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Sample records for inch diameter circular

  1. Fabrication of 0.5-inch diameter FBR mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Benecke, M.W.; McCord, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Large diameter (0.535 inch) mixed oxide fuel pellets for Fast Breeder Reactor application were successfully fabricated by the cold-press-and-sinter technique. Enriched UO 2 , PuO 2 -UO 2 , and PuO 2 -ThO 2 compositions were fabricated into nominally 90% theoretical density pellets for the UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 compositions, and 88% and 93% T.D. for the PuO 2 -ThO 2 compositions. Some processing adjustments were required to achieve satisfactory pellet quality and density. Furnace heating rate was reduced from 200 to 50 0 C/h for the organic binder burnout cycle for the large, 0.535-inch diameter pellets to eliminate pellet cracking during sintering. Additional preslugging steps and die wall lubrication during pressing were used to eliminate pressing cracks in the PuO 2 -ThO 2 pellets

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NINE INCH DIAMETER, MACH 5.5, MONORAIL, ROCKET SLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nine inch diameter monorail rocket sled was designed, fabricated and tested at Holloman Air Force Base. The vehicle was designed to allow easy...replacement of appendages which were subject to severe aerodynamic heating and/or high wear rates. The monorail vehicle as described was shown to be

  3. Interim results: fines recycle testing using the 4-inch diameter primary graphite burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.B.

    1975-05-01

    The results of twenty-two HTGR primary burner runs in which graphite fines were recycled pneumatically to the 4-inch diameter pilot-plant primary fluidized-bed burner are described. The result of the tests showed that zero fines accumulation can easily be achieved while operating at plant equivalent burn rates. (U.S.)

  4. The dimensional changes of a 24 inch diameter vessel during a campaign of successive glass making runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout the life of a 24 inch diameter Glass Making Vessel used on the inactive Harvest Vitrification Plant dimensional measurements have been recorded. When glass is present the diameter increases due to thermal stresses. Some permanent longitudinal extension (about 1%) occurred over the 20 runs comprising the glass-making campaign. (author)

  5. Preparatory Study of Photomultiplier Tubes of 10-inch and 3-inch Diameter for KM3NeT Underwater Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large area photomultipliers are widely used in neutrino and astro-particle detectors to measure Cherenkov light in media like water or ice. The key element of these detectors are the so-called 'optical module', which consists of a photodetector enclosed in a transparent pressure-resistant container to protect it and ensure good light transmission. KM3NeT collaboration aims to construct an underwater 'hybrid' neutrino telescope by using two models detection unit. The 'tower' detection unit will be composed of large area 10-inch photomultipliers tube enclosed into 13-inch glass vessel sphere. In the 'string' detection unit instead, the light detector will be the 'digital optical module' (DOM) a glass vessel of 17-inch with 31 photomultipliers of 3- inch diameter looking upwards and downwards. The choice of two different kinds of photomultipliers, obliges us to investigate their main characteristics. Noise pulses at the anode of each photomultiplier strongly affect the performance of the detector. A large study was conducted on noise pulses of large area photomultipliers, considering time and charge distributions of dark pulses, pre-pulses, delayed pulses, and after-pulses. The contribution to noise pulses due to the presence of the external glass vessels was also studied. Moreover the presence of the Earth's magnetic field should modify quantities like gain and transit time spread in photomultipliers and we will deeply investigate on this. (authors)

  6. Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.P.; Onesto, A.T.; DeVita, V.

    1987-02-01

    This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis

  7. High spatial resolution gamma imaging detector based on a 5 inch diameter R3292 Hamamatsu PSPMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, R.; Majewski, S.; Kross, B.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Steinbach, D.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution imaging gamma-ray detectors were developed using Hamamatsu's 5 inch diameter R3292 position sensitive PMT (PSPMT) and a variety of crystal scintillator arrays. Special readout techniques were used to maximize the active imaging area while reducing the number of readout channels. Spatial resolutions approaching 1 mm were obtained in a broad energy range from 20 to 511 keV. Results are also presented of coupling the scintillator arrays to the PMT via imaging light guides consisting of acrylic optical fibers

  8. Critical heat flux experiments in a circular tube with heavy water and light water. (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.L.; Beus, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were performed to establish the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristics of heavy water and light water. Testing was performed with the up-flow of heavy and of light water within a 0.3744 inch inside diameter circular tube with 72.3 inches of heated length. Comparisons were made between heavy water and light water critical heat flux levels for the same local equilibrium quality at CHF, operating pressure, and nominal mass velocity. Results showed that heavy water CHF values were, on the average, 8 percent below the light water CHF values

  9. Scaling law in free walking of mice in circular open fields of various diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hiroto

    2016-03-01

    Open-field tests are routinely used to study locomotor activity in rodents. I studied the effects of apparatus size on rodent locomotor activity, specifically with respect to how resting and walking periods are interwoven. I explored the open-field behavior of mice utilizing circular open fields of various diameters. When the diameter of the test apparatus was greater than 75 cm, the durations of the resting and moving periods of free walking behavior obeyed bounded power-law distribution functions. I found that the properties of the scaling exponents and model selection became similar for test apparatus diameters greater than 75 cm. These results can provide a guide for the selection of the size of the test apparatus for use in the study of the open-field behavior of rodents.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can (open-quotes F-canclose quotes); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can (open-quotes Z-canclose quotes); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle (open-quotes CO-4close quotes). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO 2 F 2 +H 2 O and UF 4 +oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U 3 O 8 , and H 2 O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k eff + 2σ < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant

  11. Experimental and numerical approach on fracture behaviour of four inches diameter carbon-manganese cracked welded pipes in four point bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semete, P.; Faidy, C.; Lautier, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    EDF has conducted a research programme to demonstrate the fracture resistance of carbon-manganese welded pipes. The main task of this programme consisted of testing three four inches diameter (114.3 mm O.D.) thin welded pipes (8.56 mm thick) which are representative of those of the sites. The three pipes were loaded under four point bending at a quasi-static rate at -20 C till their maximum bending moment was reached. This paper presents the experimental results, finite element calculations and their comparison with the simplified fracture assessment method of the RSE-M Code. (author)

  12. Project W320 52-inch diameter equipment container load test: Test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the load tests performed on-site and off-site to structural qualify the 52-inch equipment containers designed and fabricated under Project W-320

  13. 40 CFR Table 25 to Subpart G of... - Effective Column Diameter (Fc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective Column Diameter (Fc) 25 Table..., Table 25 Table 25 to Subpart G of Part 63—Effective Column Diameter (Fc) Column type Fc (feet) 9-inch by 7-inch built-up columns 1.1 8-inch-diameter pipe columns 0.7 No construction details known 1.0 ...

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of stratified gas-liquid flow in inclined circular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, J.L.H.; Sampaio, P.A.B. de; Botelho, M.H.D.S.; Cunha, M.V.; Cunha Filho, J.S.; Su, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a stratified gas-liquid flow is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two measurement techniques, namely an ultrasonic technique and a visualization technique, are applied on an inclined circular test section using a fast single transducer pulse-echo technique and a high-speed camera. A numerical model is employed to simulate the stratified gas-liquid flow, formed by a system of non-linear differential equations consisting of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the κ-ω turbulence model. The test section used in this work is comprised mainly of a transparent circular pipe with inner diameter 1 inch, and inclination angles varying from -2.5 to -10.0 degrees. Numerical solutions are obtained for the liquid height as a function of inclination angles, and compared with our own experimental data. (author)

  15. A study of performance and cost improvement potential of the 120 inch (3.05 m) diameter solid rocket motor. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, S. J.; Rossen, J. N.

    1971-01-01

    A parametric study of ballistic modifications to the 120 inch diameter solid propellant rocket engine which forms part of the Air Force Titan 3 system is presented. 576 separate designs were defined and 24 were selected for detailed analysis. Detailed design descriptions, ballistic performance, and mass property data were prepared for each design. It was determined that a relatively simple change in design parameters could provide a wide range of solid propellant rocket engine ballistic characteristics for future launch vehicle applications.

  16. Three-dimensional vortex flow near the endwall of a short cylinder in crossflow: Stepped-diameter circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.B.; Sanitjai, S.; Ghosh, K.; Goldstein, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of geometry on the flow around a cylinder in crossflow is investigated in this study. Three different stepped-diameter circular cylinders (SDCC s) with varying step heights are used. Extensive flow visualization using the oil-lampblack and smoke-wire techniques and near wake velocity measurements using a hotwire anemometer reveal complex secondary flows on and around the SDCC. Six vortices are observed in the horseshoe vortex system near the cylinder–endwall junction and six additional vortices are found in the step-induced vortex system on the step surface. Based on these experimental results, new secondary flow models are proposed. The step-induced vortices separate from the step surface at both sides and move toward the endwall, washing down the sides of the top/bottom larger diameter cylinders and interact with the separated shear layer and horseshoe vortices. In this process, they modify the near wake flow significantly: they produce an increase in velocity near the endwall region (below the step) and a decrease in velocity near the mid-span region, even altering the oscillatory behavior of the wake. - Highlights: ► Extensive flow visualization for stepped-diameter circular cylinders in crossflow. ► Six vortices in the horseshoe vortex system near the base. ► Six additional step-induced vortices on the upstream symmetry plane of step surface. ► Power spectral analysis for u′ shows oscillatory nature of the wake.

  17. Three-dimensional vortex flow near the endwall of a short cylinder in crossflow: Uniform-diameter circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.B.; Sanitjai, S.; Ghosh, K.; Goldstein, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Flow characteristics, around a short uniform-diameter circular cylinder in crossflow, are investigated experimentally. Extensive flow visualization using oil-lampblack and smoke-wire methods have been performed. Near-wake velocity measurements have been performed using a hotwire anemometer. Complex secondary flows are observed on and around the cylinder in crossflow. Multiple vortices are observed in the horseshoe vortex system near the cylinder–endwall junction. Based on this flow visualization and local mass transfer measurement results, a six-vortex secondary flow model has been proposed. - Highlights: ► Flow visualizations and velocity measurements for a short circular cylinder. ► Six vortices in the horseshoe vortex system upstream of the base of the cylinder. ► Cross-stream turbulence intensity profiles show a similarity in their shape.

  18. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  19. SAFT 4{1/2} inch nickel hydrogen battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquesne, D.; Lacout, B.; Sennet, A. [SAFT Advanced Batteries, Poitiers (France)

    1995-12-31

    SAFT Advanced Batteries has now produced over 400 high capacity 4{1/2} inch Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells for flight programs. The 4.5 inch diameter, rabbit-ear cell design is designed to provide the anticipated energy required at the lowest practical weight. SAFT has incorporated into the design of the dry-powder nickel electrode, truly hermetic ceramic to metal seals, qualified terminal feedthroughs, high reliability mechanical design, composite pure platinum negative electrode, and zircar separator, plus more than 25 years experience in aerospace nickel cell technology, resulting in a 4{1/2} inch configuration with the 3{1/2} inch cell design carryover heritage. General performance requirements for GEO missions that SAFT cells meet are 15 years in orbit lifetime, 80% DOD, low mass to energy ratios, and flexible capacity by modifying number of electrodes in the stack. This design is qualified for geostationary orbits based on SAFT`s 3{1/2} inch qualification heritage, design verification, and cycling performed by customer Space Systems/LORAL in support of the INTELSAT VIIA and N-STAR flight programs.

  20. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-02-16

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20–25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg–Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg–Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm-2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  1. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20-25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg-Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg-Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm-2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  2. Test procedure for the Master-Lee and the modified Champion four inch hydraulic cutters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Master-Lee and the modified Champion 4 Inch hydraulic cutters are being retested to gather and document information related to the following: determine if the Master-Lee cutters will cut the trunnions of an Aluminum fuel canister and a Stainless Steel fuel canister; determine if the Master-Lee cutters will cut 1 1/2 inch diameter fire hose; determine if the modified Champion 4 inch blade will cut sections of piping; and determine the effectiveness of the centering device for the Champion 4 Inch cutters. Determining the limitations of the hydraulic cutter will aid in the process of debris removal in the K-Basin. Based on a previous test, the cutters were returned to the manufacturer for modifications. The modifications to the Champion 4 Inch Cutter and further testing of the Master-Lee Cutter are the subjects of these feature tests

  3. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  4. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  5. Operational maneuvers and pipelines activities repairs for the 32 inches scraper tool recovering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia, Jose; Salguero, Luis; Villanueva, Pedro [Compania Operadora del Gas Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2009-07-01

    Transportadora de Gas del Peru and the Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, responsible companies of the transport, operation and maintenance of the pipelines who transport natural gas and natural gas liquids respectively of the Camisea Project - Peru, following the internal policies and the maintenance plan of the pipeline transportation system was planned the activities for the internal pipeline inspection of these activities for 729.3 Km of natural gas pipeline covering diameters of 32 inches, 24 inches and 18 inches. After the first run of the cleaning tool, was scheduled the launch of the dummy scraper (scraper tool) along to the first 210 Km of the 32 inches natural gas pipeline , given changes in elevation along the trace and the low flow of transport. This scraper tool could not reach the final destination. After many series operational maneuvers as venting, creation of differential pressure in valves, the scraper tool only reach the first 75 Km of the trace. After an exhaustive analysis of trending pressure variations, it was concluded that this scraper showed intermittent progress of short durations, concluding that this scraper had not reach the next check point. In this way was decided to conduct operational maneuvers in order to locate, relocated and retrieve the scrapper tool from de 32 inches natural gas pipeline. (author)

  6. Development of a 10-inch HPD with integrated readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Giunta, M; Malakhov, N; Menzione, A; Pegna, R; Piccioli, A; Raffaelli, F; Sartori, G

    2003-01-01

    A round 10-in. diameter Hybrid Photodiode (HPD) with spherical entrance window is under development for Cherenkov imaging applications in cosmic ray astronomy. The HPD adopts the fountain focusing electron optics, which, as already demonstrated in the 5 inch Pad HPD, allows for a linear demagnification of the image over practically the full tube diameter. Self-triggering front-end electronics providing also sparse readout capability, has been tested. High-efficiency Rb//2Te cathodes have been produced on a UV extended borosilicate glass windows with very thin conductive underlayers of Indium Tin Oxide. We report on the design of the 10- in. HPD, the fabrication procedure and first tests of a 5-in. HPD with Rb//2Te photocathode and 2048 channels.

  7. Comparision of Incidental Reflection From Containerized Maintenance/Housekeeping Solutions and One Inch of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); MacQuigg, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wysong, Andrew Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze containerized maintenance/housekeeping fluids which will be analyzed as water that may be present under normal conditions of an operation. The reactivity worth is compared to the reactivity worth due to I-inch of close-fitting 4n water reflection and I-inch of close-fitting radial water reflection. Both have been used to bound incidental reflection by 2-liter bottles in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that, when the maintenance/housekeeping fluids are containerized the reactivity increase from a configuration which is bounding of normal conditions (up to eight bottles modeled with 2-liters of solution at varying diameter) is bound by I-inch of close fitting 4n water relection.

  8. Project Waiver of American Iron and Steel Requirements to the Napa Sanitation District for 24-Inch Diameter Butterfly Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiver approval by EPA pursuant to the American Iron and Steel Requirements of the Clean Water Act Section 608 to the Napa Sanitation District in California for the purchase of 24-inch butterfly valves.

  9. Project W420 Air Sampler Probe Placement Qualification Tests for Four 6-Inch Diameter Stacks: 296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, A.D.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The W420 project covers the upgrading of effluent monitoring systems at six ventilation exhaust stacks in tank-farm facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The discharge stacks of five of the six systems will be completely replaced. Four of these (296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18) will be of the same size, 6-inches in diameter and about 12-ft high. This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that these four stacks meet the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe. These criteria ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the location of the probe such that the extracted sample represents the whole. There are also criteria addressing the transport of the sample to the collection device. These are not covered in this report, but will need to be addressed later. These tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on a full-scale model of the 6-inch stick. The sequence of tests addresses the acceptability of the flow angle relative to the probe and the uniformity of air velocity and gaseous and particle tracers in the cross section of the stack. All tests were successful, and all acceptance criteria were met

  10. NUMERICAL MODELING OF STRESSES NEAR THE SURFACE IN THE INGOT OF CIRCULAR SECTION, CRYSTALLIZABLE AT CIRCULAR TORCH SECONDARY COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of computer calculations of the stresses, generated in outside layer of ingot of steel 20 of circular section with diameter 300 mm, in application to one of the industrial technological schemas of RUP “BMZ”, are presented. The segments of compressive and tensile stresses formation along the length of ingot are determined and the principal possibility of production of continuously cast slug of circular section at circular-torch spray cooling is shown.

  11. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  12. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch diameter photomultipliers used in KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be the largest underwater neutrino telescope and will be located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module and for KM3NeT it consists of 31 PMTs stored inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere of 17-inch that serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. Since the PMTs installed into an underwater neutrino telescope can change their orientation because of movements of the detector structure due to sea currents, the influence of Earth's magnetic field has been investigated. Magnetic shielding by means of a mu-metal cage is used to reduce magnetic effects and to make the response of the PMT sufficiently orientation independent. In order to quantify the effect on magnetic field, we compared measurements on variation of gain, transit time spread and detection efficiency for a 3-inch PMT in shielded and unshielded condition at 3 PMT inclinations. Data shows that variations are sufficiently low especially for timing properties.

  13. Evaluation of circularity error in drilling of syntactic foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrith H., S.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gaitonde, Vinayak

    2018-04-01

    Syntactic foams are widely used in structural applications of automobiles, aircrafts and underwater vehicles due to their lightweight properties combined with high compression strength and low moisture absorption. Structural application requires drilling of holes for assembly purpose. In this investigation response surface methodology based mathematical models are used to analyze the effects of cutting speed, feed, drill diameter and filler content on circularity error both at entry and exit level in drilling of glass microballoon reinforced epoxy syntactic foam. Experiments are conducted based on full factorial design using solid coated tungsten carbide twist drills. The parametric analysis reveals that circularity error is highly influenced by drill diameter followed by spindle speed at the entry and exit level. Parametric analysis also reveals that increasing filler content decreases circularity error by 13.65 and 11.96% respectively at entry and exit levels. Average circularity error at the entry level is found to be 23.73% higher than at the exit level.

  14. Behavior of water jet horizontally discharged from a small circular hole set on a circular pipe-surface into air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuyuki, Koji; Igarashi, Saburo; Sudo, Seiichi; Yamabe, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Oba, Risaburo

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the behavior of the water jet horizontally discharged from a small circular hole set on a circular pipe surface into air, in this paper, for the first step, we systematically observed the jet aspects, the efflux angle, the discharge coefficient and so on, when the hole diameter d is much smaller than the pipe diameter D. Since the upstream kinetic energy from the hole is somewhat higher than the downstream counterpart, the upstream partial jet with higher efflux angle crashes into the downstream partial jet and drives out the latter into up- and down-side, resulting in a marked pair of vortices, so that resulting in a three-dimensional spiral flow accompanying with marked surface waves. (author)

  15. Size of silicon strip sensor from 6 inch wafer (right) compared to that from a 4 inch wafer (left).

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Silicon strip sensors made from 6 inch wafers will allow for much larger surface area coverage at a reduced cost per unit surface area. A prototype sensor of size 8cm x 11cm made by Hamamatsu from a 6 inch wafer is shown next to a traditional 6cm x 6cm sensor from a 4 inch wafer.

  16. Pipe rupture test results; 4 inch pipe whip tests under BWR operational condition-clearance parameter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Syuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Kato, Rokuro; Saito, Kazuo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of pipe rupture studies in JAERI is to perform the model tests on pipe whip, restraint behavior, jet impingement and jet thrust force, and to establish the computational method for analyzing these phenomena. This report describes the experimental results of pipe whip on the pipe specimens of 4 inch in diameter under BWR condition on which the pressure is 6.77 MPa and the temperature is 285 0 C. The pipe specimens were 114.3 mm (4 inch) in diameter and 8.6 mm in thickness and 4500 mm in length. Four pipe whip restraints used in the tests were the U-bar type of 8 mm in diameter and fabricated from type 304 stainless steel. The experimental parameter was the clearance (30, 50 and 100 mm). The dynamic strain behavior of the pipe specimen and the restraints was investigated by strain gages and their residual deformation was obtained by measuring marking points provided on their surface. The Pressure-time history in the pipe specimens was also obtained by pressure gages. The maximum pipe strain is caused near the restraints and increases with increase of the clearance. The experimental results of pipe whip tests indicate the effectiveness of pipe whip restraints. The ratio of absorbed strain energy of the pipe specimen to that of the restraints is nearly constant for different clearances at the overhang length of 400 mm. (author)

  17. The impact of wire caliber on ERCP outcomes: a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch guidewires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Milan S; Sundaralingam, Praka; Fanning, Scott B; Lau, James; Menon, Jayaram; Ong, Evan; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Seo, Dong-Wan; Teo, Eng Kiong; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Reddy, D Nageshwar; Goh, Khean Lee; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-06-01

    Wire-guided biliary cannulation has been demonstrated to improve cannulation rates and reduce post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), but the impact of wire caliber has not been studied. This study compares successful cannulation rates and ERCP adverse events by using a 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch guidewire. A randomized, single blinded, prospective, multicenter trial at 9 high-volume tertiary-care referral centers in the Asia-Pacific region was performed. Patients with an intact papilla and conventional anatomy who did not have malignancy in the head of the pancreas or ampulla and were undergoing ERCP were recruited. ERCP was performed by using a standardized cannulation algorithm, and patients were randomized to either a 0.025-inch or 0.035-inch guidewire. The primary outcomes of the study were successful wire-guided cannulation and the incidence of PEP. Overall successful cannulation and ERCP adverse events also were studied. A total of 710 patients were enrolled in the study. The primary wire-guided biliary cannulation rate was similar in 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch wire groups (80.7% vs 80.3%; P = .90). The rate of PEP between the 0.025-inch and the 0.035-inch wire groups did not differ significantly (7.8% vs 9.3%; P = .51). No differences were noted in secondary outcomes. Similar rates of successful cannulation and PEP were demonstrated in the use of 0.025-inch and 0.035-inch guidewires. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01408264.). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The optimum circular field size for dental radiography with intraoral films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Straaten, F.J.; van Aken, J.

    1982-01-01

    Intraoral radiographs are often made with circular fields to irradiate the film, and in many instances these fields are much larger than the film. The feasibility of reducing a circular radiation field without increasing the probability of excessive cone cutting was evaluated clinically, and an optimum field size was determined. A circular radiation field 4.5 cm. at the tube end was found to minimize cone cutting and reduce the area of tissue irradiated by at least 44 percent. Findings suggest that current I.C.R.P. recommendations for a 6 to 7.5 cm. diameter circular field may be too liberal

  19. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - EVOLUTION 180 CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-03, VERSION A; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated gloveboxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Evolution 180 circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Evolution 180 is a portable, metal cutting circular saw with a 7-inch diameter blade. The blade is contained within the main housing and has a retractable lower blade guard to prevent operator access to the blade during operation and shutdown. The saw is equipped with a chip collector. The maximum cutting thickness for metal is one-quarter inch and can cut steel tubing and pipe 2 inches in diameter. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with the hand guide mounted to the side of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of the cut. The machine's circuitry will automatically shut the saw motor off if excessive overload is detected during operation. The one-half hour demonstration involved vertical and horizontal cuts and blade changes. During this process, operators experienced binding of the saw. This caused the blade to become hot, causing the sawdust collected in the chip collector to smoke. Care should be exercised to use the appropriate blade for the application, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Personal noise sampling indicated that neither worker was over the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 69.1 and 68.8 dBA. The personal noise sample taken during the special demonstration with the

  20. IMPACT TESTING OF MATERIALS USING AN EIGHT-INCH AIR GUN AND COMPUTER REDUCTION OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, L. F.

    1973-10-01

    A mechanical shock actuator has been converted into an air gun capable of firing 8-inch-·diameter (20.32 cm) projectiles to velocities exceeding 1000 fps (304.8 m/ s). This new capability has been used to study the effect of impact velocity upon the energy.absorbed by crushable materials. Shockpulse data is reduced by computer techniques and test results are displayed in either tabular or graphic format by use of the C DC 6600 Calcomp plotter.

  1. A small diameter, flexible, all attitude, self-contained germanium spectrometer. Operator's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordzindki, R.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Reeves, J.H.; Kohli, R.

    1997-05-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought about tremendous changes in the nuclear complex of the Department of Energy. One of the many changes has been the shutdown or decommissioning of many facilities that performed nuclear work. One of the steps in the process of decommissioning a facility involves the decontamination or removal of drain lines or pipes that may have carried radioactive materials at one time. The removal of all these pipes and drain lines to a nuclear disposal facility could be quite costly. It was suggested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that a germanium spectrometer could be built that could fit through straight pipes with a diameter as small as 5.08 cm (2 inches) and pass through curved pipes with a diameter as small as 7.6 cm (3 inches) such as that of a 3-inch p-trap in a drain line. The germanium spectrometer could then be used to simultaneously determine all gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in or surrounding the pipe. By showing the absence of any gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the pipes could then be reused in place or disposed of as non-radioactive material, thus saving significantly in disposal costs. A germanium spectrometer system has been designed by PNNL and fabricated by Princeton Gamma Tech (PGT) that consists of three segments, each 4.84 cm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Flexible stainless steel bellows were used to connect the segments. Segment 1 is a small liquid nitrogen reservoir. The reservoir is filled with a sponge-like material which enables the detector to be used in any orientation. A Stirling cycle refrigerator is under development which can replace the liquid nitrogen reservoir to provide continuous cooling and operation

  2. Comparison of measured and Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions from circular collimators for radiosurgical beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnaashari, K. N.; Allahverdi, M.; Gharaati, H.; Shahriari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is an important clinical tool for the treatment of small lesions in the brain, including benign conditions, malignant and localized metastatic tumors. A dosimetry study was performed for Elekta 'Synergy S' as a dedicated Stereotactic radiosurgery unit, capable of generating circular radiation fields with diameters of 1-5 cm at iso centre using the BEAM/EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Materials and Methods: The linear accelerator Elekta Synergy S equipped with a set of 5 circular collimators from 10 mm to 50 mm in diameter at iso centre distance was used. The cones were inserted in a base plate mounted on the collimator linac head. A PinPoint chamber and Wellhofer water tank chamber were selected for clinical dosimetry of 6 MV photon beams. The results of simulations using the Monte Carlo system BEAM/EGS4 to model the beam geometry were compared with dose measurements. Results: An excellent agreement was found between Monte Carlo calculated and measured percentage depth dose and lateral dose profiles which were performed in water phantom for circular cones with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm in diameter. The comparison between calculation and measurements showed up to 0.5 % or 1 m m difference for all field sizes. The penumbra (80-20%) results at 5 cm depth in water phantom and SSD=95 ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 mm for circular collimators with diameter 1 to 5 cm. Conclusion: This study showed that BEAMnrc code has been accurate in modeling Synergy S linear accelerator equipped with circular collimators

  3. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  4. Refurbishment and modification of existing protective shipping packages (for 30-inch UF{sub 6} cylinders) per USDOT specification No. USA-DOT-21PF-1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housholder, W.R. [Nuclear Containers, Incorporated, Elizabethton, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper addresses the refurbishment procedures for existing shipping containers for 30-inch diameter UF{sub 6} cylinders in accordance with DOT Specification 21PF-1 and the criteria used to determine rejection when such packages are unsuitable for refurbishment.

  5. Structural reinforcement of a {theta}16 inches tee made during operation with composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beim, Andre [Tresca Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vilani, Eduardo Cesar [Rust Engenharia Ltda., Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    An industrial installation went through a turnaround to increase capacity. A tie-in line had to be made for this, and a 16 inches diameter branch was required to be made on an existing 16 inches pipe. The joining of these elements resulted in a 'tee' that was supposed to receive a reinforcement plate. This reinforcement plate was not installed before the plant start-up. Code calculations and a finite element stress analysis showed that reinforcement was necessary. The only viable solution was the application of a composite material reinforcement, designed to substitute the missing reinforcement plate, and reduce the stresses to allowable levels. A new finite element stress analysis was made to determine the required thickness of this reinforcement. The first part of this work shows the results of the finite element stress analysis. Figures with stress contours of the analyses show the results. The second part shows the details of the installation of the reinforcement, which was made during normal operation of the plant. Pictures illustrate the main steps of the installation procedure. (author)

  6. 83-inch cyclotron research program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.C.

    1983-07-01

    In June of 1960 the US Atomic Energy Commission authorized the construction of a modern variable energy cyclotron facility at The University of Michigan to be used for research in nuclear spectroscopy. The Legislature of the State of Michigan made available funds for construction of a building to house the 83-inch cyclotron and auxiliary equipment as well as the University's remodeled 42-inch cyclotron. The research program centered around the 83-inch cyclotron was funded by the AEC and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), from September 1964 through March 1977. The program represented a continuation of the research effort using the 42-inch cyclotron facility which had been supported continuously by the AEC since February 1950. This final report to DOE briefly describes the research facility, the research program, and highlights the principal accomplishments of the effort. It begins with a historical note to place this effort within the context of nuclear physics research in the Department of Physics of the University of Michigan

  7. Investigation of the ductile fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel plate, welds, and 4-inch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.; Hays, R.A.; Gudas, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral fracture toughness tests were performed on welded 304 stainless steel 2-inch plate and 4-inch diameter pipe. The 2-inch plate was welded using a hot-wire automatic gas tungsten arc process. The tests were performed at 550 0 F, 300 0 F and room temperature. The results of the J-integral tests indicate that the Jsub(Ic) of the base plate ranged from 4400 to 6100 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values for the tests performed at 300 0 F and room temperature were beyond the measurement capacity of the specimens and appear to indicate that Jsub(Ic) was greater than 8000 in lb/in 2 . The J-integral tests performed on the weld metal specimens indicate that the Jsub(Ic) values ranged from 930 to 2150 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values of the weld metal specimens tested at 300 0 F and room temperature were 2300 and 3000 in lbs/in 2 respectively. One HAZ specimen was tested at 550 0 F and found to have a Jsub(Ic) value of 2980 in lbs/in 2 which indicates that the HAZ is an average of the base metal and weld metal toughness. These test results indicate that there is a significant reduction in the initiation fracture toughness as a result of welding. The second phase of this task dealt with the fracture toughness testing of 4-inch diameter 304 stainless steel pipes containing a gas tungsten arc weld. The pipes were tested at 550 0 F in four point bending. Three tests were performed, two with a through wall flaw growing circumferentially and the third pipe had a part through radial flaw in combination with the circumferential flaw. These tests were performed using unloading compliance and d.c. potential drop crack length estimate methods. The results of these tests indicate that the presence of a complex crack (radial and circumferential) reduces in the initiation toughness and the tearing modulus of the pipe material compared to a pipe with only a circumferentially growing crack. (orig.)

  8. THE INTERACTION OF A COLD ATOMISED SPRAY WITH A CIRCULAR CYLINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AROUSSI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques has significantly increased with the introduction of lasers. Laser based anemometry, such as Laser Doppler (LDA, Phase Doppler (PDA, and Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV can provide an accurate description of flows without interference. This study determines experimentally the fluid motion resulting from the interaction of a liquid spray with a circular cylinder. Two experimental settings were examined: the first is a discharging spray into free air and the second is a spray impinging on a circular cylinder placed 25 cylinder diameters downstream of the nozzle. These sprays were quantified using PIV. A non-intrusive droplet sizing technique was used to characterise the spray. This has shown that, within the spray, the average droplet diameter increases when the circular cylinder is introduced and so does the frequency of occurrence of these large droplets. In the wake behind the cylinder, the smaller droplets were quickly entrained and recirculated, while the larger droplets continued in the general direction of the spray cone.

  9. The Bearing Capacity of Circular Footings in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    dependent on the stress level and on the basis of the test results, a non linear Mohr failure criterion has been proposed. This yield criterion has been implemented in a finite element program and an analysis of the bearing capacity of a circular shaped model foundation, diameter 100mm, has been conducted...

  10. Test Report for MSFC Test No. 83-2: Pressure scaled water impact test of a 12.5 inch diameter model of the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster filament wound case and external TVC PCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Water impact tests using a 12.5 inch diameter model representing a 8.56 percent scale of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster configuration were conducted. The two primary objectives of this SRB scale model water impact test program were: 1. Obtain cavity collapse applied pressure distributions for the 8.56 percent rigid body scale model FWC pressure magnitudes as a function of full-scale initial impact conditions at vertical velocities from 65 to 85 ft/sec, horizontal velocities from 0 to 45 ft/sec, and angles from -10 to +10 degrees. 2. Obtain rigid body applied pressures on the TVC pod and aft skirt internal stiffener rings at initial impact and cavity collapse loading events. In addition, nozzle loads were measured. Full scale vertical velocities of 65 to 85 ft/sec, horizontal velocities of 0 to 45 ft/sec, and impact angles from -10 to +10 degrees simulated.

  11. Mechanical cleaning of oil spills in seawater using circular conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S.; Abou Kassem, J.; Zekri, A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain City (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Treatment of the crude oil pollution in seawater has attracted global attention during the last two decades. This study was undertaken using circular conduits as a mechanical means to clean oil spills in seawater under different conditions of temperature, oil gravity, shaking frequency, conduit diameter, and initial thickness of oil layer. An experimental model was designed and built to achieve the study. It consists of shaking water bath (to represent sea waves) fitted with temperature controller and glass tubes of different inside diameters of 0.3 cm, 0.5 cm, and 0.7 cm. Three crude oils of different oil gravity of 35{sup o}API, 38{sup o}API, and 47{sup o}API were investigated under different shaking frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 stroke/minute with different tube diameters. The results proved that application of mechanical cleaning of oil spills using circular conduits is a practical technique. The cleaning of black oil spills is more efficient than one of volatile oil. Furthermore, the results indicated that the increase of shaking frequency and/or water temperature provide(s) faster cleaning of oil spills while temperature increase recovers the maximum oil. (Author)

  12. Ductile fracture behavior of 6-inch diameter type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel piping containing a through-wall or part-through crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Kaneko, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Norio.

    1986-05-01

    The double ended guillotine break philosophy in the design base accident of the nuclear power plant is considered to be overly conservative from the view point of piping design. Through the past experiences and developments of the fabrication, inspection, and operation of nuclear power plants, it has been recognized that the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept can be justified in the LWR pressure boundary pipings. In order to verify the LBB concept, extensive experimental and theoretical works are being conducted in many countries. Furthermore, a revised piping design standard, in which LBB concept is introduced, is under preparation in Japan, U.S.A., and European countries. At JAERI, a research program to investigate the unstable ductile fracture behavior of LWR piping under bending load has been carried out as a part of the LBB verification researches since 1983. This report summarizes the result of the ductile fracture tests conducted at room temperature in 1983 and 84. The 6-inch diameter pipes of type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel pipe with a through-wall or part-through crack were tested under bending load with low or high compliance condition at room temperature. Pipe fracture data were obtained from the test as regards to load- displacement curve, crack extension, net section stress, J-resistance curve, and so on. Besides, the influence of the compliance on the fracture behavior was examined. Discussions are performed on the ductile pipe fracture criterion, flaw evaluation criterion, and LBB evaluation method. (author)

  13. Synthesis of circular and triangular gold nanorings with tunable optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiaoying

    2017-08-24

    This communication describes a robust wet-chemical synthetic strategy for the preparation of monodispersed circular and triangular gold nanorings. The localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanorings can be tuned by controlling the outer diameter and ridge thickness of the nanorings.

  14. Synthesis of circular and triangular gold nanorings with tunable optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiaoying; Liu, Yi; Lin, Meihua; Zhang, Qian; Nie, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    This communication describes a robust wet-chemical synthetic strategy for the preparation of monodispersed circular and triangular gold nanorings. The localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanorings can be tuned by controlling the outer diameter and ridge thickness of the nanorings.

  15. Computational study of heat transfer from the inner surface of a circular tube to force high temperature liquid metal flow in laminar and transition regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    Heat transfer through forced convection from the inner surface of a circular tube to force the flow of liquid sodium in the laminar and transition regions were numerically analysed for two types of tube geometries (concentric annular and circular tubes) and two types of equivalent diameters (hydraulic and thermal equivalent diameters). The unsteady laminar three-dimensional basic equations for forced convection heat transfer caused by a step heat flux were numerically solved until a steady state is attained. The code of the parabolic hyperbolic or elliptic numerical integration code series (PHOENICS) was used for calculations by considering relevant temperature dependent thermo-physical properties. The concentric annular tube has a test tube with inner and outer diameters of 7.6 and 14.3 mm, respectively, has a heated length of 52 mm, and an L/d of 6.84. The two circular tubes have inner diameters of 6.7 and 19.3 mm with L/d of 7.76 and 2.69, respectively, and a heated length of 52 mm. The inlet liquid temperature, inlet liquid velocity, and surface heat flux were equally set for each test tube as T in ≅573 to 585 K, u in = 0.0852 to 1 m/s, and q = 2×105 to 2.5×106 W/m2, respectively. The increase in temperature from the leading edge of the heated section to the outlet of the circular tubes (with a hydraulic diameter of d H = 6.7 mm and a thermal equivalent diameter d te = 19.3 mm) was approximately 2.70 and 1.21 times as large as the corresponding values of the concentric annular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm and an outer diameter of 14.3 mm, respectively. A quantity in the laminar and transition regions was suggested as the dominant variable involved in the forced convection heat transfer in the circular tube. The values of the local and average Nusselt numbers, Nu z and Nu av , respectively, for a concentric annular tube with d H = 6.7 mm and for a circular tube with d H = 6.7 mm were calculated to examine the effects of q, T in , and Pe on heat

  16. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  17. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1988-01-01

    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  18. Dependence of light scattering profile in tissue on blood vessel diameter and distribution: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2013-11-01

    Most methods for measuring light-tissue interactions focus on the volume reflectance while very few measure the transmission. We investigate both diffusion reflection and diffuse transmission at all exit angles to receive the full scattering profile. We also investigate the influence of blood vessel diameter on the scattering profile of a circular tissue. The photon propagation path at a wavelength of 850 nm is calculated from the absorption and scattering constants via Monte Carlo simulation. Several simulations are performed where a different vessel diameter and location were chosen but the blood volume was kept constant. The fraction of photons exiting the tissue at several central angles is presented for each vessel diameter. The main result is that there is a central angle that below which the photon transmission decreased for lower vessel diameters while above this angle the opposite occurred. We find this central angle to be 135 deg for a two-dimensional 10-mm diameter circular tissue cross-section containing blood vessels. These findings can be useful for monitoring blood perfusion and oxygen delivery in the ear lobe and pinched tissues. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  19. Numerical Investigation of Liquid Carryover in T-Junction with Different Diameter Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, William; Sam, Ban; Saieed, Ahmed; Tran, Cong Minh

    2018-03-01

    In offshore Malaysia, T-junction is installed at the production header as a compact separator to tap produced gas from reservoir as fuel gas for power generation. However, excessive liquid carryover in T-junction presents a serious operational issue because it trips the whole production platform. The primary objective of present study is to numerically investigate the liquid carryover due to formation of slug, subsequently its liquid carryover at different diameter ratio. The analyses were carried out on a model with 0.0254 m (1 inch) diameter horizontal main arm and a vertically upward side arm using Volume of Fluid Method. Three different sides to main arm diameter ratio of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3 were investigated with different gas and liquid superficial velocities. The results showed that, while the general trend is true that smaller diameter ratio T-junction has lesser liquid take off capacity, it has a very high frequency of low liquid carryover threshold. In other words, under slug flow, smaller diameter ratio T-junction is constantly transporting liquid even though at a lesser volume in comparison to regular T-junction.

  20. Sound transmission in slowly varying circular and annular ducts with flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Sound transmission through straight circular ducts with a uniform inviscid mean flow and a constant acoustic lining (impedance wall) is classically described by a modal expansion. A natural extension for ducts with axially slowly varying properties (diameter and mean flow, wall impedance) is a

  1. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Dynamics of the evaporative dewetting of a volatile liquid film confined within a circular ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fuqian

    2015-04-07

    The dewetting dynamics of a toluene film confined within a copper ring on a deformable PMMA film is studied. The toluene film experiences evaporation and dewetting, which leads to the formation of a circular contact line around the center of the copper ring. The contact line recedes smoothly toward the copper ring at a constant velocity until reaching a dynamic "stick" state to form the first circular polymer ridge. The average receding velocity is found to be dependent on the dimensions of the copper ring (the copper ring diameter and the cross-sectional diameter of the copper wire) and the thickness of the PMMA films. A model is presented to qualitatively explain the evaporative dewetting phenomenon.

  3. Transient thermal stresses in circular cylinder under intermittently sudden heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Y.; Saito, K.; Takeuti, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal stresses associated with the transient temperature distribution arising in a circular cylinder under intermittently changing sudden heat generation over a finite band and with heat loss to a surrounding medium on the remainder of the cylinder surface are exactly analysed. For the first time the temperature field in a circular cylinder under sudden heat generation over a finite band of the cylinder surface is determined by combined use of Fourier cosine, Laplace transforms in axial position and time, respectively. Secondly it is assumed that the temperature fields in a circular cylinder subjected to heat generation Qsub(i) (i=0, 1, 2, ...) independently over a finite band are given by T 0 (r,z,t), T 1 (r,z,t), T 2 (r,z,t),... respectively. Tsub(i)(r,z,t) indicates the temperature field before the i-th heat generation Qsub(i). The thermal stresses associated with the temperature field described above are analysed by using the Hoyle stress functions. Numerical calculations are carried out for the extensive case of the ratio of the heat-generating length to the diameter of cylinder. It is found that the time in which the maximum stresses occur on the cylinder surface does not depend on the heat-generating length-to-diameter ratio

  4. A novel 2D silicon nano-mold fabrication technique for linear nanochannels over a 4 inch diameter substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhifu; Qi, Liping; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A novel low-cost 2D silicon nano-mold fabrication technique was developed based on Cu inclined-deposition and Ar+ (argon ion) etching. With this technique, sub-100 nm 2D (two dimensional) nano-channels can be etched economically over the whole area of a 4 inch n-type  silicon wafer. The fabricating process consists of only 4 steps, UV (Ultraviolet) lithography, inclined Cu deposition, Ar+ sputter etching, and photoresist & Cu removing. During this nano-mold fabrication process, we investigated the influence of the deposition angle on the width of the nano-channels and the effect of Ar+ etching time on their depth. Post-etching measurements showed the accuracy of the nanochannels over the whole area: the variation in width is 10%, in depth it is 11%. However, post-etching measurements also showed the accuracy of the nanochannels between chips: the variation in width is 2%, in depth it is 5%. With this newly developed technology, low-cost and large scale 2D nano-molds can be fabricated, which allows commercial manufacturing of nano-components over large areas. PMID:26752559

  5. ECONOMICAL DESIGN OF CIRCULAR FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO SLOPES ON SANDY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Jayed Zedan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis presented here introduces three optimization techniques namely, Hooke and Jeeves, Fletcher-Reeves and Davidon-Fletcher-Powell as applied to design of the circular footing adjacent to slopes. A computer program was developed to solve this design problem using the conventional structural design approach   in conjunction with these methods, A simple study was performed to detect the sensitivity of the objective function to its design variables. A further parametric study was performed regarding the geometric configurations of the footing and loading conditions in order to provide the geotechnical engineer with some useful design curves. Hooke and Jeeves method has been proved to be very instructive in exposing the effect of the other methods.It has been proved that the minimum cost of the circular footing increases with the increase of the load whereas it decreases as the angle of internal friction increases and the Dcl/B ratio (column diameter/diameter of footing.

  6. Risk assessment of K Basin twelve-inch and four-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rate which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. Five four-inch drain valves are located in the north and south loadout pits (NLOP and SLOP), the weasel pit, the technical viewing pit, and the discharge chute pit. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations indicate that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the twelve-inch drain valve and that much less of the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor for the five four-inch drain valves. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this analysis are to: (1) evaluate the likelihood of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin and the five four-inch drain valves located in the pits from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the likelihood of exceeding a specific consequence (initial leak rate) from a damaged valve. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where each variable is modeled using available information and engineering judgement. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution (probability density function). Uncertainty exists because of the inherent

  7. Classification of gap flow regimes in two side-by-side circular cylinders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in a side-by-side configuration strongly depends on the transverse center-to-center gap spacing ratio (T/D) where D is the cylinder diameter. Based on the observed wake structure [13...

  8. A combination of permanent magnet and magnetic coil for a large diameter ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin; Kubota, Yusuke; Miyahara, Akira.

    1980-02-01

    A large diameter ion source for fast neutral beam injection is designed under a magnetic field (we call ''Uramoto Field'') composed of a circular ferrite permanent magnet and a usual coreless magnetic coil. As the magnetic filed is reduced abruptly in a discharge anode, an ion source with a uniform ion current density over a large diameter is produced easily without a ''button'' of ORNL duoPIGatron type ion source (a floating electrode to diffuse an axial plasma flow radially). (author)

  9. Theoretical study of hydraulic jump during circular horizontal hot leg injection in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hawary, Shehab; Abu-Elyazeed, Osayed S.M.; Fahmy, Adel Alyan; Meglaa, Khairy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The model is developed to predict the occurrence of onset hydraulic jump in a circular pipe. • Theoretical results are in agreement with experimental results and theory. • Effects of diameter of the injection pipe, Froude number and injected coolant mass are studied. - Abstract: One important phenomenon occurring during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL). The incidence of such CCFL is introduced by the onset of hydraulic jump. In the present work, a one dimensional model was modified to fit circular hot channel. The model was used to study the factors affecting the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical coolant flow depth during circular horizontal hot leg injection in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. The results showed good agreement with published experimental data of the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) at Mannheim, Germany. It was found that higher injected coolant mass flow rate increases the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical injection depth divided by the diameter of the injection pipe. Such behavior is thought to be due to the increase of the inertia force by increasing of the injected coolant mass flow rate and the inverse of the diameter of the injection pipe. It was found also that, the location of the occurrence of hydraulic jump increases with decreasing load effect. Therefore, these results reveal that the avoidance of CCFL as well as hydraulic jump through hot leg at maximum load can be achieved by decreasing the distance between the injection point and the pressure vessel to below 0.3 m, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the design diameter of the injection pipe in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. Moreover, the maximum critical depth (56 cm) is less than the diameter of the hot leg (78.74 cm) at an injected coolant mass flow of 400 kg/s, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the

  10. Study on water leak-tightness of small leaks on a 1 inch cylinder valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, T.; Kasai, Y.; Inabe, N.; Aritomi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Practical thresholds for water leak-tightness of small leaks were determined by experimentation. Measurements for small leak samples were taken of air leakage rates and water leakage rates for identical leak samples in order to identify parameters that influence water leak-tightness threshold. Four types of leaks were evaluated: a fine wire inserted in an O-ring seal, a glass capillary tube, a stainless steel orifice, and a scratched valve stem on a 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve. Experimental results demonstrated that the key parameter for water leak-tightness is the opening size of the leak hole. The maximum allowable hole size to achieve water leak-tightness ranged from 10 to 20 μm in diameter in this study. Experimental results with 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve samples demonstrated that the acceptance criteria for preshipment leakage test, 1x10 -3 ref-cm 3 .s -1 , as prescribed in ANSI N14.5 is an appropriate value from the point of view of water leak-tightness for enriched UF 6 packages. The mechanism of water leak-tightness is plugging by tiny particles existing in water. The water used in experiments in this study contained far fewer particles than in water assumed to be encountered under accident conditions of transport. Therefore, the water leak-tightness threshold determined in this study is a conservative value in a practical evaluation. (author)

  11. Circular Coinduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  12. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T and 75S-T Aluminum-alloy Strips with a Central Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR

    1948-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests at zero mean stress have been made on 0.032- and 0.064-inch 24S-T and 0.032-inch 75S-T sheet-metal specimens 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2 inches wide without a hole and with central holes giving a range of hole diameter D to specimen width W from 0.01 to 0.95. No systematic difference was noted between the results for the 0.032-inch and the 0.064-inch specimens although the latter seemed the more consistent. In general the fatigue strength based on the minimum section dropped sharply as the ration D/W was increased from zero to about 0.25. The plain specimens showed quite a pronounced decrease in fatigue strength with increasing width. The holed specimens showed only slight and rather inconclusive evidence of this size effect. The fatigue stress-concentration factor was higher for 75S-T than for 24S-T alloy. Evidence was found that a very small hole would not cause any reduction in fatigue strength.

  13. A small-animal imaging system capable of multipinhole circular/helical SPECT and parallel-hole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jianguo; Bradley, Eric L.; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Saha, Margaret S.; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and built a small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system equipped with parallel-hole and multipinhole collimators and capable of circular or helical SPECT. Copper-beryllium parallel-hole collimators suitable for imaging the ∼35 keV photons from the decay of 125 I have been built and installed to achieve useful spatial resolution over a range of object-detector distances and to reduce imaging time on our dual-detector array. To address the resolution limitations in the parallel-hole SPECT and the sensitivity and limited field of view of single-pinhole SPECT, we have incorporated multipinhole circular and helical SPECT in addition to expanding the parallel-hole SPECT capabilities. The pinhole SPECT system is based on a 110 mm diameter circular detector equipped with a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator array (1x1x5 mm 3 /pixel). The helical trajectory is accomplished by two stepping motors controlling the rotation of the detector-support gantry and displacement of the animal bed along the axis of rotation of the gantry. Results obtained in SPECT studies of various phantoms show an enlarged field of view, very good resolution and improved sensitivity using multipinhole circular or helical SPECT. Collimators with one, three and five, 1-mm-diameter pinholes have been implemented and compared in these tests. Our objective is to develop a system on which one may readily select a suitable mode of either parallel-hole SPECT or pinhole circular or helical SPECT for a variety of small animal imaging applications

  14. Three-phase flow (water, oil and gas in a vertical circular cylindrical duct with leaks: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fluid dynamic behavior of a three-phase flow (water-oil-natural gas in a vertical pipe with or without leakage. The studied pipe has 8 meters in length, circular cross-section with 25 cm in diameter and a leak, which hole has a circular shape with 10mm diameter located in the center of pipe. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for each phase (continuous phase - oil, dispersed phases - gas and water were numerically solved using ANSYS CFX software, in which the Eulerian-Eulerian model and the RNG - turbulence model were applied. Results of the pressure, velocity, temperature and volume fraction distributions of the involved phases are present and analyzed.

  15. Free convection performance of circular cavities having two active curved vertical sides and two inactive curved horizontal sides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridouane, El Hassan; Campo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A detailed review of the archival reveals that the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of circular cavities have not been investigated so far and of course their physical features are not understood. A prominent application of these cavities arises in the miniaturized packaging of electronic components that are subject to strict constraints. This paper addresses primarily steady-state laminar natural convection of air in a circular cavity of diameter H inscribed in a square cavity of side H where the corresponding sides are in contact at four points. A third cavity, an arc-square cavity whose shape lies between the square and circular cavity shapes is included in the analysis. The finite volume method is used to perform the numerical simulations. The methodology takes into account the second-order-accurate QUICK scheme for the discretization of the convective term, whereas the pressure-velocity coupling is handled with the SIMPLE scheme. Since the air is not assumed a Boussinesq gas, it was decided to take all thermophysical properties as temperature-dependent. In the end, it has been demonstrated that the circular cavity possesses a superior balance between heat transfer enhancement and size in cross-section area in comparison with the standard square cavity. The side of the square cavity is similar to the diameter of the circular cavity

  16. Pile load test on large diameter steel pipe piles in Timan-Pechora, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, S. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tart, B. [Golder Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Swartz, R. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pile load testing conducted in May and June of 1993 at the Polar Lights Ardalin project in Arkangelsk province, Russia, was documented. Pile load testing was conducted to determine the ultimate and allowable pile loads for varying pile lengths and ground temperature conditions and to provide creep test data for deformation under constant load. The piles consisted of 20 inch diameter steel pipe piles driven open ended through prebored holes into the permafrost soils. Ultimate pile capacities, adfreeze bond, and creep properties observed were discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Celiac Disease: Four Inches and Seven Pounds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease" Articles Celiac Disease Changes Everything / What is Celiac Disease? / Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 ...

  18. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  19. The use of low-radius circular-cross-section helical strakes for the reduction of VIV of tapered cylinders at high Reynolds numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Christensen, Silas Sverre

    2018-01-01

    % for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine towers during......^5, i.e. in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. Results indicate that circular strakes with a diameter corresponding to 3% of the mean diameter of the structure can be used to efficiently reduce VIV at Supercritical Reynolds numbers. This suggests that e.g. robes may be used as temporary helical...

  20. Operational circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) – Operational circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) entitled "Operational circulars", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 4 May 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 1 entitled "Operational Circulars” of December 1996. This new version clarifies, in particular, that operational circulars do not necessarily arise from the Staff Rules and Regulations, and the functional titles have been updated to bring them into line with the current CERN organigram. Department Head Office  

  1. Performance of patch repaired composite panels under fatigue loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, Feras H.; Hamoush, S.; Shivakumar, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of bonded patch-scarf repairs of full scale laminated composite panels under cyclic load conditions. Nondestructive testing to characterize the quality of repairs and destructive testing to evaluate the performance of repaired panels were used in this study. Carbon/Epoxy prepreg material used was used to lay up six-ply (12 in. x 27 in. /305x686mm) (-60/60/0) s quasi-isotropic laminates. 7-ply scarf repair with a gradient of 0.5 inch (12.7mm) per layer was used to perform the repair of a damaged zone. The patch consisted of 7.5 inches (190mm) diameter adhesive film, 1 inch (25.4mm) diameter filler ply at 90fiber orientation, and six plies (2-7 inches (51-178mm) diameter) to match the lay-up of the parent material. The study was extended to include defective repairs. The defect was engineered by inserting a 1 inch (25.4 mm) circular Teflon flaw between the fifth and sixth layers of the patch. A total of 28 panels were prepared and divided into five categories: (1) three pristine panels (undamaged parental materials); (2) three damaged panels (1-inch-centered-hole); (3) two repaired panels with wrong fiber orientation; (4) nine good repaired panels, and (5) eleven defective repair panels (1 inch flaw). A nondestructive evaluation to check the conditions of the repairs was performed on most of the tested panels that include the pulse-echo C-scan and pseudo through transmission air coupled and water coupled C-scan. Based on the results of the experimental evaluation of this study, good repair restored 95% of the tensile strength while defective repair restored 90% of the tensile strength of the pristine panels. Under fatigue loading, panels repaired with a 1 inch delamination flaw within the patch layers showed a major reduction in fatigue life compared to the good repair panels under similar loading conditions. (author)

  2. Torque expression of 0.018 and 0.022 inch conventional brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Eliades, T.; Katsaros, C.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the moments generated with low- and high-torque brackets. Four different bracket prescription-slot combinations of the same bracket type (Mini Diamond(R) Twin) were evaluated: high-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch and low-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch.

  3. Remote micro-encapsulation of curium-gold cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, M.S.; Voegele, A.L.; Hayes, W.N.; Sisson, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for fabricating minature, high-density capsules of curium-244 oxide contained in three concentric jackets of metallic gold (or silver), with the outer surface being free of alpha contamination. The completed capsules are right circular cylinders 0.2500-inch diameter and 0.125-inch tall, with each level of containment soldered (or brazed) closed. A typical capsule would contain approx. 70 mg of 244 Cm (5.7 Ci) mixed with 120 mg of gold powder in the form of a cermet wafer clad in three concentric, 0.010-inch thick, liquid tight jackets. This method of fabrication eliminates voids between the jackets and produces a minimum size, maximum density capsule. Cermet densities of 11.5 g/cc were obtained, with an overall density of 17.3 g/cc for the finished capsule

  4. Numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer from circular and cam-shaped tube bank in cross-flow of nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabdolah Lavasani, Arash; Bayat, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow around non-circular and circular shaped tube bank is studied. • Effect of using Al_2O_3-water nanofluid on flow and heat transfer is discussed. • Tubes are with in-line and staggered arrangement. • Pressure drop of non-circular tube is noticeably lower that circular tube. - Abstract: Flow and heat transfer of nanofluid inside circular and cam-shaped tube bank is studied numerically. Reynolds number for cam-shaped tube bank is defined based on equivalent diameter of circular tube and varies in range of 100 ⩽ Re_D ⩽ 400. Nanofluid is made by adding Al_2O_3 nanoparticle with volume fraction of 1–7% to pure water. Results show using nanofluid results in higher heat transfer rate for both circular tube bank and cam-shaped tube bank. Also, staggered arrangement has higher heat transfer for both circular and cam-shaped tube bank. Pressure drop from cam-shaped tube bank is substantially lower than circular tube bank for all range of Reynolds number and volume fraction.

  5. Numerical simulation of two-phase slug flow with liquid carryover in different diameter ratio T-junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, W.; Hon, L.; Saieed, A.; Ban, S.

    2017-10-01

    A smaller diameter conduit pointing at 12 o’clock position is typically hot-tapped to a horizontal laying production header in offshore platform to tap produced gas for downstream process train. This geometric feature is commonly known as T-junction. The nature of multiphase fluid splitting at the T-junction is a major operational challenge due to unpredictable production environment. Often, excessive liquid carryover occurs in the T-junction, leading to complete platform trip and halt production. This is because the downstream process train is not designed to handle excessive liquid. The objective of this research is to quantify the effect of different diameter ratio on phase separation efficiency in T-junction. The liquid carryover is modelled as two-phase air-water flow using Eulerian Mixture Model coupled with Volume of Fluid Method to mimic the slug flow in the main pipe. The focus in this paper is 0.0254 m (1 inch) diameter horizontal main arm and vertical branch arm with diameter ratio of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3. The present research narrowed the investigation to only slug flow regime using Baker’s map as reference. The investigation found that, contrary to common believe, smaller diameter ratio T-junction perform worse than larger diameter ratio T-junction.

  6. Magnetic circular dichroism of CdTe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhovskii, A. V.; Sokolov, A. E.; Tsipotan, A. S.; Zharkov, S. M.; Zabluda, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of water-soluble CdTe nanoparticles was observed in the visible spectral range for the first time. Diameter of nanoparticles varied from 2.3 to 4.5 nm. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra were also recorded. Absorption line at 19400 cm-1 and luminescent line at 18200 cm-1 were observed. Splitting of value 960 cm-1 was revealed in the MCD spectrum. Approximately the same splitting was extracted from the absorption spectrum. The MCD was identified as the temperature independent paramagnetic mixing effect. Nature of the absorption line and of its splitting are discussed.

  7. Correlations of CO2 at supercritical pressures in a vertical circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhihui; Jiang Peixue

    2010-01-01

    The experiment results of convection heat transfer of CO 2 at supercritical pressures in a 2 mm diameter vertical circular tube for upward flow and downward flow were analyzed for pressures ranging from 78 to 95 bar, inlet temperatures from to 25 to 40 degree C, and inlet Re numbers from 3000 to 20000. The results were compared with some well known empirical correlations for the heat transfer without buoyancy effects and the heat transfer with strong buoyancy effects. It is found that there is a big deviation between the experiment results and empirical correlations. Based on the experiment data, correlations are developed for the local Nusselt correlations of CO 2 at supercritical pressures in vertical circular tubes.(authors)

  8. Corrosion and deposit determination in large diameter pipes by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.

    2006-08-01

    Two steel reference pipes with outer diameters of 8 and 12 inches were machined to make artificial defects on each of them, such as inside and outside steps of different wall thicknesses, inside and outside flat bottomed holes (FBH) of different diameters and depths on steps, flat area (FA), and ground patch (GP). The artificial defect were made to simulate natural corrosion attack as regular corrosion and pitting. The two reference pipes were tested according to tangential radiography technique and double wall single image technique. Tangential radiography technique had been applied using Co-60 radio-isotope to determine the steps thicknesses, the FBH, the remaining wall thickness under the FA, the remaining wall thickness above the GP, and the minimum detectable thickness of the artificial cement deposit on the two reference pipes, with and without insulation. Double wall single image technique had also been applied on the two reference pipes with and without insulation using Ir-192 radio-isotope to measure the flat bottomed holes depths, GP depth, and FA depth by density measurement. The measurement results obtained from the radiographs confirm that, tangential radiography technique can be applied to detect and evaluate the inside and outside regular corrosion attack in the large diameter pipes. It can also be applied to detect and evaluate the outside FBH with depth equal or greater than 10%. Inside 10% FBH and inside 20% FBH can not be detected if their diameters are not larger than certain value related to diameter and wall thickness of the pipe under test. Increasing the film density up to 5 outside the pipe did not provide any detection improvement of 10% and 20% inside FBH. Tangential radiography technique can also be applied to detect and measure the deposit inside the pipes. Double wall technique can be applied as an alternative method of the tangential radiography technique to detect and to evaluate the shallow and small diameter, 10% and 20% inside FBH

  9. Administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    • N° 21 - August 2003 Special leave This circular has been amended. Copies of this circular are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  10. Administrative Circulars Rev.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 19 (Rev. 3) - April 2003 Subsistence indemnity - Other expenses necessarily incurred in the course of duty travelAdministrative Circular N° 25 (Rev. 2) - April 2003 Shift work - Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service - These circulars have been revised. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128Copies of these circulars are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp

  11. Gigantic Circular Shock Acoustic Waves in the Ionosphere Triggered by the Launch of FORMOSAT-5 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Jia-Ting

    2018-02-01

    The launch of SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket delivered Taiwan's FORMOSAT-5 satellite to orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 18:51:00 UT on 24 August 2017. To facilitate the delivery of FORMOSAT-5 to its mission orbit altitude of 720 km, the Falcon 9 made a steep initial ascent. During the launch, the supersonic rocket induced gigantic circular shock acoustic waves (SAWs) in total electron content (TEC) over the western United States beginning approximately 5 min after the liftoff. The circular SAWs emanated outward with 20 min duration, horizontal phase velocities of 629-726 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 390-450 km, and period of 10.28 ± 1 min. This is the largest rocket-induced circular SAWs on record, extending approximately 114-128°W in longitude and 26-39°N in latitude ( 1,500 km in diameter), and was due to the unique, nearly vertical attitude of the rocket during orbit insertion. The rocket-exhaust plume subsequently created a large-scale ionospheric plasma hole ( 900 km in diameter) with 10-70% TEC depletions in comparison with the reference days. While the circular SAWs, with a relatively small amplitude of TEC fluctuations, likely did not introduce range errors into the Global Navigation Satellite Systems navigation and positioning system, the subsequent ionospheric plasma hole, on the other hand, could have caused spatial gradients in the ionospheric plasma potentially leading to a range error of 1 m.

  12. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  13. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; del Real, R. P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vá zquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  14. A growth factor signaling cascade confined to circular ruffles in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Welliver

    2012-06-01

    The formation of macropinosomes requires large-scale movements of membranes and the actin cytoskeleton. Over several minutes, actin-rich surface ruffles transform into 1–5 µm diameter circular ruffles, which close at their distal margins, creating endocytic vesicles. Previous studies using fluorescent reporters of phosphoinositides and Rho-family GTPases showed that signals generated by macrophages in response to the growth factor Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF appeared transiently in domains of plasma membrane circumscribed by circular ruffles. To address the question of how signaling molecules are coordinated in such large domains of plasma membrane, this study analyzed the relative timing of growth factor-dependent signals as ruffles transformed into macropinosomes. Fluorescent protein chimeras expressed in macrophages were imaged by microscopy and quantified relative to circular ruffle formation and cup closure. The large size of macropinocytic cups allowed temporal resolution of the transitions in phosphoinositides and associated enzyme activities that organize cup closure. Circular ruffles contained transient and sequential spikes of phosphatidylinositol (4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3, diacylglycerol, PI(3,4P2, PI(3P and the activities of protein kinase C-α, Rac1, Ras and Rab5. The confinement of this signal cascade to circular ruffles indicated that diffusion barriers present in these transient structures focus feedback activation and deactivation of essential enzyme activities into restricted domains of plasma membrane.

  15. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP NUMBER: 2001-05, VERSION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades

  16. Cylindrical magnetization model for glass-coated microwires with circular anisotropy: Statics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrejon, J.; Thiaville, A.; Adenot-Engelvin, A.L.; Vazquez, M.; Acher, O.

    2011-01-01

    The static magnetization profile of glass-coated microwires with effective circular anisotropy is investigated using micromagnetics. In this family of microwires, the ferromagnetic nucleus with an amorphous character presents a magnetic structure composed of an inner region with axial domains and an outer region with circular domains, due to magnetoelastic anisotropy. A one-dimensional micromagnetic model is developed, taking into account both the exchange and magnetoelastic anisotropy energies, and solved quasi analytically. The total energy, magnetization profiles and magnetization curves are investigated as a function of radius and anisotropy constant of the nucleus. This work represents a fundamental study of the magnetization process in these amorphous microwires and provides guidelines for the production of microwires with tailored magnetic properties. En passant, the nucleation problem in an infinite cylinder, introduced by W.F. Brown, is revisited. - Research highlights: → Magnetic microwires with circular anisotropy are studied by micromagnetic model. → The ratio R/Δ is a fundamental quantity to determine the magnetic structure. → Reduction of diameter and anisotropy favours the growth of axial core.

  17. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  18. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  19. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-01-24

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  20. On-chip synthesis of circularly polarized emission of light with integrated photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Li, Mo

    2014-05-01

    The helicity of circularly polarized (CP) light plays an important role in the light-matter interaction in magnetic and quantum material systems. Exploiting CP light in integrated photonic circuits could lead to on-chip integration of novel optical helicity-dependent devices for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum optics. In this Letter, we demonstrate a silicon photonic circuit coupled with a 2D grating emitter operating at a telecom wavelength to synthesize vertically emitting, CP light from a quasi-TE waveguide mode. Handedness of the emitted circular polarized light can be thermally controlled with an integrated microheater. The compact device footprint enables a small beam diameter, which is desirable for large-scale integration.

  1. Design for Circular Behaviour: Considering Users in a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wastling

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a linear economy, a product is manufactured and sold to a customer. Then, little concern is given to what the user actually does with it when they have it. However, in a circular economy where the aim is to circulate products at their highest level of value, the customer’s behaviour can become an important part of the system. Circular design strategies have tended to focus on the physical aspects of a product (e.g., disassembly, material selection, but the design of products and services can also have an influence on user behaviour and, to date, this aspect of circular design has not been fully explored. This project aims to define what key user behaviours are required for circular business models to work and to outline how design can enable these ‘circular behaviours’. This research project consists of a literature review, case study analysis and expert interviews with practitioners. A theoretical framework for designing products and services to encourage circular behaviour is developed. This work provides an initial step towards a better understanding of the user’s role in the transition to a circular economy as well as a preliminary model for how design for behaviour change strategies could be implemented in this context.

  2. Variable wide range of lens power and its improvement in a liquid-crystal lens using highly resistive films divided into two regions with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Marenori; Sato, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    The variable range of lens power of a liquid-crystal (LC) lens driven by two voltages is discussed on the basis of calculated and experimental results. The LC lens has two electrodes, which are a circularly hole-patterned electrode and a circular electrode, in addition to a common electrode, and highly resistive transparent films. The variable range of lens power increases with increasing driving voltage applied across the circularly hole-patterned electrode and the common electrode, and with decreasing diameter of highly resistive films. However, the optical-phase retardation profile tends to deviate from a parabolic curve in these cases. As a method to improve the trade-off properties, the highly resistive film is divided into two regions with different diameters, where the sheet resistance of an outer film is larger than that of an inner one. The improved LC lens has a lens power that varies in a wide range, and it exhibits a good parabolic phase retardation profile.

  3. Circular defects detection in welded joints using circular hough transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizal Yazid; Mohd Harun; Shukri Mohd; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Shaharudin Sayuti; Muhamad Daud

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography is one of the common non-destructive testing which employs manual image interpretation. The interpretation is very subjective and depends much on the inspector experience and working conditions. It is therefore useful to have pattern recognition system in order to assist human interpreter in evaluating the quality of the radiograph sample, especially radiographic image of welded joint. This paper describes a system to detect circular discontinuities that is present in the joints. The system utilizes together 2 different algorithms, which is separability filter to identify the best object candidate and Circular Hough Transform to detect the present of circular shape. The result of the experiment shows a promising output in recognition of circular discontinuities in a radiographic image. This is based on 81.82-100% of radiography film with successful circular detection by using template movement of 10 pixels. (author)

  4. Validation and Application of Computed Radiography (CR) Tangential Technique for Wall Thickness Measurement of 10 Inch Carbon Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Amry Amin Abas; Arshad Yassin; Sukhri Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas industry requires Non Destructive Testing (NDT) to ensure each components, in-service and critical, are fit-for-purpose. Pipes that are used to transfer oil or gas are amongst the critical component that needs to be well maintained and inspected. Typical pipe discontinuities that may lead to unintended incidents are erosion, corrosion, dent, welding defects, etc. Wall thickness assessment, with Radiography Testing (RT) is normally used to inspect such discontinuities and can be performed with two approaches; (a) center line beam tangential technique (b) offset from the centre pipe tangential technique. The latter is a method of choice for this work because of the pipe dimension and limited radiation safe distance at site. Two successful validation approaches (simulation and experimental) were performed to determine the probability of successfulness before the actual RT work with tangential technique is carried out. The pipe was a 10 inch diameter in-service wrapped carbon steel. A 9 Ci Ir-192 and white Imaging Plate (IP) were used as a gamma radiation source and to record the radiographic image. Result of this work suggest that RT with tangential technique for 10 inch wrapped in-service carbon steel pipe can be successfully performed. (author)

  5. Geometry effects on magnetization dynamics in circular cross-section wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturma, M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Toussaint, J.-C., E-mail: jean-christophe.toussaint@neel.cnrs.fr, E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Gusakova, D., E-mail: jean-christophe.toussaint@neel.cnrs.fr, E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-06-28

    Three-dimensional magnetic memory design based on circular-cross section nanowires with modulated diameter is the emerging field of spintronics. The consequences of the mutual interaction between electron spins and local magnetic moments in such non-trivial geometries are still open to debate. This paper describes the theoretical study of domain wall dynamics within such wires subjected to spin polarized current. We used our home-made finite element software to characterize the variety of domain wall dynamical regimes observed for different constriction to wire diameter ratios d/D. Also, we studied how sizeable geometry irregularities modify the internal micromagnetic configuration and the electron spin spatial distribution in the system, the geometrical reasons underlying the additional contribution to the system's nonadiabaticity, and the specific domain wall width oscillations inherent to fully three-dimensional systems.

  6. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP NUMBER: 2001-02, VERSION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it

  7. Buckling Test Results and Preliminary Test and Analysis Correlation from the 8-Foot-Diameter Orthogrid-Stiffened Cylinder Test Article TA02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Thornburgh, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 (referred to herein as TA02) are presented. TA02 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch-long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch-vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to combined compression and bending loads. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), February 3-6, 2009, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project (SBKF). The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF researchers.

  8. Mechanism of subcooled water flow boiling critical heat flux in a circular tube at high liquid Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The subcooled boiling heat transfer and the steady state critical heat flux (CHF) in a vertical circular tube for the flow velocities (u=3.95 to 30.80 m/s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop comprised of a multistage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The SUS304 test tube of inner diameter (d=6 mm) and heated length (L=59.5 mm) is used in this work. The outer surface temperatures of the SUS304 test tube with heating are observed by an infrared thermal imaging camera and a video camera. The subcooled boiling heat transfers for SUS304 test tube are compared with the values calculated by other workers' correlations for the subcooled boiling heat transfer. The influence of flow velocity on the subcooled boiling heat transfer and the CHF is investigated into details based on the experimental data. Nucleate boiling surface superheats at the CHF are close to the lower limit of the heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation temperature and the homogeneous spontaneous nucleation temperature. The dominant mechanism of the subcooled flow boiling CHF on the SUS304 circular tube is discussed at high liquid Reynolds number. On the other hand, theoretical equations for k-ε turbulence model in a circular tube of a 3 mm in diameter and a 526 mm long are numerically solved for heating of water on heated section of a 3 mm in diameter and a 67 mm long with various thicknesses of conductive sub-layer by using PHOENICS code under the same conditions as the experimental ones previously obtained considering the temperature dependence of thermo-physical properties concerned. The Platinum (Pt) test tube of inner diameter (d=3 mm) and heated length (L=66.5 mm) was used in this experiment. The thicknesses of conductive sub-layer from non-boiling regime to CHF are clarified. The thicknesses of conductive sub-layer at the CHF point are evaluated for various flow velocities. The experimental values of the CHF are also compared with the corresponding

  9. Aero-acoustic design and test of a multiple splitter exhaust noise suppressor for a 0.914m diameter lift fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A lift fan exhaust suppression system to meet future VTOL aircraft noise goals was designed and tested. The test vehicle was a 1.3 pressure ratio, 36 inch (91.44 cm) diameter lift fan with two chord rotor to stator spacing. A two splitter fan exhaust suppression system thirty inches (76.2 cm) long achieved 10 PNdB exhaust suppression in the aft quadrant compared to a design value of 20 PNdB. It was found that a broadband noise floor limited the realizable suppression. An analytical investigation of broadband noise generated by flow over the treatment surfaces provided very good agreement with the measured suppression levels and noise floor sound power levels. A fan thrust decrement of 22% was measured for the fully suppressed configuration of which 11.1% was attributed to the exhaust suppression hardware.

  10. Measurement of fluid velocity development behind a circular cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goharzadeh, Afshin; Molki, Arman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a non-intrusive experimental approach for obtaining a two-dimensional velocity distribution around a 22 mm diameter circular cylinder mounted in a water tunnel. Measurements were performed for a constant Reynolds number of 7670 using a commercial standard particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Different flow patterns generated behind the circular cylinder are discussed. Both instantaneous and time-averaged velocity distributions with corresponding streamlines are obtained. Key concepts in fluid mechanics, such as contra-rotating vortices, von Kármán vortex street, and laminar-turbulent flow, are discussed. In addition, brief historical information pertaining to the development of flow measurement techniques—in particular, PIV—is described. (paper)

  11. Circular pools in the seagrass beds of the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, and their possible origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, BBPA; Wolff, WJ

    The tidal flats of the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, are covered by vast beds of Zostera noltii. At low tide these seagrass beds appear to be interspersed with partly vegetated, circular pools of 5-25 in diameter. Between February and May 2001 we described these pools and studied their possible origin.

  12. Progress in Electron Beam Mastering of 100 Gbit/inch2 Density Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Minoru; Furuki, Motohiro; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Aki, Yuichi; Kawase, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Miyokawa, Toshiaki; Mutou, Masao; Handa, Nobuo

    2004-07-01

    We developed an electron beam recorder (EBR) capable of recording master discs under atmospheric conditions using a novel differential pumping head. Using the EBR and optimized fabrication process for Si-etched discs with reactive ion etching (RIE), a bottom signal jitter of 9.6% was obtained from a 36 Gbit/inch2 density disc, readout using a near-field optical pickup with an effective numerical aperture (NA) of 1.85 and a wavelength of 405 nm. We also obtained the eye patterns from a 70 Gbit/inch2 density disc readout using an optical pickup with a 2.05 NA and the same wavelength, and showed almost the same modulation ratio as the simulation value. Moreover, the capability of producing pit patterns corresponding to a 104 Gbit/inch2 density is demonstrated.

  13. Experimental investigation of the mutual interference flow of two circular cylinders by flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Yoshifumi; Vitkovičová, Rut

    In order to understand the aspect of the mutual interference flow from two circular cylinders, the visual observation experiment was performed by use a water flow apparatus. The purpose of this study is accumulation of the basic image data for comparing with numerical computation or previous experimental results. In this report, the intervals of two circular cylinders were varied, the visualization experiment was performed, and the vortex shedding characteristics and the flow pattern in each case were investigated. The cylinder setting conditions were seven kinds (the position of the rear-side circular cylinder is changed). The cylinder diameter ratios were four kinds (D/d=1.0, 1.67, 2.5 and 5.0). The variation of Reynolds number was three kinds (Re=548.7, 1200 and 2500). The dye oozing streak method was used in this visualization experiment. Although the previous PIV experimental result and present result obtained the same flow feature, the aspect of an interference flow became clear by changing the color of tracer ink.

  14. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  15. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  16. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  17. Variation of linear and circular polarization persistence for changing field of view and collection area in a forward scattering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, John D.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for a laboratory-based forward-scattering environment, where 1 μm diameter polystyrene spheres are suspended in water to model the optical scattering properties of fog. Circular polarization maintains its degree of polarization better than linear polarization as the optical thickness of the scattering environment increases. Both simulation and experiment quantify circular polarization's superior persistence, compared to that of linear polarization, and show that it is much less affected by variations in the field of view and collection area of the optical system. Our experimental environment's lateral extent was physically finite, causing a significant difference between measured and simulated degree of polarization values for incident linearly polarized light, but not for circularly polarized light. Through simulation we demonstrate that circular polarization is less susceptible to the finite environmental extent as well as the collection optic's limiting configuration.

  18. Comparison of silicon strip tracker module size using large sensors from 6 inch wafers

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Two large silicon strip sensor made from 6 inch wafers are placed next to each other to simulate the size of a CMS outer silicon tracker module. On the left is a prototype 2 sensor CMS inner endcap silicon tracker module made from 4 inch wafers.

  19. Selection of large diameter drills with the aid of a computer, between diesel and electric alternatives for sedimentary mining. Seleccion de perforadoras de gran diametro con ayuda de ordenador, alternativa diesel electrica en mineria sedimentaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomo Gomez, M. (ENCASUR, Ciudad Real (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    The communication develops a rotary drill rig selection study carried out in Mina Emma, ENCASUR Puertollano (Open pit coal mine), for diameters extended from 9 7/8 to 15 inches and bench heights 10, 15 and 20 meters. Since the choice of diameters is in the transition area from diesel to electric machines, the conclusions are specially interesting in making buying decisions of this kind. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  1. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex

  2. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-01-18

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  3. Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajendran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.

  4. Effect of High Porosity Screen on the Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The change in flow characteristics downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder surrounded by a permeable cylinder (outer cylinder made of a high porosity screen was investigated in shallow water using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique. The diameter of the inner cylinder, outer cylinder and the water height were kept constant during the experiments as d = 50 mm, D = 100 mm and hw = 50 mm, respectively. The depth-averaged free stream velocity was also kept constant as U = 180 mm/s which corresponded to a Reynolds number of Red = 9000 based on the inner cylinder diameter. It was shown that the outer permeable cylinder had a substantialeffect on the vortex formation and consequent vortex shedding downstream of the circular cylinder, especially in the near wake. The time averaged vorticity layers, streamlines and velocity vector field depict that the location of the interaction of vortices considerably changed by the presence of the outer cylinder. Turbulent statistics clearly demonstrated that in comparison to the natural cylinder, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses decreased remarkably downstream of the inner cylinder. Moreover, spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations showed that the vortex shedding frequency significantly reduced compared to the natural cylinder case.

  5. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to February 1997, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  6. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  7. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of April 2002. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  8. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of May 1999, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  9. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  10. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  11. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-09-26

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  12. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  13. Exploring the diameter and surface dependent conformational changes in carbon nanotube-protein corona and the related cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xingchen; Lu, Dawei; Hao, Fang; Liu, Rutao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNT diameter and surface area govern the stability of adsorbed proteins. • More BSA was loaded and destabilized on smaller CNTs. • Protein corona reduces the cytotoxicity of CNTs - Abstract: In this work, we investigated and compared carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of different diameters regarding their interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and their ability to alter protein structure. BSA was exposed to CNT solutions, and the effects were assessed by utilizing fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), bichinchoninic acid (BCA) and zeta-potential measurement assays. We demonstrate that CNT diameter and surface area play key roles in influencing the stability of adsorbed proteins. Results showed that the secondary and tertiary structural stability of BSA decreased upon adsorption onto CNTs, with greater decrease on smaller-diametered nanotubes. Besides, more protein was loaded onto CNTs with small diameter, reducing the cytotoxicity. This study, therefore, provides fundamental information for the influence of CNT diameter and surface on protein behavior, which may be helpful to understand toxic effects of CNTs and prove beneficial for developing novel biomedical devices and safe use of nanomaterials

  14. Design of Evaporator for Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment-NPP 1000 MW, PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyono Daryoko

    2007-01-01

    The evaporator for liquid radioactive waste treatment of 1000 MW NPP-PWR has been designed. The basic calculate of this design was capacity 7000 l/hr, which 5 mg/l solid content. The system used was superheated steam 3.4 atmosphere, 281°F. The data required from design of evaporator are evaporator part (heat exchanger): diameter of shell is 33 inch (82.50 cm), nominal diameter tube is 1.5 inch (3.75 cm), number of tube is 215, tube arrangement triangular pitch is 1 inch pitch, height 600 cm; Mist separator: diameter is 200 inch (500 cm), height 600 inch (1500 cm); Condenser: diameter of shell is 33 inch (82.50 cm), nominal diameter tube is 1.5 inch (3.75 cm), number of tube is 215, tube arrangement triangular pitch is 1 inch pitch, height 600 cm. (author)

  15. Experimental investigation of the mutual interference flow of two circular cylinders by flow visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aspect of the mutual interference flow from two circular cylinders, the visual observation experiment was performed by use a water flow apparatus. The purpose of this study is accumulation of the basic image data for comparing with numerical computation or previous experimental results. In this report, the intervals of two circular cylinders were varied, the visualization experiment was performed, and the vortex shedding characteristics and the flow pattern in each case were investigated. The cylinder setting conditions were seven kinds (the position of the rear-side circular cylinder is changed. The cylinder diameter ratios were four kinds (D/d=1.0, 1.67, 2.5 and 5.0. The variation of Reynolds number was three kinds (Re=548.7, 1200 and 2500. The dye oozing streak method was used in this visualization experiment. Although the previous PIV experimental result and present result obtained the same flow feature, the aspect of an interference flow became clear by changing the color of tracer ink.

  16. Electronic thermal conductivity of 2-dimensional circular-pore metallic nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Cong-Liang; Lin, Zi-Zhen; Luo, Dan-Chen; Huang, Zun

    2016-01-01

    The electronic thermal conductivity (ETC) of 2-dimensional circular-pore metallic nanoporous material (MNM) was studied here for its possible applications in thermal cloaks. A simulation method based on the free-electron-gas model was applied here without considering the quantum effects. For the MNM with circular nanopores, there is an appropriate nanopore size for thermal conductivity tuning, while a linear relationship exists for this size between the ETC and the porosity. The appropriate nanopore diameter size will be about one times that of the electron mean free path. The ETC difference along different directions would be less than 10%, which is valuable when estimating possible errors, because the nanoscale-material direction could not be controlled during its application. Like nanoparticles, the ETC increases with increasing pore size (diameter for nanoparticles) while the porosity was fixed, until the pore size reaches about four times that of electron mean free path, at which point the ETC plateaus. The specular coefficient on the surface will significantly impact the ETC, especially for a high-porosity MNM. The ETC can be decreased by 30% with a tuning specular coefficient. - Highlights: • For metallic nanoporous materials, there is an appropriate pore size for thermal conductivity tuning. • ETC increases with increasing pore size until pore size reaches about four times EMFP. • The ETC difference between different directions will be less than 10%. • The ETC can be decreased by 30% with tuning specular coefficient.

  17. Simulation of adsorber tube diameter's effect on new design silica gel-water adsorption chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasruddin, Taufan, A.; Manga, A.; Budiman, D.

    2017-03-01

    A new design of silica gel-water adsorption chiller is proposed. The design configuration is composed of two sorption chambers with compact fin tube heat exchangers as adsorber, condenser, and evaporator. Heat and mass recovery were adopted in order to increase the cooling capacity. Numerical modelling and calculation were used to show the performance of the chiller with different adsorber tube diameter. Under typical condition for hot water inlet/cooling water inlet/chilled water outlet temperatures are 90/30/7°C, respectively, the simulation results showed the best average value of COP, SCP, and cooling power are 0.19, 15.88 W/kg and 279.89 W using 3/8 inch tube.

  18. Variable diameter CO2 laser ring-cutting system adapted to a zoom microscope for applications on polymer tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Erik; Bohnert, Patrick; Kraus, Matthias; Kilper, Roland; Müller, Ute; Buchmann, Martin; Brunner, Robert

    2016-11-20

    This paper presents the conception and implementation of a variable diameter ring-cutting system for a CO2 laser with a working wavelength of 10.6 μm. The laser-cutting system is adapted to an observation zoom microscope for combined use and is applicable for the extraction of small circular areas from polymer films, such as forensic adhesive tapes in a single shot. As an important characteristic for our application, the variable diameter ring-cutting system provides telecentricity in the target area. Ring diameters are continuously tunable between 500 μm and 2 mm. A minimum width of less than 20 μm was found for the ring profile edge. The basic characteristics of the system, including telecentricity, were experimentally evaluated and demonstrated by cutting experiments on different polymer tapes and further exemplary samples.

  19. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex

  20. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  1. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  2. Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2015-05-01

    We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h. For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w/h∼1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w/h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w/h≫1, these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.

  3. Freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, D.; Moeschke, M.; Werle, H.

    1983-10-01

    The freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes has been studied in a series of experiments. Several tubes were used in the same test. This demonstrated a good reproducibility and allowed systematic parameter variations, especially of the channel diameter. The time-dependance of the penetration was observed with a film camera and these date provide a good basis for a detailed check of sophisticated models which are in development. (orig.) [de

  4. Natural convection heat transfer from a vertical circular tube sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharne, S.P.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine natural convection heat transfer coefficients (a) on a plain vertical circular plate, and (b) on a similar plate with a square array of non-conducting tubes fixed in it. The experiments were carried out using air as the heat transfer medium. The diameter of the brass plates used was 350 mm. The diameter of the bakelite tubes used was 19.2 mm. The range of Rayleigh numbers was from 1.06x10 8 to 1.66x10 8 . The results show that the heat transfer coefficients in case (a) are very close to those obtained using standard correlations for vertical flat plates, whereas for case (b) the heat transfer coefficients are at least 50 percent higher than those predicted by the Churchill-Chu correlation. It is hence concluded that the disturbance to boundary layer caused by the presence of tubes enhances the heat transfer coefficient significantly. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  5. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  6. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  7. Boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.W.; Ma, C.F.; Yu, J.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to characterize the boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids. The effects of noncondensable gases and surface aging on boiling curves were considered. The present study focused on the effects of jet parameters (jet exit velocity, radial distance from the stagnation point and nozzle diameter) and fluid subcooling on incipient boiling superheat and superheat excursion, as well as the physical mechanism of boiling hysteresis. Results show that the incipient boiling superheat decreases only with fluid subcooling regardless of jet parameters, and that the superheat excursion increases with nozzle diameter and radial distance from the stagnation point and decreasing jet exit velocity and fluid subcooling. Boiling hysteresis occurs due to deactivation of vapor embryos within larger cavities. Three anomalous phenomena at boiling inception are recorded and discussed in terms of irregular activation of vapor embryos

  8. Test results of a jet impingement from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Ueda, Shuzo; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    Hypothetical instantaneous pipe rupture is now considered to be one of the design basis accidents during the operation of the light water reactor. If a pipe rupture accidnet occurs, the pipe will start moving with the sudden discharge of internal fluid. So, the various apparatus such as pipe whip restraints and jet deflectors are being installed near the postulated break location to protect the nuclear power plants against the effect of postulated pipe rupture. Pipe whipping test and jet discharge test are now being conducted at the Division of Reactor Safety of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report describes the test results of the jet discharge from a 4 inch pipe under BWR LOCA condition. In front of the pipe exit the target disk of 1000 mm in diameter was installed. The distance between the pipe exit and the target was 500 mm. 13 pressure transducers and 13 thermocouples were mounted on the target disk to measure the pressure and temperature increase due to jet impingement on the target. (author)

  9. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. EL Wakil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  10. Three-dimensional transition in the wake of a circular cylinder by direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. J.; Mo, J. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Tanahashi, M.; Miyauchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional time-dependent flow past a circular cylinder is numerically investigated using direct numerical simulation for Reynolds number 280 and 300. The higher-order finite difference scheme is employed for the spatial distributions along with the second order Adams-Bashforth and the first order backward-Euler time integration. In x-y plane, the convection term is applied by the 5th order upwind scheme and the pressure and viscosity terms are applied by the 4th order central difference. And in spanwise, Navier-Stokes equation is distributed using of spectral method. At Reynolds number 259 the two-dimensional wake becomes linearly unstable to a second branch of modes with wavelength about 1.0 diameters at onset (B-mode). Present results of three-dimensional effects of in wake of a circular cylinder is represented with spanwise and streamwise vorticity contours as Reynolds numbers

  11. STRIDE II: A Water Strider-inspired Miniature Robot with Circular Footpads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozcan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water strider insects have attracted the attention of many researchers due to their power-efficient and agile water surface locomotion. This study proposes a new water strider insect-inspired robot, called STRIDE II, which uses new circular footpads for high lift, stability and payload capability, and a new elliptical leg rotation mechanism for more efficient water surface propulsion. Using the advantage of scaling effects on surface tension versus buoyancy, similar to water strider insects, this robot uses the repulsive surface tension force on its footpads as the dominant lift principle instead of creating buoyancy by using very skinny (1 mm diameter circular footpads coated with a superhydrophobic material. The robot and the insect propel quickly and power efficiently on the water surface by the sculling motion of their two side-legs, which never break the water surface completely. This paper proposes models for the lift, drag and propulsion forces and the energy efficiency of the proposed legged robot, and experiments are conducted to verify these models. After optimizing the robot design using the lift models, a maximum lift capacity of 55 grams is achieved using 12 footpads with a 4.2 cm outer diameter, while the robot itself weighs 21.75 grams. For this robot, a propulsion efficiency of 22.3% was measured. The maximum forward and turning speeds of the robot were measured as 71.5 mm/sec and 0.21 rad/sec, respectively. These water strider robots could be used in water surface monitoring, cleaning and analysis in lakes, dams, rivers and the sea.

  12. A Description of Methodologies Used in Estimation of A-Weighted Sound Levels for FAA Advisory Circular AC-36-3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    second) Dia propeller diameter (expressed in inches) T°F air temperature in degrees Farenheit T°C air temperature in degrees Celsius T:dBA total dBA...eMpiriC31 function to the absolute noise level ordinate. The term 240 log ( MH is the most sensitive and important part of the equation. The constant (240...standard day, zero wind, dry, zero gradient runway, at a sea level airport. 2. All aircraft operate at maximum takeoff gross weight. 3. All aircraft climb

  13. 12-inch x-ray image intensifier with thin metal input window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Yoshiharu; Anno, Hidero; Harao, Norio [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1982-08-01

    Borosilicate glass has been used for X-ray input window of image intensifiers (I.I.) up to now. Now two new types of 12-inch metal I.I., RT12301C and RT12302C, have been developed. They use convex 1-mm aluminum (instead of 5-mm borosilicate glass) for the input window. Adopting a high-performance penta-electronic lens and a new type of light guide CsI film, these intensifiers have greatly improved contrast, quantum detection efficiency (QDE) and resolution capability. In spite of low dosage, image quality equivalent to that in the conventional direct radiograph is obtained through combined use of the new-type 12-inch metal I.I. with 0.3-mm small-focal-spot X-ray tube. Great contribution to digital radiography is expected of this I.I.

  14. Heat Transfer Experiments with Supercritical CO{sub 2} in a Vertical Circular Tube (9.0 mm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Tae Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Woo Gun; Bae, Yoon Yeong [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been operated at KAERI for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of supercritical CO{sub 2} at several test sections with a different geometry. The loop uses CO{sub 2} because it has critical pressure and temperature which is much lower than water. Experimental study of heat transfer to supercritical CO{sub 2} in a vertical circular tube with and inner diameter of 9.0mm has been performed. CO{sub 2} flows downward through the vertical circular tube for the simulation of the water rod which may be used for a moderation of the reactor. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed and compared with the upward flow test results previously performed at the same test section at KAERI.

  15. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  16. Circular states of atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwak, R.; Holley, J.; Chang, P.P.; Paine, S.; Kleppner, D.; Ducas, T.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the creation of circular states of hydrogen by adiabatic transfer of a Rydberg state in crossed electric and magnetic fields, and also by adiabatic passage in a rotating microwave field. The latter method permits rapid switching between the two circular states of a given n manifold. The two methods are demonstrated experimentally, and results are presented of an analysis of the field ionization properties of the circular states. An application for the circular states is illustrated by millimeter-wave resonance in hydrogen of the n=29→n=30 transition. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Two-Stage Fan I: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, H. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A two-stage, highly-loaded fan was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 2.8 with an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent. At the first rotor inlet, design flow per unit annulus area is 42 lbm/sec/sq ft (205 kg/sec/sq m), hub/tip ratio is 0.4 with a tip diameter of 31 inches (0.787 m), and design tip speed is 1450 ft/sec (441.96 m/sec). Other features include use of multiple-circular-arc airfoils, resettable stators, and split casings over the rotor tip sections for casing treatment tests.

  18. Dosimetry of small circular beams of high energy photons for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy: the use of small ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Gaboriauid, G.; Zefkili, S.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Boutaudon, S.; Pontvert, D.

    1999-01-01

    The irradiation of small targets in the brain in a singe fraction (radiosurgery) or with a fractionated approach (stereotactic radiosurgery) with small beams of photons requires specific conditions to measure and to model the dosimetric data needed for treatment planning. In this work we present the method and materials adopted in our institution since 1988 to perform the dosimetry of high energy (6-23) circular photon beams with diameters ranging from 10 to 40 mm at the isocenter of linear accelerators, and its evolution as new dosimetric material became commercially available. in circular ionization chambers of small dimensions. We want to answer the following questions: Which are the minimal basic data needed to model small circular beams of high energy photons? Can we extrapolate or convert data from conventional data of larger beams? Which are the detectors well adapted for these kind of measurements and for which range of beam sizes?

  19. Side-suspended High- Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    High- T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 10 3 Pa. (paper)

  20. Side-suspended High-Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-07-01

    High-T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 103 Pa.

  1. Calibration sources for the G-M counter used with the BNL air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchton, R.L.; Bird, S.K.; Tkachyk, J.W.; Motes, B.G.

    1983-12-01

    Three calibration sources were designed, developed, and fabricated for a CDV-700 ratemeter equipped with a specially-shielded 6306 G-M detector. The CDV-700/6306 has been proposed for use with the BNL Air Sampler designed for radioiodine monitoring upon a nuclear reactor accident. Specifically, three sources were constructed in a geometry identical to the BNL Air Sampler radioiodine adsorption canister, which is a silver-silica-gel filled 2.75-inch diameter right circular cylinder with a 1.0 inch daimater annulus for insertion of the 6306 G-M detector. As fabricated, each source consisted of an outer stainless steel housing, an inner 133 Ba impregnated polyester liner, 4 weight percent silver steel lid. Respectively, the levels of 133 Ba, an 131 I simulant, were varied in the three sources to yield nominal CDV-700/6306 instrument responses of 200 cpm, 2000 cpm, and 20,000 cpm

  2. Solid Angle Computations for a Circular Radiator and a Circular Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijn, J; Tollander, B

    1963-02-15

    The problem of particle detection, when using an isotropic neutron point source at different distances from a circular target or a radioactive source as seen by a circular detector, e. g. a solid state counter, is dealt with. Tables are given for different distances of the source when the reaction at the target has an isotropic or a cosine angular distribution in the laboratory system.

  3. Antennas on circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    On the basis of the results obtained by Silver and Saunders [4] for the field radiated from an arbitrary slot in a perfectly conducting circular cylinder, expressions have been derived for the field radiated by a narrow helical slot, with an arbitrary aperture field distribution, in a circular...... antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two...

  4. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-08-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic study, level III; Therapeutic study, level V.

  5. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid-Actuated Gas-Operated VPS System Ball Valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valve incorporates a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. The valve is normally open and fails safe to the closed position. The associated valve position switch is class GS

  6. Towards Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva; Remmen, Arne

    The present report concerns the practical process of developing initiatives based on the circular economy in eight Danish companies. The report outlines how the process of integrating the circular economy was approached in each of the participating companies during 2014 and 2015 and what came out...

  7. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  8. Intracranial dual-mode IVUS and hyperthermia using circular arrays: preliminary experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Light, Edward; Herickhoff, Carl; Grant, Gerald; Britz, Gavin; Wilson, Christy; Palmeri, Mark; Smith, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using 3.5-Fr (3 Fr = 1 mm) circular phased-array intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters for minimally invasive, image-guided hyperthermia treatment of tumors in the brain. Feasibility was demonstrated in two ways: (1) by inserting a 3.5-Fr IVUS catheter through skull burr holes, for 20 MHz brain imaging in the pig model, and (2) by testing a modified circular array for therapy potential with 18.5-MHz and 9-MHz continuous wave (CW) excitation. The imaging transducer's performance was superior to our previous 9-MHz mechanical IVUS prototype. The therapy catheter transducer was driven by CW electrical power at 18.5 MHz, achieving temperature changes reaching +8°C at a depth of 2 mm in a human glioblastoma grown on the flank of a mouse with minimal transducer resistive heating of +2°C. Further hyperthermia trials showed that 9-MHz CW excitation produced temperature changes of +4.5°C at a depth of 12 mm-a sufficient temperature rise for our long-term goal of targeted, controlled drug release via thermosensitive liposomes for therapeutic treatment of 1-cm-diameter glioblastomas.

  9. The generalized circular model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of the circular model. In this model there are two concentric circular markets, which enables us to study two types of markets simultaneously. There are switching costs involved for moving from one circle to the other circle, which can also be thought of as

  10. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    Best practice examples of circular business models are presented in this report. The purpose is to inform and inspire interested readers, in particular companies that aspire to examine the potentials of the circular economy. Circular business models in two different sectors are examined, namely...... the textile and clothing sector as well as the durable goods sector. In order to appreciate the notion of circular business models, the basics of the circular economy are outlined along with three frameworks for categorizing the various types of circular business models. The frameworks take point of departure...... in resource loops, value bases and business model archetypes respectively, and they are applied for analysing and organizing the business models that are presented throughout the report. The investigations in the report show that circular business models are relevant to businesses because they hold...

  11. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-11-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p guidelines for an adult seat belt do not meet safety requirements for fit, especially in larger, commonly used vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic level 1.

  12. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast-iron test pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported last quarter.) These tests identified several design issues which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-11-01

    & Fabricate Large Diameter Live Access System) progressed to completing the detailed design of the entry fitting for 12-inch diameter cast iron pipe in the previous quarter. Field tests with the 4-inch size fitting were completely successful and did not reveal any significant design issues. The primary suggestion from the PSE&G field crew was to produce a version which completely bolts together and does not require a long seam weld. This could be used in low-pressure cast iron mains to reduce installation time. A bolt-on version is now being designed based on this recommendation. Task 8 (System Integration and Laboratory Validation) continued with the development of the robot module inter-connects and of a master LabView-based system display and control software.

  14. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    optimize the design of the robot elements and surface control electronics and software. Task 6 (Design & Build Surface Control and Monitoring System) has been completed with the control and computer display functions being operated through LabView. Task 7 (Design & Fabricate Large Diameter Live Access System) progressed to the design, fabrication and testing of a entry fitting in a 4-inch prototype and is now being used to complete drawings for use in 12-inch diameter pipe. Task 8--System Integration and Laboratory Validation continued developing the robot module inter-connects and development of a master LabView-based system display and control software.

  15. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    ) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to optimize the design of the robot elements and surface control electronics and software. Task 6 (Design & Build Surface Control and Monitoring System) has been completed with the control and computer display functions being operated through LabView. Task 7 (Design & Fabricate Large Diameter Live Access System) progressed to completing the detailed design of the entry fitting for 12-inch diameter cast iron pipe. The fitting is now being manufactured. The 12-inch ball valve for allowing no-blow access was also procured. Task 8 (System Integration and Laboratory Validation) continued with the development of the robot module inter-connects and of a master LabView-based system display and control software.

  16. The Boomerang-shaped Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of Circular Defect of Cervical Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Shuchi; Arikawa, Masaki; Miyamoto, Shimpei

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with a recurrence of oral cancer involving a cervical lymph node. The patient's postexcision cervical skin defect was nearly circular in shape, and the size was about 12 cm in diameter. The defect was successfully reconstructed with a boomerang-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin paddle included multiple intercostal perforators of the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing an extensive neck skin defect and enables primary closure of the donor site with minimal deformity.

  17. Study of Running Stability in Side-Suspended HTS-PMG Maglev Circular Line System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Li, Linbo; Cui, Chenyu; Hsieh, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-07-01

    A research on stability of the side-suspended HTS-PMG maglev circular line system is carried out through simulation experiment. The results show that the maglev vehicle will gradually get close to the track surface during acceleration under the action of centrifugal force, leading to decay of guidance force and occurrence of vertical eccentric motion. In case of linear array of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) bulks, the guidance force will be changed with the decreasing of the levitation gap. It can be suppressed through the complex arrangement of YBCO bulks. Fortunately, triangle array of YBCO bulks can effectively keep the guidance force constant and realize stable running during accelerating process of the prototype vehicle. Based on the research on stability of side-suspended maglev vehicle, a side-suspended PMG circular test track with diameter of 6.5 m and circumference of 20.4 m is successfully designed and established, enabling the prototype vehicle to run stably at up to 82.5 km/h under open atmosphere (9.6 × 104 Pa).

  18. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  19. A Conceptual Framework for Circular Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariale Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Design has been recognised in the literature as a catalyst to move away from the traditional model of take-make-dispose to achieve a more restorative, regenerative and circular economy. As such, for a circular economy to thrive, products need to be designed for closed loops, as well as be adapted to generate revenues. This should not only be at the point of purchase, but also during use, and be supported by low-cost return chains and reprocessing structures, as well as effective policy and regulation. To date, most academic and grey literature on the circular economy has focused primarily on the development of new business models, with some of the latter studies addressing design strategies for a circular economy, specifically in the area of resource cycles and design for product life extension. However, these studies primarily consider a limited spectrum of the technical and biological cycles where materials are recovered and restored and nutrients (e.g., materials, energy, water are regenerated. This provides little guidance or clarity for designers wishing to design for new circular business models in practice. As such, this paper aims to address this gap by systematically analysing previous literature on Design for Sustainability (DfX (e.g., design for resource conservation, design for slowing resource loops and whole systems design and links these approaches to the current literature on circular business models. A conceptual framework is developed for circular economy design strategies. From this conceptual framework, recommendations are made to enable designers to fully consider the holistic implications for design within a circular economy.

  20. Asymptotic theory of circular polarization memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2017-09-01

    We establish a quantitative theory of circular polarization memory, which is the unexpected persistence of the incident circular polarization state in a strongly scattering medium. Using an asymptotic analysis of the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) in the limit of strong scattering, we find that circular polarization memory must occur in a boundary layer near the portion of the boundary on which polarized light is incident. The boundary layer solution satisfies a one-dimensional conservative scattering VRTE. Through a spectral analysis of this boundary layer problem, we introduce the dominant mode, which is the slowest-decaying mode in the boundary layer. To observe circular polarization memory for a particular set of optical parameters, we find that this dominant mode must pass three tests: (1) this dominant mode is given by the largest, discrete eigenvalue of a reduced problem that corresponds to Fourier mode k=0 in the azimuthal angle, and depends only on Stokes parameters U and V; (2) the polarization state of this dominant mode is largely circular polarized so that |V|≫|U|; and (3) the circular polarization of this dominant mode is maintained for all directions so that V is sign-definite. By applying these three tests to numerical calculations for monodisperse distributions of Mie scatterers, we determine the values of the size and relative refractive index when circular polarization memory occurs. In addition, we identify a reduced, scalar-like problem that provides an accurate approximation for the dominant mode when circular polarization memory occurs.

  1. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid-Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated

  2. Flooding experiments with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.N.; Solom, M.; Draznin, O.; Choutapalli, I.; Vierow, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study on flooding in a large diameter tube is being conducted. In a countercurrent, two-phase flow system, flooding can be defined as the onset of flow reversal of the liquid component which results in cocurrent flow. Flooding can be perceived as a limit to two-phase countercurrent flow, meaning that pairs of liquid and gas flow rates exist that define the envelope for stable countercurrent flow for a given system. Flooding in the AP600 pressurizer surge line can affect the vessel refill rate following a small break LOCA. Analysis of hypothetical severe accidents with current simplified flooding models show that these models represent the largest uncertainty in steam generator tube creep rupture. During a hypothetical station blackout scenario without auxiliary feedwater recovery, should the hot leg become voided, the pressurizer liquid will drain to the hot leg and flooding may occur in the surge line. Experiments have been conducted in a 3-inch (76.2 mm) diameter tube with subcooled water and superheated steam as the working fluids at atmospheric pressure. Water flows down the inside of the tube as an annulus while the steam flows upward in the middle. Water flow rates vary from 3.5 to 12 GPM (0.00022 to 0.00076 m 3 /s) and the water inlet temperature is about 70degC. The steam inlet temperature is about 110degC. It was found that a larger steam flow rate was needed to achieve flooding for a lower water flow rate and for a higher water flow rate. This unique data for flooding in steam-water systems in large diameter tubes will reduce uncertainty in flooding models currently utilized in reactor safety codes. (author)

  3. How to Assess Product Performance in the Circular Economy? Proposed Requirements for the Design of a Circularity Measurement Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Saidani , Michael; YANNOU , Bernard; Leroy , Yann; Cluzel , François

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Assessing product circularity performance is not straightforward. Meanwhile, it gains increasingly importance for businesses and industrial practitioners who are willing to effectively take benefits from circular economy promises. Thus, providing methods and tools to evaluate then enhance product performance—in the light of circular economy—becomes a significant but still barely addressed topic. Following a joint agreement on the need to measure product circularity per...

  4. Health physics challenges involved with opening a "seventeen-inch" concrete waste vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick T; Pizzulli, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the various activities involved with opening a sealed legacy "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault and the health physics challenges and solutions employed. As part of a legacy waste stream that was removed from the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault labeled 1-95 was moved to the new Waste Management Facility for ultimate disposal. Because the vault contained 239Pu foils with a total activity in excess of the transuranic waste limits, the foils needed to be removed and repackaged for disposal. Conventional diamond wire saws could not be used because of facility constraints, so this project relied mainly on manual techniques. The planning and engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to open the vault and remove the waste while keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  5. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  6. Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloud Abdelkrim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. The performances of standard k-ε and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.

  7. Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloud, Abdelkrim; Aounallah, Mohammed; Belkadi, Mustapha; Adjlout, Lahouari; Imine, Omar; Imine, Bachir

    2014-03-01

    Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performances of standard k-ɛ and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.

  8. Mode converters for generating the HE11 (gaussian-like) mode from TE01 in circular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    The HE11 mode in corrugated waveguide has a field distribution very close to that of an ideal gaussian mode. Its radiation pattern is symmetric about the waveguide axis and exhibits virtually no cross polarization. This work reports measurements on mode converters to transform the TE01 mode into HE11 for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) experiments. The first mode converter is a 28 degree bend in 1.094-inch I.D. circular waveguide which generates TM11 from TE01 with a measured efficiency of over 95% at 60 GHz. A second converter consists of a straight corrugated waveguide section of the same I.D. in which the corrugation depth increases gradually from zero to nominally a quarter wavelength. This section converts TM11 to HE11 with an efficiency of about 97%. The overall efficiency of conversion from TE01 to HE11 exceeds 91% over a measured range of 59.2 to 60.1 GHz

  9. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard, E-mail: hbs@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C{sub 2} core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H{sub 2}CCH{sup +} ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} and 3.15 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C{sub 2} core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C{sub 2} core of protonated acetylene.

  10. 77 FR 64478 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ....D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.148 inch wall thickness (gage 9) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.500 inch O.D. and 0.203 inch wall thickness... investigation is Zenith Birla (India) Limited (previously known as Zenith Steel Pipes and Industries Ltd...

  11. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  12. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  13. The Boomerang-shaped Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of Circular Defect of Cervical Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Azuma, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. We report on a patient with a recurrence of oral cancer involving a cervical lymph node. The patient’s postexcision cervical skin defect was nearly circular in shape, and the size was about 12 cm in diameter. The defect was successfully reconstructed with a boomerang-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin paddle included multiple intercostal perforators of the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing an extensive neck skin defect and enables primary closure of the donor site with minimal deformity.

  14. Circular RNAs as Promising Biomarkers: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiah Abu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interest in circular RNAs has resurfaced in the past few years. What was considered as junk for nearly two decades is now one of the most interesting molecules. Circular RNAs are non-coding RNAs that are formed by back-splicing events and have covalently closed loops with no poly-adenylated tails. The regulation of circular RNAs is distinctive and they are selectively abundant in different types of tissues. Based on the current knowledge of circular RNAs, these molecules have the potential to be the next big thing especially as biomarkers for different diseases. This mini-review attempts to concisely look at the biology of circular RNAs, the putative functional activities, the prevalence of circular RNAs, and the possible role of circular RNA as biomarkers for diagnosis or measuring drug response.

  15. Broadband Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna Loaded by a Multiple-Circular-Sector Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2018-05-15

    In this paper, a microstrip-fed broadband circularly polarized (CP) slot antenna is presented. CP operation can be attained simply by embedding an S-shaped strip. By loading with a multiple-circular-sector patch, which consists of 12 circular-sector patches with identical central angles of 30° and different radii, the 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth is significantly broadened. To validate the performance of the proposed antenna, an antenna prototype is fabricated and tested. The fabricated antenna is 54 mm × 54 mm × 0.8 mm in size. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB AR bandwidths are 81.06% (1.68⁻3.97 GHz) and 70.55% (1.89⁻3.95 GHz), respectively. Within the 3 dB AR bandwidth, the measured peak gain is 3.81 dBic. Reasonable agreement is also obtained between the measured and simulated results.

  16. Circular Business: Collaborate and Circulate : a bookreview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Ratna W.; Witjes, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/381088200

    2016-01-01

    With their book, “Circular Business: Collaborate and Circulate”, Circular Collaboration, Amersfoort, ISBN: 978-90-824902-0-6, €35, Kraaijenhagen et al. (2016) give companies practical guidance on their contribution to the development of a more circular economy by presenting a practical 10-step

  17. The effect of the rotational orientation of circular photomultipliers in a PET camera block detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, J.; Wong, Wai-Hoi; Hu, Guoju

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of the effects of geometric asymmetries in circular photomultipliers (PMT) on the design of PET position-sensitive block detectors. The dynodes of linear-focus circular PMT's are asymmetric relative to the axis of the photocathode, despite the rotational symmetry of the photocathode. Hence, there are regional photocathode differences in the anode signal, which affect the decoding characteristics of position sensitive block detectors. This orientation effect, as well as the effect of introducing light diffusers, are studied in a block detector design (BGO) using the PMT-quadrant-sharing configuration. The PMT studied is the Philips XP-1911 (19mm diameter). Seven symmetrical and representative orientations of the four decoding PMT were investigated, as well as one asymmetric orientation. The measurements performed include block-composite pulse-height spectra and crystal decoding maps. Two orientation effects were observed: (A) distortion variation in decoding maps, and (B) decoding resolution variation. The introduction of circular plastic pieces, used as light diffusers, prove to be useful by improving the decoding of crystals on the periphery of the detector block and minimizing distortion in the decoding map. These measurements have shown optimal PMT orientations for the PMT-quadrant-sharing design, as well as for conventional block designs

  18. The 52-inch last-stage blades for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last-stage blades (LSB) of steam turbines are one of the most important components determining the plant's maximum capacity and efficiency. The development of LSBs necessitates high-technology including advanced methods of analyses and verifications as well as ample accumulation of technical data. The 52-inch LSB recently developed by Toshiba has raised nuclear power plant's capacity up to 1,300 ∼ 1,800 MW, has effected compact design of turbine units, and has improved thermal efficiency, keeping high reliability. (author)

  19. Conductive sub-layer of twisted-tape-induced swirl-flow heat transfer in vertical circular tubes with various twisted-tape inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2018-04-01

    Twisted-tape-induced swirl-flow heat transfer due to exponentially increasing heat inputs with various exponential periods ( Q = Q 0 exp(t/τ), τ = 6.04 to 23.07 s) and twisted-tape-induced pressure drop was systematically measured for various mass velocities ( G = 4115 to 13,656 kg/m2 s), inlet liquid temperatures ( T in = 285.88 to 299.09 K), and inlet pressures ( P in = 847.45 to 943.29 kPa) using an experimental water loop flow. Measurements were made over a 59.2-mm effective length and three sections (upper, middle, and lower positions), within which four potential taps were spot-welded onto the outer surface of a 6-mm-inner-diameter, 69.6-mm-heated length, 0.4-mm-thickness platinum circular test tube. Type SUS304 twisted tapes with a width w = 5.6 mm, a thickness δ T = 0.6 mm, a total length l = 372 mm, and twist ratios y = 2.39 and 4.45 were employed in this study. The RANS equations (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation) with a k-ɛ turbulence model for a circular tube 6 mm in diameter and 636 mm in length were numerically solved for heating of water with a heated section 6 mm in diameter and 70 mm in length using the CFD code, under the same conditions as the experimental ones and considering the temperature dependence of the thermo-physical properties concerned. The theoretical values of surface heat flux q on the circular tubes with twisted tapes with twist ratios y of 2.39 and 4.45 were found to be almost in agreement with the corresponding experimental values of heat flux q, with deviations of less than 30% for the range of temperature difference between the average heater inner surface temperature and the liquid bulk mean temperature ΔT L [ = T s,av - T L , T L = ( T in + T out )/2] considered in this study. The theoretical values of the local surface temperature T s , local average liquid temperature T f,av , and local liquid pressure drop ΔP x were found to be within almost 15% of the corresponding experimental ones. The thickness of the

  20. Symplectic methods in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, E.

    1994-01-01

    By now symplectic integration has been applied to many problems in classical mechanics. It is my conviction that the field of particle simulation in circular rings is ideally suited for the application of symplectic integration. In this paper, I present a short description symplectic tools in circular storage rings

  1. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., several of them related to ambiguous language in the existing Circular. The proposed Circular reorganizes... regional entity, and inclusive of public and private entities. This term is used exclusively in Chapter IV... revisions to the Title VI Circular. The section that addresses the existing requirement for a Language...

  2. Engineering of an E. coli outer membrane protein FhuA with increased channel diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dworeck Tamara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel proteins like FhuA can be an alternative to artificial chemically synthesized nanopores. To reach such goals, channel proteins must be flexible enough to be modified in their geometry, i.e. length and diameter. As continuation of a previous study in which we addressed the lengthening of the channel, here we report the increasing of the channel diameter by genetic engineering. Results The FhuA Δ1-159 diameter increase has been obtained by doubling the amino acid sequence of the first two N-terminal β-strands, resulting in variant FhuA Δ1-159 Exp. The total number of β-strands increased from 22 to 24 and the channel surface area is expected to increase by ~16%. The secondary structure analysis by circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows a high β-sheet content, suggesting the correct folding of FhuA Δ1-159 Exp. To further prove the FhuA Δ1-159 Exp channel functionality, kinetic measurement using the HRP-TMB assay (HRP = Horse Radish Peroxidase, TMB = 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine were conducted. The results indicated a 17% faster diffusion kinetic for FhuA Δ1-159 Exp as compared to FhuA Δ1-159, well correlated to the expected channel surface area increase of ~16%. Conclusion In this study using a simple "semi rational" approach the FhuA Δ1-159 diameter was enlarged. By combining the actual results with the previous ones on the FhuA Δ1-159 lengthening a new set of synthetic nanochannels with desired lengths and diameters can be produced, broadening the FhuA Δ1-159 applications. As large scale protein production is possible our approach can give a contribution to nanochannel industrial applications.

  3. Plane Wall Effect of Flow around Two Circular Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyogi Yuwono,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The flow characteristic around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement located near a plane wall were investigated experimentally in a uniform flow at a Reynolds Number of 5.3 x 104. The center to center spacing between the two cylinders relative to the cylinder diameter was constantly maintained at P/D = 1.5. The pressure distributions along the surface of the cylinder and the plane wall were measured by varying the gap-to-diameter of cylinder ratio (G/D in the range of 0 < G/D < 0.467. Surface oil-film techniques were used to investigate the flow patterns on the cylinder. The result showed that for upstream cylinder, in the gap-to-diameter ratio G/D < /D, there is no stagnation point at front side of the upstream cylinder; it is gradually raised as the gap increase. For the downstream cylinder, a peak on the lower side of the front side of the cylinder is apparent in each of the pressure distributions. This peak represents the reattachment of shear layer that separates from lower side of the upstream cylinder. The reattachment point tends to move forward close to the angular position of  = 0o as the gap ratio increase. The shear layer bifurcates into two shear layers. One shear layer continues in the downstream direction, and the other shear layer flows in the upstream direction.

  4. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  5. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  6. Cygnus X-1: Discovery of variable circular polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Swedlund, J.B.; Stokes, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cyg X-1, has been observed for circular polarization during 1974. Observations in five colors suggest that circular polarization results from an interstellar effect. Measurements of the blue polarization reveal circular polarization variations synchronous with the 5)./sub /6 orbital period. The circular polarization variation appears to be similar to the blue intensity variation

  7. Artist autonomy in a digital era: The case of Nine Inch Nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2009 presentation by Michael Masnick (CEO and founder of insight company Floor64 entitled ‘How Trent Reznor and Nine Inch Nails represent the Future of the Music Business’ brought the success of the business models employed by Reznor in distributing Nine Inch Nails’ music into the spotlight. The present review provides a comprehensive timeline of the band circa 2005-2010, evaluating the success of the distribution methods employed in accordance with Masnick’s (2009 proposed business model of connecting with fans and providing them with a reason to buy. The model is conceptualised in the wider context in which Reznor’s distribution methods take place (including a brief consideration of Radiohead’s much cited pay-what-you- want model, addressing the perceived gaps in the model by exploring the involvement of musical preferences; age and consumer purchasing behavior and fan worship. Implications are discussed concerning the applicability of the model for new and emerging bands.

  8. Research on shape parameters of circular arc disc teeth for three-cone bit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the single row drilling experiment, this paper studied the regularity of the tooth shape parameter's influence to the disc teeth's rock-breaking effect, which provided some basis for the composite teeth type roller bit's combined experimental study and the structure design of the tooth type. This experimental research is only for the circular arc disc teeth which is arranged on the composite teeth type roller bit's main tooth. The experiments were designed using the method of orthogonal design and the results were analyzed by the fuzzy optimization method. The results show that the disc tooth's drilling effect is the best when the tip diameter is 2 mm, taper angle is 30° and the groove number is 8, and the disc tooth's drilling effect is the second best when the tip diameter is 3 mm, taper angle is 30° and the groove number is 7. The above two combined ways of drilling effect's difference is very small (the difference of the degree of the membership is 0.003.

  9. Development pattern of circular economy in Jiangsu coastland

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Circular economy is an effective development pattern to balance economic growth, social development and environmental protection. Based on apprehending the connotation of circular economy, this paper fully considers and studies on the future trends in this area according to the theory of circular economy and the empirical circumstances of Jiangsu Coastland. This paper also discusses the circular economy development pattern adopted by Jiangsu coastland during economic and social development fr...

  10. Total and Differential Efficiencies for a Circular Detector Viewing a Circular Radiator of Finite Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Tollander, B

    1967-08-15

    Total and differential detection efficiencies have been computed for a circular detector viewing a circular radiator of finite thickness. Isotropic, cosines and n-p scattering angular emission distributions of the radiated particles are considered. Tables are given for the total efficiencies as well as for the differential efficiencies in the n-p scattering case.

  11. Circular codes revisited: a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, D L; Giannerini, S; Rosa, R

    2011-04-21

    In 1996 Arquès and Michel [1996. A complementary circular code in the protein coding genes. J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58] discovered the existence of a common circular code in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes. Since then, circular code theory has provoked great interest and underwent a rapid development. In this paper we discuss some theoretical issues related to the synchronization properties of coding sequences and circular codes with particular emphasis on the problem of retrieval and maintenance of the reading frame. Motivated by the theoretical discussion, we adopt a rigorous statistical approach in order to try to answer different questions. First, we investigate the covering capability of the whole class of 216 self-complementary, C(3) maximal codes with respect to a large set of coding sequences. The results indicate that, on average, the code proposed by Arquès and Michel has the best covering capability but, still, there exists a great variability among sequences. Second, we focus on such code and explore the role played by the proportion of the bases by means of a hierarchy of permutation tests. The results show the existence of a sort of optimization mechanism such that coding sequences are tailored as to maximize or minimize the coverage of circular codes on specific reading frames. Such optimization clearly relates the function of circular codes with reading frame synchronization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...... on the project’s strategies. The financial result is a profit of DKK 35 million on the structure alone in the demolition of a building built for the cost of DKK 860 million. The total potential for the whole building, calculated in projected material prices, is estimated to be up to 16% of the total construction...... of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven...

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  14. Pulsed dye laser treatment of rosacea using a novel 15 mm diameter treatment beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin; Paranjape, Amit; Jones, Christopher J

    2018-04-10

    The pulsed-dye laser has been used to treat facial redness and rosacea for decades. Recent advances in dye laser technology enable 50% higher output energies supporting 50% larger treatment areas, and beam-diameters up to 15 mm with clinically-relevant fluences. In this study, we investigate this novel pulsed-dye laser using a 15 mm diameter beam for treatment of rosacea. Twenty subjects with erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea were enrolled in the study. A total of 4 monthly treatments were administered, first treating linear vessels with a 3 × 10 mm elliptical beam, then diffuse redness with a 15-mm diameter circular beam. Blinded assessment of digital, cross-polarized photographs taken 2 months following the last treatment was performed using an 11-point clearance scale. Nineteen subjects completed the study. Blinded reviewers correctly identified baseline photos in 55 out of the total of 57 images (96.5%). The blinded reviewers scored 17 of the 19 subjects with an improvement greater than 40%, and 11 of the 19 subjects greater than 50%. The average improvement was 53.9%. Side effects were limited to mild edema, mild to moderate erythema, and mild to moderate bruising. This study demonstrates that a newly designed pulsed-dye laser having a novel 15-mm diameter treatment beam improves the appearance of rosacea with a favorable safety profile. Lasers Surg. Med. 9999:1-5, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Re-examination of laminar flow over twin circular cylinders in tandem arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Lu, Lin; Teng, Bin; Tang, Guo-Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Ming [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Penrith 2751 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Viscous fluid flow past two identical circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement is numerically investigated at a typical Reynolds number of 200. By considering a large span of spacing ratio (0.1 ⩽ G/D ⩽ 6.0) with a fine interval of 0.1 or less, the dependences on the spacing ratio of the drag force, lift force, lift fluctuation frequency, torque on the cylinder pair and phase difference between the lift fluctuations of the two cylinders are investigated in detail, where D is the diameter of the cylinder and G the surface-to-surface distance between the cylinders. The phase difference between the lift fluctuations of the two cylinders is addressed based on correlation analysis together with the phase diagram, which has received scarce attention before. The phase difference provides further understanding to the dependence of the wake evolutions behind the twin circular cylinders. The numerical investigations show that diverse regimes can be identified according to the dependence of the hydrodynamics on the spacing ratio. The hydrodynamic discontinuities at G/D = 0.9, which have previously been ignored, are reported in this work. The physical correlations between the hydrodynamic discontinuities and the wake patterns are presented. (paper)

  16. Re-examination of laminar flow over twin circular cylinders in tandem arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Lu, Lin; Teng, Bin; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Viscous fluid flow past two identical circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement is numerically investigated at a typical Reynolds number of 200. By considering a large span of spacing ratio (0.1 ⩽ G/D ⩽ 6.0) with a fine interval of 0.1 or less, the dependences on the spacing ratio of the drag force, lift force, lift fluctuation frequency, torque on the cylinder pair and phase difference between the lift fluctuations of the two cylinders are investigated in detail, where D is the diameter of the cylinder and G the surface-to-surface distance between the cylinders. The phase difference between the lift fluctuations of the two cylinders is addressed based on correlation analysis together with the phase diagram, which has received scarce attention before. The phase difference provides further understanding to the dependence of the wake evolutions behind the twin circular cylinders. The numerical investigations show that diverse regimes can be identified according to the dependence of the hydrodynamics on the spacing ratio. The hydrodynamic discontinuities at G/D = 0.9, which have previously been ignored, are reported in this work. The physical correlations between the hydrodynamic discontinuities and the wake patterns are presented. (paper)

  17. Perceptions of Circular Business Models in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Ion Ceptureanu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing circular economy business models is crucial in understanding Circular Economy features across various industries. This paper analyses Circular Economy perceptions in Romanian SMEs by investigating entrepreneurs from PVC joinery industry. Using a multidimensional framework, ReSOLVE, as a conceptual model, and Lewandowski systematization, we measured 6 business actions and their relations with Value creation. The results of our survey can be described as mixed. Of the 6 business actions of ReSOLVE framework, for half of them (Regenerate, Optimize and Exchange we can definitely conclude that these are correlated with Circular Economy in terms of Value Creation, while for a fourth there are variables significantly correlated without being able to conclude its overall contribution in terms of Value creation. Our empirical investigation contributes to literature development on Circular Economy research in SMEs and a step forward to shape future research initiatives.

  18. Localization of CO2 Leakage from a Circular Hole on a Flat-Surface Structure Using a Circular Acoustic Emission Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwang Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO2 leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%.

  19. Instability of Reference Diameter in the Evaluation of Stenosis After Coronary Angioplasty: Percent Diameter Stenosis Overestimates Dilative Effects Due to Reference Diameter Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis

  20. Effect of Tube Diameter on The Design of Heat Exchanger in Solar Drying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husham Abdulmalek, Shaymaa; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Gitan, Ali Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The drying of agriculture product consumes a huge fossil fuel rates that demand to find an alternative source of sustainable environmental friendly energy such as solar energy. This work presents the difference between using solar heat source and electrical heater in terms of design aspect. A circular-finned tube bank heat exchanger is considered against an electrical heater used as a heat generator to regenerate silica gel in solar assisted desiccant drying system. The impact of tube diameter on the heat transfer area was investigated for both the heat exchanger and the electrical heater. The fin performance was investigated by determining fin effectiveness and fin efficiency. A mathematical model was developed using MATLAB to describe the forced convection heat transfer between hot water supplied by evacuated solar collector with 70 °C and ambient air flow over heat exchanger finned tubes. The results revealed that the increasing of tube diameter augments the heat transfer area of both heat exchanger and electrical heater. The highest of fin efficiency was around 0.745 and the lowest was around 0.687 while the fin effectiveness was found to be around 0.998.

  1. 3D mathematical modelling of scour around a circular pile in current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roulund, Andreas; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with scour around a circular pile exposed to a steady current. A 3D numerical model incorporated with the k-w,SST closure coupled with the sediment-continuity equation and a bedload sediment transport formula has been used to predict the scour. 3D calculations have also been...... carried out for a plane rigid bottom for reference purpose. The predicted flow features are apparently in fairly good agreement with the experimental data. Early calculations indicate that the model is able to predict the scour properties satisfactorily in the initial stages of the scour process, up...... to scour depth of 0.6-0.7 times the pile diameter. Calculations that describe the entire scour process (including the equilibrium stage) are underway....

  2. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  3. A computational protocol for the study of circularly polarized phosphorescence and circular dichroism in spin-forbidden absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Maciej; Cukras, Janusz; Pecul, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    We present a computational methodology to calculate the intensity of circular dichroism (CD) in spinforbidden absorption and of circularly polarized phosphorescence (CPP) signals, a manifestation of the optical activity of the triplet–singlet transitions in chiral compounds. The protocol is based...

  4. Vortex shedding control of circular cylinder by perforated shroud in deep water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Gokturk M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to control the vortex shedding downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder by the existence of outer perforated cylinder concentrically located around the inner cylinder in deep water. The flow characteristics downstream of concentrically placed coupled cylinders were investigated quantitatively by the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique. Diameter of the outer perforated cylinder and inner cylinder were kept constant as Do=100 mm and Di=50 mm. The depth-averaged free-stream velocity was also kept constant as U=100 mm/s which corresponded to the Reynolds number of ReDo=10,000 based on the outer cylinder diameter. Experiments were conducted for six porosities (β = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 in order to show the effect of these parameters on the flow control. Maximum values of both Reynolds shear stress, and turbulence kinetic energy, significantly decreased with the existence of outer perforated cylinder and also, the location of peak magnitudes of turbulence statistics occurred at locations further downstream compared to the bare cylinder case. The most effective control was revealed for the porosity of β=0.7.

  5. Vortex shedding control of circular cylinder by perforated shroud in deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gokturk M.; Durhasan, Tahir; Pinar, Engin; Aksoy, Muhammed M.; Akilli, Huseyin; Sahin, Beşir

    The aim of the present study is to control the vortex shedding downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder) by the existence of outer perforated cylinder concentrically located around the inner cylinder in deep water. The flow characteristics downstream of concentrically placed coupled cylinders were investigated quantitatively by the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Diameter of the outer perforated cylinder and inner cylinder were kept constant as Do=100 mm and Di=50 mm. The depth-averaged free-stream velocity was also kept constant as U=100 mm/s which corresponded to the Reynolds number of ReDo=10,000 based on the outer cylinder diameter. Experiments were conducted for six porosities (β = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) in order to show the effect of these parameters on the flow control. Maximum values of both Reynolds shear stress, and turbulence kinetic energy, significantly decreased with the existence of outer perforated cylinder and also, the location of peak magnitudes of turbulence statistics occurred at locations further downstream compared to the bare cylinder case. The most effective control was revealed for the porosity of β=0.7.

  6. Self-complementary circular codes in coding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Starman, Martin; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2018-04-01

    Self-complementary circular codes are involved in pairing genetic processes. A maximal [Formula: see text] self-complementary circular code X of trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel in Life 7(20):1-16 2017, J Theor Biol 380:156-177, 2015; Arquès and Michel in J Theor Biol 182:45-58 1996). In this paper, self-complementary circular codes are investigated using the graph theory approach recently formulated in Fimmel et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A 374:20150058, 2016). A directed graph [Formula: see text] associated with any code X mirrors the properties of the code. In the present paper, we demonstrate a necessary condition for the self-complementarity of an arbitrary code X in terms of the graph theory. The same condition has been proven to be sufficient for codes which are circular and of large size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, in particular for maximal circular codes ([Formula: see text] trinucleotides). For codes of small-size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, some very rare counterexamples have been constructed. Furthermore, the length and the structure of the longest paths in the graphs associated with the self-complementary circular codes are investigated. It has been proven that the longest paths in such graphs determine the reading frame for the self-complementary circular codes. By applying this result, the reading frame in any arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides is retrieved after at most 15 nucleotides, i.e., 5 consecutive trinucleotides, from the circular code X identified in genes. Thus, an X motif of a length of at least 15 nucleotides in an arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides (not necessarily all of them belonging to X) uniquely defines the reading (correct) frame, an important criterion for analyzing the X motifs in genes in the future.

  7. A product design framework for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.R.; Bakker, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a circular economy framework from a product design perspective with tools to aid product designers in applying circular product design in practice. Design research for circular economy has so far mainly been limited to referring to existing fields of research such as design for

  8. Zernike vs. Bessel circular functions in visual optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Juan P; Gómez-Correa, Jesus E; Iskander, D Robert; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino

    2013-07-01

    We propose the Bessel Circular Functions as alternatives of the Zernike Circle Polynomials to represent relevant circular ophthalmic surfaces. We assess the fitting capabilities of the orthogonal Bessel Circular Functions by comparing them to Zernike Circle Polynomials for approximating a variety of computationally generated surfaces which can represent ophthalmic surfaces. The Bessel Circular Functions showed better modelling capabilities for surfaces with abrupt variations such as the anterior eye surface at the limbus region, and influence functions. From our studies we find that the Bessel Circular Functions can be more suitable for studying particular features of post surgical corneal surfaces. We show that given their boundary conditions and free oscillating properties, the Bessel Circular Functions are an alternative for representing specific wavefronts and can be better than the Zernike Circle Polynomials for some important cases of corneal surfaces, influence functions and the complete anterior corneal surface. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  9. A four-port launcher for a multi-moded DLDS power distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.; Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Nantista, C.; Tantawi, S.

    1998-06-01

    The authors describe a structure for launching the TE 01 and both polarizations of TE 12 modes into a highly overmoded low loss circular waveguide providing remote transmission for a multi-moded Delay Line Distribution System (DLDS). The power from four sources is delivered to four structure ports by rectangular waveguide, and the mode for each pulse subsection is selected by varying the relative phases of the sources. The four ports symmetrically feed a section of waveguide with a fourfold symmetric four-leaf clover-like (or quatrefoil) cross section, dimensioned so as to propagate only four TE modes, characterized as 0, π/2 (two polarizations), and π modes. The 0 and π/2 modes are well matched, the π mode only moderately so. A low loss taper transforms the initial cross section to a circular cross section; the 0 mode transforming to TE 01 , the π/2 to TE 11 , the π to TE 21 , all with negligible mode conversion. A sausage type mode transducer then converts TE 11 to TE 12 (a lower loss mode), and the diameter is then expanded to the full ∼five inch diameter of the delay line. A separate structure to divert power from the last pulse subsection to the local group of accelerator structures is required

  10. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex

  11. Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Comby, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Garcia, G. A.; Géneaux, R.; Harvey, A. G.; Légaré, F.; Mašín, Z.; Nahon, L.; Ordonez, A. F.; Petit, S.; Pons, B.; Mairesse, Y.; Smirnova, O.; Blanchet, V.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral effects appear in a wide variety of natural phenomena and are of fundamental importance in science, from particle physics to metamaterials. The standard technique of chiral discrimination—photoabsorption circular dichroism—relies on the magnetic properties of a chiral medium and yields an extremely weak chiral response. Here, we propose and demonstrate an orders of magnitude more sensitive type of circular dichroism in neutral molecules: photoexcitation circular dichroism. This technique does not rely on weak magnetic effects, but takes advantage of the coherent helical motion of bound electrons excited by ultrashort circularly polarized light. It results in an ultrafast chiral response and the efficient excitation of a macroscopic chiral density in an initially isotropic ensemble of randomly oriented chiral molecules. We probe this excitation using linearly polarized laser pulses, without the aid of further chiral interactions. Our time-resolved study of vibronic chiral dynamics opens a way to the efficient initiation, control and monitoring of chiral chemical change in neutral molecules at the level of electrons.

  12. Breaking the fault tree circular logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)

  13. Sugar maple height-diameter and age-diameter relationships in an uneven-aged northern hardwood stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; R.D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) height-diameter and age-diameter relationships are explored in a balanced uneven-aged northern hardwood stand in central New York. Results show that although both height and age vary considerably with diameter, these relationships can be described by statistically valid equations. The age-diameter relationship...

  14. Drill-Core Scanning for Radioelements by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Wollenberg, H.; Rose-Hansen, J.

    1972-01-01

    A system has been developed for the continuous and stepwise scanning of rock drill cores for gamma-ray spectrometric determinations of uranium, thorium, and potassium. The apparatus accomodates 3- to 4-cm-diameter core as it passes two opposing 2-inch diameter by 3-inch- thick NaI(Tl) detectors, ......, disclosing detailed variations of U and Th. Contents of U and Th determined by scanning of drill core were consistent with the gross gamma-ray counting rates measured in the boreholes. ©1972 Society of Exploration Geophysicists......A system has been developed for the continuous and stepwise scanning of rock drill cores for gamma-ray spectrometric determinations of uranium, thorium, and potassium. The apparatus accomodates 3- to 4-cm-diameter core as it passes two opposing 2-inch diameter by 3-inch- thick NaI(Tl) detectors...

  15. Prevention of Bridge Scour with Non-uniform Circular Piers Plane under Steady Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Ting; Wang, Chuan-Yi

    2017-04-01

    River bed scour and deposit variation extremely severe because of most of rivers are steep and rapid flows, and river discharge extremely unstable and highly unsteady during different seasons in Taiwan. In addition to the obstruction of piers foundation, it causes local scour and threatens the safety of bridges. In the past, riprap, wire gabion or wrap pier works were adopted as the protections of piers foundation, but there were no effectual outcomes. The events of break off piers still happen sometimes. For example, typhoon Kalmaegi (2008) and Morakot (2009) caused heavy damages on Ho-Fon bridge in the Da-jia river and Shuang-Yuan bridge in the Kao-Ping river, respectively. Accordingly, to understand the piers scour system and propose an appropriate protection of piers foundation becomes an important topic for this study currently. This research improves the protection works of the existing uniform bridge pier (diameter D) to ensure the safety of the bridge. The non-uniform plane of circular piers (diameter D*) are placed on the top of a bridge pier foundation to reduce the down flow impacting energy and scour by its' surface roughness characteristics. This study utilize hydraulic models to simulate local scour depth and scour depth change with time for non-uniform pier diameter ratio D/D* of 0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7 and 0.8, and different type pier and initial bed level (Y) relative under the foundation top elevation under steady flows of V/Vc=0.95,0.80 and 0.65. The research results show that the scour depth increases with an increase of flow intensity (V/Vc) under different types of steady flow hydrographs. The scour depth decreases with increase of initial bed level (Y=+0.2D*,0D*and -0.2D*) relative under the foundation top elevation of the different type pier. The maximum scour depth occurred in the front of the pier for all conditions. Because of the scouring retardation by the non-uniform plane of foundation, the scour depth is reduced for the un-exposed bridge

  16. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  17. The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryan A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular economy has been studied extensively both in Europe and worldwide. It is largely viewed as a potential strategy for societal development, aimed to increase prosperity while reducing dependence on raw materials and energy. Many businesses regard circular economy as a way to enhance economic growth and increase profits. Governments across the world actively engage in the discussion about the benefits of a transition to a circular economy and about its impact on employment, economic growth, and the environment. This paper aims to study the major issues of circular economy, to identify its advantages, and to offer an insight into the transition stage the Baltic States are undergoing today on their way to circular economy. It is stressed that the Baltic countries are not fully using the opportunities offered by a circular economy. For example, Latvia’s, Lithuania’s, and Estonia’s recycling rates are significantly below those of other European countries. The Baltics depend heavily on EU financial support. An increase in funding will contribute to the implementation of circular economy technologies.

  18. 7 CFR 51.2932 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... apparent. (e) Scab spots when cracked or aggregating more than three-eighths inch (9.5 mm) in diameter. (f... scattered and aggregating more than one-fourth inch (6.3 mm) in diameter. (g) Hail when the skin has been...

  19. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover results showed the inconsistencies in the students understanding of circular motion concepts.

  20. Cryogenic vacuum pumping at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elo, D.; Morris, D.; Clark, D.J.; Gough, R.A.

    1978-09-01

    A cryogenic vacuum pumping panel has been in operation at the 88-inch cyclotron since 1974. The nude pumping panel is located in the acceleration chamber. The pumping surface consists of tubing cooled to 20 0 K by a closed loop helium refrigeration system. The pumping surfaces are shielded from radiation heat loads and water vapors by liquid nitrogen cooled baffles. The panel was designed for an average pumping speed of 14,000 liters/sec. for air. This approximately tripled the total effective pumping on the acceleration chamber from the existing diffusion pumped system, significantly reducing charge exchange losses of heavy ions during acceleration. Design, installation and performance characteristics are described

  1. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture

  2. Superconducting Magnet with the Reduced Barrel Yoke for the Hadron Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V.I.; Berriaud, C.; Curé, B.; Dudarev, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Hervé, A.; Mentink, M.; Rolando, G.; Pais Da Silva, H.F.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) with a center-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel of 80-100 km circumference assumes the determination of the basic requirements for its detectors. A superconducting solenoid magnet of 12 m diameter inner bore with the central magnetic flux density of 6 T is proposed for a FCC-hh experimental setup. The coil of 24.518 m long has seven 3.5 m long modules included into one cryostat. The steel yoke with a mass of 21 kt consists of two barrel layers of 0.5 m radial thickness, and 0.7 m thick nose disk, four 0.6 m thick end-cap disks, and three 0.8 m thick muon toroid disks each side. The outer diameter of the yoke is 17.7 m; the length without the forward muon toroids is 33 m. The air gaps between the end-cap disks provide the installation of the muon chambers up to the pseudorapidity of \\pm 3.5. The conventional forward muon spectrometer provides the measuring of the muon momenta in the pseudorapidity region from \\pm 2.7...

  3. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-01-01

    the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how

  4. Water-Reflected 233U Uranyl Nitrate Solutions in Simple Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    A number of critical experiments involving 233 U were performed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building 9213 Critical Experiments Facility during the years 1952 and 1953. These experiments, reported in Reference 1, were directed toward determining bounding values for the minimum critical mass, minimum critical volume, and maximum safe pipe size of water-moderated solutions of 233 U. Additional information on the critical experiments was found in the experimental logbooks. Two experiments utilizing uranyl nitrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ) solutions in simple geometry are evaluated in this report. Experiment 37 is in a 10.4-inch diameter sphere, and Experiment 39 is in a 10-inch diameter cylinder. The 233 U concentration ranges from 49 to 62 g 233 U/l. Both experiments were reflected by at least 6 inches of water in all directions. Paraffin-reflected uranyl nitrate experiments, also reported in Reference 1, are evaluated elsewhere. Experiments with smaller paraffin reflected 5-, 6-, and 7.5-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-004. Experiments with paraffin reflected 8-, 8.5-, 9-, 10-, and 12-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-002. Later experiments with highly-enriched 235 U uranyl fluoride solution in the same 10.4-inch diameter sphere are reported in HEU-SOL-THERM-010. Both experiments were judged acceptable for use as criticality-safety benchmark experiments

  5. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  6. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  7. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  8. The Circular Economy between Desiderates and Realities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tăchiciu Laurentiu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present issue of Amfiteatru Economic Journal addresses the subject of the circular economy, bringing together research contributions to a better understanding of the current state and perspectives of the adoption of economic and business models conceived to give resources’ highest utility and value in every stage by reducing waste, reusing and recycling. Contributors are approaching the circular economy from different perspectives. Some are concerned with the macroeconomic and social conditions accompanying a higher circularity in the economy, while others focus on businesses’ and individuals’ behaviours.

  9. The Circular Economy: In Practice-focused Undergraduate Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudby, Torben; Larsen, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the planet’s population makes the traditional industrial model of “take, make and waste” unsustainable. The circular economy, in which resources are continuously reused, offers a solution. For manufacturers of durable goods the circular economy requires a well-functioning circular...

  10. Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs

  11. Eco-Innovation in Circular Agri-Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Her Shih

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs a theory of eco-innovation in circular agri-business. Although previous studies have discussed eco-innovation in circular agri-business, they did not address eco-innovation from the perspective of a closed-loop sustainable supply chain. Hence, this study applied the fuzzy TOPSIS method to conduct the analysis and determine the interrelationship between eco-innovation and the closed-loop concept. The results are consistent with the theory and a significant improvement in terms of the decisive attributes. The findings suggest that improving water management, relationships with suppliers, knowledge sharing, environmental management systems, and new product and service development are the most effective and efficient ways to build eco-innovation in circular agri-business. The managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.

  12. Optics modules for circular accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Servranckx, R.V.

    1986-05-01

    The first-order differential equations of motion for a single particle in a closed circular machine are solved, introducing the concepts of phase shift, beta functions, and the Courant-Snyder invariant. The transfer matrix between two points in the machine is derived as a function of the phase shift and the parameters contained in the Courant-Snyder invariant. Typical optical modules used in circular machine designs are introduced and related to their characteristic transfer matrix elements, the phase shift through them, and the Courant-Snyder-Twiss parameters. The systematics of some elementary phase ellipse matching problems between optical modules are discussed. Second-order optical modules are discussed, including how they are used to provide the momentum bandwidth needed for the design of a typical circular machine

  13. Equatorial circular motion in Kerr spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the properties of circular orbits of test particles on the equatorial plane of a rotating central mass whose gravitational field is described by the Kerr spacetime. For rotating black holes and naked singularities we explore all the spatial regions where circular orbits can exist and analyze the behavior of the energy and the angular momentum of the corresponding test particles. In particular, we find all the radii at which a test particle can have zero angular momentum due to the repulsive gravity effects generated by naked singularities. We classify all the stability zones of circular orbits. It is shown that the geometric structure of the stability zones of black holes is completely different from that of naked singularities.

  14. Characteristics of a Circular Logic and Its Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2007-01-01

    A circular logic or a logical loop is defined as the infinite circulation of supporting relations due to their mutual dependencies among the systems in the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). While many methods to break the circular logic have been developed and used in the fault tree quantification codes, the general solution for a circular logic and its breaking methods are not generally known as yet. This paper presents an analytic solution for circular logics in which the systems are linearly interrelated with each other. Then, a general treatment of circular logics is discussed. To formulate the analytic solution, the relations among systems in the fault tree structure are described by the Boolean equations. The solution is, then, obtained from the successive substitutions of the Boolean equations, which is equivalent to the attaching processes of interrelated system's fault tree to a given fault tree. The solution for three interrelated systems and their independent fault tree structures are given as an example

  15. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo; Pottmann, Helmut; Kilian, Martin; Wang, Wen Ping; Wallner, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where

  16. Design of Tunnel Magnetoresistive-Based Circular MFL Sensor Array for the Detection of Flaws in Steel Wire Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiucheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR devices have superior performances in weak magnetic field detection. In this study, TMR devices were first employed to form a circular magnetic flux leakage (MFL sensor for slight wire rope flaw detection. Two versions of this tailor-made circular TMR-based sensor array were presented for the inspection of wire ropes with the diameters of 14 mm and 40 mm, respectively. Helmholtz-like coils or a ferrite magnet-based magnetizer was selected to provide the proper magnetic field, in order to meet the technical requirements of the TMR devices. The coefficient of variance in the flaw detection performance of the sensor array elements was experimentally estimated at 4.05%. Both versions of the MFL sensor array were able to detect multiple single-broken wire flaws in the wire ropes. The accurate axial and circumferential positions of these broken wire flaws were estimated from the MFL scanning image results. In addition, the proposed TMR-based sensor array was applied to detect the MFL signal induced by slight surface wear defects. A mutual correlation analysis method was used to distinguish the signals caused by the lift-off fluctuation from the MFL scanning image results. The MFL sensor arrays presented in this study provide inspiration for the designing of tailor-made TMR-based circular sensor arrays for cylindrical ferromagnetic structural inspections.

  17. Análise comparativa da resistência de fêmures de cães após a confecção de janelas ósseas circular e quadrada Comparative analysis of dog femur resistance after receiving circular and square holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Pires de Camargo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o enfraquecimento causado pela confecção de janela óssea cortical, os autores confeccionaram uma janela circular no osso cortical da diáfise de oito fêmures de carcaças de cães e uma janela quadrada nos oito pares destes fêmures, com diagonal semelhante ao diâmetro da janela circular contralateral. As peças anatômicas foram submetidas a teste de tensão torcional em uma máquina de ensaios mecânicos; obtendo-se o torque máximo e a rigidez à torção. Os resultados mostraram que, para o fêmur com janela circular, o torque máximo médio foi de 13,65 ± 5,12 Nm, e a rigidez média foi de 1,18 ± 0,45 Nm/grau, enquanto que para a janela quadrada o torque máximo médio foi de 13, 39 ± 5,23 Nm, e a rigidez média foi de 1,05 ± 0,41 Nm/grau. A resistência nos ossos com janela circular e quadrada submetidos à tensão torcional foi praticamente igual, fato este corroborado pela análise estatística que não revelou diferença significante (p = 0,05.With the purpose of evaluating the weakness caused by holes in the cortical bone, the authors performed circular holes in the diaphysis cortical bone of eight femurs from dog carcasses, and square holes in the diaphysis cortical bone of the contralateral femurs, the diagonals being similar to the diameters. The specimens were submitted to torsion stress test in a mechanical test machine to determine maximum torque and rigidity to torsion. Maximum mean torque for the femurs with circular holes was 13.65 ± 5.12 Nm and mean rigidity was 1.18 ± 0.45 Nm/degree, while the femurs with square holes showed maximum mean torque of 13.39 ± 5.23 Nm and mean rigidity of 1.05 ± 0.41 Nm/degree. The resistance to torsion stress in femurs with circular or square holes was very similar and the statistical analysis did not show a significant difference (p = 0.05.

  18. Production of Monodisperse Cerium Oxide Microspheres with Diameters near 100 µm by Internal Gelation Sol-Gel Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katalenich, Jeffrey A.; Kitchen, Brian B.; Pierson, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    Internal gelation sol-gel methods have used a variety of sphere forming methods in the past to produce metal oxide microspheres, but typically with poor control over the size uniformity at diameters near 100 µm. This work describes efforts to make and measure internal gelation, sol-gel microspheres with very uniform diameters in the 100 – 200 µm size range using a two-fluid nozzle. A custom apparatus was used to form aqueous droplets of sol-gel feed solutions in silicone oil and heat them to cause gelation of the spheres. Gelled spheres were washed, dried, and sintered prior to mounting on glass slides for optical imaging and analysis. Microsphere diameters and shape factors were determined as a function of silicone oil flow rate in a two-fluid nozzle and the size of a needle dispensing the aqueous sol-gel solution. Nine batches of microspheres were analyzed and had diameters ranging from 65.5 ± 2.4 µm for the smallest needle and fastest silicone oil flow rate to 211 ± 4.7 µm for the largest needle and slowest silicone oil flow rate. Standard deviations for measured diameters were less than 8% for all samples and most were less than 4%. Microspheres had excellent circularity with measured shape factors of 0.9 – 1. However, processing of optical images was complicated by shadow effects in the photoresist layer on glass slides and by overlapping microspheres. Based on calculated flow parameters, microspheres were produced in a simple dripping mode in the two-fluid nozzle. Using flow rates consistent with a simple dripping mode in a two-fluid nozzle configuration allows for very uniform oxide microspheres to be produced using the internal-gelation sol-gel method.

  19. The circular economy applied to local communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, Heico; van Spijk, Alex; van der Schoor, Tineke

    2015-01-01

    Based on a theoretical discussion the main difference between models of lineair economy and circular economy are elaborated; (1) Elimination of waste is essential the circulation of circular flows and reclamation of (raw) materials; this requires mechanisms for the return of obsolete materials. (2)

  20. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  1. METHOD OF CONJUGATED CIRCULAR ARCS TRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ageyev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric properties of conjugated circular arcs connecting two points on the plane with set directions of tan- gent vectors are studied in the work. It is shown that pairs of conjugated circular arcs with the same conditions in frontier points create one-parameter set of smooth curves tightly filling all the plane. One of the basic properties of this set is the fact that all coupling points of circular arcs are on the circular curve going through the initially given points. The circle radius depends on the direction of tangent vectors. Any point of the circle curve, named auxiliary in this work, determines a pair of conjugated arcs with given boundary conditions. One more condition of the auxiliary circle curve is that it divides the plane into two parts. The arcs going from the initial point are out of the circle limited by this circle curve and the arcs coming to the final point are inside it. These properties are the basis for the method of conjugated circular arcs tracing pro- posed in this article. The algorithm is rather simple and allows to fulfill all the needed plottings using only the divider and ruler. Two concrete examples are considered. The first one is related to the problem of tracing of a pair of conjugated arcs with the minimal curve jump when going through the coupling point. The second one demonstrates the possibility of trac- ing of the smooth curve going through any three points on the plane under condition that in the initial and final points the directions of tangent vectors are given. The proposed methods of conjugated circular arcs tracing can be applied in solving of a wide variety of problems connected with the tracing of cam contours, for example pattern curves in textile industry or in computer-aided-design systems when programming of looms with numeric control.

  2. Culture as a Caveat Towards Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Circular economy represents an economic and political challenge, as well as a cultural one, requiring a massive transformation on all levels of society. But why is cultural change so important to understanding today’s economy and how can the circular model be considered a truly cross-cultural...

  3. The POSEIDON Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about clean air and global warming led car manufacturers to develop hybrid cars. A few models already reached the market but the manufacturers anticipate that the production figure will hit the million mark at the horizon 2010. Hybrid cars make an extensive use of power electronics, which implies - relatively - large size semi-conductor components. The initial doping of those components is best made by neutron irradiation, which achieves a better doping uniformity than chemical processes. Silicon doping becomes therefore a growing market for a number of research reactors, in supplement to their medical isotopes productions. With the SIDONIE facility in operation since 1992, the doping of silicon is not a new activity in the BR2 reactor. However, SIDONIE is limited to 5 inch diameter ingots whereas the trend is to 6 inch and 8 inch diameter or even 12 inch. The purpose of POSEIDON (POol Side Equipment for Irradiation and DOping of silicon by Neutrons) is to allow the large scale irradiation of 6 inch and 8 inch diameter silicon ingots

  4. Primal-dual path-following algorithms for circular programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Alzalg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Circular programming problems are a new class of convex optimization problems that include second-order cone programming problems as a special case‎. ‎Alizadeh and Goldfarb [Math‎. ‎Program‎. ‎Ser‎. ‎A 95 (2003 3--51] introduced primal-dual path-following algorithms for solving second-order cone programming problems‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we generalize their work by using the machinery of Euclidean Jordan algebras associated with the circular cones to derive primal-dual path-following interior point algorithms for circular programming problems‎. ‎We prove polynomial convergence of the proposed algorithms by showing that the circular logarithmic barrier is a strongly self-concordant barrier‎. ‎The numerical examples show the path-following algorithms are simple and efficient‎.

  5. Distribution characteristics of interfacial parameter in downward gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoqiang; Yan Changqi; Tian Daogui; Sun Licheng

    2014-01-01

    Experimental study was performed on distribution characteristics of interfacial parameters of downward gas-liquid flow in a vertical circular tube with the measurement by a two-sensor optical fiber probe. The test section is a circular pipe with the inner diameter of 50 mm and the length of 2000 mm. The superficial velocities of the gas and the liquid phases cover the ranges of 0.004-0.077 m/s and 0.43-0.71 m/s, respectively. The results show that the distributions of the interfacial parameters in downward bubbly flows are quite different from those in upward bubbly flows. For the case of upward flow, the parameters present the 'wall-peak' or 'core-peak' distributions, but for the case of downward flow, they show 'wall-peak' or 'wide-peak' distributions. The average value of void fraction in vertical downward flow is about 119.6%-145.0% larger than that in upward flow, and the interfacial area concentration is about 18.8%-82.5% larger than that in upward flow. The distribution of interfacial parameters shows an obvious tendency of uniformity. (authors)

  6. Research on the development and countermeasures for circular economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological economics and sustainable development economics are the basic theories to research on circular economy. Through the systemically research on the relationship of the three above, this paper thinks that the reuse and recycle of circular economy ts a way that the stall is mended after a sheep is lost. Although the reduction technically controls the production process, it cannot solve the waste caused by blind production and excess competition. We have experienced variety obstacles when implementing the circular economy, whose main reason ts the conflict between the individual ration and the social ration. Therefore, only when the individual ration and social ration incline to conformity,the cooperating Nash equilibrium will be appeared. In order to realize the harmony of ecology, economy and society, we have to explore effective evaluation theory. This paper cites the "five flows of wealth operation theory"from professor Ma Chuandong to search operation mechanism of circular economy, makes clear the developing thoughts of circular economy based on the realities, and brings forward some countermeasures to develop circular economy based on the above theoretical analysis.

  7. Superconducting Magnet with the Minimum Steel Yoke for the Hadron Future Circular Collider Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Dudarev, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mentink, M.; Da Silva, H. Pais; Rolando, G.; ten Kate, H. H. J.; Berriaud, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) with a center-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel of 80-100 km circumference assumes the determination of the basic requirements for its detectors. A superconducting solenoid magnet of 12 m diameter inner bore with the central magnetic flux density of 6 T in combination with two superconducting dipole and two conventional toroid magnets is proposed for a FCC-hh experimental setup. The coil of 23.468 m long has seven 3.35 m long modules included into one cryostat. The steel yoke with a mass of 22.6 kt consists of two barrel layers of 0.5 m radial thickness, and the 0.7 m thick nose disk and four 0.6 m thick end-cap disks each side. The maximum outer diameter of the yoke is 17.7 m; the length is 62.6 m. The air gaps between the end-cap disks provide the installation of the muon chambers up to the pseudorapidity about \\pm 2.7. The superconducting dipole magnets allow measuring the charged particle momenta in the pseudora...

  8. Diameter-speed relation of sprite streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanmae, T; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H C; McHarg, M G; Haaland, R K

    2012-01-01

    Propagation and splitting of sprite streamers has been observed at high temporal and spatial resolution using two intensified high-speed CMOS cameras recording at 10 000 and 16 000 frames per second. Concurrent video recordings from a remote site provided data for triangulation allowing us to determine accurate altitude scales for the sprites. Diameters and speeds of the sprite streamers were measured from the high-speed images, and the diameters were scaled to the reduced diameters based on the triangulated locations. The sprite streamers with larger reduced diameter move faster than those with smaller diameter; the relation between the reduced diameter and speed is roughly linear. The reduced diameters at ≈65-70 km altitude are larger than streamer diameters measured at ground pressure in laboratory discharges indicating a deviation from the similarity law possibly due to the effects of the photoionization and an expansion of the streamer head along its propagation over a long distance. The reduced diameter and speed of the sprite streamers agree well with the diameter-velocity relation proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401), and the peak electric field of the sprite streamers is estimated to be approximately 3-5 times the breakdown threshold field. (paper)

  9. Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

  10. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-12-02

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400-800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72-24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally.

  11. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator having non-circular cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2003-11-11

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow piezoelectric crystal which has been formed with a cylindrical cross-section to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. By deforming the circular cross-section of the transducer, the acoustic force is concentrated along axial regions parallel to the axis of the transducer. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. The concentrated regions of acoustic force cause particles in the fluid to concentrate within the regions of acoustic force for separation from the fluid.

  12. A comparison of R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c condensation performance in smooth and enhanced tubes: Part 2, Pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckels, S J; Tesene, B A

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports pressure drops during condensation for R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c in three enhanced tubes and one smooth tube. The test tubes were a 3/8 inch outer diameter smooth tube, a 3/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube, a 5/16 inch outer diameter microfin tube, and a 5/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube. Pressure drops are reported at four mass fluxes, at two saturation temperatures, and over a range of average qualities in the test tubes. The pressure drops for R-410a were approximately 40% lower than those of R-22 in both tubes. R-407c had 10% to 20% lower pressure drops than R-22, while 134-a had slightly larger pressure drops than R-22. The microfin tube pressure drops were, on average, 40% to 80% higher than those for the smooth tube for all refrigerants. The pressure drop penalty of the microfin tube was shown to decrease with increased quality.

  13. POSEIDON project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, P.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about clean air and global warming among their customers led car manufacturers to develop hybrid cars. A few models already reached the market but the manufacturers anticipate that the production figure will hit the million mark at the horizon 2010. Hybrid cars make an extensive use of power electronics, which implies - relatively - large size semi-conductor components. The initial doping of those components is best made by neutron irradiation, which achieves a better doping uniformity than chemical processes. Silicon doping becomes therefore a growing market for a number of research reactors, in supplement to their medical isotopes productions. With the SIDONIE facility in operation since 1992, the doping of silicon is not a new activity at BR2. However, SIDONIE is limited to 5 inch diameter ingots whereas the trend is to 6 inch and 8 inch diameter. The purpose of POSEIDON is to allow the large scale irradiation of 6 inch and 8 inch diameter silicon ingots

  14. Heat Exchanger Design and Testing for a 6-Inch Rotating Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    water-cooled rotating detonation engine ( RDE ) run on hydrogen and air. The change in water temperature as it cooled the engine was used to find the...a quick-response resistance temperature detector (RTD) was used in an uncooled RDE of similar dimension to the cooled RDE to estimate the transient...double-checking my design calculations, providing his experience with cooling the 3-inch RDE , and for providing technical expertise in regard to the

  15. SEAMLESS TECHNOLOGY ON CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETU Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With industrial progress, the advancements in garment manufacturing have evolved from cut & sew to complete garment knitting, which produces one entire garment without sewing or linking process. Seamless knitting technology is similar to sock manufacture, the specialized circular knitting machines producing 3 dimensional garments with no side seams, with the waistband integrated with body of the garment and with knitted washing instructions and logos. The paper starts by presenting the main advantages of seamless garments but also some limitations because the technology. Because for a seamless garment, which is realized as a knitted tub, is very important to ensure the required final chest size, it was presented the main components involved: the knitting machine, the garment design and the yarns used. The knitting machines, beside the values of diameters and gauges with a great impact on the chest size, are characterized by a very innovative and complex construction. The design of a seamless garment is fundamental different compared to garments produced on a traditional way because the designer must to work backwards from a finished garment to create the knitting programme that will ultimately give the correct finished size. On the end of the paper it was presented some of the applications of the seamless products that cover intimate apparel and other bodywear, outwear, activewear and functional sportswear, upholstery, industrial, automotive and medical textiles.

  16. Designing the Business Models for Circular Economy—Towards the Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Lewandowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching from the current linear model of economy to a circular one has recently attracted increased attention from major global companies e.g., Google, Unilever, Renault, and policymakers attending the World Economic Forum. The reasons for this are the huge financial, social and environmental benefits. However, the global shift from one model of economy to another also concerns smaller companies on a micro-level. Thus, comprehensive knowledge on designing circular business models is needed to stimulate and foster implementation of the circular economy. Existing business models for the circular economy have limited transferability and there is no comprehensive framework supporting every kind of company in designing a circular business model. This study employs a literature review to identify and classify the circular economy characteristics according to a business model structure. The investigation in the eight sub-domains of research on circular business models was used to redefine the components of the business model canvas in the context of the circular economy. Two new components—the take-back system and adoption factors—have been identified, thereby leading to the conceptualization of an extended framework for the circular business model canvas. Additionally, the triple fit challenge has been recognized as an enabler of the transition towards a circular business model. Some directions for further research have been outlined, as well.

  17. The protein circular dichroism data bank, a Web-based site for access to circular dichroism spectroscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Lee; Woollett, Benjamin; Miles, Andrew J; Janes, Robert W; Wallace, B A

    2010-10-13

    The Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB) is a newly released resource for structural biology. It is a web-accessible (http://pcddb.cryst.bbk.ac.uk) data bank for circular dichroism (CD) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectra and their associated experimental and secondary metadata, with links to protein sequence and structure data banks. It is designed to provide a public repository for CD spectroscopic data on macromolecules, to parallel the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for crystallographic, electron microscopic, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. Similarly to the PDB, it includes validation checking procedures to ensure good practice and the integrity of the deposited data. This paper reports on the first public release of the PCDDB, which provides access to spectral data that comprise standard reference datasets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical study of circular synthetic jets at low Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Qingfeng; Lei, Shenghui; Ma, Jieyan; Zhong, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter maps depicting different flow regimes of synthetic jets are produced. • Boundaries separating these regimes are defined using quantitative criteria. • The Reynolds number is most appropriate for classifying different flow regimes. • A use of high suction cycle factors enhances the effectiveness of synthetic jets. - Abstract: In this paper, the flow patterns of circular synthetic jets issuing into a quiescent flow at low Reynolds numbers are studied numerically. The results confirm the presence of the three jet flow regimes, i.e. no jet formation, jet flow without rollup and jet flow with rollup reported in the literature. The boundaries of the different jet flow regimes are determined by tracking the structures produced by the synthetic jets in the near field of the jet orifice over several actuation cycles and examining the cycle-averaged streamwise velocity profiles along the jet central axis. When the Stokes number is above a certain threshold value appropriate for the corresponding flow regime, a good correlation between the flow patterns and the jet Reynolds number defined using the jet orifice diameter, Re Do , is also found. Furthermore, the flow structures of synthetic jets with different suction duty cycle factors are compared. The use of a high suction duty cycle factor strengthens the synthetic jet resulting in a greater penetration depth into the surrounding fluid. Overall, the finding from this study enables the flow regimes, in which a synthetic jet actuator with a circular orifice operates, to be determined. It also provides a way of designing more effective synthetic jet actuators for enhancing mass and momentum transfer at very low Reynolds numbers

  19. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fimmel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick’s hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C3 and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C3 codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes.

  20. Codon Distribution in Error-Detecting Circular Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-15

    In 1957, Francis Crick et al. suggested an ingenious explanation for the process of frame maintenance. The idea was based on the notion of comma-free codes. Although Crick's hypothesis proved to be wrong, in 1996, Arquès and Michel discovered the existence of a weaker version of such codes in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes, namely the so-called circular codes. Since then, circular code theory has invariably evoked great interest and made significant progress. In this article, the codon distributions in maximal comma-free, maximal self-complementary C³ and maximal self-complementary circular codes are discussed, i.e., we investigate in how many of such codes a given codon participates. As the main (and surprising) result, it is shown that the codons can be separated into very few classes (three, or five, or six) with respect to their frequency. Moreover, the distribution classes can be hierarchically ordered as refinements from maximal comma-free codes via maximal self-complementary C(3) codes to maximal self-complementary circular codes.

  1. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shi-Bin; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Shen Yang-He; Gao Na

    2015-01-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. (paper)

  2. Tree diameter at breast height in relation to stump diameter by species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur G. Horn; Richard C. Keller

    1957-01-01

    A stump tally is one method of determining the volume of timber previously removed from an area in a logging operation. To estimate volume of standing timber from stumps, foresters must first know the relationship between stump diameters and tree diameters at breast height (d.b.h.).

  3. NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton, J.; Yentsch, R.; Gaitonde, D. V.; Lempert, W. R.; Miller, J. D.; Meyer, T. R.; Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M.; Danehy, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10-kHz repetition rate in the Calspan University at Buffalo Research Center's (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single ~10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. Comparison with a CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement in the jet penetration and spreading observed with an average of forty individual PLIF images obtained during several facility runs.

  4. NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton, J.; Yentsch, R.; Gaitonde, D.V.; Lempert, W.R. [The Ohio State University, Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Columbus, OH (United States); Miller, J.D.; Meyer, T.R. [Iowa State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M. [CUBRC, Buffalo, NY (United States); Danehy, P.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10-kHz repetition rate in the Calspan University at Buffalo Research Center's (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single {proportional_to}10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. Comparison with a CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement in the jet penetration and spreading observed with an average of forty individual PLIF images obtained during several facility runs. (orig.)

  5. Circular relativistic motion of two identical bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavokhina, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Circular relativistic motion of two bodies as a solution of the earlier obtained equations with a deflecting argument where the self-deflection of the argument is an unknown function of time is considered. In case of circular motion the argument deflection is independent from time and it is the root of the transcendental equation obtained in the paper

  6. Single particle dynamics in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the theory associated with the transverse dynamics of single particle, in circular accelerators. The discussion begins with a review of Hamiltonian dynamics and canonical transformations. The case of a single particle in a circular accelerator is considered with a discussion of non-linear terms and chromaticity. The canonical perturbation theory is presented and nonlinear resonances are considered. Finally, the concept of renormalization and residue criterion are examined. (FI)

  7. Fabrication of a 40-inch diameter ceramic to metal seal for PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, G.; Mullaney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The design and fabrication details for the ceramic to metal seal for PLT are presented. The method used for the successful casting and firing of the 90% Al 2 O 3 ceramic body and the subsequent grinding and brazing of the ceramic to 430 S.S. are discussed

  8. Nearest Neighbor Estimates of Entropy for Multivariate Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Misra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In molecular sciences, the estimation of entropies of molecules is important for the understanding of many chemical and biological processes. Motivated by these applications, we consider the problem of estimating the entropies of circular random vectors and introduce non-parametric estimators based on circular distances between n sample points and their k th nearest neighbors (NN, where k (≤ n – 1 is a fixed positive integer. The proposed NN estimators are based on two different circular distances, and are proven to be asymptotically unbiased and consistent. The performance of one of the circular-distance estimators is investigated and compared with that of the already established Euclidean-distance NN estimator using Monte Carlo samples from an analytic distribution of six circular variables of an exactly known entropy and a large sample of seven internal-rotation angles in the molecule of tartaric acid, obtained by a realistic molecular-dynamics simulation.

  9. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev.10) - Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 10) entitled “Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to staff members. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled “Recognition of Merit” of December 2011. The circular was revised in order to take into account the work performed in the framework of an elective mandate during the exercise of merit recognition of staff members. In addition, the circular was revised to provide that, in the case of staff members on special leave for professional reasons for a period equal to or longer than half a year, it will no longer be possible to grant an exceptional advancement. Department Head Office HR Department

  10. Modeling of surface roughness effects on Stokes flow in circular pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Siyuan; Yang, Xiaohu; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow and pressure drop across a channel are significantly influenced by surface roughness on a channel wall. The present study investigates the effects of periodically structured surface roughness upon flow field and pressure drop in a circular pipe at low Reynolds numbers. The periodic roughness considered exhibits sinusoidal, triangular, and rectangular morphologies, with the relative roughness (i.e., ratio of the amplitude of surface roughness to hydraulic diameter of the pipe) no more than 0.2. Based upon a revised perturbation theory, a theoretical model is developed to quantify the effect of roughness on fully developed Stokes flow in the pipe. The ratio of static flow resistivity and the ratio of the Darcy friction factor between rough and smooth pipes are expressed in four-order approximate formulations, which are validated against numerical simulation results. The relative roughness and the wave number are identified as the two key parameters affecting the static flow resistivity and the Darcy friction factor.

  11. Propagation and radiation characteristics of the circular electric, circular magnetic and hybrid waveguide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1996-06-01

    The field distributions and propagation constants of the circular electric, circular magnetic and hybrid modes of oversized waveguides are expressed, taking the effects of walls into account. The near and far field patterns are derived in the case of real wall functions. It is shown that, for very oversized waveguides, the terms containing wall functions can be ignored in the calculations, and it results that the expressions of fields and propagation constants become independent of the types of waveguides. An application to corrugated waveguides for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating experiments shows the variations of the radiation characteristics versus geometric parameters of the corrugations and determines the ranges of interest for these parameters. (author)

  12. Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) - Special working hours

    CERN Document Server

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) entitled "Special working hours", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208539.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Special working hours" of January 2013. This document contains modifications to reflect the new career structure and ensuring the provision consistent with practice that compensation or remuneration of special working hours performed remotely is possible only in case of emergency.   This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  13. Shear strength of reinforced concrete circular cross-section beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. G. N. Teixeira

    Full Text Available A proposed adequation of NBR 6118, Item 7.4, related to shear strength of reinforced concrete beams is presented with aims to application on circular cross-section. The actual expressions are most suitable to rectangular cross-section and some misleading occurs when applied to circular sections at determination of VRd2, Vc and Vsw, as consequence of bw (beam width and d (effective depth definitions as well as the real effectiveness of circular stirrups. The proposed adequation is based on extensive bibliographic review and practical experience with a great number of infrastructure elements, such as anchored retaining pile walls, where the use of circular reinforced concrete members is frequent.

  14. Visualization of two-phase gas-liquid flow regimes in horizontal and slightly-inclined circular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Livia Alves [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: livia@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr; Su, Jian [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program], Emails: cunhafilho@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio [Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a flow visualization study was performed for two-phase gas-liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined tubes. The test section consists of a 2.54 cm inner diameter stainless steel circular tube, followed by a transparent acrylic tube with the same inner diameter. The working fluids were air and water, with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0:11 to 3:28 m/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0:27 to 5:48 m/s. Flow visualization was executed for upward flow at 5 deg and 10 deg and downward flow at 2:5 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg, as well as for horizontal flow. The visualization technique consists of a high-speed digital camera that records images at rates of 125 and 250 frames per second of a concurrent air-water mixture through a transparent part of the tube. From the obtained images, the flow regimes were identified (except for annular flow), observing the effect of inclination angles on flow regime transition boundaries. Finally, the experimental results were compared with empirical and theoretical flow pattern maps available in literature. (author)

  15. In line inspection of multi-diameter and high-pressure pipelines in Brazil using combined technologies: magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginten, Markus; Brockhaus, Stephan; Bouaoua, Nourreddine; Klein, Stefan [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany); Bruening, Franz [ROSEN Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The simultaneous use of the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method and the ultrasonic testing (UT) method on a single in line inspection (ILI) tool has been identified as a versatile and accurate solution for liquid pipelines. The combination of the two methods is complementary to the restrictions of each other. Also, the overall scope of the inspection is enlarged. General wall thinning and largely corroded areas are accurately and reliably scanned with the UT unit, while very detailed information about pitting corrosion is obtained from the MFL measurement. Blind spots of echo loss, as occasionally observed for the UT channels is compensated by the more robust measurement from the MFL sensors. Consequently, this technology has been the method of choice in an in line inspection project of an onshore long distance pipeline in Brazil, facing a variety of corrosion threats. The pipeline consists of several multi-diameter sections of 18/20 inches and 20/22 inches. Furthermore, the high gravity of product in combination with a height profile, an altitude of 1152 m MSL (Mean Sea Level) had to be crossed, leads to a maximum pressure of 220 bar. These boundary conditions had to be considered during the design of the ILI-tool. The paper discusses the experience made so far with the combined technology MFL and UT. The effective use of the inspection tool for the above mentioned pipeline as well as field results from a previous inspection are described. (author)

  16. Modeling of circular-grating surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, Ali M.

    Grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers became an area of growing interest due to their salient features. Emission from a broad area normal to the wafer surface, makes them very well suited in high power applications and two- dimensional laser arrays. These new possibilities have caused an interest in different geometries to fully develop their potential. Among them, circular-grating lasers have the additional advantage of producing a narrow beam with a circular cross section. This special feature makes them ideal for coupling to optical fibers. All existing theoretical models dealing with circular- grating lasers only consider first-order gratings, or second-order gratings, neglecting surface emission. In this thesis, the emphasis is to develop accurate models describing the laser performance by considering the radiation field. Toward this aim, and due to the importance of the radiation modes in surface-emitting structures, a theoretical study of these modes in multilayer planar structures has been done in a rigorous and systematic fashion. Problems like orthogonality of the radiation modes have been treated very accurately. We have considered the inner product of radiation modes using the distribution theory. Orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes is an important issue. We have examined its validity using the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes in a very special case leads to the Brewster theorem. In addition, simple analytical formulas for the normalization of radiation modes have been derived. We have shown that radiation modes can be handled in a much easier way than has been thought before. A closed-form spectral dyadic Green's function formulation of multilayer planar structures has been developed. In this formulation, both rectangular and cylindrical structures can be treated within the same mathematical framework. The Hankel transform of some auxiliary functions defined on a circular aperture has

  17. Molecular photoelectron holography with circularly polarized laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weifeng; Sheng, Zhihao; Feng, Xingpan; Wu, Miaoli; Chen, Zhangjin; Song, Xiaohong

    2014-02-10

    We investigate the photoelectron momentum distribution of molecular-ion H2+driven by ultrashort intense circularly polarized laser pulses. Both numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and a quasiclassical model indicate that the photoelectron holography (PH) with circularly polarized pulses can occur in molecule. It is demonstrated that the interference between the direct electron wave and rescattered electron wave from one core to its neighboring core induces the PH. Moreover, the results of the TDSE predict that there is a tilt angle between the interference pattern of the PH and the direction perpendicular to the molecular axis. Furthermore, the tilt angle is sensitively dependent on the wavelength of the driven circularly polarized pulse, which is confirmed by the quasiclassical calculations. The PH induced by circularly polarized laser pulses provides a tool to resolve the electron dynamics and explore the spatial information of molecular structures.

  18. Flow Features of Three Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Junkao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the fluctuation of kinetic parameter of cylinder matrix in incompressible stationary flow, the flow fluid around three side-by-side circular cylinders are simulated using Immersed Boundary–Lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM. Drag and lift force of the three cylinders are investigated as the interval between each cylinder varied from zero to five times of the cylinder diameter. Five flow patterns are defined according to the vortices structure in the downstream of the cylinders. Power spectrum analysis of lift force is developed to explain the vortex patterns. Through the research, we find the strength and phase of the gap flow play an important role in the vortex formatting process. The vortices shedding from different cylinders neutralize and combine in the near wake, contributing a lot to the variation of forces.

  19. Low-Cost and High-Gain SIW Circularly Polarized Circular-Horn-Loaded Antenna for Broadband Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A wideband, low-cost and high-gain circularly polarized (CP circular-horn-loaded antenna based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology operating at Ka band is presented. The proposed antenna, which is built on a single-layer substrate, consists of five parts: a short-ended SIW, a centro-symmetric wide slot, an L-shaped probe, a circular horn and a transition from SIW to air-filled rectangular waveguide for measurement. The slot is etched on the upper ground of the SIW, while the L-shaped probe for generating CP wave is printed inside the slot and connected to the SIW. A circular horn is also loaded on the surface of the SIW slot for high gain. Then, the proposed antenna with a dimension of 45×45×24.16 mm3 was fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the antenna has a wide impedance matching bandwidth of 28.6% from 30 to 40 GHz for |S11| ≤10 dB and a wide axial ratio (AR bandwidth of 22.8% from 31.5 to 39.6 GHz for AR ≤ 3 dB. The measured maximum gain is 15.6 dBi at 36 GHz with slight fluctuations over the 30–40-GHz frequency range. This kind of antenna merits low cost and easy integration with common differential circuits at the same time.

  20. System for circular and complex tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstrom, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention discloses a system for conducting circular as well as complex tomographic procedures utilizing apparatus which has no mechanical linkage between the X-ray source and the X-ray receptor. The path of travel of the X-ray source both circularly and linearly is sensed by electromagnetic radiation and more particularly by light radiation which is generated by a laser. The linear travel is sensed by means of reflected laser radiation directed to the X-ray source and fed to an interferometer. The circular travel, on the other hand, is sensed by means of a laser gyroscope also receiving light radiation from a laser. Optical energy sensing means is thus used to generate command signals which are coupled to respective drive motors which act to rotate and when desirable, translate the X-ray receptor so that its motion follows the motion, both orbital and linear, of the X-ray source for performing any desired type of tomographic procedure

  1. Circular economy and waste to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, E. C.; Ragazzi, M.; Torretta, V.; Castagna, G.; Adami, L.; Cioca, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Waste management in European Union has long being regulated by the 4Rs principle, i.e. reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, with landfill disposal as the last option. This vision recently led the European Union (especially since 2015) to the introduction of virtuous goals based on the rejection of linear economy in favour of circular economy strongly founded on materials recovery. In this scenario, landfill disposal option will disappear, while energy recovery may appear controversial when not applied to biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The present work aims to analyse the effects that circular economy principles introduced in the European Union context will have on the thermochemical waste treatment plants design. Results demonstrate that indirect combustion (gasification + combustion) along with integrated vitrification of the non-combustible fraction of treated waste will have a more relevant role in the field of waste treatment than in the past, thanks to the compliance of this option with the principles of circular economy.

  2. 7 CFR 51.3157 - Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) When the skin is blistered, cracked, or decidedly flattened; (2) When the normal color of the skin or... exceeds three-sixteenths inch in diameter; (c) Scab or bacterial spot when cracked, or when the aggregate... one-fourth inch in diameter; (e) Drought spots or external gum spots which have an aggregate area...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2340 - Classification of defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inch (9.5 mm) in diameter which materially detract from the appearance, edible or shipping quality When... which seriously detract from the appearance, edible or shipping quality. Leaf or Limbrubs When not... inch (9.5 mm) in diameter. Insects When feeding injury is evident on fruit or any insect is present in...

  4. Advisory Circular checklist and status of other FAA publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-15

    This 1997 circular transmits the revised checklist of the Federal Aviation : Administration's (FAA) Advisory Circulars (AC's). It also lists certain other : FAA publications sold by the Superintendent of Documents.

  5. Design of a 18F production system at ORNL 86-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, M.C.; Barreto, F.; Datesh, J.R.; Goldstein, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    A target system for the production of 18 F by proton bombardment of H 2 18 O was designed for the ORNL 86-inch cyclotron facility. The system consists of concentric titanium and aluminum cylinders. Oxygen-18-enriched H 2 O circulates through the inner titanium cylinder and through an external heat exchanger with cooling water flowing in the annulus. Yields of 5.0 curies are expected for a 250-μA proton beam current and 24-min irradiation time

  6. Circular RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yi-Neng; Xia, Shengqiang; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of universal and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and they form a covalently closed continuous loop without 5' or 3' tails unlike linear RNAs. Most circRNAs are presented with characteristics of abundance, stability, conservatism, and often exhi...... and expression regulators, RBP sponges in cancer as well as current research methods of circRNAs, providing evidence for the significance of circRNAs in cancer diagnosis and clinical treatment....

  7. Circular fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Chunwei; Zhou, Changquan; Jiang, Kejian; Fang, Meiqi

    2016-11-01

    In this Letter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) measurement method, called the circular fringe projection profilometry (CFPP), is proposed. Similar to the conventional fringe projection profilometry, CFPP also requires fringe pattern projection and capture, phase demodulation, and phase unwrapping. However, it works with a totally different mechanism. CFPP recovers the height of a point by calculating its distance to the optical center of a projector along the optical axis. This distance is calculated with the aid of the divergence angle of a projected light ray and the distance between the measured point and the optical axis. The distance between the measured point and the optical axis is detected by a camera with telecentric lenses, while the divergence angle can be calculated from the phase of a captured circular fringe pattern. The validity of CFPP is confirmed by a set of experiments.

  8. Experimental investigation of complex circular Airy beam characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirev, A. P.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Khonina, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a new type of circular Airy beams, the so-called azimuthally modulated circular Airy beams, generated by utilizing a diffraction element, whose transmission function is the sum of the transmission function of the element generating a "petal" pattern and the transmission function of the element generating a circular Airy beam. We experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of such beams and demonstrate that their autofocusing and selfhealing properties are strongly dependent on the number of generated petals. These beams are a combination of a conventional circular Airy beam and vortex laser beams (or their superpositions). Using a spatial light modulator, we demonstrate that these beams have unique properties such as autofocusing, "nondiffractive" propagation and self-healing after passing through an obstacle. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation. We believe that these results can be very useful for lensless laser fabrication and laser manipulation techniques, as well as for development of new filament plasma multi-channel formation methods.

  9. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section 563g.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the...

  10. 49 CFR 230.38 - Telltale holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telltale holes. 230.38 Section 230.38... Staybolts § 230.38 Telltale holes. (a) Staybolts less than 8 inches long. All staybolts shorter than 8 inches, except flexible bolts, shall have telltale holes 3/16 inch to 7/32 inch diameter and at least 11...

  11. Evaluation of 3 Inch SN-219 Failure and S and SX Tank Farm Saltwell Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSEN, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of direct buried piping currently in use or designated for future Saltwell pumping in S and SX Farms. Documented evaluation of failed S-103 saltwell pumping transfer line 3 inch SN-219. This evaluation is intended to reflect current status of Saltwell piping, when taken in context with referenced documents

  12. 7 CFR 51.316 - Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spots, other similar depressions or scars: (1) When the skin is broken, whether healed or unhealed; (2... spots which affect an area of more than one-fourth inch in diameter. (3) Red skin spots which are thinly... the aggregate affected area of such spots exceeds one-half inch in diameter. (e) Bruises which are not...

  13. 7 CFR 51.311 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the minimum diameter and weight as designated in table II, shall be plainly stamped, stenciled or... fractions thereof in the following manner: “A” inches or “B” grams, where “A” corresponds to one of the diameter measurements in terms of inches listed in table II and “B” corresponds to the weight measurement...

  14. A new alignment procedure for the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Booth, John A.; Doss, David; Loubser, Egan; O'Connor, James E.; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Worters, Hannah L.

    2016-07-01

    Considerable effort has gone into improving the performance and reliability of the SAAO's 74-inch telescope. This included replacing the telescope encoders, refining the pointing model and increasing the telescope throughput. The latter involved re-aluminising the primary and formulating a procedure to ensure optimal alignment of the telescope mirrors. To this end, we developed the necessary hardware and techniques to ensure that such alignment is achieved and maintained, particularly following re-aluminising of the mirrors. In essence, the procedure involves: placing a Taylor Hobson Alignment Telescope on the mechanical rotation axis of the 74-inch (which we define to be the optical axis, since the Cassegrain instruments attach to the associated turntable), then adjusting the tip/tilt of the secondary mirror to get it onto that axis and, lastly, adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to eliminate coma. An eyepiece (or wavefront camera) is installed at the Cassegrain port for this final step since comatic star images indicate the need to tip/tilt the primary mirror to align it to the secondary. Tuning out any brightness gradients seen in an out-of-focus image of a bright star may also be used for feedback when adjusting the tip/tilt of the primary mirror to null coma.

  15. Swarm Robotics with Circular Formation Motion Including Obstacles Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robots science has been developed over the past few years, where robots have become used to accomplish difficult, repetitive or accurate tasks, which are very hard for humans to carry out. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to control the motion of a swarm of robots and make them able to avoid obstacles. The proposed solution is based on forming the robots in circular fashion. A group set of robots consists of multiple groups of robots, each group of robots consists of robots forming a circular shape and each group set is a circular form of robots. The proposed algorithm is concerned with first locating the randomly generated robots in groups and secondly with the swarm robot motion and finally with the swarm obstacle avoidance and swarm reorganization after crossing the obstacle. The proposed algorithm has been simulated with five different obstacles with various numbers of randomly generated robots. The results show that the swarm in the circular form can deal with the obstacles very effectively by passing the obstacles smoothly. The proposed algorithm has been compared with flocking algorithm and it is shown that the circular formation algorithm does not need extensive computation after obstacle avoidance whereas the flocking algorithm needs extensive computation. In addition, the circular formation algorithm maintains every robot in its group after avoiding the obstacles whereas with flocking algorithm does not.

  16. Profile Control by Biased Electrodes in Large Diameter RF Produced Pl asma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Yoshinaka, Toshiro

    1998-10-01

    Control of the plasma profile has been carried out, using the voltage biasing method in the large diameter (45 cm) RF (radio frequency) produced plasma in the presence of the uniform magnetic field (less than 1200 G). Under the low filling pressure condition of 0.16 mTorr, changing the biasing voltages to the three individual end plates with concentric circular ring shapes, the radial electron density (about 10^10 cm-3) profile could be changed from the hollow to the peaked one. On the contrary, the nearly flat electron temperature (several eV) profile did not change appreciably. The azimuthal rotation velocity measured by the Mach probe, i.e. directional probe, showed the different radial profiles (but nearly uniform along the axis) depending on the biasing voltage. This velocity became slower with the low magnetic field (less than 200 G) or in the higher pressure regime up to 20 mTorr with the higher electron density. The experimental results by other biasing methods will also be presented.

  17. FUCHS—towards full circular RNA characterization using RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Metge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs (circRNAs belong to a recently re-discovered species of RNA that emerge during RNA maturation through a process called back-splicing. A downstream 5′ splice site is linked to an upstream 3′ splice site to form a circular transcript instead of a canonical linear transcript. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS have brought circRNAs back into the focus of many scientists. Since then, several studies reported that circRNAs are differentially expressed across tissue types and developmental stages, implying that they are actively regulated and not merely a by-product of splicing. Though functional studies have shown that some circRNAs could act as miRNA-sponges, the function of most circRNAs remains unknown. To expand our understanding of possible roles of circular RNAs, we propose a new pipeline that could fully characterizes candidate circRNA structure from RNAseq data—FUCHS: FUll CHaracterization of circular RNA using RNA-Sequencing. Currently, most computational prediction pipelines use back-spliced reads to identify circular RNAs. FUCHS extends this concept by considering all RNA-seq information from long reads (typically >150 bp to learn more about the exon coverage, the number of double break point fragments, the different circular isoforms arising from one host-gene, and the alternatively spliced exons within the same circRNA boundaries. This new knowledge will enable the user to carry out differential motif enrichment and miRNA seed analysis to determine potential regulators during circRNA biogenesis. FUCHS is an easy-to-use Python based pipeline that contributes a new aspect to the circRNA research.

  18. ORALLOY (93.15 235U) METAL ANNULI WITH BERYLLIUM CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland M.; Reed, Raymond L.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, two were performed that consisted of uranium metal annuli with a solid beryllium metal core. The outer diameter of the annuli was approximately 13 or 15 inches with an inner diameter of 7 inches. The diameter of the core was approximately 7 inches. The critical height of the configurations was approximately 5 and 4 inches, respectively. The uranium annuli consisted of multiple stacked rings with diametral thicknesses of approximately 2 inches apiece and varying heights. The 15-inch experiment was performed on June 4, 1963, and the 13-inch experiment on July 12, 1963 by J. T. Mihalczo and R. G. Taylor (Ref. 1) with accompanying logbook. Both detailed and simplified model specifications are provided in this evaluation. Both of these fast-spectra experiments were determined to represent acceptable benchmarks. The calculated eigenvalues for both the detailed and simple models are within approximately 0.6% of the benchmark values, but significantly greater than 3s from the benchmark value because the uncertainty in the benchmark is very small: eff of ∼0.67%. Unreflected and unmoderated experiments with the same highly enriched uranium metal parts were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in the 1960s and are evaluated in HEU MET

  19. The Relationship amongst Intervertebral Disc Vertical Diameter, Lateral Foramen Diameter and Nerve Root Impingement in Lumbar Vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof MI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD, foraminal vertical diameter (FVD, foraminal transverse diameter (FTD and nerve root diameter (NRD of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.

  20. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 2: Technology definition package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). The demonstration plan would culminate with test firings of a 3.05 m (120 inch) diameter hybrid booster.

  1. Addendum 3 to CSAR 80-027, Use of calorimeter 109B for fissile material measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1994-01-01

    This modification to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) calorimeter system involves removing current calorimeter No. 3 from the water bath and replacing it with a calorimeter that can accommodate larger diameter items (an oversize can). The inside diameters of both the sample and the reference cells will be increased to 5.835 inches at the top opening and to 5.22 inches at the bottom, the 8 inch high measurement zone. This Addendum 3 to Criticality Safety Analysis Report 80-027 examines criticality safety during the use of the modified calorimeter (Calorimeter 109B) with enlarged cell tube diameters to assure that an adequate margin of subcriticality is maintained for all normal and contingency conditions

  2. On the Recognition of Fuzzy Circular Interval Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Oriolo, Gianpaolo; Pietropaoli, Ugo; Stauffer, Gautier

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy circular interval graphs are a generalization of proper circular arc graphs and have been recently introduced by Chudnovsky and Seymour as a fundamental subclass of claw-free graphs. In this paper, we provide a polynomial-time algorithm for recognizing such graphs, and more importantly for building a suitable representation.

  3. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5... and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities” A-122—“Cost...

  4. An analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical investigations have been carried out to analyse the evolution of lunar circular orbits and the influence of the higher order harmonics of the lunar gravity field. The aim is to select the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics, which extend orbit life through passive orbit maintenance. The spherical harmonic ...

  5. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover res...

  6. 77 FR 29905 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... is typically constructed of steel rod with a minimum outside diameter of \\3/8\\ inch for the frame and... horizontal and vertical measurements of 36.5 and 48 inches, respectively, with a \\1/4\\-inch steel rod frame...) and 48 inches (121.9 cm), respectively. The frame must be constructed of steel rod with a minimum...

  7. The study of evaluation index system on construction enterprise’s circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lu; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-06-01

    The development of circular economy is an important way to judge quality of enterprise development and to realize the sustainable development of enterprises. This paper will combine the characteristics of the development of circular economy in construction enterprise to construct circular economy evaluation index system. Then it uses fuzzy mathematics theory and hierarchical analysis evaluation method for comprehensive evaluation of circular economy development level. Through the empirical analysis, the paper provides the reference basis for construction enterprises to further improve the level of circular economy.

  8. Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of P-Y Curves for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    2010-01-01

    is developed for slender piles with diameters up to approximately 2.0 m. Hence, the method is not validated for piles with diameters of 4–6 m. The aim of the paper is to extend the p-y curve method to large-diameter non-slender piles in sand by considering the effects of the pile diameter on the soil-pile...... interaction. Hence, a modified expression for the p-y curves for statically loaded piles in sand is proposed in which the initial slope of the p-y curves depends on the depth below the soil surface, the pile diameter and the internal angle of friction. The evaluation is based on three-dimensional numerical...... analyses by means of the commercial program FLAC3D incorporating a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The numerical model is validated with laboratory tests in a pressure tank at Aalborg University....

  9. Fabrication of circular microfluidic network in enzymatically-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiankang, E-mail: jiankanghe@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Ruomeng; Lu, Yongjie; Zhan, Li; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    It is a huge challenge to engineer vascular networks in vital organ tissue engineering. Although the incorporation of artificial microfluidic network into thick tissue-engineered constructs has shown great promise, most of the existing microfluidic strategies are limited to generate rectangle cross-sectional channels rather than circular vessels in soft hydrogels. Here we present a facile approach to fabricate branched microfluidic network with circular cross-sections in gelatin hydrogels by combining micromolding and enzymatically-crosslinking mechanism. Partially crosslinked hydrogel slides with predefined semi-circular channels were molded, assembled and in situ fully crosslinked to form a seamless and circular microfluidic network. The bonding strength of the resultant gelatin hydrogels was investigated. The morphology and the dimension of the resultant circular channels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Computational fluid dynamic simulation shows that the fabrication error had little effect on the distribution of flow field but affected the maximum velocity in comparison with designed models. The microfluidic gelatin hydrogel facilitates the attachment and spreading of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form a uniform endothelialized layer around the circular channel surface, which successfully exhibited barrier functions. The presented method might provide a simple way to fabricate circular microfluidic networks in biologically-relevant hydrogels to advance various applications of in vitro tissue models, organ-on-a-chip systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A facile method was proposed to build a circular fluidic network in gelatin hydrogel. • The fluidic network is mechanically robust and supports physiological flow. • HUVECs formed endothelialized layer around the channel to express barrier function.

  10. Circular Business Models: Defining a Concept and Framing an Emerging Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L. K. Nußholz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To aid companies in transitioning towards a circular economy and adopting strategies such as reuse, repair, and remanufacturing, the concept of circular business models has been developed. Although the concept draws on contributions from various academic disciplines, and despite its increasingly frequent use, few scholars clearly define what a circular business model is. Understanding about what makes a business model circular is diverse, hampering the theoretical development and practical application of circular business models. This study aims to help frame the field of circular business model research, by clarifying the fundamentals of the concept from the perspectives of resource efficiency and business model innovation. Expanding on these findings, a review of how the concept is used in recent academic literature is provided. It shows that a coherent view is lacking on which resource efficiency strategies classify a business model as circular. This study clarifies which resource efficiency strategies can be deemed as relevant key strategies for circular business models, and suggests a new definition of the concept. With the definition grounded in analysis of the fundamentals in terms of resource efficiency and business models, the study contributes to theoretical advancement and effective implementation of circular business models.

  11. 7 CFR 51.3067 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... serious damage: (a) Anthracnose when any spot exceeds the area of a circle one-fourth inch in diameter, or when more than 3 spots each of which exceeds the area of a circle three-sixteenths inch in diameter; (b) Cuts or other skin breaks when not healed and penetrating into the flesh of the fruit, or the aggregate...

  12. Production of exotic beams at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron by the ISOL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Users of the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron are preparing a proposal to produce exotic, i.e., radioactive beams. The facility will consist of a high-current 30 MeV cyclotron to generate the radioactive nuclei, an ECR source that can be coupled to different production targets, and the 88-Inch Cyclotron to accelerate the radioactive ions. Thus, the basic concept is that of the double cyclotron system pioneered at Louvain-la-Neuve, although the initial emphasis will be on producing a variety of light proton-rich beams at energies up to 10 MeV/A. At this workshop we wish to outline what is being planned, to invite comments and suggestions, and, especially, to encourage participation. We believe that this facility will be an important step toward establishing the scientific and technical basis for a National High Intensity Facility. This can be achieved through active participation by members of the radioactive beam (RB) community in (1) experiments with high quality radioactive beams of moderate intensity and, (2) R ampersand D on high beam-power targets and highly efficient ion sources. 5 refs., 4 figs

  13. 12 CFR 563g.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offering circular requirement. 563g.2 Section 563g.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.2 Offering circular requirement. (a) General. No savings association shall offer or sell, directly...

  14. Band vs. Circular Sawmills: Relative Labor & Maintenance Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    Substantial sawmill lumber yield increases from kerf and sawing variation reductions can be realized by employing band rather than circular headrigs. Softwood sawmills rapidly adopted bandsaw headrig technology to the extent that it is currently unusual to find circular saw headrigs in a softwood sawmill. Hardwood sawmills, faced with a different economic situation,...

  15. The anti-cancer components of Ganoderma lucidum possesses cardiovascular protective effect by regulating circular RNA expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weijiang; Li, Xiangmin; Jiao, Chunwei; Huang, Ren; Yang, Burton B.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the role of oral Ganoderma spore oil in cardiovascular disease, we used transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice to model pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. Our preliminary results demonstrated a potential cardioprotective role for spore oil extracted from Ganoderma. We found that Ganoderma treatment normalized ejection fraction and corrected the fractional shortening generated by TAC. We also found evidence of reduced left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by left ventricular end diastolic diameter. Analysis of total RNA expression using cardiac tissue samples from these mice corroborated our findings. We found reduced expression of genes associated with heart failure, including a novel circular RNA circ-Foxo3. Thus our data provides evidence for Ganoderma lucidum as a potential cardioprotective agent, warranting further preclinical exploration. PMID:27713910

  16. Fission tracks diameters in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon Ruiperez, L.; Veiguela, J.

    1974-01-01

    Standard glass microscope slides have been irradiated with fission fragments from the uranium. The etching track conditions have been the same for the series, having changed the etching time only for each specimen. For each glass, a minimum of 250 measurements of the tracks diameters have been made, the distributions of which are the bimodal type. Diameters-etching dependence with time is roughly lineal. Energy determinations have been made with the help of the diameters-energy relations. The calculated values agree very well with the know ones. (author) [es

  17. How can design science contribute to a circular economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    Circular Economy is increasingly seen as a key approach to operationalising goals and supporting the transition to a sustainable society by enhancing competitiveness and economic growth. Creating a Circular Economy requires fundamental changes throughout the value chain, from innovation, product...... design and production processes all the way to end of life, new business models and consumption patterns. This paper explores how design science can support the transition from the traditional linear 'take-make-consume-dispose' approach, to a Circular Economy. By means of a systematic literature review...

  18. Calibration of circular aperture area using vision probe at inmetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Pedro Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circular aperture areas are standards of high importance for the realization of photometric and radiometric measurements, where the accuracy of these measures is related to the accuracy of the circular aperture area calibrations. In order to attend the requirement for traceability was developed in Brazilian metrology institute, a methodology for circular aperture area measurement as requirements from the radiometric and photometric measurements. In the developed methodology apertures are measured by non-contact measurement through images of the aperture edges captured by a camera. These images are processed using computer vision techniques and then the values of the circular aperture area are determined.

  19. ¿Son diferentes los migrantes circulares? La integración, el bienestar y la intención de quedarse de los que migran por primera vez y de los migrantes circulares (Are circular migrants different? Integration, wellbeing, and intention to stay of first-time and circular migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Braun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon datos tomados del proyecto PIONEUR sobre la migración interna en la Unión Europea, definiremos (una forma débil de migrantes circulares como el colectivo de aquellos migrantes que ya habían experimentado una estancia prolongada en el país de residencia (en lo sucesivo abreviado a PDR antes de su traslado definitivo. A continuación, se ofrecerá una descripción de este colectivo junto con sus características sociodemográficas y se emplearán análisis de regresión (multinivel para determinar si la migración circular explica las diferencias en algunas variables dependientes (como el dominio del idioma, el apego al PDR que arrojan esos migrantes teniendo en cuenta las características sociodemográficas. De este modo, la migración circular estaría relacionada con un mayor contacto con la cultura del PDR y con una decisión consciente de regresar al país.AbstractUsing data from the PIONEUR project on intra-European migration, (a weak form of circular migrants will be defined by the group of migrants who experienced a prolonged sojourn in the country of residence (in the following abbreviated as CoR already before the final move. Then this group will be described along socio-demographic characteristics and (multilevel regression analysis will be used to determine whether circular migration explains differences in some outcome variables (such as language proficiency, attachment to the CoR, net of the socio-demographic characteristics these migrants have. Circular migration would then be related to additional exposure to the culture of the CoR and a conscious decision to re-enter the country.

  20. Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.

  1. Effect of Temperature on Topological States of Circular DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Tao; Li, Xiu-Yan; Liu, Yan-Hui; Chen, Hu

    2017-07-01

    The different topological states of circular double-stranded DNA can be defined by their linking number. The equilibrium distribution of linking number can be obtained by circularizing a linear DNA into a circle by ligase. Based on the recent experimental results that the DNA bending rigidity and twist rigidity strongly depend on temperature, the reduced bending rigidity can be approximated by g=(3.19× {10}-19-T\\cdot 4.14× {10}-22) {erg}\\cdot {cm} over the temperature interval (5 ∼ 53) °C, and the temperature dependence of twist rigidity can be fitted by C(T)=(4588.89{exp} (-T/117.04)-251.33) nm. The temperature dependence of the linking number distribution of circular DNAs can be predicted by using Monte Carlo simulation. The variance of linking number distribution on temperature is in accordance with the previous experimental results. Compared with the temperature dependence of bending rigidity, the temperature dependence of twist rigidity causes a noticeable fluctuation in linking number distribution and mainly contribute towards the variance change of linking number distribution of circular DNA. The variance of the writhe number and twist number in the equation = + depends on the length of circular DNA. When the length of circular DNA is less than 230 nm, the variance of twist number is dominant over the variance of writhe number ( ), whereas for the condition that the length of the circular DNA is larger than 370 nm. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11047022, 11204045, and 11464004, Guizhou Provincial Tracking Key Program of Social Development (SY20123089, SZ20113069), the General Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M562341), the Research Foundation for Young University Teachers from Guizhou University (201311), and College Innovation Talent Team of Guizhou Province (2014)32

  2. Breaking the Barriers to the Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchherr, J.W.; Hekkert, M.P.; Bour, Ruben; Huijbrechtse-Truijens, Anne; Kostense-Smit, Erica; Muller, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, the Netherlands and Deloitte have jointly carried out research on barriers to the Circular Economy (CE) in the European Union. For this research, a survey with 153 businesses, 55 government officials and expert interviews with forty-seven thought leaders on the circular economy from businesses, governments, academia and NGOs have been carried out. Two types of barriers emerged as main barriers Firstly, there are the cult...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to...

  4. Performance limits of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagayda, A., E-mail: shagayda@gmail.com; Madeev, S. [Keldysh Research Centre, Onezhskaya, 8, 125438 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    A three-dimensional computer simulation is used to determine the perveance limitations of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures. The objective of the study is to analyze the possibilities to improve mechanical strength of the ion optics made of carbon-carbon composite materials. Non-circular grid apertures are better suited to the physical structure of carbon-carbon composite materials, than conventionally used circular holes in a hexagonal pattern, because they allow a fewer number of cut fibers. However, the slit-type accelerating systems, usually regarded as the main alternative to the conventional ion optics, have an intolerably narrow range of operating perveance values at which there is no direct ion impingement on the acceleration grid. This paper presents results of comparative analysis of a number of different ion optical systems with non-circular apertures and conventional ion optical systems with circular apertures. It has been revealed that a relatively wide perveance range without direct ion impingement may be obtained with apertures shaped as a square with rounded corners. Numerical simulations show that this geometry may have equivalent perveance range as the traditional geometry with circular apertures while being more mechanically robust. In addition, such important characteristics, as the effective transparency for both the ions and the neutral atoms, the height of the potential barrier reflecting the downstream plasma electrons and the angular divergence of the beamlet also can be very close to these parameters for the optics with circular apertures.

  5. Performance limits of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagayda, A; Madeev, S

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional computer simulation is used to determine the perveance limitations of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures. The objective of the study is to analyze the possibilities to improve mechanical strength of the ion optics made of carbon-carbon composite materials. Non-circular grid apertures are better suited to the physical structure of carbon-carbon composite materials, than conventionally used circular holes in a hexagonal pattern, because they allow a fewer number of cut fibers. However, the slit-type accelerating systems, usually regarded as the main alternative to the conventional ion optics, have an intolerably narrow range of operating perveance values at which there is no direct ion impingement on the acceleration grid. This paper presents results of comparative analysis of a number of different ion optical systems with non-circular apertures and conventional ion optical systems with circular apertures. It has been revealed that a relatively wide perveance range without direct ion impingement may be obtained with apertures shaped as a square with rounded corners. Numerical simulations show that this geometry may have equivalent perveance range as the traditional geometry with circular apertures while being more mechanically robust. In addition, such important characteristics, as the effective transparency for both the ions and the neutral atoms, the height of the potential barrier reflecting the downstream plasma electrons and the angular divergence of the beamlet also can be very close to these parameters for the optics with circular apertures.

  6. Performance limits of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagayda, A.; Madeev, S.

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional computer simulation is used to determine the perveance limitations of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures. The objective of the study is to analyze the possibilities to improve mechanical strength of the ion optics made of carbon-carbon composite materials. Non-circular grid apertures are better suited to the physical structure of carbon-carbon composite materials, than conventionally used circular holes in a hexagonal pattern, because they allow a fewer number of cut fibers. However, the slit-type accelerating systems, usually regarded as the main alternative to the conventional ion optics, have an intolerably narrow range of operating perveance values at which there is no direct ion impingement on the acceleration grid. This paper presents results of comparative analysis of a number of different ion optical systems with non-circular apertures and conventional ion optical systems with circular apertures. It has been revealed that a relatively wide perveance range without direct ion impingement may be obtained with apertures shaped as a square with rounded corners. Numerical simulations show that this geometry may have equivalent perveance range as the traditional geometry with circular apertures while being more mechanically robust. In addition, such important characteristics, as the effective transparency for both the ions and the neutral atoms, the height of the potential barrier reflecting the downstream plasma electrons and the angular divergence of the beamlet also can be very close to these parameters for the optics with circular apertures.

  7. Performance limits of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagayda, A.; Madeev, S.

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer simulation is used to determine the perveance limitations of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures. The objective of the study is to analyze the possibilities to improve mechanical strength of the ion optics made of carbon-carbon composite materials. Non-circular grid apertures are better suited to the physical structure of carbon-carbon composite materials, than conventionally used circular holes in a hexagonal pattern, because they allow a fewer number of cut fibers. However, the slit-type accelerating systems, usually regarded as the main alternative to the conventional ion optics, have an intolerably narrow range of operating perveance values at which there is no direct ion impingement on the acceleration grid. This paper presents results of comparative analysis of a number of different ion optical systems with non-circular apertures and conventional ion optical systems with circular apertures. It has been revealed that a relatively wide perveance range without direct ion impingement may be obtained with apertures shaped as a square with rounded corners. Numerical simulations show that this geometry may have equivalent perveance range as the traditional geometry with circular apertures while being more mechanically robust. In addition, such important characteristics, as the effective transparency for both the ions and the neutral atoms, the height of the potential barrier reflecting the downstream plasma electrons and the angular divergence of the beamlet also can be very close to these parameters for the optics with circular apertures.

  8. Circular polarimetry of the magnetic compact binary AM Herculis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirola, V; Vilhu, O; Tuominen, I

    1982-01-01

    Circular polarimetry in the red and simultaneous photometric observations in the UBVRI bands during the period June 1 to 3, 1981, of AM Herculis are discussed. Peak value of negative circular polarization (- 15 %) is stronger than observed in 1976 to 1979. Variations in the shape of the polarization and light curves occur from night to night. Positive crossover and reversal of the sign of the circular polarization are only marginal. Long term changes in polarization may be partly due to precession of the axis of rotation of the white dwarf about the binary axis. However, the duration of the phase interval where circular polarization remains close to zero changes on a time scale of days, casting doubt on precession models. The changing shape and position of the accretion columns with respect to the magnetic axis could explain short term variations. (ESA)

  9. Soil and land management in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, A M; Lijzen, J P A; Maring, L

    2018-05-15

    This article elaborates the role of soil and land management in a circular economy. The circular economy is highly dependent on the functioning of soils and land for the production of food and other biomass; the storage, filtration and transformation of many substances including water, carbon, and nitrogen; the provision of fresh mineral resources and fossil fuels; and the use of their functions as the platform for nature and human activities. Resource demand is increasing as a result of the growing human population. In addition to the shrinking availability of resources resulting from their unsustainable use in the past, our planet's diminishing potential for resource production, due to a range of reasons, is leading to resource scarcity, especially in the case of depletable resources. As an economic system that focuses on maximizing the reuse of resources and products and minimizing their depreciation, the circular economy greatly influences, and depends on, soil and land management. The concise management of the resources, land and soil is thus necessary, to make a circular economy successful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isotachophoresis system having larger-diameter channels flowing into channels with reduced diameter and with selectable counter-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2018-03-06

    An isotachophoresis system for separating a sample containing particles into discrete packets including a flow channel, the flow channel having a large diameter section and a small diameter section; a negative electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a positive electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a leading carrier fluid in the flow channel; a trailing carrier fluid in the flow channel; and a control for separating the particles in the sample into discrete packets using the leading carrier fluid, the trailing carrier fluid, the large diameter section, and the small diameter section.

  11. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter...

  12. Second-harmonic generation circular dichroism spectroscopy from tripod-like chiral molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Ou; Chen Li-An; Chen Li-Xue; Sun Xiu-Dong; Li Jun-Qing; Li Chun-Fei

    2010-01-01

    The second-harmonic generation (SHG) circular dichroism in the light of reflection from chiral films of tripod-like chiral molecules is investigated. The expressions of the second-harmonic generation circular dichroism are derived from our presented three-coupled-oscillator model for the tripod-like chiral molecules. Spectral dependence of the circular dichroism of SHG from film surface composed of tripod-like chiral molecules is simulated numerically and analysed. Influence of chiral parameters on the second-harmonic generation circular dichroism spectrum in chiral films is studied. The result shows that the second-harmonic generation circular dichroism is a sensitive method of detecting chirality compared with the ordinary circular dichroism in linear optics. All of our work indicates that the classical molecular models are very effective to explain the second-harmonic generation circular dichroism of chiral molecular system. The classical molecular model theory can give us a clear physical picture and brings us very instructive information about the link between the molecular configuration and the nonlinear processes

  13. Inkjet printed circularly polarized antennas for GPS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Two novel, inkjet printed circularly polarized antenna designs are presented for GPS applications. First antenna design comprises a planar monopole which has been made circularly polarized by the introduction of an L-shaped slit. The antenna shows a gain of 0.2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.8%. The second antenna design comprises a modified monopole in the form of an inverted L and has been termed as circularly polarized inverted L antenna (CILA). The antenna shows a gain of -2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 4.1%. Both the antenna designs are attractive for mobile applications.

  14. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – May 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of Merit of Staff Members Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. This circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 6) - Procedures governing the career development of staff members. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. If you require any additional information on the new staff-member merit assessment and recognition system, you may consult the FAQ, which has been available on the Human Resources Department intranet site since February 2007. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  15. Quantitative analysis of the flexibility effect of cisplatin on circular DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2013-10-01

    We study the effects of cisplatin on the circular configuration of DNA using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and observe that the DNA gradually transforms to a complex configuration with an intersection and interwound structures from a circlelike structure. An algorithm is developed to extract the configuration profiles of circular DNA from AFM images and the radius of gyration is used to describe the flexibility of circular DNA. The quantitative analysis of the circular DNA demonstrates that the radius of gyration gradually decreases and two processes on the change of flexibility of circular DNA are found as the cisplatin concentration increases. Furthermore, a model is proposed and discussed to explain the mechanism for understanding the complicated interaction between DNA and cisplatin.

  16. Remote target removal for the Oak Ridge 86-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A remotely operated target remover has been plaed in operation at the 86-Inch Cyclotron located in Oak Ridge. The system provides for the remote removal of a target from inside the cyclotron, loading it into a cask, and the removal of the cask from the 1.5 m (5-ft) shielding walls. The remote system consists of multiple electrical and pneumatically operated equipment which is designed for controlled step-by-step operation, operated with an electrical control panel, and monitored by a television system. The target remover has reduced the radiation exposures to operating personnel at the facility and has increased the effective operating time. The system is fast, requires a minimum of skill to operate, and has demonstrated both reliability and durability

  17. Circularly polarized luminescence of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Guerra, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    Syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS) films, when crystallized from the amorphous state by temporary sorption of non-racemic guest molecules (like carvone) not only exhibit unusually high optical activity, both in the UV-Visible and Infrared ranges, but also present circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with high dissymmetry ratios (g = ΔI/I values in the range 0.02-0.03). Experimental evidences provide support, rather than to the usual molecular circular dichroism, to a supramolecular chiral optical response being extrinsic to the site of photon absorption and emission, possibly associated with a helical morphology of s-PS crystallites.

  18. Magnetic field generation by circularly polarized laser light and inertial plasma confinement in a miniature 'Magnetic Bottle' induced by circularly polarized laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolka, E.

    1993-07-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested in this work. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to get confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated in this work. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces and the Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n=5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 nsec. The laser and the plasma parameters required to get an energetic gain are calculated. (authors)

  19. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T., E-mail: thomas.bergauer@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Dragicevic, M.; König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Hacker, J.; Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-09-11

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  20. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

  1. Modified circular velocity law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  2. Lung Cancer-Specific Circular RNAs as Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    determine whether differential expression of circular RNAs can also be detected in cell culture models. Third, we will determine whether circular RNAs can...four of them as representative differentially expressed circRNAs in Table 1. For example , hsa_circRNA_400633 and hsa_circRNA_101100 were upregulated...sequence for hsa_circRNA_400633 and hsa_circRNA_101100, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as an example . The top part is the actual sequence and the

  3. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  4. Molecular electron recollision dynamics in intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Extreme UV and x-ray table top light sources based on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) are focused now on circular polarization for the generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses as new tools for controlling electron dynamics, such as charge transfer and migration and the generation of attosecond quantum electron currents for ultrafast magneto-optics. A fundamental electron dynamical process in HHG is laser induced electron recollision with the parent ion, well established theoretically and experimentally for linear polarization. We discuss molecular electron recollision dynamics in circular polarization by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The control of the polarization of HHG with circularly polarized ionizing pulses is examined and it is shown that bichromatic circularly polarized pulses enhance recollision dynamics, rendering HHG more efficient, especially in molecules because of their nonspherical symmetry. The polarization of the harmonics is found to be dependent on the compatibility of the rotational symmetry of the net electric field created by combinations of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses with the dynamical symmetry of molecules. We show how the field and molecule symmetry influences the electron recollision trajectories by a time-frequency analysis of harmonics. The results, in principle, offer new unique controllable tools in the study of attosecond molecular electron dynamics.

  5. Handbook for inventorying downed woody material

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown

    1974-01-01

    To facilitate debris management, procedures for inventorying downed woody material are presented. Instructions show how to estimate weights and volumes of downed woody material, fuel depth, and duff depth. Using the planar intersect technique, downed material is inventoried by 0- to 0.25-inch, 0.25- to 1-inch, and 1- to 3-inch diameter classes; and by 1-inch classes...

  6. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynberg, H.; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies Photuris lucicrescens and P. versicolor emitted circularly polarized light of opposite sense. A possible mechanism is discussed. [on SciFinder (R)

  7. The potential of a circular economy in the Netherlands: summary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastein, T.; Roelofs, E.; Rietveld, E.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2013-01-01

    For the Dutch Parliament, TNO has assessed the opportunities for a circular economy in The Netherlands. TNO estimates the value of a circular economy to be about 7.3 billion euro. The results and conclusions of the TNO-rapport ‘The potential of a circular economy in the Netherlands’ are sent to the

  8. Circular braiding take-up speed generation using inverse kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, J.H.; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Circular overbraiding of composite preforms on complex mandrels currently lacks automatic generation of machine control data. To solve this limitation, an inverse kinematics-based procedure was designed and implemented for circular braiding machines with optional guide rings, resulting in a take-up

  9. Generation of circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Stephon; Ochoa, Joseph; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of Lorentz invariance.

  10. A systematic review on drivers, barriers, and practices towards circular economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Hasanagic, Mia

    2018-01-01

    identified that emerge from the application of a circular economy, no concrete studies exist that investigate current state-of-the-art drivers, barriers and practices in this relevant field. An in-depth exploration of current practices would enhance the circular economy’s significance and would help...... understand its present level of implementation. With this concern, this study provides an analysis of the drivers, barriers and practices that influence the implementation of the circular economy in the context of supply chains through a systematic review. In order to analyse the circular economy’s level...... of implementation, we correlate stakeholders’ perspectives with drivers, barriers, and practices; thus, a multi-perspective framework is proposed. From the results, it is evident that among various stakeholders, the governmental perspective has the maximum positive impact on the implementation of the circular...

  11. Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

  12. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed previously. Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in test cast-iron pipe segments. Efforts in the current quarter continued to be focused on Tasks 4-8. Highly valuable lessons were learned from field tests of the 4-inch gas pipe repair robot in cast-iron pipe at Public Service Electric & Gas. (These field tests were conducted and reported previously.) Several design issues were identified which need to be implemented in both the small- and large-diameter repair

  13. Circular polarization memory in single Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsevich, S.; Poem, E.; Benny, Y.; Marderfeld, I.; Gershoni, D.; Badolato, A.; Petroff, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Under quasi-resonant circularly polarized optical excitation, charged quantum dots may emit polarized light. We measured various transitions with either positive, negative or no circular-polarization memory. We explain these observations and quantitatively calculate the polarization spectrum. Our model use the full configuration-interaction method, including the electron-hole exchange interaction, for calculating the quantum dot's confined many-carrier states, along with one assumption regarding the spin relaxation of photoexcited carriers: Electrons maintain their initial spin polarization, while holes do not.

  14. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended

  15. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  16. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  17. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orscheln, Emily S.; Trout, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  18. Chemical detection of cysteine-rich circular petides in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cysteine-rich circular peptides (CRCs) comprise a large family of gene encoded and low molecular weight polypeptides that has recently engaged the attention of scientists. This class of peptides exhibit a continuous circular configuration and a cystine knot backbone, which defines their resilient nature-directed structural ...

  19. The Circular Economy and the Leading European Retailers: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy is gaining momentum in political and business thinking about the transition to a more sustainable future. EuroCommerce and the European Retail Round Table, for example, have argued that leading retailers are keen to play a leading role in shaping the circular economy within Europe. This exploratory research note outlines the characteristic features of the concept of the circular economy, provides some illustrations of how Europe’s leading retailers are publicly addressing circular economy approaches and offers some general reflections on the application of the concept within the retail sector of the economy. The findings reveal that almost 50% of the leading European retailers signalled a commitment to the circular economy and to the principles underpinning it and a number of them looked to evidence their commitment within their retail operations. That said the authors suggest that If Europe’s leading retailers’ public commitments to a more circular economy are to become a reality then they will not only need to effect a radical change in their current business models and that this will need to be accompanied by radical changes in consumers consumption behaviour. More contentiously, there must be concerns that the leading European retailers might effectively capture the concept of the circular economy to justify continuing economic growth.

  20. [Integrated evaluation of circular agriculture system: a life cycle perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Long; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    For the point of view that recycling economy system is one of ways to achieve the low-carbon economy, we have made an evaluation on a typical circular agriculture duck industry in Hunan Province, China, through improving the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA). The analysis indicated that the consumption of non-renewable resources, land and water were 48.629 MJ, 2.36 m2 and 1 321.41 kg, while the potential greenhouse gas (GHGs), acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity were 11 543.26 g (CO2 eq), 52.36g (SO2eq), 25.83g (PO4eq), 1.26, 60.74 and 24.65 g (1,4-DCBeq), respectively. The potential damage of aquatic eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity was more serious than that of GHGs. Main results were following: i. the circular agricultural chain promoted the principle of "moderate circulation", which based on the traditional production methods; ii. circular agriculture could not blindly pursue low carbon development. Instead, soil and biological carbon sequestration should be considered, in addition to reducing carbon emissions; iii. circular economy and circular agriculture should take other potential environmental impacts into account such as acidification, eutrophication and ecotoxicity,with the exception to carbon emissions,to developed integrated system assessment; iv. LCA could provide a comprehensive assessment of circular agriculture, and it was worth of further study.

  1. Effect of length to thickness ratio on free vibration analysis of thick fiber reinforced plastic skew cross-ply laminate with circular cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, K.; Reddy, Ch. Kishore; Sumanth, Ch. Mohan; Krishnaiah, P. Gopala; Kishan, V. Mallikharjuna

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the free vibration analysis of a thick four-layered symmetric cross-ply skew laminated composite plate with a circular cutout. Three dimensional finite element models (FEM) which use the elasticity theory for the determination of stiffness matrices are modeled in ANSYS software to evaluate first five natural frequencies of the laminate. The variations of the first five natural frequencies with respect to length to thickness ratio (S) for different diameter to length ratios (d/l) are presented. It is observed that, the natural frequencies decreases with increase of thickness ratio(S).

  2. PCDDB: the Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank, a repository for circular dichroism spectral and metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Lee; Woollett, Benjamin; Miles, Andrew John; Klose, D P; Janes, Robert W; Wallace, B A

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB) is a public repository that archives and freely distributes circular dichroism (CD) and synchrotron radiation CD (SRCD) spectral data and their associated experimental metadata. All entries undergo validation and curation procedures to ensure completeness, consistency and quality of the data included. A web-based interface enables users to browse and query sample types, sample conditions, experimental parameters and provides spectra in both graphical display format and as downloadable text files. The entries are linked, when appropriate, to primary sequence (UniProt) and structural (PDB) databases, as well as to secondary databases such as the Enzyme Commission functional classification database and the CATH fold classification database, as well as to literature citations. The PCDDB is available at: http://pcddb.cryst.bbk.ac.uk.

  3. NO PLIF Imaging in the CUBRC 48 Inch Shock Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton J.; Lempert W.; Miller, J. D.; Meyer, T. R.; Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Nitric Oxide Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10 kHz repetition rate in the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center s (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single approx.10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. This represents over an order of magnitude improvement in data rate from previous PLIF-based diagnostic approaches. Comparison with a preliminary CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement between the prediction of the mean NO density field and the observed PLIF image intensity, averaged over forty individual images obtained during several facility runs.

  4. ECR heavy-ion source for the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.; Kalnins, J.G.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1983-03-01

    An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heavy-ion source is under construction at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron. This source will produce very-high-charge-state heavy ions, such as 0 8 + and Ar 12 + , which will increase cyclotron energies by a factor of 2-4, up to A = 80. It is a two-stage source using room-temperature coils, a permanent-magnet sextupole, and a 6-9 GHz microwave system. Design features include adjustable first-to-second-stage plasma coupling, a variable second-stage mirror ratio, high-conductance radial pumping of the second stage, and a beam-diagnostic system. A remotely movable extraction electrode will optimize extraction efficiency. The project includes construction of a transport line and improvements to the cyclotron axial-injection system. The construction period is expected to be two years

  5. Optimization of Burr size, Surface Roughness and Circularity Deviation during Drilling of Al 6061 using Taguchi Design Method and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate, drill diameter, point angle and clearance angle on the burr size, surface roughness and circularity deviation of Al 6061 during drilling on CNC vertical machining center. A plan of experiments based on Taguchi technique has been used to acquire the data. An orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to investigate machining characteristics of Al 6061 using HSS twist drill bits of variable tool geometry and maintain constant helix angle of 45 degrees. Confirmation tests have been carried out to predict the optimal setting of process parameters to validate the used approach, obtained the values of 0.2618mm, 0.1821mm, 3.7451µm, 0.0676mm for burr height, burr thickness, surface roughness and circularity deviation respectively. Finally, artificial neural network has been applied to compare the predicted values with the experimental values, good agreement was shown between the predictive model results and the experimental measurements. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Role of Food Logistics Management in a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Groot, J.J.; Snels, J.C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the role of food logistics management in a circular economy. Specific pillars in Circular Economy such as Closed Loop supply Chain management and Industrial Ecology will be discussed. Apart from a research agenda, we will provide exemplary cases in practice showing the

  7. Force and work to shear green southern pine logs at slow speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1971-01-01

    When logs of three diameter classes and two specific gravity classes were sheared with a 3/8-inch-thick knife travelling at 2 inches per minute, shearing force and work averaged greatest for dense 13.6-inch logs cut with a knife having a 45o sharpness angle (73,517 pounds; 49,838 foot-pounds). Force and work averaged at least 5.1-inch bolts of...

  8. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering studies of thiol capped gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M.A.; Haskel, D.; te Velthuis, S.G.E; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian Fernandez, C.; Garcia, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 · 10 -4 was found at the Au L 3 edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M s , of 0.06 emu/g Au . SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences

  9. Axial Crushing Behaviors of Thin-Walled Corrugated and Circular Tubes - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, Mohd.; Bharti, P. K.; Umer, Afaque

    2017-10-01

    With the help of finite element analysis, this research paper deals with the energy absorption and collapse behavior with different corrugated section geometries of hollow tubes made of aluminum alloy 6060-T4. Literature available experimental data were used to validate the numerical models of the structures investigated. Based on the results available for symmetric crushing of circular tubes, models were developed to investigate corrugated thin-walled structures behavior. To study the collapse mechanism and energy absorbing ability in axial compression, the simulation was carried in ABAQUS /EXPLICIT code. In the simulation part, specimens were prepared and axially crushed to one-fourth length of the tube and the energy diagram of crushing force versus axial displacement is shown. The effect of various parameters such as pitch, mean diameter, corrugation, amplitude, the thickness is demonstrated with the help of diagrams. The overall result shows that the corrugated section geometry could be a good alternative to the conventional tubes.

  10. Vorticity generation and wake transition for a translating circular cylinder: Wall proximity and rotation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hourigan, K.; Rao, A.; Brøns, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The wake transitions of generic bluff bodies, such as a circular cylinder, near a wall are important because they provide understanding of different transition paths towards turbulence, and give some insight into the effect of surface modifications on the flow past larger downstream structures......-annihilate with opposite-signed vorticity, and can be stored at a free surface, thus conserving the total vorticity, or circulation. Vorticity generation, diffusion and storage are demonstrated for a cylinder translating and rotating near a wall. The wake characteristics and the wake transitions are shown to change...... dramatically under the influence of cylinder rotation and wall proximity. At gaps between the cylinder and the wall of less than approximately 0.25 cylinder diameter, the wake becomes three dimensional prior to becoming unsteady, while for larger gaps the initial transition is to an unsteady two...

  11. Effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in horizontal circular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianto, S.; Pamitran, A. S.; Nasruddin, Alhamid, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Due to its friendly effect on the environment, natural refrigerants could be the best alternative refrigerant to replace conventional refrigerants. The present study was devoted to the effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in a horizontal circular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm. The experiments were conditioned with 4 to 10 °C for saturation temperature, 9 to 20 kW/m2 for heat flux, and 250 to 380 kg/m2s for mass flux. It is shown here that increased heat flux may result in increasing vapor superficial velocity, and then increasing pressure drop. The present experimental results were evaluated with some existing correlations of pressure drop. The best prediction was evaluated by Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) with MARD 25.7%. In order to observe the experimental flow pattern, the present results were also mapped on the Wang flow pattern map.

  12. Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpun Tongpun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

  13. Entropic derivation of F=ma for circular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Michael; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    We examine the entropic picture of Newton's second law for the case of circular motion. It is shown that one must make modifications to the derivation of F=ma due to a change in the effective Unruh temperature for circular motion. These modifications present a challenge to the entropic derivation of Newton's second law, but also open up the possibility to experimentally test and constrain this model for large centripetal accelerations.

  14. Circular RNA profiling reveals that circular RNAs from ANXA2 can be used as new biomarkers for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, Leire; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Prada-Luengo, Iñigo; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Otaegui, David

    2017-09-15

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, with higher prevalence in women, in whom the immune system is dysregulated. This dysregulation has been shown to correlate with changes in transcriptome expression as well as in gene-expression regulators, such as non-coding RNAs (e.g. microRNAs). Indeed, some of these have been suggested as biomarkers for multiple sclerosis even though few biomarkers have reached the clinical practice. Recently, a novel family of non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs, has emerged as a new player in the complex network of gene-expression regulation. MicroRNA regulation function through a 'sponge system' and a RNA splicing regulation function have been proposed for the circular RNAs. This regulating role together with their high stability in biofluids makes them seemingly good candidates as biomarkers. Given the dysregulation of both protein-coding and non-coding transcriptome that have been reported in multiple sclerosis patients, we hypothesised that circular RNA expression may also be altered. Therefore, we carried out expression profiling of 13.617 circular RNAs in peripheral blood leucocytes from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls finding 406 differentially expressed (P-value  1.5) and demonstrate after validation that, circ_0005402 and circ_0035560 are underexpressed in multiple sclerosis patients and could be used as biomarkers of the disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Success Factors of Sustainable Social Enterprises Through Circular Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratan Dumitru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the research is to find out how social entrepreneurship operations can be modelled within existing business methods using circular economy principles. A literature review was undertaken in order to clarify and find out different opinions regarding circularity and social businesses models. Moreover, the author interviewed managers of different social mission organizations in order to find out the critical factors that determine the sustainability and performances of the organizations. Using the results of the field and desk research, the author suggests the following business model elements to be considered by social enterprises aiming to implement circular economy principles: Desired social and environment vision; Value proposition; Alignment of organizations to the strategy and acceleration of change through executive leadership implication; Financial sustainable perspective: a to increase financial resources and b to manage costs; Stakeholders perspective: a customers segments, b users, c employees, d community beneficiaries, e channels, f customer relationships, g Key partnerships; Internal process perspective: a processes necessary to use circular economy principles; b impact measurement and key activities; c internal and external communication; Resources perspective: a networks; b skills on circular principles and social impact; c information and technologies.`

  16. Time can't be circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Delivering the Albert Einstein lecture at the Centre for Philosophy and Foundations of Science on Tuesday, Nobel Laureate Professor Gerard Hooft said that any notion of time can not be circular or have loops or multi dimensionality" (1/2 page).

  17. 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dimensions specified in this paragraph shall apply to all guards, except horizontal overhead belts, rope... drives of twenty (20) inch centers or under shall be not less than one-fourth inch from the nearest... one-fourth (11/4) inches inside diameter, or larger. If made of metal shapes or bars, their section...

  18. Administrative circular No. 12

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    On the recommendation of the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular No. 12 as follows: The figures, effective from 1 September 2006, are: Paragraph 8a: 17 Swiss francs Paragraph 9a: 682 Swiss francs Paragraph 9b: 34 Swiss francs Human Resources Department Tel. 79257/72862

  19. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) – Recognition of Merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled "Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 27 September 2011 is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp The circular was above all revised in order to integrate the new CERN Competency Model into the annual procedure of performance appraisal. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) entitled "Recognition of merit” of September 2008. Department Head Office HR Department

  20. Characteristics of circular features on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, J. F.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.; Hofmann, M.; Sierks, H.

    2017-09-01

    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko shows a large variety of circular structures such as pits, elevated roundish features in Imhotep, and even a single occurrence of a plausible fresh impact crater. Imaging the pits in the Ma'at region, aiming to understand their structure and origin drove the design of the final descent trajectory of the Rosetta spacecraft. The high-resolution images obtained during the last mission phase allow us to study these pits as exemplary circular features. A complete catalogue of circular features gives us the possibility to compare and classify these structures systematically.

  1. The Potential of Circular Economy in Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malabi Larsen, Leonora Charlotte; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Birkved, Morten

    2018-01-01

    benefits of designing the buildings concrete structure for disassembly, with the purpose of reuse, as well as to exemplify how circular economy can be applied in future building projects. Moreover, the paper aims at suggesting a more industry focused approach towards circular economy in order to seize...... the inherent potentials. As a result, it was found that recycling and energy recovery are the most common circular economy practices in the building industry, even though the economic and environmental benefits of reuse are believed to be much higher. This observation is supported by the findings of the case...... and glass, thereby enabling easier disassembly for both reuse and recycling. However, main challenges preventing the industry from seizing these potentials are identified as: focus on short term goals, complex supply chains, lack of collaboration between stakeholders and absence of a commonly agreed...

  2. Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

  3. A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bergman, A. S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Duivenvoorden, A. J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Freese, K.; Galloway, M.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Ganga, K.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hartley, J.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Huang, Z.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Kermish, Z. D.; Li, S.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nolta, M.; Padilla, I. L.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Ruud, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, X.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Van Der List, J. F.; Weber, A. C.; Wehus, I. K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new upper limit on cosmic microwave background (CMB) circular polarization from the 2015 flight of Spider, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for B-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the nonzero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the half-wave plate polarization modulators, data from Spider's 2015 Antarctic flight provide a constraint on Stokes V at 95 and 150 GHz in the range 33< {\\ell }< 307. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and Spider improves on the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on {\\ell }({\\ell }+1){C}{\\ell }{VV}/(2π ) ranging from 141 to 255 μK2 at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain even stronger constraints on circular polarization.

  4. A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bergman, A. S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Duivenvoorden, A. J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Freese, K.; Galloway, M.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Ganga, K.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hartley, J.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Huang, Z.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Kermish, Z. D.; Li, S.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nolta, M.; Padilla, I. L.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Ruud, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, X.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; List, J. F. Van Der; Weber, A. C.; Wehus, I. K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new upper limit on CMB circular polarization from the 2015 flight of SPIDER, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for $B$-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the non-zero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the HWP polarization modulators, data from SPIDER's 2015 Antarctic flight provides a constraint on Stokes $V$ at 95 and 150 GHz from $33<\\ell<307$. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and SPIDER improves upon the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on $\\ell (\\ell+1)C_{\\ell}^{VV}/(2\\pi)$ ranging from 141 $\\mu K ^2$ to 203 $\\mu K ^2$ at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain stronger constraints on circular polarization.

  5. Frenkel-exciton decomposition analysis of circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence for multichromophoric systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraogawa, Takafumi; Ehara, Masahiro; Jurinovich, Sandro; Cupellini, Lorenzo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2018-06-15

    Recently, a method to calculate the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra based on the exciton coupling has been developed. In this work, the method was utilized for the decomposition of the CD and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectra of a multichromophoric system into chromophore contributions for recently developed through-space conjugated oligomers. The method which has been implemented using rotatory strength in the velocity form and therefore it is gauge-invariant, enables us to evaluate the contribution from each chromophoric unit and locally excited state to the CD and CPL spectra of the total system. The excitonic calculations suitably reproduce the full calculations of the system, as well as the experimental results. We demonstrate that the interactions between electric transition dipole moments of adjacent chromophoric units are crucial in the CD and CPL spectra of the multichromophoric systems, while the interactions between electric and magnetic transition dipole moments are not negligible. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relationship between chromatin complexity and nuclear envelope circularity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantic, Igor; Basailovic, Milos; Paunovic, Jovana; Pantic, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We analyzed chromatin structure and nuclear envelope of 200 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. •Fractal and GLCM mathematical parameters were calculated each chromatin structure. •Nuclear shape was quantified by calculating circularity of the nuclear envelope. •Circularity was in significant relationship with chromatin fractal dimension. •Strong correlation was detected between circularity and some GLCM parameters. -- Abstract: In this study we tested the existence and strength of the relationship between circularity of nuclear envelope and mathematical parameters of chromatin structure. Coronal sections of the brain were made in 10 male albino mice. The brain tissue was stained using a modification of Feulgen method for DNA visualization. A total of 200 hippocampal pyramidal neurons (20 per animal) were visualized using DEM 200 High-Speed Color CMOS Chip and Olympus CX21FS1 microscope. Circularity of the nuclear membrane was calculated in ImageJ (NIH, USA) after the nuclear segmentation, based on the freehand selection of the nuclear regions of interest. Circularity was determined from the values of area and perimeter. For each chromatin structure, using fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms, we determined the values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, angular second moment, GLCM entropy, inverse difference moment, GLCM correlation, and GLCM contrast. It was found that circularity is in a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with fractal dimension as the main parameter of fractal complexity analysis. Also, circularity was in a very strong relationship (p < 0.001) with certain parameters of grey level co-occurrence matrix such as the angular second moment and GLCM correlation. This is the first study to indicate that nuclear shape is significantly related to mathematical parameters of higher chromatin organization. Also, it seems that circularity of the nuclear envelope is a good predictor of certain features of chromatin

  7. Development of circular filters for active facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of problems associated with remote handling, changing and disposal of filters suggested that significant improvements to filtration systems could be made if circular geometries were adopted in place of conventional systems. Improved systems have been developed and are now available for a range of applications and air flow rates. Where primary filters are installed within the active cell or cave, circular filters incorporating a lip seal have been developed which enable the filters to be sealed into the facility without recourse to clamping. For smaller cells, a range of push-through filter change systems have been developed, the principal feature being that the filter is passed into the housing from the clean side, but transferred from the housing directly into the cell for subsequent disposal. For plant room applications, circular bag change canister systems have been developed which ease the sealing and bag change operation. Such systems have a rated air flow of up to 3000 m 3 /h whilst still allowing ultimate disposal via the 200 litre waste drum route without prior volume reduction of the filter inserts. (author)

  8. Higgs measurement at $e^+e^-$ circular colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Manqi

    2016-01-01

    Now that the mass of the Higgs boson is known, circular electron positron colliders, able to measure the properties of these particles with high accuracy, are receiving considerable attention. Design studies have been launched (i) at CERN with the Future Circular Colliders (FCC), of which an e+e- collider is a potential first step (FCC-ee, formerly caller TLEP) and (ii) in China with the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Hosted in a tunnel of at least 50 km (CEPC) or 80-100 km (FCC), both projects can deliver very high luminosity from the Z peak to HZ threshold (CEPC) and even to the top pair threshold and above (FCC-ee). At the ZH production optimum, around 240 GeV, the FCC-ee (CEPC) will be able to deliver 10 (5) ab-1 integrated luminosity in 5 (10) years with 4 (2) interaction points: hence to produce millions of Higgs bosons through the Higgsstrahlung process and vector boson fusion processes. This sample opens the possibility of subper- cent precision absolute measurements of the Higgs boson co...

  9. Higgs Measurement at e+e- Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, M

    2014-01-01

    Now that the mass of the Higgs boson is known, circular electron positron colliders, able to measure the properties of these particles with high accuracy, are receiving considerable attention. Design studies have been launched (i) at CERN with the Future Circular Colliders (FCC), of which an e+e- collider is a potential first step (FCC-ee, formerly caller TLEP) and (ii) in China with the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Hosted in a tunnel of at least 50 km (CEPC) or 80-100 km (FCC), both projects can deliver very high luminosity from the Z peak to HZ threshold (CEPC) and even to the top pair threshold and above (FCC-ee). At the ZH production optimum, around 240 GeV, the FCC-ee (CEPC) will be able to deliver 10 (5) ab-1 integrated luminosity in 5 (10) years with 4 (2) interaction points: hence to produce millions of Higgs bosons through the Higgsstrahlung process and vector boson fusion processes. This sample opens the possibility of subper-cent precision absolute measurements of the Higgs boson cou...

  10. Experiments with HEU (93.14 wt.%) metal annuli with internal graphite cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wehmann, Udo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mihalczo, John T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal (oralloy ) during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, only three experimental configurations are described here. They are internal graphite reflected metal uranium assemblies with three different diameter HEU annuli (15-9 inches, 15-7 inches and 13-7 inches). These experiments can be found in Reference 1 and in their associated logbook

  11. Multi-band circular polarizer based on a twisted triple split-ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Song; Huang Xiao-Jun; Yang He-Lin; Xiao Bo-Xun; Jin Yan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-band circular polarizer using a twisted triple split-ring resonator (TSRR) is presented and studied numerically and experimentally. At four distinct resonant frequencies, the incident linearly polarized wave can be transformed into left/right-handed circularly polarized waves. Numerical simulation results show that a y-polarized wave can be converted into a right-handed circularly polarized wave at 5.738 GHz and 9.218 GHz, while a left-handed circularly polarized wave is produced at 7.292 GHz and 10.118 GHz. The experimental results are in agreement with the numerical results. The surface current distributions are investigated to illustrate the polarization transformation mechanism. Furthermore, the influences of the structure parameters of the circular polarizer on transmission spectra are discussed as well. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Control of flow past a circular cylinder via a spanwise surface wire: effect of the wire scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekmekci, Alis [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rockwell, Donald [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Flow phenomena induced by a single spanwise wire on the surface of a circular cylinder are investigated via a cinema technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of the wire scale. To this end, consideration is given to wires with different diameters that are 0.5, 1.2, and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter. The Reynolds number has a subcritical value of 10,000. Compared to the thickness of the unperturbed boundary layer developing around the cylinder between 5 and 75 from the forward stagnation point, the former two wires have smaller scales and the latter has a larger scale. Two angular locations of the wire, defined with respect to the forward stagnation point of the cylinder, are found to be critical. When the wire is located at these critical angles, either the most significant extension or the contraction of the time-mean separation bubble occurs in the near wake. These critical angles depend on the wire scale: the smaller the wire, the larger the critical angle. The small-scale and large-scale wires that have diameters of 1.2 and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter induce bistable shear-layer oscillations between different separation modes when placed at their respective critical angles corresponding to maximum extension of the near-wake bubble. These oscillations have irregular time intervals that are much longer than the time scale associated with the classical Karman instability. Moreover, the large-scale wire can either significantly attenuate or intensify the Karman mode of vortex shedding at the critical states; in contrast, the small-scale wires do not notably alter the strength of the Karman instability. (orig.)

  13. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  14. Investigation of Pipeline Concepts, Materials and Construction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Tite" Ethyl "Bell-Ring" Johns-Manville "Ring-Tite" Rehau "Mechan-O-Joint". Weights for 4 Inch, 6 Inch, and 8 inch diameter pipes are 1.86 LB/FT...415 Avenida Pico San Clemento, California 92672 C58 I Returned Reply Useful Used In By USPS Received Information Concept Rehau Plastiks, Incorporated

  15. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or secondary Division 2.1 (flammable gas) hazard. For single unit tank cars, interior pipes of... lading exceeding 1.52 mm (0.060 inch) diameter must be equipped with excess flow valves. For single unit... inches) glass fiber placed over 5.08 cm (2 inches) of ceramic fiber. Tank cars must have excess flow...

  16. Comparison of four harvesting systems in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Klepac; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Felling and skidding operations were monitored while clearcut harvesting a 12-acre area of a 14-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation. The study area contained 465 trees per acre for trees 2.0 inches Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and larger with a Quadratic Mean Diameter (QMD) of 7.26 inches. Two feller-bunchers (tracked and rubber-tired) and two skidders (...

  17. Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Yoshiyuki; Endo, Mitsuru

    1995-01-01

    Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells are investigated. Basic equations, including the effect of initial stress due to rotation, are formulated by the finite-element method. The characteristic relations for finite elements are derived from the energy principle by considering the finite strain. The equations of motion can be separated into quasi-static and dynamic ones, i.e., the equations in the steady rotating state and those in the vibration state. Radial concentrated impulses are considered as the external dynamic force. The transient responses of circular cylindrical shells are numerically calculated under various boundary conditions and rotating speeds. (author)

  18. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO AN...

  19. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  20. Diameter 2 properties and convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrahamsen, T. A.; Hájek, Petr Pavel; Nygaard, O.; Talponen, J.; Troyanski, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 3 (2016), s. 227-242 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : diameter 2 property * midpoint locally uniformly rotund * Daugavet property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2016 https://www.impan.pl/pl/wydawnictwa/czasopisma-i-serie-wydawnicze/studia- mathematica /all/232/3/91534/diameter-2-properties-and-convexity

  1. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  2. Filtered backprojection for modifying the impulse response of circular tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Grant M.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2001-01-01

    A filtering technique has been developed to modify the three-dimensional impulse response of circular motion tomosynthesis to allow the generation of images whose appearance is like those of some other imaging geometries. In particular, this technique can reconstruct images with a blurring function which is more homogeneous for off-focal plane objects than that from circular tomosynthesis. In this paper, we describe the filtering process, and demonstrate the ability to alter the impulse response in circular motion tomosynthesis from a ring to a disk. This filtering may be desirable because the blurred out-of-plane objects appear less structured

  3. Applying circular economy innovation theory in business process modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, V.; Popa, L.

    2017-08-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to develop a new conceptual framework for business process modeling and analysis using circular economy innovative theory as a source for business knowledge management. The last part of the paper presents an author’s proposed basic structure for a new business models applying circular economy innovation theories. For people working on new innovative business models in the field of the circular economy this paper provides new ideas for clustering their concepts.

  4. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  5. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering studies of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; te Velthuis, S. G. E; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian Fernandez, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado; Univ. of Pisa; Lab. di Magnetismo Molecolare

    2009-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  6. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and small angle neutron scattering study of thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Venta, J.; Bouzas, V.; Pucci, A.; Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Haskel, D.; Pinel, E. F.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Lal, J.; Bleuel, M.; Ruggeri, G.; de Julian, C.; Garcia, M. A.; Univ. Complutense de Madrid; Inst. de Magnetismo Aplicado UCM; Univ. Pisa; Univ. di Padova

    2009-11-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements were performed on thiol capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into polyethylene. An XMCD signal of 0.8 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} was found at the Au L{sub 3} edge of thiol capped Au NPs embedded in a polyethylene matrix for which Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry yielded a saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, of 0.06 emu/g{sub Au}. SANS measurements showed that the 3.2 nm average-diameter nanoparticles are 28% polydispersed, but no detectable SANS magnetic signal was found with the resolution and sensitivity accessible with the neutron experiment. A comparison with previous experiments carried out on Au NPs and multilayers, yield to different values between XMCD signals and magnetization measured by SQUID magnetometer. We discuss the origin of those differences.

  7. Circular revisit orbits design for responsive mission over a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taibo; Xiang, Junhua; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    The responsive orbits play a key role in addressing the mission of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) because of their capabilities. These capabilities are usually focused on supporting specific targets as opposed to providing global coverage. One subtype of responsive orbits is repeat coverage orbit which is nearly circular in most remote sensing applications. This paper deals with a special kind of repeating ground track orbit, referred to as circular revisit orbit. Different from traditional repeat coverage orbits, a satellite on circular revisit orbit can visit a target site at both the ascending and descending stages in one revisit cycle. This typology of trajectory allows a halving of the traditional revisit time and does a favor to get useful information for responsive applications. However the previous reported numerical methods in some references often cost lots of computation or fail to obtain such orbits. To overcome this difficulty, an analytical method to determine the existence conditions of the solutions to revisit orbits is presented in this paper. To this end, the mathematical model of circular revisit orbit is established under the central gravity model and the J2 perturbation. A constraint function of the circular revisit orbit is introduced, and the monotonicity of that function has been studied. The existent conditions and the number of such orbits are naturally worked out. Taking the launch cost into consideration, optimal design model of circular revisit orbit is established to achieve a best orbit which visits a target twice a day in the morning and in the afternoon respectively for several days. The result shows that it is effective to apply circular revisit orbits in responsive application such as reconnoiter of natural disaster.

  8. K+ ion source for the heavy ion induction linac system experiment ILSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Chupp, W.W.; Yu, S.

    1993-01-01

    Low emittance singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the ILSE injector. The ILSE, now under study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumino-silicate layers (zeolite) coated uniformly on a porous tungsten cup. The Injector diode design requires a large diameter (4 inches to 7 inches) source able to deliver high current (∼ 800 mA) low emittance (E n < .5 π mm-mr) beam. The SBTE (Single Beam Test Experiment) 120 keV gun was redesigned and modified with the aid of diode optics calculations using the EGUN code to enable the extraction of high currents of about 90 mA out of a one-inch diameter source. The authors report on the 1 inch source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, emittance and phase space profile measurements using the double slit scanning technique, and life time measurements. Furthermore, they shall report on the extension of the fabricating technique to large diameter sources (up to 7 inches), measured ion emission performance, measured surface temperature uniformity and heating power considerations for large sources

  9. A comparison of R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c condensation performance in smooth and enhanced tubes: Part 1, Heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckels, S J; Tesene, B A

    1999-07-01

    Local and average heat transfer coefficients during condensation are reported for R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c in one smooth tube and three enhanced surface tubes. The test tubes included a 3/8 inch outer diameter smooth tube, a 3/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube, a 5/16 inch outer diameter microfin tube, and a 5/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube. The local and average heat transfer coefficients were measured over a mass flux range of 92,100 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h to 442,200 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h and at saturation temperatures of 104 F and 122 F. A comparison of the performance of the different refrigerants reveals that R-134a has the highest heat transfer performance followed by R-22 and R-410a, which have similar performances. In general, R-407c had the lowest performance of the refrigerants tested. The microfin tube more than doubles the heat transfer coefficient compared to the smooth tube for all refrigerants at the low mass fluxes, but only increases the heat transfer coefficients by 50% at the highest mass flux tested. The measured heat transfer coefficients are also compared with a number of correlations for condensation.

  10. Circular induction accelerator for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Bertozzi, W.; Corris, G.W.; Diamond, W.; Doucet, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole logging sonde adapted to be moved through a borehole, a source of gamma rays in the sonde for irradiating earth formations traversed by the borehole, one or more gamma ray detectors for detecting gamma rays scattered back to the sonde from the irradiated earth formations, and means for transmitting signals representative of the detected gamma rays to the earth's surface for processing. This patent describes improvement in the gamma ray source comprises a magnetic induction particle accelerator, including: a magnetic circuit having a field magnet, generally circular opposed pole pieces, and a core magnet metal ions from the group consisting of Mn, Zn and Ni; an excitation circuit including a field coil surrounding the field magnet and the core magnet and a core coil surrounding the central axially leg of the core magnet; an annular acceleration chamber interposed between the pole pieces; means for applying time-varying acceleration voltage pulses across the primary excitation circuit; means for injecting charged particles into orbit within the acceleration chamber; means for compressing the particle orbits to trap particles within generally circular orbits within the acceleration chamber; means for generating a particle accelerating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit; and means for ejecting charged particles from the generally circular orbits and into contact with a target to produce gamma ray photons

  11. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  12. An experimental investigation of forced convection burnout in high pressure water. Part IV, Large diameter tubes at about 1600 p.s.i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1966-11-01

    The report presents 727 burnout results for tubes with uniform and non-uniform axial heat flux profiles. Most of the data are at 1600 p.s.i, although there are a limited number at 1250 and 1800 p.s.i. Tube diameters ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 inches. A new correlation for uniform flax data at these pressures is presented, having R.M.S. errors between 4 and 6%. A table of constant terms for this new uniform flux correlation is given, together with Macbeth's values for pressures of 560, 1000 and 2000 p.s.i. Experimental and predicted burnout powers for non-uniform axial heat fluxes are compared and the existing methods of prediction are found to be in error by up to 20%. A new method for predicting burnout with non-uniform axial heat flux is developed which correlates all published data to an R.M.S. error of 6.7%. (author)

  13. Dynamic ASXL1 Exon Skipping and Alternative Circular Splicing in Single Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Koh

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs comprise a poorly understood new class of noncoding RNA. In this study, we used a combination of targeted deletion, high-resolution splicing detection, and single-cell sequencing to deeply probe ASXL1 circular splicing. We found that efficient circular splicing required the canonical transcriptional start site and inverted AluSx elements. Sequencing-based interrogation of isoforms after ASXL1 overexpression identified promiscuous linear splicing between all exons, with the two most abundant non-canonical linear products skipping the exons that produced the circular isoforms. Single-cell sequencing revealed a strong preference for either the linear or circular ASXL1 isoforms in each cell, and found the predominant exon skipping product is frequently co-expressed with its reciprocal circular isoform. Finally, absolute quantification of ASXL1 isoforms confirmed our findings and suggests that standard methods overestimate circRNA abundance. Taken together, these data reveal a dynamic new view of circRNA genesis, providing additional framework for studying their roles in cellular biology.

  14. Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.

    The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
    companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper

  15. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208527.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel" of January 2014. This document contains a single change to reflect the terminology under the new career structure: the term "career path" is replaced by "grade". This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  16. Administrative Circular No. 11 (Rev. 4) - Categories of members of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 11 (Rev. 4) entitled "Categories of members of the personnel", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 29 April 2016, will be available on 1 August 2016 via this following link.    This revised circular cancels and replaces the Administrative Circular No. 11 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Categories of members of the personnel" of September 2014. The main changes concern the status of apprentices and their transfer from the category of employed members of personnel to associated members of personnel. This circular will enter into force on 1 August 2016. Department Head Office

  17. Interactions of circular Rydberg atoms with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in experimental cross-field techniques has made it possible to produce oriented Rydberg atoms of any angular momentum l within a given n manifold. The largest angular momentum state l max = n - 1 of a given n manifold is of particular interest because of its semiclassical properties for n much-gt 1. The corresponding classical Kepler orbit is circular with highly localized phase space distribution. The circular Rydberg atoms afford the opportunity to study various interactions in the semiclassical regime. The authors report electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms by protons and positrons at speeds comparable to the electron orbital speed. They find orientation dependent, novel peak structures for both protons and positrons in the angular scattering of the particles. The structures may be understood in terms of quasi Thomas double scattering mechanism for capture. Other related aspects including final state population and orientation indulged scattering asymmetry will also be discussed

  18. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the

  19. Absorbed Power Minimization in Cellular Users with Circular Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilakis, Vasilis; Votis, Constantinos; Tatsis, Giorgos; Raptis, Vasilis; Kostarakis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic pollution of non ionizing radiation generated by cellular phones concerns millions of people. In this paper the use of circular antenna array as a means of minimizing the absorbed power by cellular phone users is introduced. In particular, the different characteristics of radiation patterns produced by a helical conventional antenna used in mobile phones operating at 900 MHz and those produced by a circular antenna array, hypothetically used in the same mobile phones, are in detail examined. Furthermore, the percentage of decrement of the power absorbed in the head as a function of direction of arrival is estimated for the circular antenna array.

  20. Grain Refinement of Steels through Solidification Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    machined the tensile bar samples into 0.5 inch diameter tensile bars that met ASTM E8. Tensile testing occurred on a 450 kN hydraulic mechanical test...frame. The tests followed ASTM E8 guidelines and used gage marks for elongation measurement. An optical emission spectrometer (OES) analyzed the...emission spectrometer samples. Half-inch diameter tensile bars were turned on a Lathe in accordance with ASTM ES and tested on a hydraulic universal

  1. Children's success at detecting circular explanations and their interest in future learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Candice M; Danovitch, Judith H; Rowles, Sydney P; Campbell, Ian L

    2017-10-01

    These studies explore elementary-school-aged children's ability to evaluate circular explanations and whether they respond to receiving weak explanations by expressing interest in additional learning. In the first study, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds (n = 53) heard why questions about unfamiliar animals. For each question, they rated the quality of single explanations and later selected the best explanation between pairs of circular and noncircular explanations. When judging single explanations, 8- and 10-year-olds, and to some extent 6-year-olds, provided higher ratings for noncircular explanations compared to circular ones. When selecting between pairs of explanations, all age groups preferred noncircular explanations to circular ones, but older children did so more consistently than 6-year-olds. Children who recognized the weakness of the single circular explanations were more interested in receiving additional information about the question topics. In Study 2, all three age groups (n = 87) provided higher ratings for noncircular explanations compared to circular ones when listening to responses to how questions, but older children showed a greater distinction in their ratings than 6-year-olds. Moreover, the link between recognizing circular explanations as weak and interest in future learning could not be accounted for solely by individual differences in verbal intelligence. These findings illustrate the developmental trajectory of explanation evaluation and support that recognition of weak explanations is linked to interest in future learning across the elementary years. Implications for education are discussed.

  2. Behaviour of a stiffened circular slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.G.; Subramanian, K.V.

    1975-01-01

    Configuration of intake structure for cooling water system for Madras Atomic Power Project was studied on a hydraulic model and it was recommended to provide a circular slab in the structure to give directional property to the inflow and reduce air entrainment. This slab, as indicated by hydraulic model tests was required to withstand hydrodynamic pressures of the order of 10T/m 2 due to breaking waves of about 6 m height. Analysis of this circular cover slab, Stiffened by radial and circumferential beams, carried with the help of an analysis based on grid idealisation is presented. Results of approximate design analysis to assess behaviour of radial stiffener have been compared. Actual design is based on judgement of actual degree of fixity possessed by the supports or restraints. (author)

  3. Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – Education Fees

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – "Education Fees" are now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp These Circulars cancel and replace Administrative Circular No.12 – "Education Grant" of April 1981. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Administrative Circular No. 12 A is applicable to staff members (except former "local staff"), fellows and paid associates, recruited before 1st January 2007. It may be noted that, at the initiative of the Human Resources Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover in particular lump sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Administrative Circular No. 12 B is applicable to staff members, fellows, scientific associates recruited as of 1st January 2007, as well as to former "local staff" recruited prior to this date. If you require any additional informa...

  4. Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – Education Fees

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Administrative Circulars Nos. 12 A and B (Rev. 1) – "Education Fees" are now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc_fr.asp These circulars cancel and replace Administrative Circular No.12 – "Education Grant" of April 1981. Copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Administrative Circular No. 12 A is applicable to staff members (except former "local staff"), fellows and paid associates, recruited before 1st January 2007. It may be noted that, at the initiative of the Human Resources Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover, in particular, lump sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Administrative Circular No. 12 B is applicable to staff members, fellows, scientific associates recruited as of 1st January 2007, as well as to former "local staff" recruited prior to this date. If you requi...

  5. Diameter effect on critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, A.; Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Shan, J.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The critical heat flux look-up table (CHF LUT) is widely used to predict CHF for various applications, including design and safety analysis of nuclear reactors. Using the CHF LUT for round tubes having inside diameters different from the reference 8 mm involves conversion of CHF to 8 mm. Different authors [Becker, K.M., 1965. An Analytical and Experimental Study of Burnout Conditions in Vertical Round Ducts, Aktiebolaget Atomenergie Report AE 177, Sweden; Boltenko, E.A., et al., 1989. Effect of tube diameter on CHF at various two phase flow regimes, Report IPE-1989; Biasi, L., Clerici, G.C., Garriba, S., Sala, R., Tozzi, A., 1967. Studies on Burnout, Part 3, Energia Nucleare, vol. 14, pp. 530-536; Groeneveld, D.C., Cheng, S.C., Doan, T., 1986. AECL-UO critical heat flux look-up table. Heat Transfer Eng., 7, 46-62; Groeneveld et al., 1996; Hall, D.D., Mudawar, I., 2000. Critical heat flux for water flow in tubes - II subcooled CHF correlations. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, 2605-2640; Wong, W.C., 1996. Effect of tube diameter on critical heat flux, MaSC dissertation, Ottawa Carleton Institute for Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Ottawa] have proposed several types of correlations or factors to describe the diameter effect on CHF. The present work describes the derivation of new diameter correction factor and compares it with several existing prediction methods

  6. static analysis of circular cylindrical shell under hydrostatic and ring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    (Golzan et al, 2008). Circular cylindrical shells are used in a large variety of civil engineering structures, e.g. off-shore platforms, chimneys, silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers (Winterstetter et al, 2002). This work is concerned with the analysis of circular cylindri- cal shell subjected to hydrostatic pressure in.

  7. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T Aluminum-alloy Sheet with and Without a Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR; Smith, W H

    1944-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests were made on 189 coupon specimens of 0.032-inch 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet and a few supplementary specimens of 0.004-inch sheet. The mean load was zero. The specimens were restrained against lateral buckling by lubricated solid guides described in a previous report on this project. About two-thirds of the 0.032-inch specimens were plain coupons nominally free from stress raisers. The remainder contained a 0.1285-inch drilled hole at the center where the reduced section was 0.5 inch wide. S-N diagrams were obtained for cycles to failure between about 1000 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the plain specimens and 17 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the drilled specimens. The fatigue stress concentration factor increased from about 1.08 for a stress amplitude causing failure at 0.25 cycles (static) to a maximum of 1.83 at 15,000 cycles and then decreased gradually. The graph for the drilled specimens showed less scatter than that for the plain specimens.

  8. Administrative circular n°23 (Rev. 3) – Special working hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) entitled “Special working hours”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to staff members and fellows. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled “Special working hours” of December 2008. Paragraph 6 a) of Annex II of this circular was revised following the modification of Article III 1.04 of the Staff Regulations approved by Council on 14 December 2012. The modification serves to adapt the minimum rest time to the fact that, in case of rapidly alternating shifts, a maximum of seven consecutive shifts may be performed. Department Head Office HR Department

  9. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  10. Pull-in instability tuning in imperfect nonlinear circular microplates under electrostatic actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallouli, A.; Kacem, N., E-mail: najib.kacem@univ-fcomte.fr; Bourbon, G.; Le Moal, P.; Walter, V.; Lardies, J.

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic range improvement of electrostatically actuated circular microplates. • Pull-in instability tuning based on geometric nonlinearity and imperfections. • Predictive computational model for the nonlinear behavior of circular microplates. - Abstract: Dynamic range improvement based on geometric nonlinearity and initial deflection is demonstrated with imperfect circular microplates under electrostatic actuation. Depending on design parameters, we prove how the von Kármán nonlinearity and the plate imperfections lead to a significant delay in pull-in occurrence. These promising results open the way towards an accurate identification of static parameters of circular microplates and the development of a predictive model for the nonlinear dynamics of imperfect capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers.

  11. Abnormal splenic artery diameter/hepatic artery diameter ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dao-Bing; Dai, Chuan-Zhou; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Ning; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine an optimal cutoff value for abnormal splenic artery diameter/proper hepatic artery diameter (S/P) ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (n = 770) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) underwent volumetric computed tomography three-dimensional vascular reconstruction to measure the internal diameters of the splenic artery and proper hepatic artery to calculate the S/P ratio. The cutoff value for abnormal S/P ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the prevalence of abnormal S/P ratio and associations between abnormal S/P ratio and major complications of portal hypertension were studied using logistic regression. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cutoff points for abnormal splenic artery internal diameter and S/P ratio were > 5.19 mm and > 1.40, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 74.2%, 45.2%, 97.1%, and 6.6%, respectively. The prevalence of an abnormal S/P ratio in the patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension was 83.4%. Patients with a higher S/P ratio had a lower risk of developing ascites [odds ratio (OR) = 0.708, 95%CI: 0.508-0.986, P = 0.041] and a higher risk of developing esophageal and gastric varices (OR = 1.483, 95%CI: 1.010-2.175, P = 0.044) and forming collateral circulation (OR = 1.518, 95%CI: 1.033-2.230, P = 0.034). After splenectomy, the portal venous pressure and maximum and mean portal venous flow velocities were reduced, while the flow rate and maximum and minimum flow velocities of the hepatic artery were increased (P portal hypertension, and it can be used as an important marker of splanchnic hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:23483462

  12. Beam steering for circular switched parasitic arrays using a combinational approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, ROM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a method of electronic beam steering for circular switched parasitic array (SPA) antennas. In circular SPA antennas, one achieves azimuth beam steering by open-circuiting and short-circuiting different parasitic...

  13. Supermarkets and unhealthy food marketing: An international comparison of the content of supermarket catalogues/circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Emma L; Kähkönen, Laila A; Sacks, Gary; Cameron, Adrian J

    2015-12-01

    Supermarket marketing activities have a major influence on consumer food purchases. This study aimed to assess and compare the contents of supermarket marketing circulars from a range of countries worldwide from an obesity prevention perspective. The contents of supermarket circulars from major supermarket chains in 12 non-random countries were collected and analysed over an eight week period from July to September 2014 (n=89 circulars with 12,563 food products). Circulars were largely English language and from countries representing most continents. Food products in 25 sub-categories were categorised as discretionary or non-discretionary (core) food or drinks based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The total number of products in each subcategory in the whole circular, and on front covers only, was calculated. Circulars from most countries advertised a high proportion of discretionary foods. The only exceptions were circulars from the Philippines (no discretionary foods) and India (11% discretionary food). Circulars from six countries advertised more discretionary foods than core foods. Front covers tended to include a much greater proportion of healthy products than the circulars overall. Supermarket circulars in most of the countries examined include a high percentage of discretionary foods, and therefore promote unhealthy eating behaviours that contribute to the global obesity epidemic. A clear opportunity exists for supermarket circulars to promote rather than undermine healthy eating behaviours of populations. Governments need to ensure that supermarket marketing is included as part of broader efforts to restrict unhealthy food marketing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bifurcation and stability analysis of rotating chemical spirals in circular domains: Boundary-induced meandering and stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Markus; Bangia, Anil K.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2003-05-01

    Recent experimental and model studies have revealed that the domain size may strongly influence the dynamics of rotating spirals in two-dimensional pattern forming chemical reactions. Hartmann et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1384 (1996)], report a frequency increase of spirals in circular domains with diameters substantially smaller than the spiral wavelength in a large domain for the catalytic NO+CO reaction on a microstructured platinum surface. Accompanying simulations with a simple reaction-diffusion system reproduced the behavior. Here, we supplement these studies by a numerical bifurcation and stability analysis of rotating spirals in a simple activator-inhibitor model. The problem is solved in a corotating frame of reference. No-flux conditions are imposed at the boundary of the circular domain. At large domain sizes, eigenvalues and eigenvectors very close to those corresponding to infinite medium translational invariance are observed. Upon decrease of domain size, we observe a simultaneous change in the rotation frequency and a deviation of these eigenvalues from being neutrally stable (zero real part). The latter phenomenon indicates that the translation symmetry of the spiral solution is appreciably broken due to the interaction with the (now nearby) wall. Various dynamical regimes are found: first, the spiral simply tries to avoid the boundary and its tip moves towards the center of the circular domain corresponding to a negative real part of the “translational” eigenvalues. This effect is noticeable at a domain radius of R

  15. HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT USING ALUMINA NANOFLUID IN CIRCULAR MICRO CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. ARJUN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal and flow behavior models for circular microchannel using water and its nanofluids with alumina as a coolant fluid in single phase flow have been developed. A finite volume-based CFD technique is used and models are solved by using Fluent Solver. The 2D axis symmetric geometry with structured mesh and 100 x 18 nodes are used for single phase flow with Al2O3 nanoparticles of 23 nm average diameter. Viscous laminar and standard k-ε models are used to predict the steady temperature in laminar and turbulent zone. The heat transfer enhancement upto 83% in laminar and turbulent zones are obtained with the Re ranging from 5 to 11980 and particle volume concentration from 0 to 5%. Even though the pressure drop increases with increase in Re, it is comparatively less compared to the corresponding decrease in temperature. The increase in temperature depends on Re and Pe; but the temperature distribution is found to be independent of radial position even for very low Pe. Comparison with analytical results both in laminar and turbulent zone is provided to justify the assumptions introduced in the models and very close agreement is observed statistically. Nusselt number can well predict the analytical data.

  16. Database and prediction model for CANDU pressure tube diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J.Y.; Park, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The pressure tube (PT) diameter is basic data in evaluating the CCP (critical channel power) of a CANDU reactor. Since the CCP affects the operational margin directly, an accurate prediction of the PT diameter is important to assess the operational margin. However, the PT diameter increases by creep owing to the effects of irradiation by neutron flux, stress, and reactor operating temperatures during the plant service period. Thus, it has been necessary to collect the measured data of the PT diameter and establish a database (DB) and develop a prediction model of PT diameter. Accordingly, in this study, a DB for the measured PT diameter data was established and a neural network (NN) based diameter prediction model was developed. The established DB included not only the measured diameter data but also operating conditions such as the temperature, pressure, flux, and effective full power date. The currently developed NN based diameter prediction model considers only extrinsic variables such as the operating conditions, and will be enhanced to consider the effect of intrinsic variables such as the micro-structure of the PT material. (author)

  17. Dynamic Response of Underground Circular Lining Tunnels Subjected to Incident P Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stress concentration in tunnels and underground structures during earthquakes often leads to serious structural damage. A series solution of wave equation for dynamic response of underground circular lining tunnels subjected to incident plane P waves is presented by Fourier-Bessel series expansion method in this paper. The deformation and stress fields of the whole medium of surrounding rock and tunnel were obtained by solving the equations of seismic wave propagation in an elastic half space. Based on the assumption of a large circular arc, a series of solutions for dynamic stress were deduced by using a wave function expansion approach for a circular lining tunnel in an elastic half space rock medium subjected to incident plane P waves. Then, the dynamic response of the circular lining tunnel was obtained by solving a series of algebraic equations after imposing its boundary conditions for displacement and stress of the circular lining tunnel. The effects of different factors on circular lining rock tunnels, including incident frequency, incident angle, buried depth, rock conditions, and lining stiffness, were derived and several application examples are presented. The results may provide a good reference for studies on the dynamic response and aseismic design of tunnels and underground structures.

  18. Design and Proof-of-Concept Use of a Circular PMMA Platform with 16-Well Sample Capacity for Microwave-Accelerated Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the design and the proof-of-concept use of a new, circular poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bioassay platform (PMMA platform), which affords for the rapid processing of 16 samples at once. The circular PMMA platform (5 cm in diameter) was coated with a silver nanoparticle film to accelerate the bioassay steps by microwave heating. A model colorimetric bioassay for biotinylated albumin (using streptavidin-labeled horse radish peroxidase) was performed on the PMMA platform coated with and without silver nanoparticles (a control experiment), and at room temperature and using microwave heating. It was shown that the simulated temperature profile of the PMMA platform during microwave heating were comparable to the real-time temperature profile during actual microwave heating of the constructed PMMA platform in a commercial microwave oven. The model colorimetric bioassay for biotinylated albumin was successfully completed in ~2 min (total assay time) using microwave heating, as compared to 90 min at room temperature (total assay time), which indicates a ~45-fold decrease in assay time. Our PMMA platform design afforded for significant reduction in non-specific interactions and low background signal as compared to non-silvered PMMA surfaces when employed in a microwave-accelerated bioassay carried out in a conventional microwave cavity.

  19. CSA: An efficient algorithm to improve circular DNA multiple alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luísa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparison of homologous sequences from different species is an essential approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of species and of the genes they harbour in their genomes. Several complete mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are now available, increasing the importance of using multiple sequence alignment algorithms in comparative genomics. MtDNA has long been used in phylogenetic analysis and errors in the alignments can lead to errors in the interpretation of evolutionary information. Although a large number of multiple sequence alignment algorithms have been proposed to date, they all deal with linear DNA and cannot handle directly circular DNA. Researchers interested in aligning circular DNA sequences must first rotate them to the "right" place using an essentially manual process, before they can use multiple sequence alignment tools. Results In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm that identifies the most interesting region to cut circular genomes in order to improve phylogenetic analysis when using standard multiple sequence alignment algorithms. This algorithm identifies the largest chain of non-repeated longest subsequences common to a set of circular mitochondrial DNA sequences. All the sequences are then rotated and made linear for multiple alignment purposes. To evaluate the effectiveness of this new tool, three different sets of mitochondrial DNA sequences were considered. Other tests considering randomly rotated sequences were also performed. The software package Arlequin was used to evaluate the standard genetic measures of the alignments obtained with and without the use of the CSA algorithm with two well known multiple alignment algorithms, the CLUSTALW and the MAVID tools, and also the visualization tool SinicView. Conclusion The results show that a circularization and rotation pre-processing step significantly improves the efficiency of public available multiple sequence alignment

  20. Zero-point field in a circular-motion frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Soh, K.S.; Yee, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The energy spectrum of zero-point fields of a massless scalar field observed by a detector in circular motion is studied by analyzing the Wightman function. It is shown to be quite different from the Planck spectrum which would have been expected from the result of a uniformly accelerated detector. In a nonrelativistic limit zero-point fields with frequencies only up to the first harmonics of the circular-motion frequency contribute dominantly. In an extremely relativistic case the energy spectrum is dominated by a particular pole in the complex proper-time plane

  1. Magnetic field, inductance of circular coil and solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Hoyos, P.; Barbero Garcia, A.J.; Mafe Matoses, S.

    1995-01-01

    The self-inductance of a current-carrying circular coil and the mutual inductances of the Helmholtz coils and coil-sole-noid systems have been measured and calculated theoretically. The experiments and the required equipment are suited to an undergraduate laboratory. The theoretical calculation involve the use of simple numerical integration methods for evaluating the magnetic field of the circular coil and the inductances. The calculated values agree with the measurements within the experimental error. The material presented can be proposed to the students as a laboratory project. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Thermal performance in circular tube fitted with coiled square wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, Pongjet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of wires with square cross section forming a coil used as a turbulator on the heat transfer and turbulent flow friction characteristics in a uniform heat flux, circular tube are experimentally investigated in the present work. The experiments are performed for flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 25,000. Two different spring coiled wire pitches are introduced. The results are also compared with those obtained from using a typical coiled circular wire, apart from the smooth tube. The experimental results reveal that the use of coiled square wire turbulators leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and friction loss over those of a smooth wall tube. The Nusselt number increases with the rise of Reynolds number and the reduction of pitch for both circular and square wire coils. The coiled square wire provides higher heat transfer than the circular one under the same conditions. Also, performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using both coil wires of the enhanced tube are determined

  3. Risk management of hazardous substances in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodar, Charles; Spijker, Job; Lijzen, Johannes; Waaijers-van der Loop, Susanne; Luit, Richard; Heugens, Evelyn; Janssen, Martien; Wassenaar, Pim; Traas, Theo

    2018-04-15

    The ambitions for a circular economy are high and unambiguous, but day-to-day experience shows that the transition still has many difficulties to overcome. One of the current hurdles is the presence of hazardous substances in waste streams that enter or re-enter into the environment or the technosphere. The key question is: do we have the appropriate risk management tools to control any risks that might arise from the re-using and recycling of materials? We present some recent cases that illustrate current practice and complexity in the risk management of newly-formed circular economy chains. We also highlight how separate legal frameworks are still disconnected from each other in these cases, and how circular economy initiatives interlink with the European REACH regulation. Furthermore, we introduce a novel scheme describing how to decide whether a(n)(additional) risk assessment is necessary with regard to the re-use of materials containing hazardous substances. Finally, we present our initial views on new concepts for the fundamental integration of sustainability and safety aspects. These concepts should be the building blocks for the near future shifts in both policy frameworks and voluntary initiatives that support a sound circular economy transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perturbation approach to design of circularly polarised microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T.; Richards, W. F.

    1981-05-01

    One of the most interesting applications of microstrip antennas is its use for transmitting or receiving circularly polarized (CP) waves. A description is given of a simple but accurate method to determine the critical dimensions needed to produce circular polarization for nearly square and nearly circular microstrip antennas. Shen (1981) in connection with the determination of the proper dimensions of an elliptical patch CP microstrip antenna first expressed the modal field in terms of Mathieu functions. To avoid the complicated numerical computation of the Mathieu functions, he approximated these functions in terms of Bessel functions. It is pointed out that the computation of Mathieu functions, or their approximate expressions can be avoided altogether if a perturbation method is applied to find the resonant frequencies of the two orthogonal modes. The implementation of this approach is demonstrated.

  5. On the ''circular vacuum noise'' in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, H.

    1992-02-01

    We clarify in some essential points the proposal of Bell and Leinaas to measure the circular Unruh effect in storage rings. In particular the term 'circular Unruh effect' is inappropriate and should be replaced by the better 'circular vacuum noise'. This concept has been used by Takagi in his PTP Supplement of 1986 and corresponds best to the BL discussion. The BL resonance behavior does not fit to the SPEAR first order betatron resonance at 3.605 GeV, but of course, the real experimental situation is much more complicated, corresponding, as a matter of fact, to the rather general term 'synchrotron noise'. The detailed aspects of the synchrotron noise are, as yet, not very well understood. Besides, the much more practical accelerator jargon is to be preferred. We also include a section with comments on radiometry at storage rings. (author). 27 refs

  6. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese

  7. Magnetization reversal in circular vortex dots of small radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiriena-Goikoetxea, M; Guslienko, K Y; Rouco, M; Orue, I; Berganza, E; Jaafar, M; Asenjo, A; Fernández-Gubieda, M L; Fernández Barquín, L; García-Arribas, A

    2017-08-10

    We present a detailed study of the magnetic behavior of Permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 alloy) circular nanodots with small radii (30 nm and 70 nm) and different thicknesses (30 nm or 50 nm). Despite the small size of the dots, the measured hysteresis loops manifestly display the features of classical vortex behavior with zero remanence and lobes at high magnetic fields. This is remarkable because the size of the magnetic vortex core is comparable to the dot diameter, as revealed by magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations. The dot ground states are close to the border of the vortex stability and, depending on the dot size, the magnetization distribution combines attributes of the typical vortex, single domain states or even presents features resembling magnetic skyrmions. An analytical model of the dot magnetization reversal, accounting for the large vortex core size, is developed to explain the observed behavior, providing a rather good agreement with the experimental results. The study extends the understanding of magnetic nanodots beyond the classical vortex concept (where the vortex core spins have a negligible influence on the magnetic behavior) and can therefore be useful for improving emerging spintronic applications, such as spin-torque nano-oscillators. It also delimits the feasibility of producing a well-defined vortex configuration in sub-100 nm dots, enabling the intracellular magneto-mechanical actuation for biomedical applications.

  8. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2005-07-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell’s equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when the propagation directions of the four beams come into alignment. We proceed to use this four-beam technique to analyze the conservation of angular momentum when a plane-wave enters a dielectric slab from the free space. The angular momentum of the beam is shown to decrease upon entering the dielectric medium, by virtue of the fact that the incident beam exerts a torque on the slab surface at the point of entry. When the beam leaves the slab, it imparts an equal but opposite torque to the exit facet, thus recovering its initial angular momentum upon re-emerging into the free-space. Along the way, we derive an expression for the outward-directed force of a normally incident, finite-diameter beam on a dielectric surface; the possible relationship between this force and the experimentally observed bulging of a liquid surface under intense illumination is explored.

  9. Leak in spiral weld in a 16 inches gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo G; Bona, Jeremias de [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina); Otegui, Jose L [University of Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses a failure analysis after a leak in the spiral weld of a 16 inches natural gas pipeline, in service since 1974. The leak was the result of the coalescence of two different defects, on each surface of the pipe wall, located in the center of the inner cord of the helical DSAW weld. Fractographic and metallographic studies revealed that the leak was a combination of three conditions. During fabrication of the pipe, segregation in grain boundary grouped in mid weld. During service, these segregations underwent a process of selective galvanic corrosion. One of these volumetric defects coincided with a tubular pore in the outer weld. Pigging of the pipeline in 2005 for cleaning likely contributed to the increase of the leak flow, when eliminating corrosion product plugs. Although these defects are likely to repeat, fracture mechanics shows that a defect of this type is unlikely to cause a blowout. (author)

  10. Radiation effects testing at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Koga, Rokotura

    2002-01-01

    The effects of ionizing particles on sensitive microelectronics is an important component of the design of systems as diverse as satellites and space probes, detectors for high energy physics experiments and even internet server farms. Understanding the effects of radiation on human cells is an equally important endeavor directed towards future manned missions in space and towards cancer therapy. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Berkeley Laboratory, facilities are available for radiation effects testing (RET) with heavy ions and with protons. The techniques for doing these measurements and the advantages of using a cyclotron will be discussed, and the Cyclotron facilities will be compared with other facilities worldwide. RET of the same part at several facilities of varying beam energy can provide tests of the simple models used in this field and elucidate the relative importance of atomic and nuclear effects. The results and implications of such measurements will be discussed

  11. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  12. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuewei; Yuan Zhihao

    2010-01-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  13. Electronic transport behavior of diameter-graded Ag nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Wei; Yuan, Zhi Hao

    2010-05-01

    Ag nanowires with a graded diameter in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated by the direct-current electrodeposition. The Ag nanowires have a graded-change in diameter from 8 to 32 nm, which is matched with the graded-change of the AAO pore diameter. Electronic transport measurements show that there is a transport behavior similar to that of a metal-semiconductor junction along the axial direction in the diameter-graded Ag nanowires. Such a novel homogeneous nanojunction will be of great fundamental and practical significance.

  14. Lysosome Transport as a Function of Lysosome Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Cyphersmith, Austin; Zapata, Jairo A.; Kim, Y. Joseph; Payne, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles responsible for the transport and degradation of intracellular and extracellular cargo. The intracellular motion of lysosomes is both diffusive and active, mediated by motor proteins moving lysosomes along microtubules. We sought to determine how lysosome diameter influences lysosome transport. We used osmotic swelling to double the diameter of lysosomes, creating a population of enlarged lysosomes. This allowed us to directly examine the intracellular transport of the same organelle as a function of diameter. Lysosome transport was measured using live cell fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. We find, as expected, the diffusive component of intracellular transport is decreased proportional to the increased lysosome diameter. Active transport of the enlarged lysosomes is not affected by the increased lysosome diameter. PMID:24497985

  15. A fast computation method for MUSIC spectrum function based on circular arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhengdong; Wei, Ping

    2015-02-01

    The large computation amount of multiple signal classification (MUSIC) spectrum function seriously affects the timeliness of direction finding system using MUSIC algorithm, especially in the two-dimensional directions of arrival (DOA) estimation of azimuth and elevation with a large antenna array. This paper proposes a fast computation method for MUSIC spectrum. It is suitable for any circular array. First, the circular array is transformed into a virtual uniform circular array, in the process of calculating MUSIC spectrum, for the cyclic characteristics of steering vector, the inner product in the calculation of spatial spectrum is realised by cyclic convolution. The computational amount of MUSIC spectrum is obviously less than that of the conventional method. It is a very practical way for MUSIC spectrum computation in circular arrays.

  16. Buckling Test Results from the 8-Foot-Diameter Orthogrid-Stiffened Cylinder Test Article TA01. [Test Dates: 19-21 November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYLTA01 (referred to herein as TA01) are presented. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), November 19?21, 2008, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project.i The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF project researchers. TA01 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to compression loads. Five different load sequences were applied to TA01 during testing and included four sub-critical load sequences, i.e., loading conditions that did not cause buckling or material failure, and one final load sequence to buckling and collapse. The sub-critical load sequences consisted of either uniform axial compression loading or combined axial compression and bending and the final load sequence subjected TA01 to uniform axial compression. Traditional displacement transducers and strain gages were used to monitor the test article response at nearly 300 locations and an advanced digital image correlation system was used to obtain low-speed and high-speed full-field displacement measurements of the outer surface of the test article. Overall, the test facility and test article performed as designed. In particular, the test facility successfully applied all desired load combinations to the test article and was able to test safely into the postbuckling range of loading, and the test article failed by global buckling. In addition, the test results correlated well with initial pretest predictions.

  17. Administrative Circular n° 12

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2005, are : § 8a : 16.50 Swiss francs § 9a : 662 Swiss francs § 9b : 33 Swiss francs

  18. Wideband or Dual-Band Low-Profile Circular Patch Antenna with High Gain and Sidelobe Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squadrito, Paolo; Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a wideband or dual-band circular disk antenna with high gain and sidelobe suppression (SLS). The antenna has a single layer and single-fed configuration. The antenna can operate with the radiation field superposition of TM12 and TM14 modes at one frequency, which provides high...... gain and SLS. A circle of 10 shorting vias with non-identical diameters are loaded inside the antenna cavity in order to excite the field superposition of TM11 and TM13 modes at another frequency. By modifying the radius of the vias, the resonant frequency with the TM11 and TM13 superposition can...... be tuned closer to or further away from the one with the TM12 and TM14 superposition. In this way, a wideband or dual-band behavior can be obtained with high gain and SLS. The proposed antenna achieves the impedance bandwidth of 6.46% for the wideband case, which is over 6 times wider than the previous...

  19. Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.C.; Srajer, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thin-crystal Si (400) Bragg transmission x-ray phase plate has been constructed for the production of 5 to 12 keV circularly polarized x-rays. Using multiple beam diffraction from a GaAs crystal, a direct measurement of the degree of circular polarization as a function of off-Bragg position was made. These measurements indicated nearly complete circular polarization (|P c | ≥ 0.95) and full helicity reversal on opposite sides of the rocking curve

  20. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  1. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  2. Flow-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylindrical Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shoei-Sheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Components Technology Division

    1985-06-01

    Flow-induced vibration is a term to denote those phenomena associated with the response of structures placed in or conveying fluid flow. More specifically, the terra covers those cases in which an interaction develops between fluid-dynamic forces and the inertia, damping or elastic forces in the structures. The study of these phenomena draws on three disciplines: (1) structural mechanics, (2) mechanical vibration, and (3) fluid dynamics. The vibration of circular cylinders subject to flow has been known to man since ancient times; the vibration of a wire at its natural frequency in response to vortex shedding was known in ancient Greece as aeolian tones. But systematic studies of the problem were not made until a century ago when Strouhal established the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity for a given cylinder diameter. The early research in this area has beer summarized by Zdravkovich (1985) and Goldstein (1965). Flow-induced structural vibration has been experienced in numerous fields, including the aerospace industry, power generation/transmission (turbine blades, heat exchanger tubes, nuclear reactor components), civil engineering (bridges, building, smoke stacks), and undersea technology. The problems have usually been encountered or created accidentally through improper design. In most cases, a structural or mechanical component, designed to meet specific objectives, develops problems when the undesired effects of flow field have not been accounted for in the design. When a flow-induced vibration problem is noted in the design stage, the engineer has different options to eliminate the detrimental vibration. Unfortunately, in many situations, the problems occur after the components are already in operation; the "fix" usually is very costly. Flow-induced vibration comprises complex and diverse phenomena; subcritical vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies, galloping of transmission lines, flutter of pipes conveying fluid, and whirling

  3. The optimum circular field size for dental radiography with intraoral films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, F.J. van; Aken, J. van

    Intraoral radiographs are often made with circular fields to irradiate the film, and in many instances these fields are much larger than the film. The feasibility of reducing a circular radiation field without increasing the probability of excessive cone cutting was evaluated clinically, and an

  4. Administrative Circular N° 12

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2003, are : § 8a : 16.50 Swiss francs (previously 16.- Swiss francs) § 9a : 663 Swiss francs (previously 640.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 33 Swiss francs (previously 32.- Swiss francs) Human Resources Division Tel. 72862/74474

  5. Symmetric Circular Matchings and RNA Folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofacker, Ivo L.; Reidys, Christian; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    RNA secondary structures can be computed as optimal solutions of certain circular matching problems. An accurate treatment of this energy minimization problem has to account for the small --- but non-negligible --- entropic destabilization of secondary structures with non-trivial automorphisms. S...

  6. Circular Economy: Questions for Responsible Minerals, Additive Manufacturing and Recycling of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Giurco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy proposes new patterns of production, consumption and use, based on circular flows of resources. Under a scenario where there is a global shift towards the circular economy, this paper discusses the advent of two parallel and yet-to-be-connected trends for Australia, namely: (i responsible minerals supply chains and (ii additive manufacturing, also known as 3D production systems. Acknowledging the current context for waste management, the paper explores future interlinked questions which arise in the circular economy for responsible supply chains, additive manufacturing, and metals recycling. For example, where do mined and recycled resources fit in responsible supply chains as inputs to responsible production? What is required to ensure 3D production systems are resource efficient? How could more distributed models of production, enabled by additive manufacturing, change the geographical scale at which it is economic or desirable to close the loop? Examples are given to highlight the need for an integrated research agenda to address these questions and to foster Australian opportunities in the circular economy.

  7. Control of flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder with meshy wire in deep water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Oğuz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the aim is decreasing the effect and the intensity of the temporary loads resulted from vortex shedding that have an impact on the cylinder (chimneys, high buildings etc. located in deep water and the object or objects in the wake region and definition of the optimum values (wire thickness and porosity β With different thickness and different porosity ratios the effect of meshy wire that surrounded a circular cylinder of D=50 mm diameter was observed at Re_D=5000. The porosity ratios were four different values between a range of β=0.5-0.8 with an interval of 0.1. The thicknesses of wire were 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. The flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder was tried to be controlled by meshy wire that surrounded the cylinder. Experiments were carried out by using particle image velocimetry (PIV technique. Comparing with bare cylinder results, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and Reynolds shear stress values increase with wire thicknesses of b=1 mm, 2 mm for all porosity ratios and decrease with b=3 mm, 4 mm. With porosity ratio of β=0.6 and wire thickness of b=4 mm TKE and Reynolds shear stress results show that meshy wire controls the flow in the wake region of the cylinder. Frequency value results also define that best flow control is obtained with β=0.6 and b=4 mm.

  8. A Review of the Circular Economy and its Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas

    2015-01-01

    Circular economy (CE) is a sustainable development strategy that is being proposed to tackle urgent problems of environmental degradation and resource scarcity. CE's 3R principles are to reduce, reuse and recycle materials. The principles account for a circular system where all materials are recycled, all energy is derived from renewables; activities support and rebuild the ecosystem and support human health and a healthy society and resources are used to generate value. This study is a revie...

  9. Effect of plasma actuator and splitter plate on drag coefficient of a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbıyık, Hürrem; Erkan Akansu, Yahya; Yavuz, Hakan; Ertuğrul Bay, Ahmet

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on flow control around a circular cylinder with splitter plate and plasma actuator is investigated. The study is performed in wind tunnel for Reynolds numbers at 4000 and 8000. The wake region of circular cylinder with a splitter plate is analyzed at different angles between 0 and 180 degrees. In this the study, not only plasma actuators are activated but also splitter plate is placed behind the cylinder. A couple electrodes are mounted on circular cylinder at ±90 degrees. Also, flow visualization is achieved by using smoke wire method. Drag coefficient of the circular cylinder with splitter plate and the plasma actuator are obtained for different angles and compared with the plain circular cylinder. While attack angle is 0 degree, drag coefficient is decreased about 20% by using the splitter plate behind the circular cylinder. However, when the plasma actuators are activated, the improvement of the drag reduction is measured to be 50%.

  10. Comparison of Simulated and Measured Non-linear Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    In this paper results from a non-linear AS (angular spectrum) based ultrasound simulation program are compared to water-tank measurements. A circular concave transducer with a diameter of 1 inch (25.4 mm) is used as the emitting source. The measured pulses are rst compared with the linear...... simulation program Field II, which will be used to generate the source for the AS simulation. The generated non-linear ultrasound eld is measured by a hydrophone in the focal plane. The second harmonic component from the measurement is compared with the AS simulation, which is used to calculate both...... fundamental and second harmonic elds. The focused piston transducer with a center frequency of 5 MHz is excited by a waveform generator emitting a 6-cycle sine wave. The hydrophone is mounted in the focal plane 118 mm from the transducer. The point spread functions at the focal depth from Field II...

  11. Circular dichroism in a three-dimensional semiconductor chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Ota, Y.; Tatebayashi, J. [Institute of Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Tajiri, T. [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y. [Institute of Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-08-04

    Circular dichroism covering the telecommunication band is experimentally demonstrated in a semiconductor-based three-dimensional chiral photonic crystal (PhC). We design a rotationally stacked woodpile PhC structure where neighboring layers are rotated by 60° and three layers construct a single helical unit. The mirror-asymmetric PhC made from GaAs with sub-micron periodicity is fabricated by a micro-manipulation technique. Due to the large contrast of refractive indices between GaAs and air, the experimentally obtained circular dichroism extends over a wide wavelength range, with the transmittance of right-handed circularly polarized incident light being 85% and that of left-handed light being 15% at a wavelength of 1.3 μm. The obtained results show good agreement with numerical simulations.

  12. Finding the right incentives; circular business models for the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, R.; Prins, M.; Straub, A.; Ploeger, H.D.

    2017-01-01

    After its launch, the circular economy gained popularity all over the world as the new sustainability paradigm. Despite its popularity there is little to no material to be found on the implementation of the circular economy in the construction industry. Through a mixed method methodology using

  13. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve

  14. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  15. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, G.; Shevchuk, I.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lindahl, A. O. [PULSE at Stanford, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Knie, A. [Institut für Physik, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Marinelli, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M., E-mail: markus.ilchen@xfel.eu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Liu, J. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-08-15

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O{sub 2} 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  16. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.; Lindahl, A. O.; Knie, A.; Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Shevchuk, I.; Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Kazansky, A. K.; Liu, J.; Marinelli, A.; Mazza, T.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J.; Meyer, M.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M.

    2016-08-01

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O2 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  17. A bifunctional amorphous polymer exhibiting equal linear and circular photoinduced birefringences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royes, Jorge; Provenzano, Clementina; Pagliusi, Pasquale; Tejedor, Rosa M; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-11-01

    The large and reversible photoinduced linear and circular birefringences in azo-compounds are at the basis of the interest in these materials, which are potentially useful for several applications. Since the onset of the linear and circular anisotropies relies on orientational processes, which typically occur on the molecular and supramolecular length scale, respectively, a circular birefringence at least one order of magnitude lower than the linear one is usually observed. Here, the synthesis and characterization of an amorphous polymer with a dimeric repeating unit containing a cyanoazobenzene and a cyanobiphenyl moiety are reported, in which identical optical linear and circular birefringences are induced for proper light dose and ellipticity. A pump-probe technique and an analytical method based on the Stokes-Mueller formalism are used to investigate the photoinduced effects and to evaluate the anisotropies. The peculiar photoresponse of the polymer makes it a good candidate for applications in smart functional devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sourcewise represented green's function of the circular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Bondarenko, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Singular part of the Green's function of unbounded space is singled out in explicit form and contains all singularities, including a delta-shaped singularity. The problem of construction of Green's function for a field is solved, as a problem for diffraction of potential and rotational components electric field intensity of a point current source on the circular waveguide walls. The singling out of the electric field intensity singularity in an explicit form about a source enables to develop an effective algorithm of Green's function calculation at any distance between the source point and observation point in a circular waveguide

  19. Testing the magnetar scenario for superluminous supernovae with circular polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Leloudas, Giorgos; Bulla, Mattia; Inserra, Cosimo; Chen, Ting-Wan; Spyromilio, Jason; Patat, Ferdinando; Cano, Zach; Cikota, Stefan; Coughlin, Michael W.; Kankare, Erkki; Lowe, Thomas B.; Maund, Justyn R.; Rest, Armin; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken W.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Young, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are at least ˜5 times more luminous than common supernovae (SNe). Especially hydrogen-poor SLSN-I are difficult to explain with conventional powering mechanisms. One possible scenario that might explain such luminosities is that SLSNe-I are powered by an internal engine, such as a magnetar or an accreting black hole. Strong magnetic fields or collimated jets can circularly polarize light. In this work, we measured circular polarization of two SLSNe-I with the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted at the ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). PS17bek, a fast evolving SLSN-I, was observed around peak, while OGLE16dmu, a slowly evolving SLSN-I, was observed 100 days after maximum. Neither SLSN shows evidence of circularly polarized light, however, these non-detections do not rule out the magnetar scenario as the powering engine for SLSNe-I. We calculate the strength of the magnetic field and the expected circular polarization as a function of distance from the magnetar, which decreases very fast. Additionally, we observed no significant linear polarization for PS17bek at four epochs, suggesting that the photosphere near peak is close to spherical symmetry.

  20. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow around a confined circular cyclinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafizaadeh, M.; Zadehgol, A.

    2002-01-01

    A two dimensional lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) based on a single time relaxation BGK model has been developed. Several benchmark problems including the Poiseuille flow, the lid driven cavity flow and the flow around a circular cylinder have been performed employing a d2q9 lattice. The laminar flow around a circular cylinder within a channel has been extensively investigated using the present lattice Boltzmann model. Both symmetric and asymmetric placement configurations of the circular cylinder within the channel have been considered. A new treatment for the outlet velocity and pressure (density) boundary conditions has been proposed and validated. The present LBM results are in excellent agreement with those of the other existing CFD results. Careful examination of the LBM results and an appropriate calculation of the lift coefficient based on the rectangular lattice representation of the circular cylinder reveals that the periodic oscillation of the lift coefficient has a second harmonic when the cylinder is placed asymmetrically within the channel. The second harmonic could be associated with an asymmetrical shedding pattern of the vortices behind the cylinder from the upper and lower sides of the cylinder. (author)