strip rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Lima Júnior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of processing parameters (slab thickness, water flow of interstand cooling and oil flow in roll gap lubrication system on the thickness and composition of the tertiary scale formed during hot strip rolling, was studied in a low carbon steel in factory. The scale formed on the rolled surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that the combined effect of a greater rolling oil volume applied, larger bar thickness, and smaller amount of water flow during interstand cooling reduces the tertiary scale thickness. Besides, a smaller crack density in the samples is associated with greater rolling oil volume and smaller oxide scale thickness. The principal phase of the scale formed in hot-rolled steel strips is stoichiometric magnetite, without isomorphic substitutions.

  1. Wall Thickness Measurement Of Insulated Pipe By Tangential Radiography Technique Using Ir 192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedarjo

    2000-01-01

    Insulation pipe wall thickness by tangential radiography technique has been carried out using 41 Curie Iridium 192 source has activity for two carbon steel pipes. The outer diameter of the first pipe is 90 mm, wall thickness is 75.0 mm, source film film distance is 609.5 mm, source tangential point of insulation is 489.5 mm and exposure time 3 minute and 25 second. From the calculation, the first pipe thickness is found to be 12.54 mm and for the second pipe is 8.42 mm. The thickness is due to inaccuracy in reading the pipe thickness on radiography film and the geometry distortion radiation path

  2. Exploring Our Galaxy's Thick Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    What is the structure of the Milky Ways disk, and how did it form? A new study uses giant stars to explore these questions.A View from the InsideSchematic showing an edge-on, not-to-scale view of what we think the Milky Ways structurelookslike. The thick disk is shown in yellow and the thin disk is shown in green. [Gaba p]Spiral galaxies like ours are often observed to have disks consisting of two components: a thin disk that lies close to the galactic midplane, and a thick disk that extends above and below this. Past studies have suggested that the Milky Ways disk hosts the same structure, but our position embedded in the Milky Way makes this difficult to confirm.If we can measure the properties of a broad sample of distant tracer stars and use this to better understand the construction of the Milky Ways disk, then we can start to ask additional questions like, how did the disk components form? Formation pictures for the thick disk generally fall into two categories:Stars in the thick disk formed within the Milky Way either in situ or by migrating to their current locations.Stars in the thick disk formed in satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and then accreted when the satellites were disrupted.Scientists Chengdong Li and Gang Zhao (NAO Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences) have now used observations of giant stars which can be detected out to great distances due to their brightness to trace the properties of the Milky Ways thick disk and address the question of its origin.Best fits for the radial (top) and vertical (bottom) metallicity gradients of the thick-disk stars. [Adapted from Li Zhao 2017]Probing OriginsLi and Zhao used data from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in China to examine a sample of 35,000 giant stars. The authors sorted these stars into different disk components halo, thin disk, and thick disk based on their kinematic properties, and then explored how the orbital and

  3. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  4. Low-Cost, Manufacturable, 6-Inch Wafer Bonding Process for Next-Generation 5-Junction IMM+Ge Photovoltaic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a 6-inch wafer bonding process to allow bonding of a multi-junction inverted metamorphic (IMM) tandem solar cell structure to an...

  5. MRIR/Nimbus-2 Images of Daytime Brightness Temperature on 4 x 5 inch Film Sheets V001 (MRIRN2IM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MRIRN2IM is the Nimbus-2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) data product consisting of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets. Each film sheet contains an...

  6. MRIR/Nimbus-3 Images of Daytime Brightness Temperature on 4 x 5 inch Film Sheets V001 (MRIRN3IM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MRIRN3IM is the Nimbus-3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) data product consisting of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets. Each film sheet contains an...

  7. Fracture Toughness of Thick Boride Layers Estimated by the Cross-Sectioned Scratch Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Flores-Jiménez, M.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Meneses-Amador, A.

    2018-02-01

    New results about the fracture toughness ( K c) of thick boride layers estimated by the cross-sectioned scratch test are presented in this study. The FeB-Fe2B layers developed at the surface of borided AISI 1018 and AISI 1045 steels and the Fe2B layer formed on the borided AISI 1045 steel exposed to a diffusion annealing process (DAP) were used for this purpose. The cross-sectioned scratch tests were performed with a Vickers diamond stylus drawn across the thick boride layer under a constant load to produce a half-cone-shaped fracture near to the top surface of the borided steels. The height of the half-cone-shaped fracture as a function of the cross-sectioned scratch loads was used to determine the fracture toughness of the FeB and Fe2B layers. The results showed a fracture resistance of ˜2.8 {MPa}√ m for the FeB layer formed at the surface of borided AISI 1045 steel. Likewise, the effect of the DAP on the surface of the borided AISI 1045 steel promoted the formation of an exclusively Fe2B layer, with an increase in the fracture toughness of the whole boride layer around 5 {MPa}√ m. Finally, the principle of the technique can be used to minimize the influence of the anisotropic properties on the fracture toughness along the depth of boride layers.

  8. Coated 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 4 MECHANICAL TEST Single edge notched, square-bar ( Charpy ) specimens, bare or coated, were tested under four-point bending at...Treated 4340 Steel Tested in Air NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 APPENDIX 100 150 200 250 300 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08 M ax . S tr es s ( ks i...Fatigue Life, N (cycle) Bare No. 1 ST No. 3 ST Figure 10: Stress-Life Fatigue Curves for Bare and Surface-Treated 4340 Steel Tested in 3.5% NaCl

  9. Joining uranium to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, M.A.

    1976-05-01

    A method has been devised which will allow the joining of uranium to steel by fusion welding through the use of an intermediate material. Uranium-0.5 titanium was joined to AISI 304L stainless steel by using a vanadium insert. Also, a method is now available for selecting possible filler metals when two entirely dissimilar metals need to be joined. This method allows a quantitative ranking to be made of the possible filler metals and thus the most likely candidate can be selected

  10. Avaliação da soldagem multipasse de chapas espessas de aços inoxidáveis lean duplex UNS S32304 soldadas pelos processos SMAW, GMAW e FCAW: parte 1: propriedades mecânicas Evaluation of multipass welding of thick lean duplex stainless steel UNS S32304 plates welded by SMAW, GMAW and FCAW: part 1: Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cardoso Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis duplex (AID vêm se apresentando como uma excelente alternativa para aplicações em que alta resistência à corrosão e alta resistência mecânica são requeridas. Contudo, os AID, incluindo os aços inoxidáveis lean duplex, apresentam soldabilidade inferior em relação aos aços inoxidáveis austeníticos. Nesse sentido, esse trabalho tem como objetivo a avaliação da soldagem multipasse de chapas 22 mm de espessura da liga inoxidável lean duplex UNS S32304, utilizando-se os processo SMAW, GMAW e FCAW e consumíveis com dois tipos de composição química, 22%Cr9%Ni3%Mo e 23%Cr7%Ni, totalizando seis experimentos. Foram empregados chanfros em V com 60º e suporte cerâmico para soldagem do passe de raiz, sendo que o aporte térmico foi mantido praticamente constante em 1,6 kJ.mm-1. Determinou-se os tempos de soldagem e a seqüência de passes, objetivando uma análise de produtividade, em seguida as juntas soldadas foram submetidas à END por raios x. Foram extraídos corpos de prova para ensaios de tração, dobramento, Charpy a -30 ºC e microdureza. A produtividade dos processos semi-automáticos se mostrou pelo menos 63 % maior que a do processo SMAW, enquanto o processo FCAW se mostrou de 6 a 18% mais rápido que o GMAW. Foram encontradas descontinuidades (porosidade consideradas aceitáveis segundo ASME B31.3 em alguns dos experimentos, que não influenciaram negativamente os resultados mecânicos, os quais se apresentaram acima requerimento do metal de base e especificado por normas de fabricação.The duplex stainless steels (DSS's have been placed as an excellent alternative for applications where high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength are required. However, DSS's, including the lean duplex, present lower weldability than the austenitic stainless steels. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the multipass welding of 22 mm plates of lean duplex stainless steel alloy UNS S32304, using the process

  11. Friction stir welding of F/M ODS steel plug and F/M steel tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon, E-mail: shkang77@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Vasudevan, M. [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. • The curvature and smaller thickness of tube was the major limitation for applying FSW method, it was solved using specially designed jig. • Considerable hardening occurs in the joint because the cooling rate was sufficient to reproduce a martensitic microstructure. • The measured hoop strength of the FSWed joint was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. The dimensions of the tube included outer diameter of 7 mm, wall thickness of 0.5 mm. The objective was to find suitable process variables for gaining enough frictional heat from those thin and curved pieces. A specially designed jig was used for stabilization and slow rotation of tube during FSW. Additionally, the plug was designed to overlap the tube. Inconel 718 was used as FSW tool, the diameter was 3.5 mm. The adequate rotation speed of the tool and jig were 1200 rpm and 1.5 rpm, respectively. The joining was successfully accomplished using above combination, showing a good possibility. The hoop stress tests of joint were conducted by blowing Ar gas into the tube, the flow rate of gas was 10 MPa/min. The measured hoop stress was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube.

  12. Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

  13. A-3 steel work completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  14. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damascus steels were not replicated in Europe until 1821. The pattern welded composite swords are the essence of the Samurai and Viking. 3. The Role of Wootz Steel in the Development of. Modern Metallurgy. For centuries iron and steel were thought as being two elements belonging to the ferrous family, just as copper, ...

  15. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mediterranean sources including one from the time of Alexander. (3rd c. BC), who was said to have been presented with 100 talents of Indian steel. Arabs took ingots of wootz steel to Damascus following which a thriving industry developed there for making weapons and armour of this steel, the renown of which has given.

  16. Analysis of the passive layer developed on stainless steels implanted with chromium; Analisis de las peliculas pasivas generadas en aceros inoxidables implantados con cromo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, C. M.; Cristobal, M. J.; Novoa, X. R.; Pena, G.; Perez, M. C.

    2004-07-01

    This work studies the effect of chromium implantation on the development of passive layers generated electrochemically in alkaline medium over two stainless steels. The XPS analyses show that the layers generated on the implanted steels present less thickness together with similar composition compared to the unimplanted steels layers. However, SEM micrographs show that the layers grown on implanted steels present more defects and less adherence that the films on unimplanted steels. These changes together with the results obtained by Cyclic Voltammetry suggest an oxide structure modification, lattice structure or crystallinity state. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Application of the gamma rays backscattering for determining the quantity of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huapaya P, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    This work tries to purpose a methodology based on the nuclear technology available in the country, for measuring the position and diameter of the reinforcing rods placed in reinforced concrete structures. The technique of gamma backscattering that utilizes the changes of density was used for determining the presence of steel (average density of concrete 2,5 g/cm 3 and steel 7,8 g/cm 3 ). The concrete test tubes of different resistances were prepared with diverse concentrations into the aggregates as crushed rock and coarse sand, and also with three steel rods of 0,5 inch separated by 4 inches among themselves. The source Cs-137 of 20 mCi in activity was a monoenergetic radioisotope of the element Cs from 662 KeV. The source was placed in a lead shield with a hole which generates a collimator beam of 2 mm. The detector was one type of scintillation (INa-Tl) 2 x 2 inch; it was sealed with lead and had a hole of 10 mm which worked as collimator. The shield was placed in an angle of 15 degrees over concrete surface in order to pick up the backscattering gamma rays by the concrete. The test tube was displaced over a little car affixed to a endless screw which permitted to reproduce displacements of 0,25 inch. The data recording was realized through a multichannel of 1024 channels where was accounted the number of counts viewed under the backscattering spectrum by the concrete. It is possible to determine the position and diameter of the steel rod into concrete, changing the parameters of detector collimator source, distance source-detector and type of concrete. Furthermore, it was shown that this same equipment can measure the density of the concrete. The applications of this equipment are used in the inspection works where it is necessary to make a non-destructive control of quality about the structure of building. (author). 7 refs., 46 tabs., 24 figs

  18. Inorganic coatings on stainless steel for protection against crevice corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, Sture

    1989-12-01

    In order to create protection against crevice corrosion stainless steel test specimens of type 316 steel with various inorganic coatings applied on crevice surfaces were tested for 3-50 months at 25 and 30 degree C in natural seawater containing 0.2-1.5 ppm free chlorine. Various metallic coatings, Ni base alloys with Cr and Mo, Ni with W, pure Ag and pure Mo, as well as ceramic coatings - Cr 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - were studied. All the coatings tested, except pure Molybdenum applied by plasma spraying in a max 0.1 mm thick layer were found to promote crevice corrosion of the stainless steel. A significant reduction of the crevice corrosion susceptibility was obtained with Molybdenum. The result is considered promising enough to justify full scale tests in seawater on flange joints of pipes, valves or pumps. (author)

  19. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch diameter photomultipliers used in KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, V.; Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be the largest underwater neutrino telescope and will be located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module and for KM3NeT it consists of 31 PMTs stored inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere of 17-inch that serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. Since the PMTs installed into an underwater neutrino telescope can change their orientation because of movements of the detector structure due to sea currents, the influence of Earth's magnetic field has been investigated. Magnetic shielding by means of a mu-metal cage is used to reduce magnetic effects and to make the response of the PMT sufficiently orientation independent. In order to quantify the effect on magnetic field, we compared measurements on variation of gain, transit time spread and detection efficiency for a 3-inch PMT in shielded and unshielded condition at 3 PMT inclinations. Data shows that variations are sufficiently low especially for timing properties.

  20. Application of Derrick Corporation's stack sizer technology for slimes reduction in 6 inch clean coal hydrocyclone circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzik, P.

    2009-04-15

    The article discusses the successful introduction of Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer technology for removing minus 200 mesh slimes from 6-inch coal hydrocyclone underflow prior to froth flotation or dewatering by screen bowl centrifuges. In 2006, the James River Coal Company selected the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 150 micron and 100 micron urethane screen panels for removal of the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits. After this application proved successful, Derrick Corporation introduced new 75 micron urethane screen panels for use on the Stack Sizer. Evaluation of feed slurry to flotation cells and screen bowl centrifuges showed significant amounts of minus 75 micron that could potentially be removed by efficient screening technology. Removal of the minus 75 micron fraction was sought to reduce ash and moisture content of the final clean coal product. Full-scale lab tests confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 75 micron urethane screen panels consistently reduced the minus 75 micron percentage in coal slurry from 6-inch clean coal hydrocyclone underflow that is approximately 15 to 20% solid by-weight and 30 to 60% minus 75 micron to a clean coal fraction that is approximately 13 to 16% minus 75 micron. As a result total ash is reduced from approximately 36 to 38% in the hydrocyclone underflow to 14 to 16% in the oversize product fraction form the Stack Sizers. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 5 photos.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  2. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr–KBr–CsBr–AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr–KBr–CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  3. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  4. Thermal shock induced crack arrest of two low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fant, M.; Genty, A.; Pineau, A.

    1990-01-01

    Tests were performed on a C-Mn-Nb steel (E36) and a C-Mn-Ni-Mo steel (A508) to determine the fracture toughness either at crack initiation, K Ic , or at crack arrest, K Ia , under a very severe thermal shock such as rupture of a PWR primary coolant circuit. Experiments were carried out either on small discs (thickness 19 mm) or on larger cylinders (height: 220 mm) with an inner diameter of 46 or 50 mm and an external diameter of 150 mm. Finite element method calculations were performed to determine the variations of the hoop stress and those of the stress intensity factor across the wall thickness. Results obtained on both materials are given. It is shown that the BEREMIN model for cleavage fracture takes well account of crack initiation and size effect [fr

  5. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked......, it is unfortunately rarely articulated. In this paper, TCA is first reconstructed on the basis of John McDowell’s formulation of the argument (from 1981), and then evaluated in the light of several possible non-cognitivist responses. In general, TCA assumes too much about what a non-cognitivist is (or must be......) committed to. There are several non-cognitivist theories, and only some fit the view attacked by TCA. Furthermore, TCA rests on a contestable intuition about a thought experiment, here called the External Standpoint Experiment (ESE). It is concluded that TCA is remarkably weak, given how frequently...

  6. Effect of Ti interlayer on the bonding quality of W and steel HIP joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Chao; Wang, Wanjing; Wei, Ran; Wang, Xingli; Sun, Zhaoxuan; Xie, Chunyi; Li, Qiang; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2017-03-01

    Tungsten (W) and steel bonding is one of the key technologies for blanket First Wall (FW) manufacture in thermal fusion reactor. The W/Steel joints are prone to fail without interlayer for the different thermo physical properties. To study the effect of titanium (Ti) interlayer on the bonding quality of W and steel joints, W/Steel Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) experiments with Ti interlayer were conducted under 930 °C, 100 MPa for 2 h. Intermetallics caused by atom interdiffusion would affect the bonding quality of W/Ti/Steel HIP joints, the bonding quality was evaluated by microstructure analysis and mechanical tests. All the HIP joints were well bonded and results showed no intermetallics occurred between W/Ti interfaces, meanwhile multiply phases were found between Ti/Steel interfaces. Shear tests indicated when Ti thickness was 100-500 μm, the maximum shear strength of W/Ti/Steel HIP joints would be up to around 151 MPa. Charpy impact tests showed the W/Ti/Steel HIP joints all broke in a brittle manner and the maximum Charpy impact energy was ∼0.192 J. Nano-indentation tests demonstrated W/Ti interfaces could be enhanced by solid solution hardening and formation of brittle phases has conducted high hardness across the Ti/Steel interfaces.

  7. Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers of stainless steel and carbon steels with different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fakarudin Abdul Rahman; Mohd Iqbal Saripan; Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan; Ismail Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ ρ) of stainless steel (SS316L) and carbon steel (A516) that are widely used as petrochemical plant components, such as distillation column, heat exchanger, boiler and storage tank were measured at 662, 1073 and 1332 keV of photon energies. Measurements of radiation intensity for various thicknesses of steel were made by using transmission method. The γ-ray intensity were counted by using a Gamma spectrometer that contains a Hyper-pure Germanium (HPGe) detector connected with Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The effective numbers of atomic (Z eff ) and electron (N eff ) obtained experimentally were compared by those obtained through theoretical calculation. Both experimental and calculated values of Z eff and N eff were in good agreement. (author)

  8. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 ... Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0084-0088 ...

  9. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  10. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 84-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  12. Characteristics in Paintability of Advanced High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ha Sun [POSLAB, POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    It is expected that advanced high strength steels (AHSS) would be widely used for vehicles with better performance in automotive industries. One of distinctive features of AHSS is the high value of carbon equivalent (Ceq), which results in the different properties in formability, weldability and paintability from those of common grade of steel sheets. There is an exponential relation between Ceq and electric resistance, which seems also to have correlation with the thickness of electric deposition (ED) coat. higher value of Ceq of AHSS lower the thickness of ED coat of AHSS. Some elements of AHSS such as silicon, if it is concentrated on the surface, affect negatively the formation of phosphates. In this case, silicon itself doesn't affect the phosphate, but its oxide does. This phenomenon is shown dramatically in the welding area. Arc welding or laser welding melts the base material. In the process of cooling of AHSS melt, the oxides of Si and Mn are easily concentrated on the surface of boundary between welded and non welded area because Si and Mn cold be oxidized easier than Fe. More oxide on surface results in poor phosphating and ED coating. This is more distinctive in AHSS than in mild steel. General results on paintability of AHSS would be reported, being compared to those of mild steel

  13. Behavior of FRP-Confined Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyan Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the behavior of concrete-filled steel tube columns confined by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. Eleven columns were tested to investigate the effects of the FRP layer number, the thickness of the steel tube and concrete strength on their load capacity and axial deformation capacity. The experimental results indicated that the FRP wrap can effectively confine the concrete expansion and delay the local buckling of the steel tube. Both the load capacity and the axial deformation capacity of concrete-filled steel tube columns can be substantially enhanced with FRP confinement. A model is proposed to predict the load capacity of the FRP-confined concrete-filled steel tube columns. The predicted results are generally in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained in this study and in the literature.

  14. Electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on stainless steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    commercial 304 grade stainless steel (SS) foil. (thickness: 0⋅2 mm) was used as the substrate for. H2O2 reduction. A solution of 0⋅5 M NaClO4. (pH = 5⋅8) was .... oxide layers, unlike mediation of the reduction by. CuO present on Cu. A mechanism involving decomposition (or dis- proportionation) of H2O2 leading to the ...

  15. 10 CFR 95.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Defense, the department of Energy, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Nuclear Regulatory... TL-15, TL-30, or TRTL-30, and has a body fabricated of not less than 1 inch of steel and a door... Approved Security Container” and has a body of steel at least 1/2 inch thick, and a combination locked...

  16. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliance mechanical strength and fasteners. (1) All handrails, handholds, and sill steps shall be made of 1-inch diameter steel pipe, 5/8-inch thickness steel, or a material of equal or greater mechanical strength. (2) All safety appliances shall be securely fastened to the car body structure with mechanical...

  17. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  18. AA6082 to DX56-Steel Laser Brazing: Process Parameter-Intermetallic Formation Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimhachary, D.; Pal, S.; Shariff, S. M.; Padmanabham, G.; Basu, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, laser-brazed AA6082 to DX56-galvanized steel joints were investigated to understand the influence of process parameters on joint strength in terms of intermetallic layer formation. 1.5-mm-thick sheet of aluminum alloy (AA6082-T6) and galvanized steel (DX56) sheet of 0.7 mm thickness were laser-brazed with 1.5-mm-diameter Al-12% Si solid filler wire. During laser brazing, laser power (4.6 kW) and wire feed rate (3.4 m/min) were kept constant with a varying laser scan speed of 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, and 1 m/min. Microstructure of brazed joint reveals epitaxial growth at the aluminum side and intermetallic layer formation at steel interface. Intermetallic layer formation was confirmed by EDS analysis and XRD study. Hardness profile showed hardness drop in filler region, and failure during tensile testing was initiated through the filler region near the steel interface. As per both experimental study and numerical analysis, it was observed that intermetallic layer thickness decreases with increasing brazing speed. Zn vaporization from galvanized steel interface also affected the joint strength. It was found that high laser scan speed or faster cooling rate can be chosen for suppressing intermetallic layer formation or at least decreasing the layer thickness which results in improved mechanical properties.

  19. Deuterium permeation behavior of HTUPS4 steel with thermal oxidation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Si-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Jing; An, Zhong-Qing; Lu, Tao; Liu, Hao-Dong; Ding, Fang; Zhou, Hai-Shan; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The permeation behavior of creep-resistant, Al 2 O 3 -forming HTUPS austenitic stainless steels was studied using a gas driven permeation (GDP) device. The steel samples were first thermal oxidized at air condition, followed by GDP experiments. The permeability and diffusion coefficients of oxidized samples and bare 316L steels were derived and compared. In order to characterize the oxide layer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed. An oxide layer with a thickness of 200 nm which mainly consists of Al 2 O 3 was detected.

  20. Properties of SA 533 type B class 1 steel plate for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Magoya; Ozawa, Hiroyasu; Nakano, Naokazu; Kato, Yutaka; Watanabe, Seiichi; Toyama, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of SA533 Type B Class 1 125 mm thick plate for nuclear power plant are introduced. The steel is required to have the highest quality such as excellent internal soundness, fracture toughness, fatigue properties and low neutron irradiation embrittlement therefore the steel making was performed by STB-LF-RH process to obtain sound metal and the ingot making was performed by LH-unidirectionally solidified ingot method-process to eliminate micro segregation. The results show that the steel plate has excellent properties to meet the requirement of material for nuclear power plant. (author)

  1. Predicting Microstructure Development During HighTemperature Nitriding of Martensitic Stainless SteelsUsing Thermodynamic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tschiptschin, André Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of the Fe-Cr-N System in the region of the Gas Phase Equilibria have been compared with experimental results of maximum nitrogen absorption during nitriding of two Martensitic Stainless Steels (a 6 mm thick sheet of AISI 410S steel and green powder compacts of AISI 434L steel) under N2 atmospheres. The calculations have been performed combining the Fe-Cr-N System description contained in the SGTE Solid Solution Database and the gas phase for the N System contained i...

  2. Fabrication, testing and analysis of steel/composite DLS adhesive joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashim, S.; Berggreen, Christian; Tsouvalis, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experimental and numerical techniques to study the structural design of double lap shear joints that are based on thick-adherend steel/steel and steel/composite, with epoxy adhesive. A standard practical fabrication method was used to produce specimens of various dimensions...... and the results showed that joint strength depends largely on materials combination and overlap length. The testing also included the use of an advanced imaging system to determine failure initiation and propagation. Two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) stress models were applied and showed...

  3. Kinetics of steel heavy ingot formation in dies of semicontinuous-casting machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, V.Ya.; Marchenko, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Formation kinetics of round section ingot of up to 0.67 m in diameter was analyzed in dies of semicontinuous-casting machines on casting of the most usable assortment steels: medium-carbon low-alloyed and chromium-nickel stainless steels. It is established that solidification coefficient decreases in direct proportion to ingot diameter. Value of different-thickness ingot skin at die outlet is in direct proportion to a casted steel overheating temperature, ingot diameter and inversely proportional to the number and diameter of holes in a ladder nozzle and square root of ingot drawing rate

  4. Automated assembly of Gallium Arsenide and 50-micron thick silicon solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The TRW automated solar array assembly equipment was used for the module assembly of 300 GaAs solar cells and 300 50 micron thick silicon solar cells (2 x 4 cm in size). These cells were interconnected with silver plated Invar tabs by means of welding. The GaAs cells were bonded to Kapton graphite aluminum honeycomb graphite substrates and the thin silicon cells were bonded to 0.002 inch thick single layer Kapton substrates. The GaAs solar cell module assembly resulted in a yield of 86% and the thin cell assembly produced a yield of 46% due to intermittent sticking of weld electrodes during the front cell contact welding operation. (Previously assembled thin cell solar modules produced an overall assembly yield of greater than 80%).

  5. Prototype gauge for measuring contour and wall thicknesses of hemispherical parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, H.J.; Robertson, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype gauge (gage) was designed and fabricated using air bearings in a new configuration to provide less error and distortion during inspection of hemispherical parts. No wear occurs on the moving parts during operations and accuracy of alignment is maintained. The gauge will check outside radial distance, inside radial, and outside radial and wall, and inner radial and wall thicknesses of parts. The gauge contains only four moving parts, which increases the measuring accuracy. A horizontal table rotates. A table mounted on the horizontal table at 45 0 rotates through two transducers. All moving parts are mounted on hydrostatic gas bearings. Laser interferometric, air-bearing gauge heads are used to obtain the required data. Investigation of a hemispherical part is in any desired spiral path from equator to pole. Measurement information is obtained from two laser interferometric transducers using linear air bearings. The transducers use a Spectra Physics Model-120 helium and neon laser. Working range of each transducer is 1.5 inches. The fringe voltage signals are amplified and converted to inches to be displayed on a digital readout. A punched paper tape contains the nominal inside diameter (ID) and outside diameter (OD) information in Binary Coded Decimal form. The tape is fed into a digital computer which calculates error information on ID, OD, and wall thickness. This information is converted to analog form and displayed simultaneously on a strip-chart recorder

  6. Studies on the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Binbin; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaodun

    2014-01-01

    Thermal effects on steel structures exposed to solar radiation are significant and complicated. Furthermore, the solar radiation absorption coefficient of steel surface with different paintings is the main factor affecting the non-uniform temperature of spatial structures under solar radiation. In this paper, nearly two hundreds steel specimens with different paintings were designed and measured to obtain their solar radiation absorption coefficients using spectrophotometer. Based on the test results, the effect of surface color, painting type, painting thickness on the solar radiation absorption coefficient was analyzed. The actual temperatures under solar radiation for all specimens were also measured in summer not only to verify the absorption coefficient but also provide insight for the temperature distribution of steel structures with different paintings. A numerical simulation and simplified formula were also conducted and verified by test, in order to study the temperature distribution of steel plates with different paints under solar radiation. The results have given an important reference in the future research of thermal effect of steel structures exposed to solar radiation. - Highlights: • Solar radiation absorptions for steel with different paintings were measured. • The temperatures of all specimens under solar radiation were measured. • The effect of color, thickness and painting type on solar absorption was analyzed. • A numerical analysis was conducted and verified by test data. • A simplified formula was deduced and verified by test data

  7. Measurement of the in-pile core temperature of an EL-4 pencil element, first charge (can of type-347 stainless steel, 0.4 mm thick, UO2 fuel, 11 mm diameter). Determination of the apparent thermal conductivity integral of in-pile UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaud, B.; Ringot, C.; Vignesoult, N.

    1966-11-01

    The core temperature of a pencil fuel element depends on the thermal conductivity of the UO 2 , and on the UO 2 -can contact. This temperature may be known accurately only if in-pile tests using the actual geometry are carried out. The test described concerns the measurement of the core- temperature of an EL-4 fuel element, first charge, having a stainless steel can. This temperature is measured at the center of the in-pile pencil element using a high-temperature thermocouple (W-Re with Ta sheath). The element is subjected to operating conditions similar to those of EL-4, both for the specific power and the can temperature and for the pressure acting on the can. The specific power is obtained in the EL-3 reactor using a slightly higher enrichment for the UO 2 than that planned for EL-4. The required can temperature and pressure are obtained using a Zircaloy-2 irradiation container filled with NaK, adapted for use in the EL-3 reactor. The core temperatures of the UO 2 , and that of the can surface are measured. The power is calculated from the heat exchanges in the container calibrated in the laboratory. The temperature drop at the UO 2 -can interface is deduced from laboratory measurements carried out under comparable heat flux conditions, and in a gas atmosphere corresponding to the beginning of the life-time of the fuel element. It is possible to draw an integral conductivity curve. It is also possible to check the temperature distribution in the oxide, as deduced from the thermal conductivity integral, by micro-graphic examination of the oxide structure. (authors) [fr

  8. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  9. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huachun; Han, Jingtao; Hu, Haiping; Bian, Ruisheng; Kang, Jianjun; Xu, Manlin

    2004-06-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron & Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended.

  10. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi Huachun; Han Jingtao; Hu Haiping; Bian Ruisheng; Kang Jianjun; Xu Manlin

    2004-01-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron and Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended

  11. Solid state alloying by plasma nitriding and diffusion annealing treatment for austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, C.E.; Vatavuk, J.; Oliveira, S.D. de; Tschiptschin, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen has been added to stainless steels to improve mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. High nitrogen steel production is limited by high gas pressure requirements and low nitrogen solubility in the melt. One way to overcome this limitation is the addition of nitrogen in solid state because of its higher solubility in austenite. However, gas and salt bath nitriding have been done at temperatures around 550 C, where nitrogen solubility in the steel is still very low. High temperature nitriding has been, thus proposed to increase nitrogen contents in the steel but the presence of oxide layers on top of the steel is a barrier to nitrogen intake. In this paper a modified plasma nitriding process is proposed. The first step of this process is a hydrogen plasma sputtering for oxide removal, exposing active steel surface improving nitrogen pickup. This is followed by a nitriding step where high nitrogen contents are introduced in the outermost layer of the steel. Diffusion annealing is then performed in order to allow nitrogen diffusion into the core. AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel was plasma nitrided and diffusion annealed at 1423K, for 6 hours, with 0.2 MPa nitrogen pressure. The nitrided steel presented ∝60 μm outermost compact layer of (Fe,Cr) 3 N and (Fe,Cr) 4 N with 11 wt.% N measured by surface depth profiling chemical analysis - GDS system. During the annealing treatment the nitride layer was dissolved and nitrogen diffused to the core of the sample leaving more even nitrogen distribution into the steel. Using this technique one-millimetre thick sample were obtained having high nitrogen content and uniform distribution through the thickness. (orig.)

  12. Study of corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film using the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zaijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Peng, Xin; Wang, Yanhua; Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Haijie; Gao, Congjie

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film with various thickness was investigated by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. It was found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased significantly under thin seawater film than it was immersed in seawater. The current variation under seawater film indicated that the thickness of diffusion layer of oxygen was about 500 μm, and the maximal current appeared around 40 μm, at which corrosion rate transited from cathodic control to anodic control. The results suggest that WBE method is helpful to study the corrosion process under thin electrolyte film

  13. Effect of cold working on nitriding process of AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Silvio Andre de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The nitriding behavior of AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steel was studied by different cold work degree before nitriding processes. The microstructure, thickness, microhardness and chemical micro-composition were evaluated through optical microscopy, microhardness, scanner electronic microscopy and x ray diffraction techniques. Through them, it was observed that previous plastic deformations do not have influence on layer thickness. However, a nitrided layer thicker can be noticed in the AISI 304 steel. In addition, two different layers can be identified as resulted of the nitriding, composed for austenitic matrix expanded by nitrogen atoms and another thinner immediately below expanded by Carbon atoms. (author)

  14. Best possible heat treatment of steel SA 336 F22 for the production of forged shells with heavy walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badeau, J.P.; Poitrault, I.S.; De Badereau, A.; Blondeau, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The manufacturing of thick-wall components, such as shells, for petrochemical reactors normally requires the 2.25Cr-1Mo(SA 336 F22) steel. This paper deals with: 1. Experienced difficulties in producing thick-wall forgings up to a thickness of 500 mm with standard 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. 2. The solutions offered by Le Creusot Heavy Forge. The studies discussed are: (1) the effect of the structure; (2) the effect of the chemical composition on hardenability and temper embrittlement in steel making; and (3) the effect of austenitization conditions. Some examples concerning industrial forgings are presented, among them: 1. The manufacturing of shells for the petrochemical industry. 2. A thick-wall shell from a 146-metric ton hollow ingot

  15. Numerical Modelling of Double-Steel Plate Composite Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Elmatzoglou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-steel plate concrete composite shear walls are being used for nuclear plants and high-rise buildings. They consist of thick concrete walls, exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement and shear connectors, which guarantee the composite action between the two different materials. Several researchers have used the Finite Element Method to investigate the behaviour of double-steel plate concrete walls. The majority of them model every element explicitly leading to a rather time-consuming solution, which cannot be easily used for design purposes. In the present paper, the main objective is the introduction of a three-dimensional finite element model, which can efficiently predict the overall performance of a double-steel plate concrete wall in terms of accuracy and time saving. At first, empirical formulations and design relations established in current design codes for shear connectors are evaluated. Then, a simplified finite element model is used to investigate the nonlinear response of composite walls. The developed model is validated using results from tests reported in the literature in terms of axial compression and monotonic, cyclic in-plane shear loading. Several finite element modelling issues related to potential convergence problems, loading strategies and computer efficiency are also discussed. The accuracy and simplicity of the proposed model make it suitable for further numerical studies on the shear connection behaviour at the steel-concrete interface.

  16. High temperature oxidation in boiler environment of chromized steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, F. F.; Kurniawan, T.; Asmara, Y. P.; Ani, M. H. B.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.

    2017-10-01

    The demand for increasing efficiency has led to the development and construction of higher operating temperature power plant. This condition may lead to more severe thickness losses in boiler tubes due to excessive corrosion process. Hence, the research to improve the corrosion resistance of the current operated material is needed so that it can be applied for higher temperature application. In this research, the effect of chromizing process on the oxidation behaviour of T91 steel was investigated under steam condition. In order to deposit chromium, mixture of chromium (Cr) powder as master alloy, halide salt (NH4Cl) powder as activator and alumina (Al2O3) powder as inert filler were inserted into alumina retort together with the steel sample and heated inside furnace at 1050°C for ten hours under argon gas environment. Furthermore, for the oxidation process, steels were exposed at 700°C at different oxidation time (6h-24h) under steam condition. From FESEM/EDX analysis, it was found that oxidation rate of pack cemented steel was lower than the un-packed steel. These results show that Cr from chromizing process was able to become reservoir for the formation of Cr2O3 in high temperature steam oxidation, and its existence can be used for a longer oxidation time.

  17. Optimization of the A-TIG welding for stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, M.; Kožuh, Z.; Garašić, I.; Bušić, M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the influence of the activation flux and shielding gas on tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding of the stainless steel. In introduction part, duplex stainless steel was analysed. The A-TIG process was explained and the possibility of welding stainless steels using the A-TIG process to maximize productivity and the cost-effectiveness of welded structures was presented. In the experimental part duplex, 7 mm thick stainless steel has been welded in butt joint. The influence of activation flux chemical composition upon the weld penetration has been investigated prior the welding. The welding process was performed by a robot with TIG equipment. With selected A-TIG welding technology preparation of plates and consumption of filler material (containing Cr, Ni and Mn) have been avoided. Specimens sectioned from the produced welds have been subjected to tensile strength test, macrostructure analysis and corrosion resistance analysis. The results have confirmed that this type of stainless steel can be welded without edge preparation and addition of filler material containing critical raw materials as Cr, Ni and Mn when the following welding parameters are set: current 200 A, welding speed 9,1 cm/min, heat input 1,2 kJ/mm and specific activation flux is used.

  18. Study on Thermal Physical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dong; Jun-mao, Qie; Hao-hua, Deng

    The DIL402C thermal dilatometer and STA449C thermal analyzer were employed to test the linear expansion and contraction coefficient, CP and DSC curve of 304 stainless steel. The result showed that the linear expansion coefficient range was 20.9700×10-6˜21.5712×10-6 and the linear contraction coefficient range was 21.2528×10-6˜21.9471×10-6. The linear expansion and contraction coefficient were higher than other steel grade, so the 304 stainless steel belonged to the crack sensitive steel. Because of the crystal phase transformation occurred during the 1000˜1400 °C,the curve of CP fluctuated obviously and the defects of casting blank occurred easily. Chosen 1414°C as the liquidus temperature of 304 stainless steel based on the analysis results of DSC. The curve of DSC was unsmooth during 1450˜1100°C, the crystal phase transformation occurs and thermal stability of slab was inferior.When the initial solidified shell formed in this temperature range,the thickness of the shell would be nonuniform and the surface defects occurred more easily.

  19. Effects of microstructure on ultrasonic examination of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel components or stainless steel welds is difficult, and the results obtained are hard to interpret. The present study describes the effects of stainless steel microstructure on ultrasonic test results. Welded coupons, 2.5 and 5.0 cm thick, were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, with Type 308 stainless steel as the weld material. Metallography of the base material shows grain sizes of 15 and 80 μm, and dendrites aligned from the top to the bottom surface in cast material. X-ray diffraction and ultrasonic velocity measurements indicate a random crystal orientation in the base material, but the cast sample had aligned dendrites. The weld material exhibits a dendritic structure with a preferred (100) direction perpendicular to the weld pass. Spectral analysis of ultrasonic broad-band signals through the base materials shows drastic attenuation of higher frequencies with increasing grain size (Rayleigh scattering). Annealing and recrystallization increases the ultrasonic attenuation and produces carbide precipitation at grain boundaries. The microstructural differences of the base metal, heat-affected zone, and weld metal affect the amplitude of ultrasonic reflections from artificial flaws in these zones. Data obtained from two samples of different grain sizes indicate that grain size has little effect when a 1-MHz transducer is used. When going from a 15 to an 80-μm crystalline structure, a 5-MHz unit suffers a 30-dB attenuation in the detection of a 1.2 mm deep notch. The anisotropy of the dendritic structure in stainless steel renewed the interest in the effect of shear-wave polarization. In the (110) crystallographic orientation of stainless steel, two modes of shear waves can be generated, which have velocities differing by a factor of two. This effect may be helpful in ''tuning'' of shear waves by polarization to obtain better penetration in large grain materials such as welds

  20. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  1. Robustness of steel joints with stainless steel bolts in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeskumar, N.; Davison, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The robustness of steel joints in fire is important for steel building structures because of the need to prevent progressive collapse. Stainless steel is widely used in building construction mainly because of its corrosion resistance, but it also possesses improved fire resistance compared with conventional non-alloy, fine grain structural steels. Extensive research performed on the robustness of steel joints in fire has revealed that failure at elevated temperature may be controlled by bolt shear for fin plate and web cleat connections. Hence, this study focussed on the use of stainless steel in experimental tests conducted on fin plate and web cleat connections at high temperatures. In addition, this study investigated the use of a component-based model to predict connection performance at elevated temperature.

  2. Characterization of the first double-sided 3D radiation sensors fabricated at FBK on 6-inch silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, D.M.S.; Mendicino, R.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Boscardin, M.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Following 3D pixel sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer, Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) fabrication facility has recently been upgraded to process 6-inch wafers. In 2014, a test batch was fabricated to check for possible issues relevant to this upgrade. While maintaining a double-sided fabrication technology, some process modifications have been investigated. We report here on the technology and the design of this batch, and present selected results from the electrical characterization of sensors and test structures. Notably, the breakdown voltage is shown to exceed 200 V before irradiation, much higher than in earlier productions, demonstrating robustness in terms of radiation hardness for forthcoming productions aimed at High Luminosity LHC upgrades

  3. Two inch large area patterning on a vertical light-emitting diode by nano-imprinting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Kyeong-Jae; Hong, Eun-Ju; Park, Hyoungwon; Yoon, Kyung-Min; Lee, Heon; Song, Hyun Don; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Cho, Hyun Kyong; Kwon, Ho Ki

    2010-01-01

    A vertical light-emitting diode (LED) with a chip size of 500 × 500 µm 2 was fabricated by the laser lift-off (LLO) process of an InGaN-based blue LED wafer. After the LLO process, photonic crystal patterns by UV nano-imprint lithography were formed on the n-GaN top layer of the vertical LED over the entire area with a diameter of 2 inches. As the result of n-GaN patterning, light output power of the vertical LED with photonic crystals was increased by up to 44% compared to that of the vertical LED without a photonic crystal at a driving current of 1000 mA

  4. The development of 8 inch roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography (8-R2P-NIL) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lai Seng; Mohamed, Khairudin; Ooi, Su Guan

    2017-07-01

    Growth in semiconductor and integrated circuit industry was observed in the past decennium of years for industrial technology which followed Moore's law. The line width of nanostructure to be exposed was influenced by the essential technology of photolithography. Thus, it is crucial to have a low cost and high throughput manufacturing process for nanostructures. Nanoimprint Lithography technique invented by Stephen Y. Chou was considered as major nanolithography process to be used in future integrated circuit and integrated optics. The drawbacks of high imprint pressure, high imprint temperature, air bubbles formation, resist sticking to mold and low throughput of thermal nanoimprint lithography on silicon wafer have yet to be solved. Thus, the objectives of this work is to develop a high throughput, low imprint force, room temperature UV assisted 8 inch roll to plate nanoimprint lithography system capable of imprinting nanostructures on 200 mm silicon wafer using roller imprint with flexible mold. A piece of resist spin coated silicon wafer was placed onto vacuum chuck drives forward by a stepper motor. A quartz roller wrapped with a piece of transparent flexible mold was used as imprint roller. The imprinted nanostructures were cured by 10 W, 365 nm UV LED which situated inside the quartz roller. Heat generated by UV LED was dissipated by micro heat pipe. The flexible mold detaches from imprinted nanostructures in a 'line peeling' pattern and imprint pressure was measured by ultra-thin force sensors. This system has imprinting speed capability ranging from 0.19 mm/s to 5.65 mm/s, equivalent to imprinting capability of 3 to 20 pieces of 8 inch wafers per hour. Speed synchronization between imprint roller and vacuum chuck was achieved by controlling pulse rate supplied to stepper motor which drive the vacuum chuck. The speed different ranging from 2 nm/s to 98 nm/s is achievable. Vacuum chuck height was controlled by stepper motor with displacement of 5 nm/step.

  5. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  6. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  7. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  8. Cell cases for Discus 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierfelder, H.

    1977-01-01

    Batteries designed for the defense satellite communications system were modified to meet increased power requirements. A stainless steel case for the cell, approximately 4 inches wide, 4 1/2 inches high and 1 inch thick, with a weld down a narrow edge, has 12 mil 304-L stainless steel side walls and a 19 mil 304-L stainless bottom. A dip-brazed 60-61 aluminum retainer is electrically separated from the steel case by 15 mils of potting compound. The thickness of the compound varies from 10 to 20 mils, except at the bottom, where it is 20 to 30 mils thick. Pressure test results are discussed.

  9. On thickness of Saturn rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, Andre; Laques, Pierre; Lecacheux, Jean; Servan, Bernard; Despiau, Raymond; Michet, Daniel; Renard, Leopold

    1980-01-01

    Electronographic plates of Saturn were taken during the transit of the Earth through the ring plane. Observing conditions were more favorable than those prevailing in 1966. Thanks to the quality of the detectors and the telescopes, it has been possible to make a more precise photometric determination of the brightness of the ring seen edge on and to measure the brightness variation with respect to the distance to the center of the planet. Extrapolating to the case where the elevation of the Earth above the ring plane is strictly zero, we deduce an apparent photometric ring thickness equal to 1.5+-0.3 km. For an homogeneous layer of small particles colliding inelastically, theory predicts a thickness of the order of a few particles radii, i.e. a few tens of meters. The observed brightness could be explained by the E ring, the brightness of large chunks, condensations and warping of the ring [fr

  10. Study of the thickness evolution during SPT Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez-Ávila

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Small Punch Test (SPT is an increasingly expanding test used to obtain different mechanical data, such as strength, fracture, creep, etc…especially when there is little material available. However, the SPT test is more complicated than the uniaxial tensile test due to its non-linearity, which makes it difficult to relate the data obtained with the tensile tests. In fact, in the literature there is no clear model linking these tests and a different calibration should be used for each material. The complication of the SPT test is that the reduction of the sample thickness is not homogeneous in its gauge volume. In this work we proceeded to determine the variation of the SPT specimen thickness at several points, especially at the center and at the rupture zone, by means of the use of finite elements in COMSOL, taking a SLM AM (selective laser melting additive manufactured 316L stainless steel as the base material for modelling. For the appropriate modelling in COMSOL, the mechanical parameters of two 316L extreme thermomechanical treatments have been implemented, one annealed to a minimum hardness and another heavily work-hardened. The sample thickness variation results allow advancing in the theoretical modeling of the SPT behavior in order to obtain more accurate correlations with tensile tests data.

  11. Accuracy of thick-walled hollows during piercing on three-high mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, I.N.; Romantsev, B.A.; Shamanaev, V.I.; Popov, V.A.; Kharitonov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations are presented concerning the accuracy of geometrical dimensions of thick-walled sleeves produced by piercing on a 100-ton trio screw rolling mill MISiS with three schemes of fixing and centering the rod. The use of a spherical thrust journal for the rod and of a long centering bushing makes it possible to diminish the non-uniformity of the wall thickness of the sleeves by 30-50%. It is established that thick-walled sleeves with accurate geometrical dimensions (nonuniformity of the wall thickness being less than 10%) can be produced if the system sleeve - mandrel - rod is highly rigid and the rod has a two- or three-fold stability margin over the length equal to that of the sleeve being pierced. The process of piercing is expedient to be carried out with increased angles of feed (14-16 deg). Blanks have been made from steel 12Kh1MF

  12. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  13. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  14. Thermal fatigue behavior of H-13 die steel for aluminum die casting with various ion sputtered coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtered coatings of Mo, W, Pt, Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Ni, Ag + Cu, Mo + Pt, Si3N4, A1N, Cr3C2, Ta5Si3, and ZrO2 were applied to a 2-inch-square, 7-inch-long thermal fatigue test specimen which was then internally water cooled and alternately immersed in molten aluminum and cooled in air. After 15,000 cycles the thermal fatigue cracks at the specimen corners were measured. Results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance was obtained with platinum, molybdenum, and tungsten coatings. Metallographic examination indicates that the improvement in thermal fatigue resistance resulted from protection of the surface of the die steel from oxidation. The high yield strength and ductility of molybdenum and tungsten contributed to the better thermal fatigue resistance.

  15. The thickness effects of the side-grooved CCT specimen, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kenji; Kikuchi, Masanori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    J IC tests were carried out on SUS 316 steel by means of the JSME R-curve method as well as the JSME stretched-zone width (SZW) method. The effect of side-grooves on the J In value at stable crack growth initiation was investigated by using CCT specimens of two thicknesses (B = 1, 2 mm). The ratio of net thickness to gross thickness was kept at 0.5. The J In values of the side-grooved CCT specimens of two thicknesses were considerably smaller than those of the 1TCT specimen. The J In value of the side-grooved specimen of 2 mm thickness was smaller than that of the standard CCT specimen. Further, as the thickness of the specimen becomes thinner, the J In value decreases. In the case of 1 mm thick CCT specimens with or without a side groove, the contraction percentage of thickness is very large so that it is not appropriate to use these specimens for the fracture toughness test. In the case of the thin or side-grooved CCT specimen, the J value which is evaluated from the load versus displacement curve by using Rice's formula cannot estimate the J-integral at the central part of the specimen. Therefore, a J-integral estimation method would have to be established by using 3-D elasto-plastic analysis. (author)

  16. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  17. CHARACTERISATION OF SPOT WELD GROWTH ON DISSIMILAR JOINTS WITH DIFFERENT THICKNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A sound weld from spot welding is what most manufacturers desire and prefer for mechanical assemblies in their systems. The robustness is mainly attributed to the joining mechanism of mechanical parts. This paper focuses on the effect of parametric changes for dissimilar joints using 304 austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel of two different thicknesses. A pneumatic-based spot welder was used to accomplish the entire welding process. The parameters varied during the experiments are the welding current and welding time, while the electrode pressing force and electrode tip size are kept constant. The welding process began from a poor weld and moved on to a better weld by increasing the process parameters. However, this study is limited to the basic parametric variation to find the optimum parametric setup for 1 and 2 mm base metals. The welded specimens are subjected to tensile, hardness and metallurgical tests to characterise the spot weld growth for both thicknesses.

  18. Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

  19. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  20. Methodology to calculate wall thickness in metallic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, G.F.; Feliciano, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The principal objective in the developing of the activities of industrial type is to carry out a efficient and productive task: that implies necessarily to know the best working conditions of the equipment and installations to be concerned. The applications of the radioisotope techniques have a long time as useful tools in several fields of human work. For example, in the Petroleos Mexicanos petrochemical complexes, by safety reasons and for to avoid until maximum the losses, it must be know with a high possible precision the operation regimes of the lines of tubes that they conduce the hydrocarbons, with the purpose to know when they should be replaced the defective or wasted pieces. In the Mexican Petroleum Institute is carrying out a work that it has by objective to develop a methodology bases in the use of radioisotopes that permits to determine the average thickness of the metallic tubes wall, that they have thermic insulator, with a precision of ±0.127 mm (±5 thousandth inch). The method is based in the radiation use emitted by Cs-137 sources. In this work it is described the methodology development so as the principal results obtained. (Author)

  1. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Fucheng; Yang, Zhinan; Lv, Bo; Zheng, Chunlei

    2016-11-25

    In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plate thickness of bainitic ferrite, hardness, and residual compressive stress value of the contact surfaces of the two steels under roughly similar conditions. The excellent RCF performance of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is mainly attributed to the following reasons: finer carbide dispersion distribution in the top surface, the higher residual compressive stress values in the carburized layer, the deeper residual compressive stress layer, the higher work hardening ability, the larger amount of retained austenite transforming into martensite at the surface and the more stable untransformed retained austenite left in the top surface of the steel.

  2. Multi objective Taguchi optimization approach for resistance spot welding of cold rolled TWIP steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutar, Mumin; Aydin, Hakan; Bayram, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Formability and energy absorption capability of a steel sheet are highly desirable properties in manufacturing components for automotive applications. TWinning Induced Plastisity (TWIP) steels are, new generation high Mn alloyed steels, attractive for the automotive industry due to its outstanding elongation (%40-45) and tensile strength (~1000MPa). So, TWIP steels provide excellent formability and energy absorption capability. Another required property from the steel sheets is suitability for manufacturing methods such as welding. The use of the steel sheets in the automotive applications inevitably involves welding. Considering that there are 3000-5000 welded spots on a vehicle, it can be interpreted that one of the most important manufacturing method is Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) for the automotive industry. In this study; firstly, TWIP steel sheet were cold rolled to 15% reduction in thickness. Then, the cold rolled TWIP steel sheets were welded with RSW method. The welding parameters (welding current, welding time and electrode force) were optimized for maximizing the peak tensile shear load and minimizing the indentation of the joints using a Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The effect of welding parameters was also evaluated by examining the signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results.

  3. Influence of hydrogen on the corrosion behavior of stainless steels in lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A. V.

    2008-02-01

    Corrosion behavior of several stainless steels in lithium and lithium with 0.05%H has been examined. Corrosion tests were performed under static conditions at 600 and 700 °C in the austenitic stainless steel of the type AISI 304 containers. Intensive formation of σ-phase of the composition Fe 50Cr 43Mo 3Ni 4 on the surface of austenitic stainless steels of the type AISI 316 at 700 °C for 1000 h was established as a result of isothermal mass transfer. Addition of 0.05%H in the form of LiH to lithium resulted in an increase in the quantity of the σ-phase. After corrosion tests of ferritic/martensitic steel in lithium at 700 °C for 1000 h the formation of the γ-phase was observed. In Li + 0.05%H besides the γ-phase was also formed the σ-phase. The features of decarburization of investigated stainless steels were examined using the direct method of activation autoradiography on carbon. Addition of 0.05%H in lithium significantly decreased the carbon content in the decarburization zone of austenitic stainless steel Fe-18Cr-15Ni-0.15C-0.23B without a noticeable change in the thickness of the decarburization zone. Decarburization of ferritic/martensitic stainless steel was less than of austenitic stainless steel using the same corrosion tests.

  4. Corrosion of austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steels exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, L.; Anderson, M.; Taylor, D.; Allen, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Oxidation is the primary corrosion phenomenon for the steels exposed to S-CO 2 . → The austenitic steels showed significantly better corrosion resistance than the ferritic-martensitic steels. → Alloying elements (e.g., Mo and Al) showed distinct effects on oxidation behavior. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) is a potential coolant for advanced nuclear reactors. The corrosion behavior of austenitic steels (alloys 800H and AL-6XN) and ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels (F91 and HCM12A) exposed to S-CO 2 at 650 deg. C and 20.7 MPa is presented in this work. Oxidation was identified as the primary corrosion phenomenon. Alloy 800H had oxidation resistance superior to AL-6XN. The FM steels were less corrosion resistant than the austenitic steels, which developed thick oxide scales that tended to exfoliate. Detailed microstructure characterization suggests the effect of alloying elements such as Al, Mo, Cr, and Ni on the oxidation of the steels.

  5. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  6. Macroencapsulation of lead and steel SWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.; Thiesen, T.; Tyson, D.; Beitel, G.

    1995-01-01

    The treatability study to macroencapsulate radioactively contaminated lead and steel swarf (cuttings and/or chips)and chunks, a low level mixed waste, from the dismantlement of excess surplus uranium fuel handling and transfer casks was successful. Macroencapsulation is the land disposal restriction treatment standard for this waste form per 40 CFR 268.42 Table 3. An epoxy-based thermoset system was employed due to cracking failures of other types of thermoset systems. Bench scale tests were performed with a two-part epoxy (resin and hardener) using cast iron chips as a surrogate waste media. A two stage encapsulation process was employed in treating the swarf. Two liters of epoxy were added to a 2.8 ell (3 qt) container of swarf under 51K Pa vacuum (-15-inch of Hg) during the first stage of the process. In this stage each individual particle or chip was wetted by epoxy and allowed to harden into an initial monolith. The second stage encapsulated the initial monolith with a secondary layer of epoxy forming a larger final monolith. By evacuating the air from the swarf and epoxy during the initial monolith encapsulation, a higher density (higher swarf to epoxy ratio) was achieved. Tensile and compressive strength tests were performed on samples and without any media (cast iron chips). The coupons were prepared from a series of monoliths featuring various mixtures ratios and vacuum levels. The tensile strength of epoxy without chips averaged 41M Pa (6000 psi) and 1.4M Pa (2000 psi) with cast iron chips. Compression strengths averaged 140M Pa (20,000 psi) without chips and 66.2M Pa (9600 psi) with cast iron chips

  7. Demonstration of Thermally Sprayed Metal and Polymer Coatings for Steel Structures at Fort Bragg, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    demonstrated, the flame-sprayed polyole- fin coating is too costly for use on large steel structures. Guidance docu- ments are identified to help make...the feedstock material, the thermal-spray process and application parameters, and the post-treat- ment of the applied coating. An 85% zinc and 15...thickness (85/15 plus topcoat) was measured by gauge for compliance with project requirements. Total thickness measure- ments indicated that the

  8. An Evaluation of the Corrosion and Mechanical Performance of Interstitially Surface Hardened Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    pitting corrosion and is present in stainless steels due to the chromium concentration in the microstructure . As the potential increases, the...carbon and nitrogen as the interstitial atom. The hardness and thickness of the surface hardened layer is characterized and compared using...hardened using available commercial techniques, using both carbon and nitrogen as the interstitial atom. The hardness and thickness of the surface

  9. Axial-Torsional Fatigue: A Study of Tubular Specimen Thickness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    would explain the cyclic strain ihardening behavior observed in the AISI type 304 stainless steel ( 304 SS) round-robin program. Pursuing this...variables were examined in this study: the depth of the surface work- hardened layer produced in specimen machining, and the effects of strain range and axial...determine tie effect of wall thickness on the cyclic defor- mation behavior and fatigue life of thin-wall, tubular, axial-torsional fatigue specimens. The

  10. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TIG Remelted NiCrBSi Thick Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guo-lu; Li, Ya-long; Dong, Tian-shun; Wang, Hai-dou; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Zhou, Xiu-kai

    2018-01-01

    The self-fluxing NiCrBSi coatings with 800 μm thickness were prepared on the surface of AISI1045 steel substrate by plasma spraying. And the remelted coating was obtained using by the tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc process. The microstructure, surface roughness, hardness, phase composition, and wear resistance of the sprayed coating and remelted coating were systematically investigated. The results demonstrate that TIG remelted treatment can significantly eliminate the microscopic defects in th...

  11. Steel Casting Requirements for Ordnance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel , *Castings, *Nondestructive testing , * Charpy impact tests , Tensile properties, Loads(Forces), Toughness, Hardness, Etching, Heat treatment, Microstructure, Shells(Structural forms), Economic analysis

  12. A quality approach to maintain the properties of S235 JR structural carbon steel in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidawi, J.A.; Al Khatib, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.S235JR carbon steel is one of the most popular steels used in Lebanon. It is imported by steel dealers and is widely used by all fabricators and manufacturers of steels for many structural purposes and applications. This kind of steel has good ductile properties as well as excellent weldability. It is still known by its previous designation St 37-2 or E 24-2. S235JR is produced in many shapes and thicknesses such as steel plates, sheets, angles and different other geometric shapes. Standard chemical and mechanical tests were conducted and reported on S235JR hot-rolled structural low-carbon mild steel specimens collected from Lebanese steel market. The main objective of this work is to assure the compliance of these properties with those set by the steel manufacturer. The above mentioned tests were performed at the laboratories of the Industrial Research Institute (IR) in Lebanon to assure the quality and credibility of the results. related European and American standards were presented as references and compared with the achieved results. Discussion was presented to show the similarities and differences between S235JR steel samples and standard requirements. Some of the reasons for such differences were discussed. Sufficient data was furnished through this work for the public and mainly for the Lebanese Standard Organization LIBNOR to easily adopt and implement the EN 10025:1993 European standard that can be applied in Lebanon concerning the most commonly used hot rolled low carbon structural steel. A follow up concerning adopting and implementing EN 10025:1993 will be briefed

  13. Mechanical Properties of High-Nb X80 Steel Weld Pipes for the Second West-to-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-ying Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of steel pipe have great effects on the integrality and operation safety of gas transmission pipeline. In order to reduce the cost of the steel pipe, the high-Nb X80 pipeline steels with the different alloying systems have been used in the Second West-to-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Project. Nevertheless, an investigation into the effects of chemical composition on the mechanical properties of steel pipes is lacking. In this work, the chemical composition and mechanical properties of high-Nb X80 grade steel pipes with a diameter of ϕ1,219 mm and a wall thickness of 22 mm, which are coiled by steels manufactured by three mills, have been analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of chemical composition of the steels on the mechanical properties of the pipe body and weld joint were discussed.

  14. Radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Microstructural and micromechanical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouanis, F.Z.; Bentiss, F.; Bellayer, S.; Vogt, J.B.; Jama, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → C38 carbon steel samples were plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge. → RF plasma treatment enables nitriding for non-heated substrates. → The morphological and chemical analyses show the formation of a uniform thickness on the surface of the nitrided C38 steel. → Nitrogen plasma active species diffuse into the samples and lead to the formation of Fe x N. → The increase in microhardness values for nitrided samples with plasma processing time is interpreted by the formation of a thicker nitrided layer on the steel surface. - Abstract: In this work, C38 carbon steel was plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge on non-heated substrates. General characterizations were performed to compare the chemical compositions, the microstructures and hardness of the untreated and plasma treated surfaces. The plasma nitriding was carried out on non-heated substrates at a pressure of 16.8 Pa, using N 2 gas. Surface characterizations before and after N 2 plasma treatment were performed by means of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The morphological and chemical analysis showed the formation of a uniform structure on the surface of the nitrided sample with enrichment in nitrogen when compared to untreated sample. The thickness of the nitride layer formed depends on the treatment time duration and is approximately 14 μm for 10 h of plasma treatment. XPS was employed to obtain chemical-state information of the plasma nitrided steel surfaces. The micromechanical results show that the surface microhardness increases as the plasma-processing time increases to reach, 1487 HV 0.005 at a plasma processing time of 8 h.

  15. Chemical Dissolution of Simulant FCA Cladding and Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has received some fast critical assembly (FCA) fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for disposition. Among the JAEA FCA fuel are approximately 7090 rectangular Stainless Steel clad fuel elements. Each element has an internal Pu-10.6Al alloy metal wafer. The thickness of each element is either 1/16 inch or 1/32 inch. The dimensions of each element ranges from 2 inches x 1 inch to 2 inches x 4 inches. This report discusses the potential chemical dissolution of the FCA clad material or stainless steel. This technology uses nitric acid-potassium fluoride (HNO3-KF) flowsheets of H-Canyon to dissolve the FCA elements from a rack of materials. Historically, dissolution flowsheets have aimed to maximize Pu dissolution rates while minimizing stainless steel dissolution (corrosion) rates. Because the FCA cladding is made of stainless steel, this work sought to accelerate stainless steel dissolution.

  16. Reduction of core loss in non-oriented (NO) electrical steel by electroless-plated magnetic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivavibul, Pornthep; Enoki, Manabu; Konda, Shigeru; Inada, Yasushi; Tomizawa, Tamotsu; Toda, Akira

    2011-01-01

    An important issue in development of electrical steels for core-laminated products is to reduce core loss to improve energy conversion efficiency. This is usually obtained by tailoring the composition, microstructure, and texture of electrical steels themselves. A new technique to reduce core loss in electrical steel has been investigated. This technique involves electroless plating of magnetic thin coating onto the surface of electrical steel. The material system was electroless Ni-Co-P coatings with different thicknesses (1, 5, and 10 μm) deposited onto the surface of commercially available Fe-3% Si electrical steel. Characterization of deposited Ni-Co-P coating was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer. The deposited Ni-Co-P coatings were amorphous and composed of 56-59% Ni, 32-35% Co, and 8-10% P by mass. The effect of coatings on core loss of the electrical steel was determined using single sheet test. A core loss reduction of 4% maximum was achieved with the Ni-Co-P coating of 1 μm thickness at 400 Hz and 0.3 T. - Research Highlights: → New approach to reduce core loss of electrical steel by magnetic coating. → Ni-Co-P coating influences core loss of NO electrical steel. → Core loss increases in RD direction but reduces in TD direction.

  17. Spot welding of aluminium alloy sheets to coated steel sheets. Kakushu mekki koban to arumi gokin no spot yosetsusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S.; Fukumura, K.; Soga, S. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-31

    Welding aluminum alloy sheets with coated steel sheets has become used frequently in association with weight reduction in automobiles. This paper describes investigations on the effects of spot welding aluminum alloy sheets with different kinds of coated steel sheets on optimal welding conditions and weld strength. An AC single-phase spot welding machine was used for an experiment using an aluminum alloy(5052)with a thickness of 1 mm(referred to as A)and different coated steel sheets with a thickness of 0.8 mm(referred to as B). The result may be summarized as follows: the weldable value of the electric current is closer to that for between the B steel sheets than the middle of that for between the As and between Bs; while the weldable current range is affected little by the coating materials when a CF electrode is used, it grows greater in aluminum coated steel sheets and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets than in alloyed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets and cold-rolled steel sheets when an R-type electrode is used; influence of the coating materials was observed in tensile shear strength and cross tensile shear strength; and any combination of metals shows fatigue strength lower than that in the A-A combination in a fatigue test of cross tensile system. 5 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. The effect of cyclic and dynamic loads on carbon steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Scott, P.M.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of four 152-mm (6-inch) diameter, unpressurized, circumferential through-wall-cracked, dynamic pipe experiments fabricated from STS410 carbon steel pipe manufactured in Japan. For three of these experiments, the through-wall crack was in the base metal. The displacement histories applied to these experiments were a quasi-static monotonic, dynamic monotonic, and dynamic, cyclic (R = -1) history. The through-wall crack for the third experiment was in a tungsten-inert-gas weld, fabricated in Japan, joining two lengths of STS410 pipe. The displacement history for this experiment was the same history applied to the dynamic, cyclic base metal experiment. The test temperature for each experiment was 300 C (572 F). The objective of these experiments was to compare a Japanese carbon steel pipe material with US pipe material, to ascertain whether this Japanese steel was as sensitive to dynamic and cyclic effects as US carbon steel pipe. In support of these pipe experiments, quasi-static and dynamic, tensile and fracture toughness tests were conducted. An analysis effort was performed that involved comparing experimental crack initiation and maximum moments with predictions based on available fracture prediction models, and calculating J-R curves for the pipe experiments using the η-factor method

  19. Development of a 14-inch ID High-Pressure Hybrid Riser for SBOP Drilling Développement d’un riser hybride 14”ID haute pression pour le forage SBOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persent E.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a 14-inch ID high-pressure hybrid riser (10 000 psi for surface BOP drilling in ultra-deep water (10 000 ft. The high-pressure hybrid riser system is obtained by adapting and combining two existing technologies, previously developed by the IFP for other applications: – the Clip connector, a double breech-block type connector to provide a quick and safe connection for riser joints; – hybrid pipe technology, a steel pipe hoop-wound with tapes of carbon fibers impregnated with polyamide thermoplastic resin. IFP has developed a new 14-inch ID HP Clip connector for the hybrid riser application. The connector is capable of withstanding a 2.8 million pound tension and a 10 000 psi operating pressure. In addition, a 16-inch nominal OD hybrid riser pipe has been designed to replace the steel riser pipe with a thinnerwalled hoop-wound steel pipe. The significant weight savings that can be achieved with the hybrid riser pipe make it possible to design an effective riser architecture to withstand the high pressure and deep water requirements. Pursuant to design studies, a 14-inch ID prototype assembly consisting of two hybrid riser pipe sections with a high-pressure Clip connector was manufactured. A test program, including burst and collapse tests as well as cyclic fatigue testing, was formulated and carried out to qualify the performance of the Clip connector and hybrid riser pipe system. Completion of hybrid pipe additional fatigue testing and realization of a scale-one field testing of the hybrid riser are considered as the next steps of the project. To date, the main test results (burst, collapse, fatigue resistance confirm that the Clip connector and the hybrid pipe technologies are well suited for ultra-deep sea drilling with a surface BOP. However, the fatigue resistance of hybrid riser pipes still needs to be better characterized. Cet article présente le développement d’un riser hybride 14”ID haute

  20. Basic mechanical properties of layered steels

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Černý; Josef Filípek; Pavel Mazal; Petr Dostál

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with identifying attributes of layered steel materials (damask steel) with the help of mechanical tests. Experimentally verify basic mechanical properties of layered steel and subsequently assessed it in comparison with the values obtained for the classic steel materials. In conclusion, there are listed the possibilities of using multilayer steel materials in technical practice, depending on the economics of production.The damask steel was prepared by forge welding from a p...

  1. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  2. Electrospark doping of steel with tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, Yulia, E-mail: yukolubaeva@mail.ru; Shugurov, Vladimir, E-mail: shugurov@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Russia, Tomsk, 2/3 Akademicheskiy Ave (Russian Federation); Petrikova, Elizaveta, E-mail: elizmarkova@yahoo.com [Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Russia, Tomsk, 2/3 Akademicheskiy Ave (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Seksenalina, Malika, E-mail: sportmiss@bk.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, Olga, E-mail: ivaov@mail.ru; Ikonnikova, Irina, E-mail: irinaikonnikova@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Kunitsyna, Tatyana, E-mail: kma11061990@mail.ru; Vlasov, Victor, E-mail: rector@tsuab.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, Anatoliy, E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yuriy, E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Russia, Tomsk, 2/3 Akademicheskiy Ave (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to the numerical modeling of thermal processes and the analysis of the structure and properties of the surface layer of carbon steel subjected to electrospark doping with tungsten. The problem of finding the temperature field in the system film (tungsten) / substrate (iron) is reduced to the solution of the heat conductivity equation. A one-dimensional case of heating and cooling of a plate with the thickness d has been considered. Calculations of temperature fields formed in the system film / substrate synthesized using methods of electrospark doping have been carried out as a part of one-dimensional approximation. Calculations have been performed to select the mode of the subsequent treatment of the system film / substrate with a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. Authors revealed the conditions of irradiation allowing implementing processes of steel doping with tungsten. A thermodynamic analysis of phase transformations taking place during doping of iron with tungsten in equilibrium conditions has been performed. The studies have been carried out on the surface layer of the substrate modified using the method of electrospark doping. The results showed the formation in the surface layer of a structure with a highly developed relief and increased strength properties.

  3. Electrospark doping of steel with tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, Yulia; Shugurov, Vladimir; Petrikova, Elizaveta; Seksenalina, Malika; Ivanova, Olga; Ikonnikova, Irina; Kunitsyna, Tatyana; Vlasov, Victor; Klopotov, Anatoliy; Ivanov, Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the numerical modeling of thermal processes and the analysis of the structure and properties of the surface layer of carbon steel subjected to electrospark doping with tungsten. The problem of finding the temperature field in the system film (tungsten) / substrate (iron) is reduced to the solution of the heat conductivity equation. A one-dimensional case of heating and cooling of a plate with the thickness d has been considered. Calculations of temperature fields formed in the system film / substrate synthesized using methods of electrospark doping have been carried out as a part of one-dimensional approximation. Calculations have been performed to select the mode of the subsequent treatment of the system film / substrate with a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. Authors revealed the conditions of irradiation allowing implementing processes of steel doping with tungsten. A thermodynamic analysis of phase transformations taking place during doping of iron with tungsten in equilibrium conditions has been performed. The studies have been carried out on the surface layer of the substrate modified using the method of electrospark doping. The results showed the formation in the surface layer of a structure with a highly developed relief and increased strength properties

  4. Possibilities for the Reuse of Steel from Decommissioning. Selected Scenarios in the Process of Proposal and Evaluation of Manufacturing Processes for Conditional Released Steel and their Application in General and Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, P.; Daniska, V.; Ondra, F.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Conditional release of steels from NPP decommissioning enables controlled reuse of non-negligible volumes of steels. For proposal of scenarios for steel reuse, it is needed to identify and evaluate partial elementary activities of the whole process from conditional release of steels, manufacturing of various elements up to realisation of scenarios. For scenarios of reuse of conditionally released steel the products of steel, as steel reinforcements, rails, profiles and sheets for technical constructions such as bridges, tunnels, railways and other constructions which guarantee the long-term properties over the periods of 50-100 years are considered. The idea offers also the possibility for using this type of steel for particular technical constructions, directly usable in nuclear facilities. The paper presents the review of activities for manufacturing of various steel construction elements made from conditionally released steels and their use in general and also in the nuclear industry. As the starting material for manufacturing of steel elements ingots or just fragments of steel after dismantling in controlled area can be used. These input materials are re-melted in industrial facilities in order to achieve the required physical and chemical characteristics. Mostly used technique for manufacturing of the steel construction elements is rolling. As the products considered in scenarios for reuse of conditional released steels are bars for reinforcement concrete, rolled steel sheets and other rolled profiles. For use in the nuclear industry it offers the possibility for casting of thick-walled steel containers for long-term storage of high level radioactive components in integral storage and also assembly of stainless steel tanks for storing of liquid radioactive waste. Lists of elementary activities which are needed for manufacturing of selected steel elements are elaborated. These elementary activities are then the base for detailed safety evaluation of external

  5. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohusova, O.; Brumovsky, M.; Cukr, B.; Hatle, Z.; Protiva, K.; Stefec, R.; Urban, A.; Zidek, M.

    1976-01-01

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  6. Weld repair issues in thick section austenitic pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, S.J.; Price, A.T.

    1989-03-01

    Thick section austenitic Type 316 Stainless steel, in the solution treated condition, has been used in Central Electricity Generating Board plant in the United Kingdom for some three decades and has given good service. Repair and replacement of this material after long term service is becoming a requirement and is complicated by the precipitation hardening and sensitisation of the materials. This paper summarises the compositional, microstructural and ageing characteristics of the wrought material and weld metals and the consequences for materials properties. Post weld heat treatment options are outlined and sensitisation to stress corrosion cracking is discussed. Finally, some examples of cracking that has occurred in plant after long term operation are given and weld repair research requirements are noted. (author)

  7. Nitriding Process Characterization of Cold Worked AISI 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Alfredo Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitriding behavior of austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 and 316 was studied by different cold work degree (0% (after heat treated, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% before nitride processing. The microstructure, layer thickness, hardness, and chemical microcomposition were evaluated employing optical microscopy, Vickers hardness, and scanning electron microscopy techniques (WDS microanalysis. The initial cold work (previous plastic deformations in both AISI 304 and 306 austenitic stainless steels does not show special influence in all applied nitriding kinetics (in layer thicknesses. The nitriding processes have formed two layers, one external layer formed by expanded austenite with high nitrogen content, followed by another thinner layer just below formed by expanded austenite with a high presence of carbon (back diffusion. An enhanced diffusion can be observed on AISI 304 steel comparing with AISI 316 steel (a nitrided layer thicker can be noticed in the AISI 304 steel. The mechanical strength of both steels after nitriding processes reveals significant hardness values, almost 1100 HV, on the nitrided layers.

  8. Thickness and uniformity measurements of nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Meng Xiangjin; Luo Xinghua; Guan Shouren

    1987-06-01

    This paper introduces the methods of target thickness and uniformity measurements including weighing, α-particle thickness gauge, quartz thickness gauge, optical transmittance and Rutherford backscattering. An α-particle gauging which measures target thicknesses up to several μm is metioned. A fast thickness measurements for C, Au and Cu targets by spectrophotometer is given. A high sensitive quartz gauge which can measure minimum deposit of 0.04 μg/cm 2 is described. Thickness and impurity determinations by RBS with accuracy better than 5% are summarized

  9. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  10. Effects of Cold Rolling Reduction and Initial Goss Grains Orientation on Texture Evolution and Magnetic Performance of Ultra-thin Grain-oriented Silicon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG Rui-yang; YANG Ping; MAO Wei-min

    2017-01-01

    The ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel strips with a thickness of 0.06-0.12mm were produced by one-step-rolling methods with different Goss-orientation of grain-oriented silicon steel sheets. The effect of cold rolling reduction and initial Goss-orientation of samples on texture evolution and magnetic performance of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel strips was studied by EBSD. The result shows that with the increase of cold rolling reduction and decrease of strips thickness, the re...

  11. Some advances in fracture studies under the heavy-section steel technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Corwin, W.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bass, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results are summarized from HSST studies in three major areas that relate to assessing nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) conditions: irradiation effects on the fracture properties of stainless steel cladding, crack run-arrest behavior under nonisothermal conditions, and fracture behavior of a thick-wall vessel under combined thermal and pressure loadings

  12. Very high cycle regime fatigue of thin walled tubes made from austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.V.; Mayer, H.; Brøndsted, P.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue life data of cold worked tubes (diameter 4 mm, wall thicknesses 0.25 and 0.30 mm) of an austenitic stainless steel, AISI 904 L, were measured in the regime ranging from 2 × 105 to 1010 cycles to failure. The influence of the loading frequency was investigated as data were obtained...

  13. Numerical predictions of dry oxidation of iron and low-carbon steel at moderately elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1996-11-01

    Wrought and cast low-carbon steel are candidate materials for the thick (e.g. 10 cm) outer barrier of nuclear waste packages being considered for use in the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Dry oxidation is possible at the moderately elevated temperatures expected at the container surface (323-533 K or 50-260 C). Numerical predictions of dry oxidation damage were made based on experimental data for iron and low-carbon steel and parabolic oxidation theory. The Forward Euler method was implemented to integrate the parabolic rate law for arbitrary, complex temperature histories. Assuming growth of a defect-free, adherent oxide, the surface penetration of a low-carbon steel barrier following 5000 years of exposure to a severe, but repository-relevant, temperature history is predicted to be only about 0.127 mm, less than 0.13% of the expected container thickness of 10 cm. Allowing the oxide to spall upon reaching a critical thickness increases the predicted metal penetration values, but degradation is still computed to be negligible. Thus, dry oxidation is not expected to significantly degrade the performance of thick, corrosion allowance barriers constructed of low-carbon steel

  14. Finite Element Modelling of Bends and Creases during Folding Ultra Thin Stainless Steel Foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Akagi, H.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    2003-01-01

    Finite Element Modelling of an ultra thin foil of SUS 304 stainless steel is carried out. These foils are 20 mm and below in thickness. The development of stresses and strains during folding of these foils is studied. The objective of this study is to induce qualities of paper in the foils of

  15. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP

  16. corrosion inhibitor for carbon steels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. It was found that. CNSL reduces the extent of the electrochemical processes taking place on carbon steel undergoing corrosion. The corrosion rate of the carbon steel was reduced by over 92 % when only 300 ppm of CNSL was applied. This indicates that. CNSL is a potential ...

  17. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  18. Steel structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the guide the requirements concerning design and fabrication of steel structures for nuclear facilities and documents to be submitted to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are presented. Furthermore, regulations concerning inspection of steel structures during construction of nuclear facilities and during their operation are set forth

  19. Finite Element Simulation of Plastic Joining Processes of Steel and Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K.; Abe, Y.; Kato, T.

    2007-05-01

    Various high tensile strength steel sheets and an aluminum alloy sheet were joined with a self-piercing rivet. It is not easy to weld the aluminum alloy sheet and high tensile strength sheets by means of conventional resistance welding because of very different melting points. To obtain optimum joining conditions, joining defects were categorized into separation of the sheets and an inner fracture. The joining range of ultra high tensile strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was extended by means of dies optimized by finite element simulation. The joint strength is greatly influenced by not only the strength of the sheets and rivets but also the ratio of the thickness of the lower sheet to the total thickness. In addition, mechanical clinching of high strength steel and aluminum alloy sheets was simulated.

  20. Effect of Austenite Stability on Pack Aluminizing of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher; Kvryan, Armen; Kasnakjian, Shahan; Coronado, Armando; Sujittosakul, Sutine; Villalpando, Obed; Ravi, Vilupanur A.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were applied to the surfaces of several austenitic stainless steels—UNS S30300, S30400, S30900, S31000, and S31600 (Type 303, 304, 309, 310, and 316)—by the halide activated pack cementation process. The coating compositions, microstructures, and hardness were determined for the different steels coated at 850°C for 25 h. The stability of the austenite phase for each type of steel was calculated by determining the ratio of the nickel to the chromium equivalents based on their nominal compositions. The thickness of the inner diffusion zone in the coating was shown to be inversely related to the austenite stability of the steels. Microhardness measurements were obtained across the coating thickness and into the substrate. The hardness values followed the same trends as the aluminum composition profile into the substrate.

  1. AGR steel corrosion monitoring schemes: progress on off-site testing of coupon specimens to end of 1985: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittle, I.; Meredith, M.E.

    1988-03-01

    Off-site Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor steel corrosion monitoring through experiments on mild steel coupon specimens is reported. The appearance of all mild steel coupons oxidised over the temperature range 375 to 450 0 C is consistent with what is expected for the appropriate silicon content, temperature and in the gas mixes used. Likewise, weight gain data from the tests is as expected and where linear (breakaway) oxidation kinetics are in evidence, measured rates are within one standard deviation of the mean oxidation rates predicted by the 1/R model. Also, data relating mean breakaway oxide thickness to weight gain is in good agreement with the currently recommended relationship of 1 mg cm -2 weight gain = 6.72 μm oxide thickness. The observed oxidation behaviour of the off-site mild steel coupons is consistent with the most recent design data. (author)

  2. Reduction of cross section area at fracture in tensile test: measurement and applications for flat sheet steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, P.; Freudenthaler, J.; Weissböck, T.

    2017-09-01

    This contribution deals with the use of maximum thinning and reduction of sample cross section area at fracture after tensile testing and applications for industrial flat sheet steels. Although included in all usual tensile testing standards, this mechanical property (“Z-value”) has long been neglected for flat sheet materials. It happens however to include some most valuable information on local ductility at fracture of sheet steels. This is increasingly needed for a more suitable description and ranking of newly developed advanced high strength sheet steels with regard to local ductility (stretch-flangeability, bendability, crash-ability) versus global ductility (deep-drawability). It is shown in this investigation that the ISO16630 punched and milled hole expansion ratio correlates linearly with the relative thickness reduction at fracture. A classification of cold rolled AHSS-UHSS sheet steels is attempted by plotting the relative thickness & area reduction at fracture vs. uniform and fracture elongation.

  3. First mile, first inch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morris, C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) remains one of the biggest challenges to Africa in leapfrogging the development chasm. The African digital divide can be in part attributed to a restrictive regulatory policy...

  4. Thickness measurement by two-sided step-heating thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Tao, Ning; Sun, J. G.; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhao, Yuejin

    2018-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a promising nondestructive technique for thickness prediction. However, it is usually thought to be only appropriate for testing the thickness of thin objects or near-surface structures. In this study, we present a new two-sided step-heating thermal imaging method which employed a low-cost portable halogen lamp as the heating source and verified it with two stainless steel step wedges with thicknesses ranging from 5 mm to 24 mm. We first derived the one-dimensional step-heating thermography theory with the consideration of warm-up time of the lamp, and then applied the nonlinear regression method to fit the experimental data by the derived function to determine the thickness. After evaluating the reliability and accuracy of the experimental results, we concluded that this method is capable of testing thick objects. In addition, we provided the criterions for both the required data length and the applicable thickness range of the testing material. It is evident that this method will broaden the thermal imaging application for thickness measurement.

  5. The Effect of Mortar Grade and Thickness on the Impact Resistance of Ferrocement Slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Sulleman, Sorefan; Beddu, Salmia; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Ismail, Firas B.; Usman, Fathoni; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Itam, Zarina; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the effect of the thickness and mesh spacing on the impact of ferrocement for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at height of 150 mm, 350mm, and 500mm has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the relationship of impact resistance of ferrocement against the mortar grade and slab thickness. There is a good linear correlation between impact resistance of ferrocement against the mortar grade and the thickness of ferrocement slab. The first and ultimate crack impact resistance of mortar grade 43 (for 40 mm thick slab with mesh reinforcement) are 1.60 times and 1.53 times respectively against the mortar grade 17 slab (of same thickness with mesh reinforcement). The first and ultimate crack impact resistance for 40 mm thick slab (mortar grade 43 with mesh reinforcement) are 3.55 times and 4.49 times respectively against the 20 mm thick slab (of same mortar grade with mesh reinforcement).

  6. Interfacial Microstructure and Properties of Steel/Aluminum Powder Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles density functional theory, the Fe/Al interface model of steel/aluminum laser welding was constructed by layer technique. The Fe/Al interface was studied by metal atom X (X=Sn, Sr, Zr, Ce, La.The results show that Sn, Sr and Ce preferentially displace the Al atoms at the Fe/Al interface, while La and Zr preferentially displace the Fe atoms at the Fe/Al interface. Alloying promotes the transfer of Fe/Al interfacial electrons between different orbits, enhances the ionic bond properties of Fe-Al, improves the Fe/Al interface binding capacity, improves the brittle fracture of Fe/Al interface, and the alloying effect of Sn most notable. On the basis of this, the laser lap welding test of Sn and Zr powder was carried out on 1.4mm thick DC51D+ZF galvanized steel and 1.2mm thick 6016 aluminum alloy specimen. The results show that the addition of powder can promote the flowability of the molten bath and change the composition and microstructure of the joint interface. The tensile strength of the steel/aluminum joint is 327.41MPa and the elongation is 22.93% with the addition of Sn powder, which is obviously improved compared with the addition of Zr powder and without the addition of powder.

  7. Temperature Controlled Laser Joining of Aluminum to Galvanized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Simon, Jörg; Stritt, Peter; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Bezençon, Cyrille; Bassi, Corrado

    Reliable joining of 6000 series aluminum alloy to galvanized steel is a challenge for current manufacturing technologies. To control and limit the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, mixing of both metals in liquid state has to be avoided. It has been shown that laser weld-brazing is a possible process. Thereby the aluminum and zinc layer of the galvanized steel are molten and the steel remains solid during the process. In addition, to avoid zinc degassing, the aluminum melt bath temperature has to be below zinc boiling temperature of 907°C. To meet these requirements a temperature controlled laser process was developed, allowing to join the two materials without flux and filler material. The thickness of the intermetallic layer shows a dependency on the set temperature used to control the process. At optimum set temperature the thickness of intermetallic phases can be limited to about 5 μm. Tensile strengths of the joints of up to 75% of the aluminum base material were achieved.

  8. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  9. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties.

  10. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties

  11. Development of a 55 μm pitch 8 inch CMOS image sensor for the high resolution NDT application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Kim, G.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.

    2016-11-01

    A CMOS image sensor (CIS) with a large area for the high resolution X-ray imaging was designed. The sensor has an active area of 125 × 125 mm2 comprised with 2304 × 2304 pixels and a pixel size of 55 × 55 μm2. First batch samples were fabricated by using an 8 inch silicon CMOS image sensor process with a stitching method. In order to evaluate the performance of the first batch samples, the electro-optical test and the X-ray test after coupling with an image intensifier screen were performed. The primary results showed that the performance of the manufactured sensors was limited by a large stray capacitance from the long path length between the analog multiplexer on the chip and the bank ADC on the data acquisition board. The measured speed and dynamic range were limited up to 12 frame per sec and 55 dB respectively, but other parameters such as the MTF, NNPS and DQE showed a good result as designed. Based on this study, the new X-ray CIS with ~ 50 μm pitch and ~ 150 cm2 active area are going to be designed for the high resolution X-ray NDT equipment for semiconductor and PCB inspections etc.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welding Between St37 Steel and 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Ali; Shamanian, Morteza; Karimzadeh, Fathallah

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, St37 low-carbon steel and 304 stainless steel were welded successfully, with the thickness of 2 mm, by a friction stir spot welding process carried out at the tool dwell time of 6 s and two different tool rotational speeds of 630 and 1250 rpm. Metallographic examinations revealed four different zones including SZ and HAZ areas of St37 steel and SZ and TMAZ regions of 304 stainless steel in the weld nugget, except the base metals. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy experiments were used to investigate the possible formation of such phases as chromium carbide. Based on these experiments, no chromium carbide precipitation was found. The recrystallization of the weld nugget in the 304 steel and the phase transformations of the weld regions in the St37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld joint. Hardness changes of joint were acceptable and approximately uniform, as compared to the resistance spot weld. In this research, it was also observed that the tensile/shear strength, as a crucial factor, was increased with the rise in the tool rotational speed. The bond length along the interface between metals, as an effective parameter to increase the tensile/shear strength, was also determined. At higher tool rotational speeds, the bond length was found to be improved, resulting in the tensile/shear strength of 6682 N. Finally, two fracture modes were specified through the fracture mode analysis of samples obtained from the tensile/shear test consisting of the shear fracture mode and the mixed shear/tensile fracture mode.

  13. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  14. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  15. Compression test of cold-formedsteel perforated profile with steel sheathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanin Aleksandr Yur’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the stability and strength of cold-formed and perforated steel sigma-section columns with steel sheathing of different thickness. Ceilings with and without steel sheathing of different thickness are tested to failure in compression on a laboratory machine, which was based on a manual hydraulic jack. Series of 4 experiments with full-scale walls (2.5 m height were carried out. Also, for examination of the role of boundary conditions, the sheet in a ceiling is either left free or connected to base with screws.In civil engineering there are many experiments and methodologies for calculating the strength and buckling of ceiling with the sheathing of various materials, such as oriented strand board and gypsum board. However, for producing superstructures of ships the materials with high plastic properties and strength characteristics are required. For example steel possesses such properties. It was the main reason for conducting a series of experiments and studying the behavior of cold-formed steel columns with steel sheathing. During the experiments the deformation of the cross-section of three equally spaced cross sections was determined, as well as the axial deformation of the central column in the ceiling with steel sheathing.The test results showed the influence of the thickness of sheathing and boundary condition of a sheet on the strength and buckling of ceiling. According to the results of the tests it is necessary to evaluate the impact of the sheathing made of different materials and if necessary to carry out further tests.

  16. Refurbishment and modification of existing protective shipping packages (for 30-inch UF{sub 6} cylinders) per USDOT specification No. USA-DOT-21PF-1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housholder, W.R. [Nuclear Containers, Incorporated, Elizabethton, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper addresses the refurbishment procedures for existing shipping containers for 30-inch diameter UF{sub 6} cylinders in accordance with DOT Specification 21PF-1 and the criteria used to determine rejection when such packages are unsuitable for refurbishment.

  17. Specification for modular plug-in unit and standard 19-inch rack mounting unit based on NIM standard (for electronic nuclear instruments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The object is to define standard dimensions of a modular system based on NIM standard and comprising the plug-in unit Type N specified in IEC Publication 482, Dimensions of Electronic Instrument Modules (for Nuclear Electronic Instruments), the corresponding 19-inch rack mounting unit Type NC (conforming to IEC Publication 297, Dimensions of Panels and Racks) and the associated connectors. (author)

  18. Diffusion of Nickel into Ferritic Steel Interconnects of Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2013-01-01

    diffusion of nickel from the Ni/YSZ electrode or the contact layer into the interconnect plate. Such diffusion can cause austenization of the ferritic structure and could possibly alter corrosion properties of the steel. Whereas this process has already been recognized by SOFC stack developers, only...... a limited number of studies have been devoted to the phenomenon. Here, diffusion of Ni into ferritic Crofer 22 APU steel is studied in a wet hydrogen atmosphere after 250 hours of exposure at 800 °C using Ni-plated (~ 10 micron thick coatings) sheet steel samples as a model system. Even after...... this relatively short time all the metallic nickel in the coating has reacted and formed solid solutions with iron and chromium. Diffusion of Ni into the steel causes formation of the austenite FCC phase. The microstructure and composition of the oxide scale formed on the sample surface after 250 hours is similar...

  19. Shear Behavior of Corrugated Steel Webs in H Shape Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bridge engineering, girders with corrugated steel webs have shown good mechanical properties. With the promotion of composite bridge with corrugated steel webs, in particular steel-concrete composite girder bridge with corrugated steel webs, it is necessary to study the shear performance and buckling of the corrugated webs. In this research, by conducting experiment incorporated with finite element analysis, the stability of H shape beam welded with corrugated webs was tested and three failure modes were observed. Structural data including load-deflection, load-strain, and shear capacity of tested beam specimens were collected and compared with FEM analytical results by ANSYS software. The effects of web thickness, corrugation, and stiffening on shear capacity of corrugated webs were further discussed.

  20. Transformation of intermetallic layer due to oxidation heat treatment on hot-dipped aluminium coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishamuddin Husain; Abdul Razak Daud; Muhamad Daud; Nadira Kamarudin

    2013-01-01

    Heat treatment was introduced onto the aluminum coated low carbon steel to promote the formation of thin layer of oxide for enhancement of oxidation protection of steel. This process has transformed the existing intermetallic layer formed during hot dip aluminising process. Experiment was conducted on the low carbon steel substrates with 10 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm dimension. Hot dip aluminising of low carbon steel was carried out at 750 degree Celsius dipping temperature in a molten pure aluminum for 5 minutes. Aluminized samples were heat treated at 600, 700, 800, and 900 degree Celsius for 1 hour. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and EDAX were used in investigation. From the observation, it showed the intermetallic thickness increased with the increase in temperature. The result of EDAX analysis revealed the existence of oxide phase and the intermetallics. The XRD identified the intermetallics as Fe 2 Al 5 and FeAl 3 . (Author)

  1. Interaction of austenitic stainless steels with steam in temperature range 350...1200 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchenko, N.I.; Petel'guzov, I.A.; Slabospitskaya, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of steels 08Cr18Ni10Ti and 0Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb (EI-847) with steam at elevated temperatures from 450 to 1200 C and for comparison water corrosion at 350 C were investigated. Corrosion kinetics and oxide layer structure were studied, thicknesses of oxide layers and of unoxidized metal were measured, mechanical properties of steels after corrosion tests were determined. After tests at temperatures up to 700...800 C the exfoliating of the top oxide layers and irregular mass gain kinetics were observed, despite oxide layers grew and were preserved on samples. The possible composition of oxide layers was analyzed. The oxidized samples of steels after high-temperature tests still had strength and plasticity. The results can be of interest when examining the possibility of using steels as fuel cladding

  2. Experimental investigations of different steel resistances in the sodium-steam reaction zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazanov, A.S.; Kulpin, B.V.; Petukhov, V.P.; Ledovskikh, N.M.

    1975-01-01

    The results are stated on the experimental investigations of IX2M, IXI8HIOT, OXI2H2M and Sanikro-31 steel resistance in the sodium-steam reaction zone. A target in the form of a pipe was used in the experiments within which the excessive pressure of 95 atm. was produced with an inert gas. Steam was supplied through the nozzle to the sodium tank in which there was a movable target unit. The dependence of time-to failure and failure rate on the distance of the nozzle and target wall thickness was estimated for these steels. It was shown that the resistance of Sanikro-31 in the sodium steam reaction zone was 2.5, 3.5 and 6 times that of IXI8HIOT, OXI2H2M, IX2M steels, respectively. The failure curves were obtained on thin targets for two steels (author)

  3. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqua, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.pasqua@unical.it [University of Calabria, Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (Italy); Morra, Marco, E-mail: mmorra@nobilbio.com [Via Valcastellana 26 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  4. Application of low energy electron beam to precoated steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiishi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Recently in the fields of home electric appliances, machinery and equipment and interior building materials, the needs for the precoated steel plates having the design and function of high class increase rapidly. In order to cope with such needs, the authors have advanced the examination on the application of electron beam hardening technology to precoated steel plates, and developed the precoated steel plates of high grade and high design 'Super Tecstar EB Series' by utilizing low energy electron beam. The features of this process are (1) hardening can be done at room temperature in a short time-thermally weak films can be adhered, (2) high energy irradiation-the hardening of thick enamel coating and the adhesion of colored films are feasible, (3) the use of monomers of low molecular weight-by high crosslinking, the performance of high sharpness, high hardness, anti-contamination property and so on can be given. The application to precoated steel plate production process is the coating and curing of electron beam hardening type paints, the coating of films with electron beam hardening type adhesives, and the reforming of surface polymer layers by impregnating monomers and causing graft polymerization with electron beam irradiation. The outline of the Super Tecstar EB Series is described. (K.I.)

  5. Microstructure and fatigue properties of Mg-to-steel dissimilar resistance spot welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Xiao, L.; Chen, D.L.; Feng, J.C.; Kim, S.; Zhou, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mg/steel dissimilar spot weld had the same fatigue strength as Mg/Mg similar weld. ► Crack propagation path of Mg/Mg and Mg/steel welds was the same. ► Penetration of Zn into the Mg base metal led to crack initiation of Mg/steel weld. ► HAZ weakening and stress concentration led to crack initiation of Mg/Mg weld. -- Abstract: The structural application of lightweight magnesium alloys in the automotive industry inevitably involves dissimilar welding with steels and the related durability issues. This study was aimed at evaluating the microstructural change and fatigue resistance of Mg/steel resistance spot welds, in comparison with Mg/Mg welds. The microstructure of Mg/Mg spot welds can be divided into: base metal, heat affected zone and fusion zone (nugget). However, the microstructure of Mg/steel dissimilar spot welds had three different regions along the joined interface: weld brazing, solid-state joining and soldering. The horizontal and vertical Mg hardness profiles of Mg/steel and Mg/Mg welds were similar. Both Mg/steel and Mg/Mg welds were observed to have an equivalent fatigue resistance due to similar crack propagation characteristics and failure mode. Both Mg/steel and Mg/Mg welds failed through thickness in the magnesium sheet under stress-controlled cyclic loading, but fatigue crack initiation of the two types of welds was different. The crack initiation of Mg/Mg welds was occurred due to a combined effect of stress concentration, grain growth in the heat affected zone (HAZ), and the presence of Al-rich phases at HAZ grain boundaries, while the penetration of small amounts of Zn coating into the Mg base metal stemming from the liquid metal induced embrittlement led to crack initiation in the Mg/steel welds.

  6. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are

  7. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders--2004 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-01-01

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is stored in over 60,000 steel cylinders at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The cylinders range in age from 4 to 53 years. Although when new the cylinders had wall thicknesses specified to within manufacturing tolerances, over the years corrosion has reduced their actual wall thicknesses. The UF 6 Cylinder Project is managed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to safely maintain the UF 6 and the cylinders containing it. This report documents activities that address UF 6 Cylinder Project requirements and actions involving forecasting cylinder wall thicknesses. These requirements are delineated in the System Requirements Document (LMES 1997a), and the actions needed to fulfill them are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (LMES 1997b). The report documents cylinder wall thickness projections based on models fit to ultrasonic thickness (UT) measurement data. UT data is collected at various locations on randomly sampled cylinders. For each cylinder sampled, the minimum UT measurement approximates the actual minimum thickness of the cylinder. Projections of numbers of cylinders expected to fail various thickness criteria are computed from corrosion models relating minimum wall thickness to cylinder age, initial thickness estimates, and cylinder subpopulations defined in terms of plant site, yard, top or bottom storage positions, nominal thickness, etc. In this report, UT data collected during FY03 is combined with UT data collected in earlier years (FY94-FY02), and all of the data is inventoried chronologically and by various subpopulations. The UT data is used to fit models of maximum pit depth and minimum thickness, and the fitted models are used to extrapolate minimum thickness estimates into the future and in turn to compute

  8. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders--2004 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-07-07

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is stored in over 60,000 steel cylinders at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, and at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The cylinders range in age from 4 to 53 years. Although when new the cylinders had wall thicknesses specified to within manufacturing tolerances, over the years corrosion has reduced their actual wall thicknesses. The UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project is managed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to safely maintain the UF{sub 6} and the cylinders containing it. This report documents activities that address UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project requirements and actions involving forecasting cylinder wall thicknesses. These requirements are delineated in the System Requirements Document (LMES 1997a), and the actions needed to fulfill them are specified in the System Engineering Management Plan (LMES 1997b). The report documents cylinder wall thickness projections based on models fit to ultrasonic thickness (UT) measurement data. UT data is collected at various locations on randomly sampled cylinders. For each cylinder sampled, the minimum UT measurement approximates the actual minimum thickness of the cylinder. Projections of numbers of cylinders expected to fail various thickness criteria are computed from corrosion models relating minimum wall thickness to cylinder age, initial thickness estimates, and cylinder subpopulations defined in terms of plant site, yard, top or bottom storage positions, nominal thickness, etc. In this report, UT data collected during FY03 is combined with UT data collected in earlier years (FY94-FY02), and all of the data is inventoried chronologically and by various subpopulations. The UT data is used to fit models of maximum pit depth and minimum thickness, and the fitted models are used to extrapolate minimum thickness estimates into the future and in

  9. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  10. Residual stresses in steel and zirconium weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Coleman, C.E.; Bowden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional scans of residual stress within intact weldments provide insight into the consequences of various welding techniques and stress-relieving procedures. The neutron diffraction method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses has been applied to a circumferential weld in a ferritic steel pipe of outer diameter 114 mm and thickness 8.6 mm. The maximum tensile stresses, 250 MPa in the hoop direction, are found at mid-thickness of the fusion zone. The residual stresses approach zero within 20 mm from the weld center. The residual stresses caused by welding zirconium alloy components are partially to blame for failures due to delayed-hydride cracking. Neutron diffraction measurements in a GTA-welded Zr-2.5 Nb plate have shown that heat treatment at 530 C for 1 h reduces the longitudinal residual strain by 60%. Neutron diffraction has also been used to scan the residual stresses near circumferential electron beam welds in irradiated and unirradiated Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes. The residual stresses due to electron beam welding appear to be lower than 130 MPa, even in the as-welded state. No significant changes occur in the residual stress pattern of the electron-beam welded tube, during a prolonged exposure to thermal neutrons and the temperatures typical of an operating nuclear reactor

  11. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dario T; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-06-01

    Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics. Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain, braided, coaxial, or chain) and dimensions were selected for this study. For a torquing angle of 16.2° in the 3-teeth setup torsion moments can vary between 390 cNmm and 3299 cNmm depending on the retainer wire. For the 2-teeth setup the torsion moments are much smaller. Exposure to the flame of a butane-gas torch for 10 seconds to anneal the wire reduces the stiffness of the retainer wire. Clinicians must select wires for fixed retainers very carefully since the difference in resistance to torque is large. A high level of torque control can be achieved with a plain 0.016 × 0.016-inch or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non-uniform and non-reproducible effect.

  12. Smelting of contaminated steel scrap arising in the dismantling of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomer, C.R.; Lambley, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    In this work scrap steel components from nuclear power plants, about 2 t in all, have been studied during 16 melts and the melt products in these or in subsequent production melts brought below a de minimis (reclaim) radioactivity concentration of 10 pCi g -1 . Radioactivity inventories for furnace systems have been made by means of further melts with known amounts of radioactivities applied to steel surfaces as simulated contamination. In addition there have been melts with known amounts of radioactivities diluted uniformly into steel to provide sample calibration standards but also to directly measure dosage for various configurations and thicknesses of plate rolled from the steel. The work shows: that Co-60 has in all cases finished entirely in steel and in uniform dilution in both electric arc and induction furnace melting. That Cs radioactivities do not enter steel at all and can readily be made to stay substantially in slag in the induction furnace. Under certain circumstances which may not be fully practical in production furnaces, caesium can be retained in slag in the electric arc furnace. These results together permit combined dilution/decontamination reclaim of selected nuclear steel scrap. (author)

  13. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  14. Flexural behaviour and punching shear of selfcompacting concrete ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hazrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of steel fibres as a replacement to the conventional reinforcement under flexural behaviour and punching shear in self-compacting (SCC ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres. Four ribbed slabs with similar dimensions of 2.8 m length × 1.2 m width and 0.2m thickness were constructed. Two of the samples were considered as control samples (conventionally reinforced with reinforcement bars and welded mesh while another two samples were fully reinforced with 1% (80 kg/m3 volume of steel fibres incorporated to the SCC mix. For the flexural behaviour study, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to two line loads under four point bending. Meanwhile, for the punching shear analysis, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to a point load to simulate loading from the column. The analysis of the experimental results displayed that steel fibres incorporation had been found to effectively delay the first crack occurrence under both flexural and punching shear. The steel fibre replacement has been proven to be able to sustain up to 80% and 73% of the ultimate load resistance for flexural and punching shear, respectively, in comparison to conventionally reinforced ribbed slab structure. The visual observation carried out during the experiment exhibited similar failure mode for both steel fibre reinforced and control samples. This was observed for both flexural and punching shear samples. Overall, it can be concluded that the steel fibres had displayed a promising potential to effectively replace the conventional reinforcements.

  15. Travel to Steel Warehouse Inc., Southbend, Indiana. Trip report, May 4, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    On May 4, 1995 the author visited a steel plate and coil, cold reduction facility at Steel Warehouse Inc. located in South Bend, Indiana about 150 miles from Argonne. Some very interesting facts were learned about cold reduction of hot rolled steel during this visit. The company selected is only a cold reduction mill and buys steel from a number of steel producers. The author spent a total of about three hours with these people, and this included a tour of their pickling line, the small cold reduction mill which at present is limited to 15.5 in width maximum, and their large cold reduction mill which produces sheet and coil up to 72 in. wide. Some of the things that were learned, that will have an impact on the production of the Atlas steel plates are given here. (1) Hot rolled coils have some inherent, interesting, characteristics that must be taken into consideration when being cold reduced. (2) The monitoring of the coil thickness is only done along the center line of the coil, this has a serious impact on QC of plates cut from this coil for a number of reasons. (3) Hot rolled coils of steel in this particular instance may come from a number of different sources. This could cause problems if magnetic permeability is a serious issue. It was the author's impression that this facility is fairly typical of what one might expect from any similar facility

  16. Cathodic protection beneath thick external coating on flexible pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festy, Dominique; Choqueuse, Dominique; Leflour, Denise; Lepage, Vincent [Ifremer - Centre de Brest, BP 70 29280 Plouzane (France); Condat, Carol Taravel; Desamais, Nicolas [Technip- FLEXIFRANCE - PED/PEC - Rue Jean Hure, 76580 Le Trait (France); Tribollet, Bernard [UPR 15 du CNRS, Laboratoire LISE, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Flexible offshore pipelines possess an external polymer sheath to protect the structure against seawater. In case of an accidental damage of the outer sheath, the annulus of the flexible pipe is flooded with seawater. Far from the damage, corrosion and/or corrosion fatigue of armour steel wires in the annulus occur in a strictly deaerated environment; this has been studied for a few years. At the damage location, the steel wires are in direct contact with renewed seawater. In order to protect them against corrosion, a cathodic protection is applied using sacrificial anodes located at the end fittings. The goal of this work is to evaluate the extent of the cathodic protection as well as the electrolyte oxygen concentration beneath the coating around the damage, to know whether or not there is a non protected area with enough oxygen where corrosion and corrosion fatigue can occur. The experimental work was performed with a model cell (2000 x 200 mm{sup 2}), composed of a mild steel plate and a PMMA coat (transparent poly-methyl-methacrylate). The thickness of the gap between the steel plate and the PMMA coat was 0.5 mm. The potential and current density were monitored all along the cell (70 sensors). The oxygen concentration was also recorded. The experiments were performed with natural sea water, and cathodic protection was applied in a reservoir at one extremity of the cell. Another reservoir at the other cell extremity enabled carbon dioxide bubbling to simulate pipeline annular conditions. PROCOR software was used to simulate potential and current density within the gap and a mathematical model was developed to model oxygen concentration evolution. Both model and experimental results show that the extent of the cathodic protection is much greater than that of oxygen. Oxygen depletion is very quick within the gap when seawater fills it and the oxygen concentration is close to zero a few milli-metres from the gap opening. On the other hand, the cathodic protection

  17. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for use...

  18. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  19. Mezzo-scopic Analysis of Fracture Toughness in Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyata Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleavage fracture toughness of steels was mezzo-scopically analyzed on the basis of the statistical local fracture criterion approach. The statistical stress criterion at the crack tip region suggests that the cleavage fracture toughness in steels can be described as a function of the yield stress, the cleavage fracture stress, and other mechanical properties of the materials. Formulation of the cleavage fracture toughness was first examined through an investigation on correlation between the cleavage toughness and the cleavage fracture stress obtained in notched round bar specimens in accordance with the theoretical prediction. Then, the scatter of the toughness, specimen thickness effect on the toughness, deterioration of the toughness due to cold working and irradiation, and improvement of the toughness caused by the Ni addition, were analyzed through the formulation of the toughness.

  20. Multilayer modelling of stainless steel with a nanocrystallised superficial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J. [Laboratoire Energetique Mecanique Electromagnetisme (LEME), EA4416, Universite Paris Ouest, 92410 Ville d' Avray (France); Waltz, L., E-mail: laurent.waltz@univ-montp2.fr [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil de Montpellier (LMGC), University of Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34000 Montpellier (France); Montay, G.; Retraint, D.; Roos, A.; Francois, M. [Institut Charles Delaunay - LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6279, University of Technology of Troyes, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2012-02-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SMAT has been used for nanocrystallisation of an austenitic stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical response of the nano-phase has been obtained by an indirect method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minimisation of a stress formulated objective function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model predicts the strain at which diffuse necking occurs. - Abstract: In order to obtain the macroscopic mechanical response of a 316L stainless steel, nanocrystallised by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT), a multilayer model is proposed. The constitutive behaviour of each layer is determined from tensile tests or by an inverse method and its thickness is evaluated from Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM) analyses and local hardness measurements. The consistency of the model is verified by its ability to predict the strain at which diffuse necking occurs.

  1. Laser composite surfacing of stainless steel with SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Majumdar, J.; Chandra, B. Ramesh; Nath, A. K.; Manna, I.

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to improve wear resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel by laser composite surfacing with SiC. Laser processing has been carried out by pre-deposition of Fe + SiC powders (in the ratio of 85:15 and thickness of 100 m) on AISI 304 stainless steel substrate and subsequently, melting it using a 2 kW continuous wave CO2 laser. Following laser processing, a detailed characterization and evaluation of mechanical/electrochemical properties of the composite layer were undertaken to study the influence of laser processing on the characteristics and properties of the composite layer. Microstructure of the composite layer consisted of uniformly dispersed SiC particles in grain refined -Fe dendrites. Laser composite surfacing led to a significant improvement in microhardness and wear resistance as compared to as-received substrate. However, pitting corrosion property was marginally deteriorated due to laser composite surfacing.

  2. Corrosion Inhibition of High Speed Steel by Biopolymer HPMC Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition characteristics of the derivatives of biopolymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS film are investigated. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, the corrosion inhibition performance of high speed steel coated with HPMC derivatives is evaluated. The Nyquist plot and Tafel polarization demonstrate promising anti-corrosion performance of HPMC and HPMCP. With increasing film thickness, both materials reveal improvement in corrosion inhibition. Moreover, because of a hydrophobic surface and lower moisture content, HPMCP shows better anti-corrosion performance than HPMCAS. The study is of certain importance for designing green corrosion inhibitors of high speed steel surfaces by the use of biopolymer derivatives.

  3. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  4. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  5. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  6. Chloride accelerated test: influence of silica fume, water/binder ratio and concrete cover thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pereira

    Full Text Available In developed countries like the UK, France, Italy and Germany, it is estimated that spending on maintenance and repair is practically the same as investment in new constructions. Therefore, this paper aims to study different ways of interfering in the corrosion kinetic using an accelerated corrosion test - CAIM, that simulates the chloride attack. The three variables are: concrete cover thickness, use of silica fume and the water/binder ratio. It was found, by analysis of variance of the weight loss of the steel bars and chloride content in the concrete cover thickness, there is significant influence of the three variables. Also, the results indicate that the addition of silica fume is the path to improve the corrosion protection of low water/binder ratio concretes (like 0.4 and elevation of the concrete cover thickness is the most effective solution to increase protection of high water/binder ratio concrete (above 0.5.

  7. Thickness Influence on In Vitro Biocompatibility of Titanium Nitride Thin Films Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Duta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a study on the biocompatibility vs. thickness in the case of titanium nitride (TiN films synthesized on 410 medical grade stainless steel substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films were grown in a nitrogen atmosphere, and their in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed according to ISO 10993-5 [1]. Extensive physical-chemical analyses have been carried out on the deposited structures with various thicknesses in order to explain the differences in biological behavior: profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray diffraction and surface energy measurements. XPS revealed the presence of titanium oxynitride beside TiN in amounts that vary with the film thickness. The cytocompatibility of films seems to be influenced by their TiN surface content. The thinner films seem to be more suitable for medical applications, due to the combined high values of bonding strength and superior cytocompatibility.

  8. Pavement thickness evaluation using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dwayne Arthur

    Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement management and design. Much of the time this information is missing, out of date, or unknown for highway sections. Current technologies for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement thickness information; however, it is also time consuming, labor intensive, intrusive to traffic, destructive, and limited in coverage. FWD provides nondestructive estimates of both a surface thickness and total pavement structure thickness, including pavement, base and sub-base. On the other hand, FWD is intrusive to traffic and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement surface course thickness estimates with excellent data coverage at highway speed. Yet, disadvantages include the pavement thickness estimation being affected by the electrical properties of the pavement, limitations of the system utilized, and heavy post processing of the data. Nevertheless, GPR has been successfully utilized by a number of departments of transportation (DOTs) for pavement thickness evaluation. This research presents the GPR thickness evaluation methods, develops GPRPAVZ the software used to implement the methodologies, and addresses the quality of GPR pavement thickness evaluation.

  9. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  10. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...

  11. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early-...

  12. Influence of Freeze-Thaw Damage on the Steel Corrosion and Bond-Slip Behavior in the Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzhi Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the behavior of steel corrosion in various reinforced concrete under freeze-thaw environment. The influence of thickness of concrete cover is also discussed. Additionally, the bond-slip behavior of the reinforced concrete after suffering the freeze-thaw damage and steel corrosion has also be presented. The results show that the freeze-thaw damage aggravates the steel corrosion in concrete, and the results become more obvious in the concrete after suffering serious freeze-thaw damage. Compared with the ordinary concrete, both air entrained concrete and waterproofing concrete possess better resistance to steel corrosion under the same freeze-thaw environment. Moreover, increasing the thicknesses of concrete cover is also an effective method of improving the resistance to steel corrosion. The bond-slip behavior of reinforced concrete with corroded steel decreases with the increase of freeze-thaw damage, especially for the concrete that suffered high freeze-thaw cycles. Moreover, there exists a good correlation between the parameters of bond-slip and freeze-thaw cycles. The steel corrosion and bond-slip behavior of reinforced concrete should be considered serious under freeze-thaw cycles environment, which significantly impact the durability and safety of concrete structure.

  13. An Analysis of the Joints’ Properties of Fine-Grained Steel Welded by the MAG and SAW Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of properties of welded joints of fine-grained steel of P460NH type used more and more often in the modern constructions. A process of examining a technology of welding has been carried out on the thick-walled butt joints of sheet metal by two methods of welding namely MAG – 135 and SAW – 121. The article deals with a topic of optimizing a process of welding thick-walled welded joints of fine-grained steel due to their mechanicalproperties and efficiency.

  14. CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Œlusarczyk

    2009-01-01

    Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors response on n...

  15. Standard test method for conducting drop-weight test to determine nil-ductility transition temperature of ferritic steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature of ferritic steels, 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) and thicker. 1.2 This test method may be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the steels are subject to fracture toughness requirements as determined by the drop-weight test. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Design parameters of stainless steel plates for maximizing high frequency ultrasound wave transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Mark; Leong, Thomas; Swiergon, Piotr; Juliano, Pablo; Knoerzer, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This work validated, in a higher frequency range, the theoretical predictions made by Boyle around 1930, which state that the optimal transmission of sound pressure through a metal plate occurs when the plate thickness equals a multiple of half the wavelength of the sound wave. Several reactor design parameters influencing the transmission of high frequency ultrasonic waves through a stainless steel plate were examined. The transmission properties of steel plates of various thicknesses (1-7 mm) were studied for frequencies ranging from 400 kHz to 2 MHz and at different distances between plates and transducers. It was shown that transmission of sound pressure through a steel plate showed high dependence of the thickness of the plate to the frequency of the sound wave (thickness ratio). Maximum sound pressure transmission of ∼ 60% of the incident pressure was observed when the ratio of the plate thickness to the applied frequency was a multiple of a half wavelength (2 MHz, 6mm stainless steel plate). In contrast, minimal sound pressure transmission (∼ 10-20%) was measured for thickness ratios that were not a multiple of a half wavelength. Furthermore, the attenuation of the sound pressure in the transmission region was also investigated. As expected, it was confirmed that higher frequencies have more pronounced sound pressure attenuation than lower frequencies. The spatial distribution of the sound pressure transmitted through the plate characterized by sonochemiluminescence measurements using luminol emission, supports the validity of the pressure measurements in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thick legs - not always lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus

    2013-03-01

    Due to its increased presence in the press and on television, the diagnosis of lipedema is on the way to becoming a trendy diagnosis for those with thick legs. Despite this, one must recognize that lipedema is a very rare disease. It is characterized by disproportional obesity of the extremities, especially in the region of the hip and the legs, hematoma development after minimal trauma, and increased pressure-induced or spontaneous pain. Aids for making the correct diagnosis are (duplex) sonography, the waist-hip index or the waist-height index and lymphoscintigraphy. Important differential diagnoses are constitutional variability of the legs, lipohypertrophy in obesity, edema in immobility, edema in chronic venous insufficiency and rheumatic diseases. The symptom-based therapy of lipedema consists of conservative (compression, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise) and surgical treatments (liposuction). Until now there is no curative therapy. Obesity is an important risk factor for the severity and prognosis of lipedema. Further studies for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lipedema and in the end possible curative treatments are urgently needed. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  18. Impact of Holes on the Buckling of RHS Steel Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla'a H. AL-Shareef

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presented an experimental and theoretical study on the effect of hole on the behavior of rectangular hollow steel columns subjected to axial compression load. Specimens were tested to investigated the ultimate capacity and the load- axial displacement behavior of steel columns. In this paper finite element analysis is done by using general purpose ANSYS 12.0 to investigate the behavior of rectangular hollow steel column with hole. In the experimental work, rectangular hollow steel columns with rounded corners were used in the constriction of the specimens which have dimensions of cross section (50*80mm and height of (250 and 500mm with thickness of (1.25,4 and 6mm with hole ((α*80*80mm when α is equal to (0.2,0.4,0.6 and 0.8. Twenty four columns under compression load were tested in order to investigate the effect of hole on the ultimate load of rectangular hollow steel column. The experimental results indicated that the typical failure  mode for all the tested hollow specimen was the local buckling. The tested results indicated that the increasing of hole dimension leads to reduction in ultimate loads of tested column to 75%. The results show the reducing of load by 94.7% due to decreasing  the thickness of  column while the hole size is constant (0.2*80*80. The buckling load decreases by 84.62% when hole position changes from Lo=0.25L to 0.75L. Holes can be made in the middle of column with dimension up to 0.4 of column's length. The AISC (2005 presents the values closest to the experimental results for the nominal yielding compressive strength. The effect for increasing of slendeness ratio and thickness to area ratio(t/A leading to decreacing the critical stresses and the failure of column with large size of hole and (t/A ratio less than 0.74% was due to lacal  buckling while the global buckling failure was abserve for column with small size of hole and (t/A ratio above than 0.74%. The compersion  between the experimental

  19. Stainless steel reinforcement as a replacement for epoxy coated steel in bridge decks : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The corrosion resistance of 2304 stainless steel reinforcement and stainless steel clad reinforcement was compared to conventional and epoxy-coated reinforcement (ECR). 2304 stainless steel was tested in both the as-received condition (dark mottled f...

  20. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/reso/011/06/0067-0077. Keywords. Wootz steel; Damascus swords; Cyril Stanley Smith. Author Affiliations. S Ranganathan1 Sharada Srinivasan1. School of Humanities National Institute of Advanced Studies Bangalore 560 012, India ...