Saksa päritolu austria mööblidisaineri ja mööblitöösturi Michael Thonet' (1796-1871) disainiloomingust. 1859. a. Michael Thonet' loodud tool nr. 14 on endiselt tootmises ja on tuntud ka Viini toolina. 2 ill
Salzmann, Mary Elizabeth
Scientists can change the world! Michael Faraday's work helped us understand magnetism. This title introduces budding scientists and engineers to Michael Faraday whose discoveries changed the course of science. Photos and illustrations bring the stories of this great mind to life, and a quiz lets readers test their newfound knowledge. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Applied to STEM Concepts of Learning Principles. Super Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.
Michael Welker recently visited the University of the Free State. As. Senior Professor and Director of the Research Centre for International and Interdisciplinary Theology at the University of Heidelberg, Welker recently led a project and edited a book. (with Michael Beintker and Albert de. Lange) on the European Reformation ...
Last fall I had the good fortune of receiving financial support to shoot a documentary about Michael Faraday. I took the opportunity to learn more about this great experimentalist and to visit the highlights of places in his life. In this paper, I would like to share a list and description of some of the most remarkable places in London suitable…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Comment: Michael Polanyi, the Scientist. John Polanyi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0015-0019. Abstract ...
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. G S Michael. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2005 pp 459-474. Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002 · D Shankar S S C Shenoi R K Nayak P N Vinayachandran G Nampoothiri A M Almeida ...
Fellow Profile. Elected: 2001 Honorary. Fisher, Prof. Michael Ellis FRS. Date of birth: 3 September 1931. Address: Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Institute of Physical Science and, Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2431, U.S.A.. Contact: Office: (+1-301) 405 4819. Residence: (+1-301) 587 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Comment: Michael Polanyi, the Scientist. John Polanyi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0015-0019. Abstract ...
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2006 Honorary. Klein, Michael L FRS. Date of birth: 1940. Address: Director, ICMS, Temple University, CST, SERC Building, 704E, 1925 North 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, U.S.A.. Contact: Office: (+1-215) 898 8571. Fax: (+1-215) 898 8296. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Williams, L. Pearce; And Others
Six articles discuss the work of Michael Faraday, a chemist whose work revolutionized physics and led directly to both classical field and relativity theory. The scientist as a young man, the electromagnetic experiments of Faraday, his search for the gravelectric effect, his work on optical glass, his laboratory notebooks, and his creative use of…
Award-winning playwright and novelist Michael Frayn gave a guest lecture in the main auditorium at CERN on Friday 15 March about his new book The Human Touch: Our Part in the Creation of the Universe. The lecture focused on cosmology and philosophy and the limitations that language places on our ability to understand the creation of a universe in which we seem to play such a small part. In addition to his novels and plays, which include Copenhagen, a play about the 1941 meeting between German physicist Werner Heisenberg and Danish physicist Niels Bohr, Frayn has translated several works from Russian, including plays by Chekhov and Tolstoy.
Public utility regulation lacks a formal proxy for the economic profits that can be earned in an effectively competitive market if a firm is efficient or innovative. After all, public utility regulation operated on cost-plus basis. If a utility is efficient or innovative and lowers its costs, its typical reward is to have its rates reduced. This is a perverse incentive to motivate a utility to produce at the most efficient level. In addition, since regulation operates on this cost-plus basis, a utility can increase its net income, all other things being equal, by overinvesting in (or open-quotes gold-platingclose quotes) its system, another perverse incentive. Recognizing these flaws of regulation, academicians, utility executives, regulators, and legislators have tried over the last several years to implement incentive regulation plans that correct such perverse incentives. However, under many of the earnings-sharing or price-regulation incentive plans, the rewards for efficient production are not tied directly to measures under a company's control. In fact, such plans could prove highly detrimental to ratepayers and competitors of the regulated company and its affiliates. An incentive regulation plan that ties an appropriate reward for efficient production to specific efficiency gains is a better proxy of an effectively competitive environment. What's more, it is superior to an incentive plan that rewards circumstances beyond the company's control or self-serving manipulation. This is particularly true if no earnings cap is associated with the reward for efficiency. Rewards for efficient production should be tied to specific actions. A suitable incentive plan does not preclude appropriately derived flexible prices for certain products or services where warranted
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace....
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries to...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace.......How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Michael Polanyi's Philsophy of Science. B Subramanian. Article-in-a-Box Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 21-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0021-0022. Abstract ...
Michael Polanyi's Philosophy of Science. Positivism may be said to be the outcome of the changing contours of modern science that relies solely on observation, experimentation, and measurement. Experiments in modern science are designed solely to elicit 'yes' or 'no' for an answer. The resultant facts can be fitted into.
Bertram, C.; Jong, de E.
This book is the result of a desire to convey, through a monograph of Michael van Gessel, the strength and significance of contemporary landscape architecture in the past 30 years of Dutch culture. Earlier ideas for such a book became timely around 2006, when the Nora H. Bos Foundation decided to
Our friend and colleague Michael Niegl died in a tragic accident in the first hours of the new year. Michael was a Master’s student in Microsystems Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt. He was responsible for the development of the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) ROD FPGA firmware, which acquires the data from the BCM detector modules and provides online monitoring of the LHC beams within the ATLAS experiment. He spent several months at CERN to carry out beam tests on the BCM detectors and received his Bachelor of Science with first class honours for his thesis: Concept and Implementation of an FPGA-based Data Recorder and Processor for the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor. Michael spent six months at CERN last year to finish the development and commissioning of the ROD firmware for the first beam. He worked the entire night of 10 September to fine tune the system for the first beam. It was a joy to ...
We are deeply saddened to announce the death of Mr Michael De Sousa on 13 May 2012. Mr De Sousa, who was born on 02.09.1989, was working as an apprentice in the TE Department and had been at CERN since 24.08.2009. The Director-General has sent a message of condolence to his family on behalf of the CERN personnel. Social Affairs Human Resources Department It is with great emotion and deep sadness that we learn of the tragic loss of our colleague and friend Michael De Sousa. Michael was a hard working colleague, cordial and considerate. Within a few months, he marked his presence by the implementation of the instrumentation benches for gas permeation measurement in polymers, and the calibration of high technology gas analyzers, necessary for vacuum technology. His last contribution will enable us to measure pressures in the extreme high vacuum range for the ELENA project. With the continuation of this activity, his memory will remain. His accomplishments will remain...
Full Text Available Michael Moore is famous and popular in many European countries, where he is seen as a critic of American culture. However, his main thesis, which is repeatedly expressed in his films and books, does not primarily criticize American popular culture or political tradition. Rather, this article argues that Moore’s thought may best be analysed through the American tradition of radicalism, whose origin dates back to Thomas Paine. Obviously, Moore is a contemporary radical who uses the modern media to reach as many people as possible. Yet some aspects of his rationale are surprisingly close to 18th century American radicalism.
Johnson, Alan H; Brock, Clive D; Zacarias, Ashleigh
Michael Balint's lead article, "Repeat Prescription Patients: Are They An Identifiable Group?" inaugurated the first issue of Psychiatry in Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1970. A few years later, this Journal would be renamed International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine (IJPM). Who is this author of over 165 papers, 10 books, practicing psychoanalyst from 1926 to 1970, director of the Budapest Psychoanalytic Institute from 1935 to 1939, consultant at the Tavistock Clinic from 1948 to 1961, President of the British Psycho-Analytical Society from 1968 to 1970, literary executor of Sandor Ferenczi, a foremost theorist of object relations, and international educator and statesman for general practitioners? We would like to review for you some of the formative experiences in Michael's life that wedded psychoanalysis and general practice, and how they contributed to his major educational commitment over 40 years to furthering the understanding and integration of psychosocial factors in the practice of primary healthcare as experienced by doctors all over the world. We would also like to highlight some of his major insights and see to what extent they are incorporated in contemporary medical education and practice. We believe that some of his major insights have been neglected and others have been further amplified and extended. Our intention is to speak not only to medical students who desire to pursue medicine related directly to patient care but as well to seasoned practitioners who continue on a daily basis to care for individual patients and their families.
Michael Dell, founder and presently Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Office of the DELL computer company visited CERN on Tuesday 26th January 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience. Michael S. Dell with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. What motivated you to come and visit CERN? I obviously heard about the great science and research has going on here, and DELL is very pleased to be a partner and providing a lot of the computers to analyse the data and I really wanted to see for myself in person, some of the great science that is going on here. What is your view on fundamental research in IT, and in general? I think if you look at the field of science in the last hundred years, we have been able to solve a lot of problems, but there are still lots of unsolved problems and unsolved mysteries. And it is only through basic fundamental research that we will address these probl...
Juan Luciano Nieves
Full Text Available Michael Jackson es un buen ejemplo de cómo utilizar las relaciones públicas para realizar o manipular la imagen de un producto a través de los medios de comunicación. Este ensayo pretende analizar los eventos que tuvieron lugar antes de que el cantante fuera acusado de abuso sexual contra un menor. Dichos eventos formaron parte de un plan muy bien delineado para disminuir los efectos de la inminente crisis que se acercaba. Este trabajo combina la crítica retórica de temas de fantasía con teoría de comunicación.
Sep 25, 2017 ... D-glucopyranose, galactose and lactose for asymmetric. Michael addition of acetyl acetone to nitro olefins giving up to >99% yield and up to 96% enantiose- lectivity.37 Benaglia et al.,38 used another new class of glucosamine-based bifunctional organocatalysts for nucleophilic Michael addition of ...
Shah, Pankaj V.; Vietti, David E.; Whitman, David William
Homogeneously dispersed solid reaction promoters having an average particle size from 0.01 .mu.m to 500 .mu.m are disclosed for preparing curable mixtures of at least one Michael donor and at least one Michael acceptor. The resulting curable mixtures are useful as coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.
... 2014 2015 2016 Our single, urgent goal: Eliminate Parkinson's disease in our lifetime. Today we are the ... 20 years since he publicly disclosed he has Parkinson's, Michael J. Fox sits down with Jane Pauley ...
Michael Faraday and the Modern World is an account of Faraday's life and work together with a brief explantion of how much of what we now take for granted in daily life has been developed from his discoveries.
Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc
Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice....... The main insights stem from a trade-off between ‘good monetary incentives' and ‘good reputational incentives'. We show that the principal optimally designs contracts to create ambiguity about agents' abilities. This may make it optimal to contract on relative performance measures, even though the extant...... rationales for such schemes are absent. Linking the structure of contracts to organizational design, we show that it can be optimal for the principal to adopt an opaque organization where performance is not verifiable, despite the constraints that this imposes on contracts....
against incentives • Gerald Ledford and Barry Gerhart in “Negative Effects of Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation : More Smoke Than Fire” argue...undermine intrinsic motivation making the incentive effect much more powerful than if it relies on extrinsic motivation alone Proposed Approach...with opportunities to innovate that can enhance intrinsic motivation • A notional approach for incentives that are tied to the achievement of cost
Bester, Helmut; Krähmer, Daniel
This paper analyses the relation between authority and incentives. It extends the standard principal--agent model by a project selection stage in which the principal can either delegate the choice of project to the agent or keep the authority. The agent's subsequent choice of effort depends both on monetary incentives and the selected project. We find that the consideration of effort incentives makes the principal less likely to delegate the authority over projects to the agent. In fact, if t...
Moomjian, C.A. Jr.
Incentive drilling contracts historically have been based on the footage and turnkey concepts. Because these concepts have not been used widely in the international and offshore arenas, this paper discusses other innovative approaches to incentive contracts. Case studies of recently completed or current international and offshore contracts are presented to describe incentive projects based on a performance bonus (Case 1), lump sum per well (Case 2), target time and cap for a specified hole section (Case 3), and per-well target time (Case 4). This paper concludes with a review and comparison of the case studies and a general discussion of factors that produce successful innovative incentive programs that enhance drilling efficiency
Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…
M. Arsel (Murat)
textabstractMichael Watts is ‘Class of 1963’ Chair in Undergraduate Studies and Chancellor’s Professor of Geography at the University of California, Berkeley. Born and raised in rural southwest England, Watts studied at University College London and completed his PhD in 1979 at the University of
Schaefer, Zachary A.
Individuals who work in professional settings interact with others who may exhibit a variety of cultural beliefs and decision-making approaches. Page (2007) argues that cognitive diversity (i.e., how people approach and attempt to solve problems) is a vital asset in effective organizations. Michael Scott, who portrays the inept main character on…
Manno, Bruno V.
Michael Polanyi was on "JHP's" Board of Editors for many years, and his book, "Personal Knowledge", published in 1958, was an important factor in the development of humanistic psychology. This "rememberance" presents an overview of his personal background and the major outlines of his thought. (Editor/RK)
Rulev, Alexander Yu
Data published in the last 10 years on the use of the aza-Michael reaction in organic synthesis are described systematically. The attention is focused on environmentally friendly processes following green chemistry principles and on methods for the synthesis of compounds that are difficult to access by other routes.
Miller, Lantz Eugene
This new book from Michael Hauskeller explores the currently marketed or projected sex/love products that exhibit some trait of so-called “posthumanistic” theory or design. These products are so designated because of their intention to fuse high technologies, including robotics and computing, with
Higginson, J. H.
Chronicles works of Michael Sadler who compared British and German educational systems, emphasizing Germany's contributions in technical education. Presents Sadler's 1912 recommendations--eight lessons premised upon powerful centralized government's ability to implement policy. Reflects on how World War I and Nazism influenced Sadler's thought and…
Barek, J.; Černý, Slavoj; Herman, Zdeněk; Jindra, Jiří; Paleček, Emil
Roč. 29, č. 8 (2017), s. 2001-2002 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Michael Heyrovský Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016
Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.
"In the late 1950's, Jack Michael, a bright but irritating young psychology instructor, moved from the Universities of Kansas to Houston to Arizona State. Along the way he befriended two nontraditional students, protected them through their Ph.D. programs, and turned them loose on the world: Teodoro Ayllon…and Montrose Wolf…" (Risley,…
Rulev, Alexander Yu
Data published in the last 10 years on the use of the aza-Michael reaction in organic synthesis are described systematically. The attention is focused on environmentally friendly processes following green chemistry principles and on methods for the synthesis of compounds that are difficult to access by other routes.
Van, Khoi N; Romo, Daniel
Optically active, tertiary amine Lewis bases react with unsaturated acid chlorides to deliver chiral, α,β-unsaturated acylammonium salts. These intermediates participate in a catalytic, enantioselective, three-component process delivering bi- and tricyclic β-lactones through a Michael-Michael-aldol-β-lactonization. In a single operation, the described multicomponent, organocascade process forms complex bi- and tricyclic β-lactones by generating four new bonds, two rings, and up to four contiguous stereocenters. In the racemic series, yields of 22-75% were achieved using 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as Lewis base. In the enantioselective series employing isothiourea catalysts, a kinetic resolution of the initially formed racemic Michael adduct appears operative, providing yields of 46% to quantitative (based on 50% max) with up to 94:6 er. Some evidence for a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation for tricyclic-β-lactone 1d was obtained following optimization (yields up to 61%, 94:6 er) through a presumed reversible Michael.
Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc
Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice....... The main insights stem from a trade-off between ‘good monetary incentives’ and ‘good reputational incentives’. We show that the principal optimally designs contracts to create ambiguity about agents’ abilities. This may make it optimal to contract on relative performance measures, even though the extant...... rationales for such schemes are absent. Linking the structure of contracts to organizational design, we show that it can be optimal for the principal to adopt an opaque organization where performance is not verifiable, despite the constraints that this imposes on contracts....
IX PÖFFil linastuv Michael Haneke film "Varjatud" ("Cache") võitis laupäeval mitu Euroopa Filmiakadeemia auhinda, selhulgas parima filmi, parima lavastaja, parima meesnäitleja (Daniel Auteuil) ja FIPRESCI auhinna. Parim naisnäitleja - Julia Jentsch ("Sophie Scholli viimased päevad"), operaator - Franz Lustig ("Don't Come Knocking"), stsenaarium - Hany Abu-Assad, Bero Beyer ("Kohe paradiisi")
Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.
Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a
Motivatsioonidest ja viisidest, kuidas korruptsioonivastased programmid parlamendis aitavad parlamendiliikmetel koguda poliitilist kapitali valijate nõudmiste, poliitilise võitluse, eestkoste jne. haldamisel. Lisatud graafikud, tabelid ja diagramm
Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders
Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?
The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....
If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....
Fugitive Pieces is analysed taking into consideration its polyphonic structure, the manifold motives and threads that weave together an intricate pattern, based on historical events and personal stories. Thanks to her use of scientific language from the realm of geology, paleobotany and geography, Michaels excavates time and space, past and present, in order to find a language to unveil the atrocities of Nazism against Jews, to preserve and evoke the memories of the survivors, but at the same time lead to a possible reconciliation with the past.
Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 3. dets. lk. 9. Euroopa Komisjoni kalandusdirektoraadi koordinaator Euroopa Liidu laienemise küsimuses Michael Roitmann juhib tähelepanu Eesti kalanduse suurematele probleemidele ning prognoosib EL-iga liitumise mõju Eesti kalandussektori arengule
Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire
by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees' further effort, the duration of relationships, and the profits of employers. Furthermore, we study whether employers......' decisions to give symbolic rewards are driven by strategic considerations, by manipulating the bargaining power of employers and employees. We find that employers make use of symbolic rewards and chiefly to express their satisfaction with the employee. Indeed, symbolic rewards are more frequently used......, the opportunity of expressing respect does not improve efficiency compared with an environment in which it does not exist, possibly due to a crowding-out of extrinsic incentives by the availability of non-monetary incentives....
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard
We investigate the unique contractual arrangement between a large Ethiopian sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. The only significant difference between the sugarcane production on the factory-operated sugarcane plantation and on the outgrower-operated plots is the remuneration...... system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of these two production schemes using a cross-sectional plot-level data set. As sugarcane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g., soil type, cane variety, etc.), we......-operated plots have-ceteris paribus-a statistically and economically significantly higher productivity than factory-operated plots, which can be explained by outgrowers having stronger incentives to put more effort into their work than the employees of the sugar factory....
Aven, E.; Lovas, K.; Osmundsen, P.
Portfolio theory indicates that risk management should take place at the group level. Hedging at the project level or in the individual business areas may lead to suboptimal results. However, the efficiency of a profit centre depends on its management's being able to influence factors that are crucial to the unit's financial results. Price hedging could be one such factor. In the wider perspective, this constitutes part of the balancing between centralisation and decentralisation. This article covers important elements of risk management and incentive design. It goes on to discuss the balancing of overall risk management at the group level and incentive design in profit centres and corporate units. Throughout the article, the oil industry serves as a case. (author)
Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward
The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.
insurance is loss "realry" for middle managers. Does not participate in insurance mutual pacts. -CE 53HT Propoerty rnsurance nandied by off- snore captive [ E...incentives. Preparedness activities had the greatest impact on production interruption. Goodyear explained that sound , well rehearsed emergency plans and...response activities followed a pattern similar to preparedness activities. The experts determined that sound response procedures and proper response
Peters, Michael A.
Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…
Book Review: Invitaton to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber. Zurich Lectures in Advanced Mathematics, European Mathematical Society (2008), ISBN 978-3-03719-054-8......Book Review: Invitaton to Topological Robotics by Michael Farber. Zurich Lectures in Advanced Mathematics, European Mathematical Society (2008), ISBN 978-3-03719-054-8...
Hui, Chunngai; Pu, Fan; Xu, Jing
Asymmetric catalysis for chiral compound synthesis is a rapidly growing field in modern organic chemistry. Asymmetric catalytic processes have been indispensable for the synthesis of enantioselective materials to meet demands from various fields. Michael addition has been used extensively for the construction of C-C bonds under mild conditions. With the discovery and development of organo- and metal-catalyzed asymmetric Michael additions, the synthesis of enantioselective and/or diastereoselective Michael adducts has become possible and increasingly prevalent in the literature. In particular, metal-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition has been employed as a key reaction in natural product synthesis for the construction of contiguous quaternary stereogenic center(s), which is still a difficult task in organic synthesis. Previously reported applications of metal-catalyzed asymmetric Michael additions in natural product synthesis are presented here and discussed in depth. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Brown, Rebecca C H
Financial incentives may provide a way of reducing the burden of chronic diseases by motivating people to adopt healthy behaviours. While it is still uncertain how effective such incentives could be for promoting health, some argue that, even if effective, there are ethical objections that preclude their use. One such argument is made by Michael Sandel, who suggests that monetary transactions can have a corrupting effect on the norms and values that ordinarily regulate exchange and behaviour in previously non-monetised contexts. In this paper, I outline Sandel's corruption argument and consider its validity in the context of health incentives. I distinguish between two forms of corruption that are implied by Sandel's argument: efficiency corruption and value corruption While Sandel's thought-provoking discussion provides a valuable contribution to debates about health policies generally and health incentives specifically, I suggest the force of his criticism of health incentives is limited: further empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning are required to support the suggestion that health incentives are an inappropriate tool for promoting health. While I do not find Sandel's corruption argument compelling, this only constitutes a partial defence of health incentives, since other criticisms relating to their use may prove more successful. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
This study examines the effects of certificates and deadlines on student performance. It exploits time lags in reforms of two similar degree programs at a business school, which create quasi-experimental settings. Students’ performance is found to increase if certificates are awarded to them early...... in their program. Deadlines to pass exams prevent them from submitting blank sheets to fail and resit exams. Both effects are stronger among average students compared to high-ability or low-ability students. These findings show that the policies that govern degree programs can create incentives for students...
Michael John Klein died on 14 May 2005 at home in South Pasadena, California. The cause of death was tongue cancer that metastasized to the lungs. He was a non-smoker. Mike was a passionate radio astronomer, a trusted astronomical observer, an educator and a family man. Mike was born on 19 January 1940 in Ames, Iowa, the son of Florence Marie (Graf) and Fred Michael Klein. His mother was a homemaker, and his father was a banker. Mike had two older sisters, Lois Jean (Klein) Flauher and Marilyn June (Klein) Griffin. In 1962, Mike married his high school sweetheart Barbara Dahlberg, who survives him along with their three children, Kristin Marie (Klein) Shields, Michael John Klein Jr., Timothy Joel Klein, and six grandchildren. Mike developed a love for astronomy early in his life, and credited an early morning, newspaper-delivery route that he had at age twelve, which took him outside well before sunrise. He told family members that as he walked along his route, he stared into the sky and wondered what everything was. He studied sky charts, located stars, and began to understand how the planets shifted their positions relative to the stars each day. Another big influence in Mike's life was his brother in-law, Jim Griffin. Jim helped Mike understand that his passion for science did not have to remain a hobby, but could and should become a career. Jim's encouragement led Mike to attend Iowa State University in Ames, where he earned a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Mike then started graduate school in electrical engineering at Michigan State, but after one semester transferred to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he earned an MS (1966) and PhD (1968) in astronomy. His doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Professor Fred Haddock, was based on extensive observations of the planets and examined the physical and thermal properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Mike was awarded a Resident Research Associate position at JPL by the National
The overall audit objective was to determine whether the Voluntary Separation Incentive Trust Fund's FY 1994 financial statements were presented fairly in accordance with generally accepted accounting...
Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael
Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and
Jeffery, Robert W
This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard
. As sugar-cane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g. soil type, cane variety, etc.), we estimate the production function by a nonparametric kernel regression method that takes into account both continuous and categorical explanatory variables......We investigate the unique contractual arrangement between a large Ethiopian sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. The only significant difference between the sugarcane production on the factory-operated sugarcane plantation and on the outgrower-operated plots is the remuneration...... system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of the factory-operated plantation with the outgrower-operated plots based on a new cross-sectional plot-level data set that includes all plots that are operated by the sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations...
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...
Stern, David L; Dawes-Hoang, Rachel E
Michael Akam has been awarded the 2007 Kowalevsky medal for his many research accomplishments in the area of evolutionary developmental biology. We highlight three tributaries of Michaels contribution to evolutionary developmental biology. First, he has made major contributions to our understanding of development of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Second, he has maintained a consistent focus on several key problems in evolutionary developmental biology, including the evolving role of Hox genes in arthropods and, more recently, the evolution of segmentation mechanisms. Third, Michael has written a series of influential reviews that have integrated progress in developmental biology into an evolutionary perspective. Michael has also made a large impact on the field through his effective mentorship style, his selfless promotion of younger colleagues, and his leadership of the University Museum of Zoology at Cambridge and the European community of evolutionary developmental biologists.
derivatised micelle templated silicas with various loadings. The resultant materials were characterised by various techniques and were also screened as catalysts in model Michael addition reactions. Results obtained show that materials with ...
Herschbach, Dudley R
Connecting Science and the Humanities was the title of the symposium on Michael Polanyi that took place at the Technische Universität Berlin (Technical University of Berlin) in October 2016. This essay, which appraises the scientific and philosophical contributions of Michael Polanyi, is based on the presentation given by Dr. Herschbach on this occasion. In the photograph: Polanyi in 1931. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Michael Shapcott is Director of Affordable Housing and Community Innovation at the Wellesley Institute, an independent, non-profit policy, research and social enterprise / innovation institute that is celebrating ten years of advancing urban health. Michael has worked extensively in Toronto, in many parts of Canada, nationally and internationally on housing and housing rights, poverty, social exclusion, urban health and health equity. He has worked on housing rights issues with the United Nat...
Kovac, Reviewed By Jeffrey
At a time when almost all general chemistry textbooks seem to have become commodities designed by marketing departments to offend no one, it is refreshing to find a book with a unique perspective. Michael Munowitz has written what I can only describe as a delightful chemistry book, full of conceptual insight, that uses a novel and interesting pedagogic strategy. This is a book that has much to recommend it. This is the best-written general chemistry book I have ever read. An editor with whom I have worked recently remarked that he felt his job was to help authors make their writing sing. Well, the writing in Principles of Chemistry sings with the full, rich harmonies and creative inventiveness of the King's Singers or Chanticleer. Here is the first sentence of the introduction: "Central to any understanding of the physical world is one discovery of paramount importance, a truth disarmingly simple yet profound in its implications: matter is not continuous." This is prose to be savored and celebrated. Principles of Chemistry has a distinct perspective on chemistry: the perspective of the physical chemist. The focus is on simplicity, what is common about molecules and reactions; begin with the microscopic and build bridges to the macroscopic. The author's perspective is clear from the organization of the book. After three rather broad introductory chapters, there are four chapters that develop the quantum mechanical theory of atoms and molecules, including a strong treatment of molecular orbital theory. Unlike many books, Principles of Chemistry presents the molecular orbital approach first and introduces valence bond theory later only as an approximation for dealing with more complicated molecules. The usual chapters on descriptive inorganic chemistry are absent (though there is an excellent chapter on organic and biological molecules and reactions as well as one on transition metal complexes). Instead, descriptive chemistry is integrated into the development of
Terry, Paul E
The kind of engagement industrial psychologists have shown can produce optimal performance relates more to a state of mind than to increasing participation in programs or motivating a workforce with financial incentives. In the context of quality improvement methodologies, the health promotion profession has yet to discover when, where and how large financial incentives should be and how they best fit in our processes. That is, there is no "standard work" for the use of extrinsic motivators. Yet, to argue against incentives given evidence to date has more to do with polemics than science.
Caravaca Guerrero, Consuelo Isabel
Full Text Available Entrevistar a un investigador de la talla de D. Michael Walker supone hablar de un investigador reconocido a nivel nacional e internacional, uno de los mayores expertos en evolución humana de nuestros días. Nació en Colchester (Inglaterra en 1941 y tiene doble nacionalidad: británica y australiana. Actualmente es profesor emérito de la Universidad de Murcia en el Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física de la Facultad de Biología. Pero su currículum no acaba aquí, Michael realizó tres carreras, Fisiología Animal, Medicina, y Arqueología Prehistórica, en la Universidad de Oxford. Es Doctor por esta universidad, gracias a su tesis leída sobre Paleoantropología y Prehistoria de las cuencas de los ríos Segura y Vinalopó. Nuestro entrevistado, también fue elegido Académico (Fellow –F.S.A.- en 1988 de la Society of Antiquaries of Londono SAL. Fundada en 1707, la SAL es la equivalente británica de la española Real Academia de la Historia. Es Fellow también del Real Instituto Antropológico de la Gran Bretaña (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain y socio emérito de la Asociación Americana de Antropólogos Físicos (American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
precedents and thought in a unique legal market in which ideas drawn from Islamic law, civil law and common law can intermingle and blend. It is not surprising therefore to see that this new publication will be dedicated to the subject of international law, both public and private. Its laudable aim is to promote legal discourse around the world, and to promote a wider international understanding of contemporary legal issues for the common benefit. As an open access, bilingual journal, addressing topics concerning any jurisdiction, I hope it will reach a wide audience, and fulfil its aim of promoting understanding between different cultures. I am sure that the journal will not only benefit Qatar’s legal community by advancing academic and practice-based legal discussion. I am also confident that it will stimulate thought in the global legal community at large. May I wish it every success and a long life. Michael Thomas CMG QC
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...
Pradhan, Anil; Nahar, Sultana
Professor Michael John Seaton, hailed as the "Father of Atomic Astrophysics," passed away on May 29, 2007. He was one of the few Honorary Fellows of both the American Astronomical Society and the American Physical Society, so honored for his monumental contributions to both physics and astronomy. Mike Seaton was born on January 16, 1923 in Bristol, England. He attended Wallington County High School. But his leftist political activities, even at that stage, led to his expulsion, though he was eventually allowed to matriculate. He enlisted in the Royal Air Force as a navigator during the Second World War, and flew many dangerous missions. His legendary concentration and precision are reflected in the following anecdote. Once after a bombing mission his aircraft was lost in fog over the Alps. Seaton calculated the position and coordinates in flight to guide the aircraft. When the fog lifted, the crew found themselves flying perilously close to the mountains, but made it safely back. His associates often said, "A Seaton calculation is carried out as if his life depended on it." After the War he was admitted to University College London (UCL) as an undergraduate. Thereafter, he spent all of his professional career at UCL. Seaton received his Batchelor's degree in 1948, and his Ph.D. in 1951. His tenure at UCL coincided with the golden age of atomic astrophysics, for he was largely responsible for it. Seaton was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1967, and as President of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) in 1978. He was the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate from the Observatoire de Paris, an Honorary D.Sc. from the Queen's University of Belfast, the Gold Medal for Astronomy by the RAS, the Guthrie Medal by the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society Hughes award for lifetime work by the RAS, and several other prestigious awards. Nevertheless, as Alex Dalgarno recently remarked, Seaton was not part of the establishment because he chose not to be. Though rooted in
Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S
Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H
The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.
Sanderson, Jimmy; Cheong, Pauline Hope
Death and bereavement are human experiences that new media helps facilitate alongside creating new social grief practices that occur online. This study investigated how people's postings and tweets facilitated the communication of grief after pop music icon Michael Jackson died. Drawing on past grief research, religion, and new media studies, a…
Porter, Michael E
Maailmas tuntud juhtimisguru Michael Porter viie konkurentsijõu teooriast ja selle rakendatavusest erinevates valdkondades. Lisad: Erinevused valdkondade kasumlikkuses; 5 määravat konkurentsijõudu; Investeeritud kapitali keskmine tasuvus; Mõnede USA tegevusvaldkondade kasumlikkus; Valdkonnaanalüüs praktikas; Valdkonna määratlemine; Valdkonnaanalüüsi sammud
Dokumentaalfilm "9/11 Fahrenheiti" ("Fahrenheit 9/11") : režissöör Michael Moore : USA 2004. Iraagi sõja invaliidistunud veteran andis režissööri kohtusse teda kujutavate flmikaadrite loata ja tenentsliku kasutamise pärast
Facile Michael addition of active methylene compounds to ,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds takes place on the surface of potassium carbonate under microwave irradiation. Further studies on microwave-mediated Robinson annulations reveal a convenient and facile method for condensation of chalcone with ...
Laulik, Jüri, 1959-
IX PÖFFil linastuv Michael Haneke film "Varjatud" ("Cache") võitis laupäeval mitu Euroopa Filmiakadeemia auhinda, sealhulgas parima filmi, parima lavastaja ja parima meesnäitleja (Daniel Auteuil) auhinna. Parima naisnäitleja tiitli pälvis Julia Jentsch ("Sophie Scholli viimased päevad"). Elutööpreemia sai sir Sean Connery
Michael Boylan is the John J. McDonnell jr chair in Ethics, and professor and chair of the philosophy department at Marymount University in Arlington, Virginia. In addition to being a poet and novelist, he has written more than 100 published articles and 25 books primarily in ethics, social and
Pattee, H H
This paper summarizes Michael Conrad's academic and professional career from the time he began his Ph.D. studies in 1964 to his appointment at Wayne State University in 1979. It describes the origins of several of his major research interests and presents a personal evaluation of how this early work continues to be of fundamental importance.
Intervjuu Ameerika Ühendriikide ajakirjaniku ja Islamiriigi asjatundja Michael Weissiga, kes räägib, miks liituvad tuhanded Euroopas kasvanud mosleminoored džihadistidega ning kuidas deradikaliseerida läänemaailmas elavaid äärmuslastest moslemeid
The phenomenal concept strategy is a strategy developed by physicalists to defend physicalism in the attempt to address the problem of consciousness. For Michael Tye, who was previously an advocate of the phenomenal concept strategy, there is the possibility that two or more distinct phenomenal concepts can refer to ...
This paper responds to Michael Rosen's blog entries, "How Genre Theory Saved the World", arguing that genre theory in the tradition of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) has made an important contribution to language and literacy pedagogy. It emerged in the Australian context in about 1980 and was initially developed in response to…
Nigam, Manisha; Rush, Brittney; Patel, Jay; Castillo, Raul; Dhar, Preeti
A green, aza-Michael reaction is described that can be used to teach undergraduate students conjugate addition of nitrogen nucleophile to an a,ß-unsaturated ester. Students analyze spectral data of the product obtained from the assigned reaction to determine product structure and propose the mechanism of its formation. The experiment requires…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Michael Polanyi (1891-1976): Medical Doctor, Chemist and a Philosopher. N Sathyamurthy. Article-in-a-Box Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 11-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
of the problems associated with the traditional catalysts in the Michael reaction, a number of heterogeneous catalytic systems have been developed. Examples of such ..... Studies on the reusability of material I on the reaction between excess nitroethane and but-3-en-2-one. CONCLUSION. Our results show that one-pot ...
Early childhood instruction and the experiences that accompany can serve life-long lessons. Depriving children of education during this critical period in life can have significant consequences on cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical development. This article features one of the forerunners to special education, Michael Anagnostopoulos…
Editorial: Juba College of Nursing and Midwifery. Janet Michael. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...
In January 1997, Michael Berenbaum became president and chief executive officer of Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, the organization established by filmmaker Steven Spielberg after completing "Schindler's List." Since 1994, the foundation has been recording eyewitness testimony on the Holocaust. Berenbaum's mandate is to…
This volume includes 70% of previously unpublished letters of Michael Farday spanning half of the 1850s and most of 1860. Topics include Faraday's work on regelation, the transmission of light through gold and his appointment by Emperor Napoleon III to be a Commander of the Legion of Honour.
Richard T. Holden
During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...
Bucciol, A.; Montinari, N.; Piovesan, M.
This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the pricing systems experienced during the 1999-2008 decade by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel
Arvo Pärdi pojast Michael Pärdist. Tema tööst "music editor"-ina - helimonteerijana, tööst muusika produktsiooni, salvestamise ja muusika kirjutamise abijõuna. Koostööst maailmas tuntud muusikutega
Full Text Available The Ukrainian scouting movement on western Ukrainian territories reached the highest level during the interwar period. Despite the relative integrity it had its own features in Galicia, Volyn', on Bukovyna, Transcarpathia. As living conditions turned out to be peaceful, old plast centres started to form in schools. "Plast" in Galicia was an example of inheritance and incentive to the development on other western Ukrainian territories and in emigration. The figure of famous Hutsul plastun Michael Gorbovy (1896 – 1941 is very interesting and multidimensional. Indeed, it is a symbolic name in the history of Ukrainian scout organization. He was a member of many national public organizations. With his name economic and cooperative activities of "Plast" in Gutsulschina are connected. He was the organizer of craft departments of "Plast". The unicity of this disjoint person is expressed in his great love for Ukraine and responsibility for its future. Gorbovy considered physical, moral and national-patriotic education of children and youth as his main task. He strived to spread the idea of Ukrainian scouting among wide groups of people. For this work on 22th of May, 1924 he was awarded with a plast title of a scoutmaster. Michael Gorbovy formed national consciousness, high spirituality, love of God and Ukraine among youth for the "great aim" which is to build an independent Ukrainian nation. Experts qualify current spiritual and moral state of the Ukrainian society as "crisis". School is not able to fill the educational vacuum which has appeared after the elimination of the Pioneer and Komsomol organizations. No new alternative children's institutions have been suggested. In such a difficult situation the experience of the activity of the Ukrainian scouting movement may be useful. Creative and practical achievements of "Plast" leaders as key figures and main carriers of the plast's educational methods are especially important. These include a figure of
The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
Incentives offer a good deal of underexplored opportunities to help manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. This study has two primary objectives. First, it furthers the discussion of how external third parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available ...
Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.
Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations
The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges
Mark J Hanly
Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.
Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.
Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...
... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements. ...
Rogers, Everett M.
A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…
progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...
Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.
We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive
Full Text Available Emeritus Professor A. J. “Tony” McMichael (1942–2014 was an internationally renowned and pioneering Australian academic and advocate in epidemiology, who was passionate about understanding the influences of the environment on human health. In an illustrious career spanning more than four decades, he made significant contributions to the scientific community and policy discourse—including ground-breaking research related to the health of children. McMichael was a prolific academic writer with over 300 peer-reviewed papers; 160 book chapters and two sole-authored books. However, his outstanding talent was for integrating complex and seemingly unrelated strands from the environmental and health sciences into a cohesive narrative—and highlighting its relevance to lay persons, scientists and governments alike. He was instrumental in validating this nascent field of research and inspiring many others to follow his lead.
Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016
Euroopa Filmiakadeemia auhindadest: parima filmiauhinna sai Saksamaal Bochumis toimunud tseremoonial Michael Haneke "Valge lint", mille eest Haneke sai ka parima režissööri ja stsenaristi auhinna. Parimaks meesnäitlejaks pärjati Tahar Rahim ("Un Prophete"), parimaks naisnäitlejaks Kate Winslet ("The Reader"), publikupreemia sai Danny Boyle'i "Rentslimiljonär. Ka teistest võitjatest
Intervjuu Tallinna ülikooli külastava kultuurimälu uurija, California ülikooli professori Michael Rothbergiga. Ta on sümpoosioni "Kultuurideülesed mäluvormid: sõja, ümberasumise ja poliitiliste konfliktide mäletamine nüüdisajal" peaesineja ja peab loengu "Pärandi probleem: migratsioon ja kultuurideülene holokausti mälu nüüdisaegsel Saksamaal". Ka tema raamatutest
Popister, I.; Zeman, A.
The goal of the present study is to characterize the black crust on the main stone used at Saint Michael's Church in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The gases in the atmosphere, along with natural and artificial pollutants can cause damage the integrity of the stone when it comes in contact with the stone's chemistry. In order to explain the mechanism of stone decay due to black crust it is necessary to know what "weathering" means, so it must be seen as a complex process that consists of: type of material, the environment in which the material is located, and the amount of time required for the process to take place. Each material has particular properties, due to its composition and genesis. When it comes in contact with the acidity of the "acid rain" (caused by sulphur, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide), the rain penetrates into the pore structure, corroding it and "allowing" the atmospheric particles to penetrate the stone. St. Michael's Church is one of the oldest Gothic architectural monuments in Cluj, Romania, being built predominantly from Cenozoic (Upper Eocene) limestone, locally known as the Cluj Limestone. The main quarry was in Baciu, near Cluj. The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church were characterized by means of: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDS The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church went through a series of tests: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDX, and cross-section. The optical microscope analysis of the thin sections revealed that the black crust layer is approximately 0.01mm, and in the sample there are perfectly shaped ooides, which is characteristic to this type of limestone. The SEM analysis shows a resedimentation layer on the surface of the black crust, which occurred probably due to the effect of acid rain. Further information regarding the results of the test will be presented on the poster.
Wishik, S M
Incentives, i.e., either monetary or other benefits, can be used to reward couples for limiting their fertility; disincentives, or penalties, can be imposed for excessive fertility. Examples of the use of incentives or disincentives by the governments of India, Singapore, and Hawaii are cited. Direct cash payments or tax exemptions (timed variously) are the most common incentive used. The effectiveness and the morality of incentive/disincentive programs are discussed. It is felt that incentives should only be used after a social consensus has been reached and after family planning services have been made available to all groups in the society.
Full Text Available This paper covers the question if and how incentive schemes work evaluated by their impact on company performance (market capitalization and profit before tax. Based on a unique data set for German executive directors of DAX companies it can be proved that neither short (STI nor long term incentives (LTI plans necessarily support the company success. It rather depends on the efficiency of each plan, i. e. on its design. Special attention has to be paid on target setting. Short term focused objectives often miss their targets, whereas long term oriented objectives significantly support the company success. To solve the prisoner’s dilemma between employers and employees by a quasi-endless game, additional measures may be helpful, such as share ownership guidelines.
... other incentives without also providing a cost incentive (or constraint). (b) Except for award-fee... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive...
Young K. Kwon
There are two sources of agency costs under moral hazard: (1) distortions in incentive contracts and (2) implementation of suboptimal decisions. In the accounting literature, the relation between conservative accounting and agency costs of type (1) has received considerable attention (cf. Watts 2002). However, little appears to be known about the effects of accounting conservatism on agency costs of type (2) or trade-offs between agency costs of types (1) and (2). The purpose of this study is...
Gall, Thomas; Legros, Patrick; Newman, Andrew
This paper studies the aggregate economic effects of diversity policies such as affirmative action in college admission. If agents are constrained in the side payments they can make, the free market allocation displays excessive segregation relative to the first-best. Affirmative action policies can restore diversity within colleges but also affect incentives to invest in pre-college scholastic achievement. Affirmative action policies that are achievement-based can increase aggregate investme...
The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...... to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium, the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming either Cournot or Bertrand competition....
Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup
Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks.
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was one of the most important men of science in nineteenth century Britain. His discoveries of electro-magnetic rotations (1821) and electro-magnetic induction (1831) laid the foundations of the modern electrical industry. His discovery of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism (1845) led him to formulate the field theory of electro-magnetism, which forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics.These and a whole host of other fundamental discoveries in physics and chemistry, together with his lecturing at the Royal Institution, his work for the state (includi
Full Text Available Asked to pick a single representative ‘German’ piece for a discourse on ‘Law and Literature’ one almost inevitably ends up with Kleist’s tale Michael Kohlhaas. It seems to be the literary incarnation of the German stance vis-à-vis the law. It is all about horses; it could just as well be about dogs. Kohlhaas fights a devastating battle, using legal means and outright violence, even warfare, for their recovery in good shape. Victorious eventually with his legal actions, he is happy to trade in his own life for this victory, thus giving an extreme example for the nice line between being in the right and pursuing this position with disproportionate rigour. Of course, the interpretations of Michael Kohlhaas (which, in its complete version, dates of 1810 have varied from epoch to epoch as well as from reader to reader. It is not possible to rehearse the bulk of ‘Kohlhaas literature’. In comparing legal cultures, it might be of interest to look into the question why such a somber story on the law forms part and will continue to form part of the German cultural heritage. Si se tiene que elegir un único representante “alemán” para una ponencia sobre “derecho y literatura”, es inevitable optar por la obra de Kleist, Michael Kohlhaas. Parece la encarnación literaria de la posición alemana hacia el derecho. El libro trata de caballos; también podría tratar sobre perros. Kohlhaas libra una batalla devastadora usando medios legales y la violencia pura y dura, incluso la guerra, para que se recuperen en buena forma. Finalmente resulta ganador mediante acciones legales, está contento de dedicar su propia vida para conseguir esta victoria, dando así un ejemplo extremo de la línea que existe entre tener la razón y seguir esta posición con un rigor desproporcionado. Por supuesto, las interpretaciones de Michael Kohlhaas (publicado en 1810 han variado de una época a otra, y de un lector a otro. No es posible revisar el grueso de
Vainshtein, A I
This book is dedicated to the memory of Michael Marinov, the theorist who, together with Felix Berezin, introduced the classical description of spin by anticommuting Grassmann variables. It contains original papers and reviews by physicists and mathematicians written specifically for the book. These articles reflect the current status and recent developments in the areas of Marinov's research: quantum tunneling, quantization of constrained systems, supersymmetry, and others. The personal recollections included portray the human face of M Marinov, a person of great knowledge and integrity.
Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html
Hart, R.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Finlay, R.B.
CANDU is a relatively young technology which has demonstrated many achievements as an electrical power generation system. These achievements include an unsurpassed safety record, high annual and lifetime capacity factors, low electricity cost and a broad range of other performance strengths which together indicate that the CANDU technology is fundamentally sound. Known capabilities not yet fully exploited, such as advanced fuel cycle options, indicate that CANDU technology will continue to pay strong dividends on research, development and design investment. This provides a strong incentive for the improvement of CANDU on a continuing basis
It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied b...... thisframework it is shown that delegation and incentives are not necessarilycomplementary instruments; some decisions should be centralized whenincentives are introduced....
Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.
This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options
Osmundsen, Petter; Aven, Terje; Tomasgard, Asgeir
Assurance of supply is a crucial objective for producers and consumers of oil and gas. A basic requirement to meet this objective is that producers and transmitters have sufficient economic incentives and capabilities to assure a desired degree of supply. The topic of this paper is to evaluate these incentives from a broad perspective. We examine economic trade-offs inherent in a delay of production, including reputational issues, as well as contract incentives for gas sellers, drilling companies, and oil service companies.
Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.
ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit incent...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...
Peset, José Luis
Full Text Available In homage to Professor Michael Heyd, in this paper are presented some of the main influences of his book “Be sober and reasonable” (1995 on several studies about Robert Burton and his classical book The Anatomy of Melancholy. Mainly, the relations between medicine and religious thought are briefly followed, looking for confluences between North and South Europe. The influence of “enthusiasm” and “melancholy” in the history of European thought was always an important interest in the life and teaching of this very intelligent researcher of cultural history.En homenaje al Profesor Michael Heyd, se muestran en este artículo algunas de las influencias principales de su libro “Be sober and reasonable” (1995 en algunos estudios sobre el clásico libro de Robert Burton The Anatomy of Melancholy. En especial, se siguen brevemente las relaciones entre la medicina y el pensamiento religioso, buscando confluencias entre el norte y el sur de Europa. La influencia de “entusiasmo” y “melancolía” en la historia del pensamiento europeo fue siempre un importante interés en la vida y la enseñanza de este muy inteligente investigador en historia cultural.
When young and small organisations grow into medium-sized organisations they often implement monetary incentive systems with unclear consequences. Whilst implemented to increase employee (innovative) output and value creation, they have ambiguous effects and may even reduce value creation. Due to the different effects of monetary incentives, this paper distinguishes reciprocal and opportunistic employees’ different reactions to incentives. It analyses the effects of decentralised incentive sy...
Frayne, Stephen H; Murthy, Raghavendra R; Northrop, Brian H
Thiol-Michael "click" reactions are essential synthetic tools in the preparation of various materials including polymers, dendrimers, and other macromolecules. Despite increasing efforts to apply thiol-Michael chemistry in a controlled fashion, the selectivity of base- or nucleophile-promoted thiol-Michael reactions in complex mixtures of multiple thiols and/or acceptors remains largely unknown. Herein, we report a thorough fundamental study of the selectivity of thiol-Michael reactions through a series of 270 ternary reactions using 1 H NMR spectroscopy to quantify product selectivity. The varying influences of different catalysts/initiators are explored using ternary reactions between two Michael acceptors and a single thiol or between a single Michael acceptor and two thiols using three different catalysts/initiators (triethylamine, DBU, and dimethylphenylphosphine) in chloroform. The results from the ternary reactions provide a platform from which sequential quaternary, one-pot quaternary, and sequential senary thiol-Michael reactions were designed and their selectivities quantified. These results provide insights into the design of selective thiol-Michael reactions that can be used for the synthesis and functionalization of multicomponent polymers and further informs how catalyst/initiator choice influences the reactivity between a given thiol and Michael acceptor.
States that reading incentives have not been critically examined as to their effectiveness in promoting positive attitudes toward reading, more frequent reading, or increased proficiency. Examines available evidence on the effect of reading incentives in school and library programs for students. Concludes there is no clear causal relationship…
Cárdenas, Juan Camilo
There is tension in developing countries between financial incentives to clear forests and climate regulation benefits of preserving trees. Now research shows that paying private forest owners in Uganda reduced deforestation, adding to the debate on the use of monetary incentives in forest conservation.
Johnson, Susan Moore
Discusses the concept of motivation and two central, theoretical disputes: how intrinsic and extrinsic rewards function and whether incentives must be focused to be effective. Reviews studies on merit pay and career ladder plans and considers the potential role of group-based collegial incentives in teacher motivation. Appended are 123 footnotes.…
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a) The Agency will offer a borrower, who submits a prepayment request meeting the conditions of § 3560...
... information technology. We will summarize the comments that we receive and include them in the OTS request for... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by providing a common prudential foundation for incentive compensation arrangements across banking...
... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to authorize the Department to select more than sixteen high-need schools per local educational agency (LEA...
Adaptive, responsive and innovative management will be required for utilities to navigate successfully the challenges and uncertainties facing the electric industry in the 1990s. Regulatory schemes riddled with inconsistent and contradictory signals will impede the best-intentioned efforts of utility managers to develop and implement integrated resource plans. Effective reform in this area requires regulators to undertake a thorough review of incentives provided by the rate-setting process, an willingness to entertain alternative approaches and risks, and shifting the rewards of ratemaking to better utility earnings with management's performance and ratepayer interests. This article highlights a number of alternative rate-setting approaches that the New York Public Service Commission has adopted or considered in recent years. 16 refs.
Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.
Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.
Naesje, Paal C.; Andersen, Thale K.; Saele, Hanne
This paper analyses the relation between end-users energy attitudes and their corresponding energy behaviour. It presents empirical findings from analyses of the effects of two-way communication between consumers and power companies. Two-way communication has made available high quality data on energy consumption. In the build-up to the analysis in this paper the a number of aspects thought to influence energy consumption has been looked at; including standard of housing, number and age of residents, as well as socio-economic factors, behaviour and preferences. Here we choose to focus specifically on attitudes and behaviour. These aspects are controlled for price incentives. The combination of very tight peak power balance in the Nordic power system and few investments in extension of power networks has turned the focus towards manual or automatic demand-response which requires hourly metering for documentation. The data are two-fold: Hourly recordings of meter-data of electric consumption of 10,894 customers (nearly half of these had installed technology for remote load control) in two different network areas and survey-data from a questionnaire distributed to consumers that resulted in nearly 550 answers. During the winter 2003/2004 these customers were offered different price incentives. The analyses showed a net reduction in electricity consumption of 1,0 kWh/h at the most in peak load hours. The paper is based on two connected studies, 'End-user flexibility by efficient use of ICT' and 'Improving end-user knowledge for managing energy loads end consumption' conducted in Norway by the SINTEF group
Full Text Available Michael Longley’s father has been a recurring presence in the poet’s work from his earliest to his most recent collection. This paper examines the exceptional strength of that bond reflected in the varied and changing ways in which the poet has responded to it – memorizing and mourning his loss; discovering through his father’s First World War stories a means of memorialising loss of life in contemporary conflicts and a way of facing the history of the twentieth century; confronting his own ageing and sense of mortality; and marking the specific, but also representative, generational history of his family. Close readings of key poems are offered to highlight Longley’s skills in meeting his own exacting standards of aesthetic propriety and moral and social responsibility for writers of elegy in order to avoid either exploitation of tragedy and loss, or facile gestures of consolation.
Hajar Abbasi Narinabad
Full Text Available This project aims at providing a detailed analysis of the major features of the theory of postmodern narrative and at going through the novel The Hours by the American writer Michael Cunningham concentrating on some postmodern narrative techniques. To do so, the researcher goes through the theories set forth by some postmodern theoreticians like Roland Barthes, Jacque Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard and Julia Kristeva to investigate the postmodern narrative techniques and elements used in the novel. The researcher first examines the theories and then critically applies them on the novel. The article goes through the most eminent elements of postmodern narrative including intertextuality, stream of consciousness style, fragmentation and representation respectively which are delicately utilized in The Hours. The article concludes by recommending a few directions for the further research.
Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Borini Etichetti, Carla M; Di Benedetto, Carolina; Girardini, Javier E; Martins, Felipe Terra; Spanevello, Rolando A; Suárez, Alejandra G; Sarotti, Ariel M
The design and synthesis of biomass-derived triazoles and the in vitro evaluation as potential anticancer agents are described. The discovery of base-catalyzed retro-aza-Michael//aza-Michael isomerizations allowed the exploration of the chemical space by affording novel types of triazoles, difficult to obtain otherwise. Following this strategy, 2,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles could be efficiently obtained from the corresponding 1,4-disubstituted analogues.
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35365] Michael Williams-Control Exemption-St. Maries River Railroad, Inc. Michael Williams (applicant),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed..., LLC, by Williams Group, Inc. (WG).\\2\\ Applicant currently controls two Class III railroads through...
Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate catalysed addition of indoles to electron deficient olefins in water generated the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yield. The Michael addition of indole occurred regioselectively at position 3 and the -alkylated products have not been observed. The synthesized ...
Naganaboina, Ram Tilak; Nayak, Amrita; Peddinti, Rama Krishna
A simple and efficient methodology has been developed for the synthesis of pyrrolobenzoxazine and 3-arylamino coumarin derivatives promoted by trifluoroacetic acid. The initial step in the current protocol involves a Michael addition of the 1,4-benzoxazinone derivatives, a novel class of vinylogous carbamates to the Michael acceptors and subsequent cyclization.
Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of
Pellegrini, Santiago; López Seal, María Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R
Previous research suggests that pigeons and rats show differences in their behavioral adjustments in spaced-trial, incentive-downshift situations. Also, Papini and Pellegrini [Papini, M.R., Pellegrini, S., 2006. Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior. Learn. Motiv. 37, 357-378] and Pellegrini and Papini [Pellegrini, S., Papini, M.R., 2007. Scaling relative incentive value in anticipatory behavior. Learn. Motiv. 38, 128-154] showed that changes in the rat's lever-pressing performance, runway running, and consumption of sucrose solutions after downshifts in incentive magnitude were a function of the ratio of postshift/preshift incentive magnitudes. Here, two experiments using a Pavlovian autoshaping procedure studied the adjustment of pigeons and rats to changes in incentive magnitude. In Experiment 1, pigeons received light-food pairings, whereas in Experiment 2, rats received lever-sucrose pairings. As a result, key-pecking and lever-pressing developed in each experiment, respectively. Preshift incentive magnitudes were downshifted so as to obtain postshift/preshift ratios of 0.125 and 0.25. Pigeons responded during the postshift phase according to the preshift incentive value and independently of the ratio value. However, rats showed ratio constancy, responding during the postshift in accordance with the postshift/preshift ratio, rather than with the absolute magnitudes of either the preshift or postshift incentives. These results support the comparative hypothesis that the mechanisms underlying ratio constancy during incentive downshifts are unique to mammals.
The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the expe...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of March 2013, more than 259,000 health care providers received payment for participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive...
... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral therapy. "Marijuana remains one of the most widely used ...
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function economic development. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc.
Patricia Crifo; Hind Sami
This paper proposes a model to analyze the dynamic relations between incentive contracts and analysts' effort in providing accurate research when both ethical and reputational concerns matter. First, we show that reputation picks up ability and thus serves as a sorting device: when analysts have a relatively low reputation for providing research quality (below a threshold level) banks find it more profitable to offer a mix of monetary and non monetary (ethic based) incentives and rely on the ...
Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David
Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between ?nudging,? which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The lit...
This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.
Full Text Available El antropólogo Michael Taussig ha producido una gran cantidad de trabajo etnográfico sobre América Latina en el que toma por objeto la universalidad de la cultura burguesa y en el que, al reorientar la mirada del etnógrafo hacia los elementos embriagantes y orgiásticos de la vida, atenúa las líneas que dividen ciencia y arte. En este ensayo tengo la intención de mostrar lo siguiente: 1 que sus etnografías sobre magia, violencia y el Es-tado, están enraizadas en su priorización del mundo fenomenológico y en una concepción materialista en deuda con la teoría estética alemana del si-glo XIX y con la antropología especulativa de Karl Marx y Walter Benjamin; 2 que su proyecto etnográfico no consiste en la eliminación de la ciencia del ámbito de la etnografía, sino en disminuir el papel de la explicación en favor de una forma de escritura que, como el arte, trabaja para refundar las imágenes del mundo.
Full Text Available The Dublin-born musician, Michael W. Balfe, was a singer, composerand conductor whose brilliant musical career was heavily influenced byformative experiences in Italy. In 1825, Balfe, interested in broadeninghis musical studies first went to Paris where he was introduced to thegreat composers, Luigi Cherubini and Gioachino Rossini, who took apersonal interest in him and his musical talents. On the advice of Rossinihe spent the next few years in Italy studying singing with the famousRossini singer, Filippo Galli, and taking music composition lessonsfrom Ferdinando Paer, in Rome. Later in Milan he studied harmonyand counterpoint with Vincenzo Federici. By 1831, when he was only23 years old, his first three operas had been produced in Palermo, Pavia,and Milan. He returned to London in August 1835, participatingwith the great Lablache, Tamburini, Rubini and Grisi in a concert inVauxhall Gardens. In 1834 he made his debut at La Scala, Milan, singingopposite the renowned mezzo-soprano, Maria Malibran in Rossini’sOtello. He appeared again with Malibran in Venice early in 1835,singing once more in Rossini and Bellini operas. Balfe worked as a singerand composer throughout the Italian peninsula/states during the years,1825-1835 and this article will chart these experiences and demonstratehow the time he spent in Italy and the people he met, influenced hislife and later career as an important and popular European composer.
Full Text Available The 1912 poem "A Dance of Death" by Michael Field (pen name of Katherine Bradley and her niece Edith Cooper depicts Salome in an alternate version of the biblical story: this Salome dances on a frozen river, falls through the ice, and is decapitated on a jagged edge. Nonetheless, her beautiful head continues dancing over the frozen river. This poem is highly unusual, especially in the context of the other poems in the postconversion volume Poems of Adoration, because it questions, rather than submits to, authority. In re-writing a familiar Christian tale, as well as a familiar decadent theme, Field uses the poem to assert the supremacy of their artistic vision, which (despite their ardent Catholicism cannot be subject to any law outside themselves. Like the continually dancing head of Salome, which continues to create beauty even after nature (and perhaps God has struck it down, the poet is subjugate only to her own law and creates without boundaries or restrictions on her art. Bradley and Cooper were acutely aware of their authorial persona (actively taking not only a masculine but also a singular poetic identity, and their mode of reconciling the apparent contradictions of this identity are mirrored in their presentation of Salome in a "Dance of Death."
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...
Felderer, Barbara; Müller, Gerrit; Kreuter, Frauke; Winter, Joachim
Respondent incentives are widely used to increase response rates, but their effect on nonresponse bias has not been researched as much. To contribute to the research, we analyze an incentive experiment embedded within the third wave of the German household panel survey "Panel Labor Market and Social Security" conducted by the German…
Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results
Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge
It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Fabio Py Murta de Almeida
Full Text Available ResenhaLÖWY, Michael. Romantismo e messianismo: ensaios sobre Lukács e Walter Benjamin. Trad. Myriam Vera Baptista e Magdalena Pizante Baptista, 2. ed. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 2012. 213p.
Koten, G. van; Klaveren, M. van; Lambert, F.; Eijkelkamp, D.J.F.M.; Grove, D.M.
Arenethiolatocopper(I) complexes are shown to be efficient homogeneous catalysts in Michael addition reactions of several Grignard reagents to acyclic enones; the addition products are formed with excellent chemoselectivity (>99%) and good enantioselectivity (76% e.e.).
Töögruppide "EU enlargement and relevant institutional reforms" (juhatajad Eino Tamm, Michael Sahlin) ja "Maintaining of competitiveness of Estonia and other candidate countries" (juhatajad Valve Kirsipuu, Terry Calbom) tööst. Autor: Reformierakond
Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-
New Yorgi praegune linnapea Michael Bloomberg võib kolmanda kandidaadina sekkuda presidendikandidaatide valimiskampaaniasse, probleem on aga tema vähene tuntus. Lisa: Seni on riigipeakoha jaganud kaks suurparteid
Euroopa Disainiassotsiatsioonide Liidu presidendi ja Tallinnas toimunud festivali Disainiöö Eesti disainiauhinna Bruno žürii juhi Michael Thomsoni arvamus eesti disainist ning disainipoliitika vajalikkusest Eestis. Auhinnasaajate nimekiri
Dubrovniku vanalinnas asub Sõjafotokeskus. Intervjuu keskuse asutaja, kanadalasest fotograafi Wade Goddardi ja kahe seal augustis avatud näitusel osalenud fotograafi Heidi Levine'i ja Michael Robinson Chavez'iga. Sõjafotograafi tööst
Virginia Tech Theatre Arts Visiting Instructor Michael Anthony Williams is in the cast of Jodie Foster's new movie, The Brave One, being released to theatres around the nation on Friday, Sept. 14, by Warner Brothers Studios.
Damico, Jack S; Lynch, Karen E
This article reviews the scholarly contributions of Michael R. Perkins in the discipline of clinical linguistics and provides some indication of the reasons that he has been so successful. Three primary attributes were described through an analysis of his publications.
Roč. 20, č. 1 (2012), s. 117-126. ISBN 978-3-486-58949-8. ISSN 1865-5696 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Joseph Haydn * Michael Haydn * music archives Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage
Mc Carthy, David
Abstract Name: David Mc Carthy Submission Date: September 2015 Title: A Necessary Difficulty: The Poethics of Proximity in John Ashbery and Michael Palmer Both John Ashbery and Michael Palmer are noticeably absent from recent surveys of the ethical turn in innovative American poetry during the latter half of the twentieth century. By analysing the work produced during the first half of their careers as they write a poetic subject into existence, this thesis will demonstra...
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...
Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida
Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.
Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto
Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.
Even the most carefully designed and operated low-level radioactive waste management facility will present potential risks and costs to nearby residents. Individuals who live near these facilities may receive some benefits, but they also bear the brunt of any adverse impacts. It is with this in mind that various siting techniques have been developed. Before any ''extra'' compensation or incentive can be discussed, however, it must first be clearly demonstrated that these facilities protect public health and the environment. This report addresses five distinct areas as follows: mitigation measure to prevent or reduce the impact of the facility; incentives and compensation techniques that might make a facility more acceptable; the use of agreement building in order to develop an arrangement between the host community and a facility proponent; the importance of economics resulting from a typical regional low-level radioactive waste facility; and the role of state government in promoting and legitimizing the use of incentives. 6 tabs
Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E
Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper deals with a specific iconographic type of Archangel Michael: he is shown bearing a soul in the form of a swaddled infant, while subduing an old man who is wearing only a loincloth. Who is Michael subduing? Three possible answers are considered: 1 the figure can be identified with Satan the fallen angel who, like Michael, has an immaterial nature and is commonly considered as his enemy par excellence; 2 he can also be an anonymous sinner, whose soul is depicted in Michael's hand; 3 finally, one could identify him with Hades, the god of the Underworld and personification of death, because he is depicted as an old man, semi-nude with a pronounced musculature, as well as because of the assimilation of Michael to God. Rather than making a single choice, the author proposes a combined interpretation of the image, which allows for the integration of all the aspects of Michael's cult (military, triumph over Satan, psychopomp, archangel of the Last Judgment and unifies the past (the fall of Satan, the present (death of a sinner and the future (Last Judgment.
Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit
This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.
The thesis contains three essays on incentives in regulation and innovation. The first essay analyzes a problem of optimal regulatory design. Key feature of the problem is that there exists asymmetric information between the regulator and the industry concerning the costs of producing complementary
Lee, Chul Ho
This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…
Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David
Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264
Andersen, Torben M.
the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...
Duffy, Marie T; Friesen, Mary Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Swengros, Diane; Shanks, Laura A; Waiter, Pamela A; Sheridan, Michael J
The objectives of this study were to explore RN perceptions regarding barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion and identify recommendations to increase RN BSN completion. The Institute of Medicine's 2011 The Future of Nursing report recommended the proportion of RNs with a BSN increase to 80% by 2020. This qualitative study included 41 RNs who participated in 1 of 6 focus groups based on their BSN completion status. Primary themes were sacrifices, barriers/challenges, incentives/supports, value, how to begin, and pressure. Primary BSN completion barriers/challenges were work-life balance and economic issues. Incentives/supports identified were financial compensation, assistance from employer and academic institution, and encouragement from family. Institutional strategies recommended for increasing BSN completion rates were improved access to education and financial support facilitated by collaboration between hospitals and academic institutions. Exploring RN barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion can lead to implementation of institutional strategies, such as tuition reimbursement and academic collaboration.
Analysis of bureaucratic structure and the incentive systems of the public schools reveals access points for enhancing the school's ability to adopt and implement innovative education. Research and development coordinated to those points can provide a greater diversity of educational possibilities, assuming such diversity to be a positive…
... outside of the PBCS (such as salaries of a school's master, mentor or lead teacher) could conceivably be... instead on a single salary schedule that pays all teachers and principals the same based on experience and... Teacher Incentive Fund Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of...
David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu
This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik
The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ...
Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.
In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…
Ortmann, Andreas; Hertwig, R.
-, č. 307 (2006), s. 1-17 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : experimental practices * monetary incentives * rhetorical tactics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp307.pdf
While economists believe that monetary incentives provide the most powerful motivation for individuals to undertake an activity, major schools in psychology and sociology emphasize the motives coming from within the individual and from the personal and cultural differences among individuals. This
Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies. market far less lucrative than for other diseases, which results in chronic underinvestment; reduced investment in TB drug R&D,. Pfizer withdrawal from TB R&D; AstraZeneca abandon TB R&D & close site; Novartis pull out; 4/22 Big Pharma producing antibacterials ...
Grid Computing BOINC Redesign Mindmap with incentive system (gamification) this is a PDF viewable of https://figshare.com/articles/Grid_Computing_BOINC_Redesign_Mindmap_with_incentive_system_gamification_/1265350
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive award terms and limitations. 452.6 Section 452.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION PRODUCTION INCENTIVES FOR CELLULOSIC BIOFUELS § 452.6... auctions if the incentives sought will assist the addition of plant production capacity for the eligible...
Rose, T.M.; Volker, L.
Formal incentives systems aim to encourage improved performance by offering a reward for the achievement of project-specific goals. Despite argued benefits of incentive systems on project delivery outcomes, there remains debate over how incentive systems can be designed to encourage the formation of
Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.
This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.
Full Text Available The use of a simple weak inorganic base such as potassium carbonate facilitated the formation of carbon-carbon bonds through both the Henry and the Michael reactions with nitrocompounds. The application of this catalyst under environmentally friendly solventless heterogeneous conditions gave satisfactory to good yields of β-nitroalcohols, involving aliphatic and aromatic starting materials, as well as high to excellent yields in the formation of Michael adducts using several different Michael acceptors and nitroalkanes.
Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation
Lantz, Bjoern [School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg University, Box 610, 40530 Gothenburg (Sweden)
This paper analyzes the incentive effects of a hybrid revenue cap on a regulated monopolistic firm using non-discriminatory two-part pricing. It is shown that the fixed and the variable part of the cap have different meanings in terms of regulation - the fixed part of a hybrid revenue cap should be used to control the profit level of the regulated firm while the variable part should be used to control the social efficiency level. Since detailed information about the firm's cost function is required to determine the revenue cap parameters, the overall conclusion is that revenue caps are a rather bad idea in the area of incentive regulation. (author)
Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne
The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....
Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Utility incentive programs remain one of the most significant means of deploying commercialized, but underutilized building technologies to scale. However, these programs have been largely limited to component-based products (e.g., lamps, RTUs). While some utilities do provide ‘custom’ incentive programs with whole building and system level technical assistance, these programs require deeper levels of analysis, resulting in higher program costs. This results in custom programs being restricted to utilities with greater resources, and are typically applied mainly to large or energy-intensive facilities, leaving much of the market without cost effective access and incentives for these solutions. In addition, with increasingly stringent energy codes, cost effective component-based solutions that achieve significant savings are dwindling. Building systems (e.g., integrated façade, HVAC and/or lighting solutions) can deliver higher savings that translate into large sector-wide savings if deployed at the scale of these programs. However, systems application poses a number of challenges – baseline energy use must be defined and measured; the metrics for energy and performance must be defined and tested against; in addition, system savings must be validated under well understood conditions. This paper presents a sample of findings of a project to develop validated utility incentive program packages for three specific integrated building systems, in collaboration with Xcel Energy (CO, MN), ComEd, and a consortium of California Public Owned Utilities (CA POUs) (Northern California Power Agency(NCPA) and the Southern California Public Power Authority(SCPPA)). Furthermore, these program packages consist of system specifications, system performance, M&V protocols, streamlined assessment methods, market assessment and implementation guidance.
Incentive Plans Cannot Work” in the Harvard Business Review ( 1993) presents several reasons on why no reward system can match intrinsic motivation as...argument is similar to Kohn’s in that intrinsic motivation with control over work, ability to master and develop one’s expertise, and having a higher...monotonous work efforts where intrinsic motivation is low. The counter to Kohn and Pink’s conclusions is presented by Gerald E. Ledford and Barry Gerhart
Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.
This paper considers the optimal level of firm-specific training by taking into account the positive effect of training on the expected duration of workersâ€™ current employment. In the framework of an efficiency wage model, a short expected job tenure represents a disamenity that reduces the penalty from shirking. As this disamenity increases, workers have an incentive to continue providing a positive level of effort only if they are compensated by a higher wage. We endogenize the employment...
Bakola H.; Zyga S.; Panoutsopoulos G.; Alikari V.
Introduction: In the health sector which is characterized much more as a "labor intensive" rather than as "capital intensive" human capital is the core for improving efficiency, enhancing productivity and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method: Literature review was carried out based on research and ...
Pedersen, Jens Christian
Professor Michael Goodsite er blevet udnævnt til "Visiting Professor of Global Processes and Senior Research Fellow in Climate Strategy" ved Thunderbird School of Global Management, som har verdens højst rangerede MBA uddannelse inden for international handel.......Professor Michael Goodsite er blevet udnævnt til "Visiting Professor of Global Processes and Senior Research Fellow in Climate Strategy" ved Thunderbird School of Global Management, som har verdens højst rangerede MBA uddannelse inden for international handel....
Hany J. Al-Najjar
Full Text Available An efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine derivatives 3a–t by reaction of barbituric acids 1a,b as Michael donor with nitroalkenes 2a–k as Michael acceptor using an aqueous medium and diethylamine is described. This 1,4-addition strategy offers several advantages, such as using an economic and environmentally benign reaction media, high yields, versatility, and shorter reaction times. The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CHN, IR, and MS. The structure of compound 3a was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination.
Full Text Available Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs.
Thibault E. Schmid
Full Text Available The copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition (ACA of nucleophiles onto polyenic Michael acceptors represents an attractive and powerful methodology for the synthesis of relevant chiral molecules, as it enables in a straightforward manner the sequential generation of two or more stereogenic centers. In the last decade, various chiral copper-based catalysts were evaluated in combination with different nucleophiles and Michael acceptors, and have unambiguously demonstrated their usefulness in the control of the regio- and enantioselectivity of the addition. The aim of this review is to report recent breakthroughs achieved in this challenging field.
Strang, S; Park, S Q; Strombach, T; Kenning, P
According to standard economic theory higher monetary incentives will lead to higher performance and higher effort independent of task, context, or individual. In many contexts this standard economic advice is implemented. Monetary incentives are, for example, used to enhance performance at workplace or to increase health-related behavior. However, the fundamental positive impact of monetary incentives has been questioned by psychologists as well as behavioral economists during the last decade, arguing that monetary incentives can sometimes even backfire. In this chapter, studies from proponents as well as opponents of monetary incentives will be presented. Specifically, the impact of monetary incentives on performance, prosocial, and health behavior will be discussed. Furthermore, variables determining whether incentives have a positive or negative impact will be identified. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rubén N Muzio
Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.
Douven, Rudy; McGuire, Thomas G; McWilliams, J Michael
One goal of the Medicare Shared Savings Program for accountable care organizations (ACOs) is to reduce Medicare spending for ACOs' patients relative to the organizations' spending history. However, we found that current rules for setting ACO spending targets (or benchmarks) diminish ACOs' incentives to generate savings and may even encourage higher instead of lower Medicare spending. Spending in the three years before ACOs enter or renew a contract is weighted unequally in the benchmark calculation, with a high weight of 0.6 given to the year just before a new contract starts. Thus, ACOs have incentives to increase spending in that year to inflate their benchmark for future years and thereby make it easier to obtain shared savings from Medicare in the new contract period. We suggest strategies to improve incentives for ACOs, including changes to the weights used to determine benchmarks and new payment models that base an ACO's spending target not only on its own past performance but also on the performance of other ACOs or Medicare providers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat
Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation
Comer, Debra R.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.
Describes how to use Michael Crichton's novel "Disclosure" and the film based on it for class discussions of such issues as what constitutes sexual harassment, harassment of men, relationship between sexual harassment and power, organizational responses to harassment, and gender differences in career advancement tactics. (SK)
In this article an attempt is made to examine the continuing implications of the operation and closure of London's Risinghill school, a co-educational comprehensive extant from 1960 to 1965. It is suggested that Risinghill's controversial headteacher, Michael Duane (1915-1997), was an educational celebrity and folk hero amongst teachers and in…
Six months after his controversial arrest for ‘lewd conduct’ at a men’s public restroom in Beverly Hills, British pop star George Michael released the song and music video ‘Outside’ which can be seen as an explicit commentary on the controversy. In this article, I read the music video in three ways:
"The National Science Foundation has named celebrated astrophysicist Michael S. Turner of the University of Chicago as Assistant Director for Mathematical and Physical Sciences. He will head a $1 billion directorate that supports research in mathematics, physics, chemistry, materials and astronomy, as well as multidisciplinary programs and education" (1/2 page).
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.
J. Michael Spector's academic preparation was in philosophy--epistemology and logic, primarily. His dissertation was on skepticism in modern philosophy, and that led him to a deep-seated appreciation for classical skepticism. The word "skeptic" is derived from the Greek word "skepsis," which means investigation. While the…
Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, I.; Klepetářová, Blanka; Jones, P. G.; Jahn, Ullrich
Roč. 21, č. 27 (2015), s. 9877-9888 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-40188S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclization * domino reactions * electron transfer * Michael addition * radical reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015
F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); A.A. van Prooijen
textabstractThis article extends the debate begun in the June 1992 issue of EMJ when the authors first criticized Michael Porter's explanatory framework in his Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990), over the role of national culture on the competitive advantage of nations. In this paper, Frans van
Despite his elusiveness on important issues, there is much in Michael Oakeshott's educational vision that Richard Peters quite rightly wishes to endorse. The main aim of this essay is, however, to consider Peters' justifiable critique of three features of Oakeshott's work. These are (1) the rigidity of his distinction between vocational and…
This article explores the views of children's poet Michael Rosen in relation to poetry in education. It is based on an interview in which Rosen not only discusses the significance of encouraging young people to engage with poetry at school but also analyzes a number of threats to poetry's place in the English curriculum. This article identifies…
Assessment of lipid profile of a group of undergraduates in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. ... Consumption of fast foods (48%) and alcoholic beverages (52%) up to thrice a week was high. High levels of TC (56%), increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (92%) and low ...
Holan, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Císarová, I.; Jahn, Ullrich
Roč. 106, - (2012), s1298-s1298 ISSN 0009-2770. [EuCheMS Chemistry Congress /4./. 26.08.2012-30.08.2012, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cyclization * diastereoselectivity * Michael addiction * radical reactions * domino reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Xiao Juan Yang
Full Text Available Cyanuric chloride is an inexpensive, efficient, and mild catalyst for the Michael addition of indoles to nitroolefins at 70°C under solvent-free conditions. The simple experimental procedure, solvent-free reaction conditions, utilization of an inexpensive and readily available catalyst, short period of conversion, and excellent yields are the advantages of the present method.
This article is a critical discussion of two recent papers by Michael Hand on moral education. The first is his "Towards a Theory of Moral Education", published in the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" in 2014 (Volume 48, Issue 4). The second is a chapter called "Beyond Moral Education?" in an edited book of new…
A dramatic enhancement of the diastereo- and enantioselectivity in the nitro-Michael addition reaction organocatalysed by a commercially available α,α-l-diaryl prolinol was disclosed when performing the reaction in unconventional hexafluorobenzene as a medium. DFT calculations were performed to clarify the origin of stereoselectivity and the role of C 6F 6. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.
Harney, John O.
The "New England Journal of Higher Education" ("NEJHE") Executive Editor John O. Harney had the chance to catch up with Lasell College President Michael Alexander about the small Newton, Massachusetts, college's plans to challenge the higher education business model. The interview is presented in this article.
Eestis Suurbritannia tööreformi tutvustava töö- ja sotsiaalnõuniku sõnul on Suurbritannias peaaegu kadunud pikaajaline töötus noorte hulgas, vanematest inimestest on vaid üksikud tööta kauem kui aasta. Vt. samas: Kes on Michael Richardson?
Since the early work of Bagnold in the 1940s, aeolian research has grown to become a major integral part of earth-system studies. Many individuals have contributed to this development, and Dr. Michael R. Raupach (MR2, 1950 – 2015) was one of the most outstanding. MR2 worked for about a decade (1985 ...
In this volume, Wolff-Michael Roth provides a critical but partial reading of Tony Brown's book "Mathematics Education and Subjectivity". The reading contrasts Brown's approach with Roth's own conception of subjectivity as derived from the work of Vygotsky, in which Roth aims to "reunite" psychology and sociology. Brown's book, however, focuses on…
person; Subjective well-being in the interpersonal domain; Making people happier; and Conclusions and future directions. In addition, there is an introductory article by. Randy J. Larsen and Michael Eid on the contributions of Ed Diener to the science of subjective well-being, which forms the foundation on which all other ...
Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Jansa, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Špaček, Petr; Janeba, Zlatko
Roč. 2, č. 4 (2012), s. 1282-1284 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : oxa-Michael addition * secondary alcohols * diethyl vinylphosphonate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2012
Wolff-Michael Roth deconstructs the preeminent role conceded to constructivism in Science Education and demonstrates how we learn and know through pain, suffering, love or passion. This review explores his book "Passibility: At the Limits of the Constructivist Metaphor" through the eyes of an outsider to the world of science education.
Mr. Michael Shaffer, Retired Pyraloidea Curator, at the Natural History Museum, London, England, passed away on March 23, 2009. He was an acknowledged world expert on Pyraloidea, a group of agriculturally important moths. He was curator of the largest Pyraloidea type collection in the world, and a...
Kunstlikust viljastamisest pole üksi abi - vaid siis, kui noored mehed ja naised pööravad selja tarbimiskultusele ja individualismile, hakkab sündimus tõusma taastootmisest kõrgemale, kirjutab BioEdge toimetaja Michael Cook
Peters, Michael A.
In the World Library of Educationalists series, international experts themselves compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces--extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and/practical contributions--so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. Michael A. Peters has…
Kalbfleisch, M. Layne
This article presents an interview with Michael W. O'Boyle, a neuroscientific investigator of high mathematical ability. O'Boyle is a professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Texas Tech University, and Adjunct Professor of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.…
In order to extend the scope of this methodology, various 1,2-disubstituted vinyl ketones (chalcones) were used as Michael acceptor and the results are tabulated (table 1). In this case, however, reaction proceeds to completion at slightly elevated tempe- ature (70°C). Chalcones having electron donating groups in the styryl ...
Full Text Available Abstract Here, a review of "The Molecular Biology of Cancer" (Stella Pelengaris and Michael Khan [Editors] is given. The detailed description of the book is provided here: Pelengaris S, Khan M (Eds: The Molecular Biology of Cancer; Blackwell Publishing, Oxford (U.K.; 2006. 531 pages, 214 illustrations, ISBN 9-78140-511-814-9, £31.99.
Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric
The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…
VANDERWERF, A; KELLOGG, RM
Addition of the Schiff bases derived from reaction of glycine alkyl esters with benzophenoneimine to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, followed by hydrogenation of the addition products, leads to 5- or 3,5-substituted prolines. Hydrolysis of the Michael adducts rather than hydrogenation allows
Michael Dell started his computer company in 1984 with a simple business insight. He could bypass the dealer channel through which personal computers were then being sold and sell directly to customers, building products to order. Dell's direct model eliminated the dealer's markup and the risks associated with carrying large inventories of finished goods. In this interview, Michael Dell provides a detailed description of how his company is pushing that business model one step further, toward what he calls virtual integration. Dell is using technology and information to blur the traditional boundaries in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The individual pieces of Dell's strategy--customer focus, supplier partnerships, mass customization, just-in-time manufacturing--may be all be familiar. But Michael Dell's business insight into how to combine them is highly innovative. Direct relationships with customers create valuable information, which in turn allows the company to coordinate its entire value chain back through manufacturing to product design. Dell describes how his company has come to achieve this tight coordination without the "drag effect" of ownership. Dell reaps the advantages of being vertically integrated without incurring the costs, all the while achieving the focus, agility, and speed of a virtual organization. As envisioned by Michael Dell, virtual integration may well become a new organizational model for the information age.
Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 1. Studies on ... retro-Michael addition; microwave-mediated organic reactions; retro reactions. Abstract. Studies on the reaction of some 1,5-ketodiesters/1,5-diketones with NaX (X = Cl/Br/I)/DMSO have shown that under microwave/thermal conditions, facile ...
Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. The need to recycle and productively reuse the abundant scrap metals in the country led to this paper. The task therein focused on a design aimed at the modification and re-fabrication of an existing cupola furnace in-situ at the Engineering Workshop of Michael Okpara University of. Agriculture ...
Field and laboratory data are presented for 159 water samples from the St. Michael Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Sundberg, Mark L.
Jack Michael offered a course on verbal behavior almost every year throughout his teaching career. Jack was also interested in the application of Skinner's work and in 1976 began to offer a graduate course at Western Michigan University titled Verbal Behavior Applications. Jack and his students pursued the application of Skinner's work on verbal…
For many decades, American schools have been mired in jargon and confused values. A few exceptional books have shown the way through the thicket of educational ideas, policies, and practices. The work of Michael John Demiashkevich belongs to this set and offers a special philosophical perspective. In "An Introduction to the Philosophy of…
Since 2003, nonprofit organization Common Sense Media has studied the ways in which kids are growing up in the digital age. In this interview, research director Michael Robb shares recent findings about the media habits of young children, tweens, and teens. While the news coverage of these issues tends to be hyperbolic and alarming, Robb explains,…
Willemsen, Jorgen S.; Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard; van Hest, Jan C. M.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.
A laccase/(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) mediated oxidation was combined with an aqueous, enantioselective copper-catalyzed Michael addition reaction of water in one pot. The copper catalyst was also immobilized onto DNA to induce enantioselectivity in the reaction. Low conversions
Lantz, E.; Doris, E.
As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.
During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.
... Energy Regulatory Commission Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. California Public Utilities Commission, California Department of Water Resources, Pacific Gas and... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RP13-436-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company... Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, and Robert...
Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.
This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing
In order to reduce the state deficit the French government plans to reduce the financial incentives in all sectors and particularly in the sector of renewable energies. The photovoltaic sector is the most hit with a tax credit rate dropping from 50% (in 2009) to 22.5% (in 2011). For the other renewable energy sectors the tax credit rate will be reduced by 10% in 2011. The French government wants the cost of the tax credit on the renewable energies to drop from 2.8*10 9 euros in 2009 to 2.0*10 9 euros in 2011. (A.C.)
Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses the choice of managerial compensation contracts in Chinese family firms. Relation or guanxi in Chinese language is an important factor that should be considered because it can bring the shirking cost to the relation-based manager and the caring cost to the owner under Chinese-style differential mode of association (“chaxu geju”. Our theoretical analysis shows that under some conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the efficiency wage contract, and that under other conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the share-based incentive contract.
The federal government offers a number of tax incentives to developers of biomass projects. This paper describes each tax benefit, explains what conditions must be met before the benefit is available, and offers practical insights gained from working for over 10 years in the field. Understanding what tax benefits are available is important because the more tax benefits a developer can qualify for in connection with his project, the less expensive the project will be to build and operate and the easier it will be to arrange financing because there will be higher returns in the project for potential investors
Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen
This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain
Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C
The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Excess entry theorem, which shows that the free market can generate too many firms, is a theoretic base for entry regulation. When the current market is a monopoly, entry is considered as excessive if the social welfare under the post-entry Cournot-Nash equilibrium, net of entry coast, is lower than that under monopoly. However, this paper argues that, even if this is true, limiting entry is not an optimal choice of the benevolent government. The entrant has an incentive to produce more than ...
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård
• Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...
Carsten Helm; Dominique Demougin
Several European countries have reformed their labor market institutions. Incentive effects of unemployment benefits have been an important aspect of these reforms. We analyse this issue in a principal-agent model, higher level of unemployment benefits improves the workers' position in wage bargaining, leading to stronger effort incentives and higher output. However, it also reduces incentives for labor market participation. Accordingly, there is a trade-off. We analyze how changes in the eco...
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Gender differences in preferences regarding social relationships and competitive environments are well documented in psychology and economics. Research also shows that social relationships and competition among co-workers are affected by the incentive schemes workers are exposed to. We combine these two stylized facts and hypothesize that men and women differ in how they rate their co-worker relationships when they work under individual incentives, group incentive...
Daniel Ladley; Ian Wilkinson; Louise Young
Cooperative relations, within and between firms, play important roles in business. How to produce such relations, however, is less well understood. Building on work in evolutionary biology we examine the conditions under which group based incentives result in better performance than individual based incentives. We find that when individual and group interests are not aligned, group incentive systems lead to both higher group and individual performance. Hybrid reward systems, with both group a...
David F. Bradford
This paper examines the characteristics of and interactions among measures to effect saving and investment incentives ("S-I incentives")in the context of an income tax system that is inadequately indexed for inflation. Examples are proposals for more rapid depreciation of buildings and equipment and proposals to exempt larger amounts of interest income. SI incentives are classified into "consumption tax" and "direct grant" types, and it is shown that these differ in their influence on portfol...
This article tries to explain national incentives for protecting environmental goods either autonomously or collectively; it explores how globalisation has affected those incentives; and it suggests how national environmental policy might respond so as to ensure its effectiveness. The central argument is that national incentives for environmental protection may to a considerable extent be explained by a combination of the type of environmental good to be protected (in terms of public goods th...
Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.
This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility's open-quotes hidden costs,close quotes which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate)
Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.
The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.
Yavner, S B
The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.
Strohacker, Kelley; Galárraga, Omar; Emerson, Jessica; Fricchione, Samuel R; Lohse, Mariah; Williams, David M
Research has demonstrated that health outcomes are significantly improved with the application of financial incentives. However, relatively larger incentives are not typically sustainable and removal of incentives tends to result in attrition of behavior. The feasibility of using relatively smaller incentives to improve physical activity is unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether small financial incentives (maximum $5.00 per week) can improve exercise-related energy expenditure of inactive individuals. Twenty-two university students (20 ±1.6 years old) were randomized into incentive or non-incentive conditions. Exercise-related caloric expenditure was tracked over 10 weeks. The sample size yielded 62% power. The repeated measures ANCOVA, controlling for body mass index, indicated a main effect of condition (F = 5.50, p =.03) with no significant interaction (F = 2.25, p = .06). This pilot study demonstrates initial feasibility in implementing small financial incentives to promote exercise behavior in previously inactive young adults. Due to the small sample size, results should be interpreted with caution and further research is warranted to improve and maintain exercise behavior in response to relatively smaller incentives.
Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.
The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process
Jing, Yaxuan; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin
A new approach for the production of low-freezing-point, high-quality fuels from lignocellulose-derived molecules was developed with Michael addition as the key step. Among the investigated catalysts, CoCl 2 ⋅6 H 2 O was found most active for the Michael addition of 2,4-pentanedione with FA (single aldol adduct of furfural and acetone, 4-(2-furanyl)-3-butene-2-one). Over CoCl 2 ⋅6 H 2 O, a high carbon yield of C 13 oxygenates (about 75 %) can be achieved under mild conditions (353 K, 20 h). After hydrodeoxygenation, low-freezing-point (freezing-point (freezing point from renewable biomass. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Presents Michael K. Scullin as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. "For an outstanding research paper that examines the relationship between prospective memory in executing a goal and various lapses of time from 20 minutes up to a 12- hour wake delay and a 12-hour sleep delay. The results suggest that consolidation processes active during sleep increase the probability of goal execution. The paper, titled 'Remembering to Execute a Goal: Sleep On It!' was published in Psychological Science in 2010 and was the basis for Michael K. Scullin's selection as the recipient of the 2011 Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award. Mark A. McDaniel, PhD, served as faculty research advisor." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available Michael Ondaatje's 2011 novel The Cat's Table follows a young boy's voyage from Colombo, Sri Lanka to London, England. Through this character and the unique environment of the ship, which forms a compelling sense of transitory place, Ondaatje explores liminality and its relationship with limitations or barriers. The young protagonist, Michael, and his companions enjoy an unusual level of freedom aboard the contained and hierarchically segmented ship. Polarization and transition between Eastern and Western culture is present but pales in importance compared to the validation of the self that is located within and defined by the sense of the in-between, an essential rite of passage undertaken before re-joining society.
Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.
Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area
Stephanie S. Godfrey; Michael G. Gardner
Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species...
This paper analyses Anthony Minghella's film adaptation of Michael Ondaatje’s The English Patient. It aims at establishing patterns of transformation and strategies of adaptation. Not only the nostalgie romanticisation, but also the de-politicisation of the novel is critically scrutinized. As dropping all reference to the atomic bomb from the film is the most blatant example of deviation from the novel, critical and political background is provided which may explain this act of self-censorshi...
Rockoff, Hugh; White, Eugene N.
Michael D. Bordo has helped to define the modern field of monetary history, drawing from it important policy lessons for current practitioners. For his seventieth year, we survey his contributions to our understanding of the Great Depression, money and the economy in historical perspective, exchange rate regimes including the gold standard, Bretton Woods, and the European Monetary Union, globalization, financial crises, the Canadian monetary experience, and historical guidance for monetary p...
This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Michael E. Capuano Early Childhood Center. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.
For more than 30 years, Michael Dean, Ph.D., has been an integral part of the NCI at Frederick community. In addition to studying several different aspects of genomics and cancer research, he has worked with the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program and also volunteered his time with Mission of Mercy, a community-based organization providing free healthcare and free prescription medications to the uninsured and under-insured.
Keller, E; Veldman, N; Spek, AL; Feringa, BL
Enantioselective Michael additions of alpha-nitroesters 2a-d with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones were carried out in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral Al-Li-(R,R')-2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl ('AlLiBINOL') complex prepared in situ from LiAlH4 and 2.45 equiv. of (R,R')-BINOL. The
Keller, Erik; Veldman, Nora; Spek, Anthony L.; Feringa, Bernard
Enantioselective Michael additions of α-nitroesters 2a-d with α,β-unsaturated ketones were carried out in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral Al-Li-(R,R')-2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl (‘AlLiBINOL’) complex prepared in situ from LiAlH4 and 2.45 equiv. of (R,R')-BINOL. The
FATIHA ZAOUI; DIDIER VILLEMIN; NATHALIE BAR; MOHAMED A. DIDI
After the synthesis of polyethylenimine supported on silica, it has been used as a new and efficient catalyst in Knoevenagel and Michael condensations. The presence of the polyethylenimine in the catalytic system together with silica displays an acido-basic character allows a better catalytic activity in the condensations. Carried out under microwave irradiation, without organic solvent and during short time, the syntheses are respectful towards green chemistry. The solid catalyst can be easi...
Yee, Daryl W; Schulz, Michael D; Grubbs, Robert H; Greer, Julia R
Fabrication of functionalized 3D architected materials is achieved by a facile method using functionalized acrylates synthesized via thiol-Michael addition, which are then polymerized using two-photon lithography. A wide variety of functional groups can be attached, from Boc-protected amines to fluoroalkanes. Modification of surface wetting properties and conjugation with fluorescent tags are demonstrated to highlight the potential applications of this technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
In this podcast, author Michael Pollan discusses his March 2009 visit to CDC and offers his thoughts on the intersection between the government, the food systems, and public health. Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability. Date Released: 4/15/2010.
Full Text Available When Neil Jordan’s film Michael Collins was released in 1996, it was seen by some as a Hollywood epic, by others as a great national film. I would argue that Michael Collins combines these two traditions and occupies a space between Irish national cinema and Hollywood. The subject matter, the creative talent and the locations were Irish and the film was produced by using the Irish filmmaking infrastructure and the Irish government’s support mechanisms, but it was largely financed and distributed by a Hollywood studio. Also, to make it more appealing especially globally, but probably also locally (since Hollywood is now the international standard, it makes use of Hollywood conventions, making it accessible to international audiences as well. Despite the Hollywood mode, the fact remains that Michael Collins is a national film text, and Jordan does not make too many concessions to the non-Irish audiences.
Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich
Full Text Available The present article is concerned with the question of conceptualization of love in works of Fr. George Florovsky and Fr. Michael Pomazansky, Russian religious thinkers and theologists. We are studying the meaning and appropriacy of two words, ‘love’ (English and ‘любовь’ (Russian, that are the best to represent the agapelogical positive evaluation in Russian religious thought. Data for study was taken from ten different articles and extracts from books written by Fr. George Florovsky and Fr. Michael Pomazansky. On the basis of this analysis we develop semantic explications of words ‘love’ and ‘любовь’ as Christian spiritual concepts within the framework of theoretical approach of Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM. In summary we state that this article discusses, describes and determines some similarities and differences in understanding of concept ‘love’ in the affore-referenced works by Fr. George Florovsky and Fr. Michael Pomazansky.
Mauricio Archila Neira
Full Text Available El 1 de septiembre de 2001 murió el historiador Michael Jiménez. Su apellido provenía de España de donde emigró su abuelo en busca de mejor suerte al otro lado del Atlántico. Nacido en el pequeño pueblo de Merced, California (Estados Unidos en agosto de 1948 en el seno de una familia obrera, Michael vivió su infancia en Colombia. A fines de ese año, su padre se desplazó a estas tierras para ser funcionario de la Texas, una multinacional petrolera que tenía sus reales en Puerto Boyacá. Michael estudió en el colegio Nueva Granada -becado por la Texas- hasta los catorce años. En dicho colegio fue compañero de pupitre de Herbert Braun, descendiente a su vez de una familia de emigrantes a Colombia, y con quien la vida lo juntaría de nuevo en las tierras del norte y en oficios similares.
Dari Mattiacci, G.
The law shapes peoples behaviour by creating incentives. For example, tort law induces motorists to drive carefully by making them pay compensation for the accidents they may cause. This study analyses the way the law can create incentives in those cases in which the courts or the administrative
Managers, politicians and scientists frequently use the term ‘incentive’ in their explanations of human action. At the same time, individuals in the public and private sectors are now governed with the help of incentives. In this thesis, I study the incentive from a theoretical and normative
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to other incentives. 48.105 Section 48.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives...
Mizala, Alejandra; Romaguera, Pilar
This paper discusses performance evaluation and the introduction of incentives into education in Latin America from an analytical and methodological perspective. The aim is to describe ongoing strategies and learn from practical experiences in this field. The cases analyzed reveal that school-level evaluations and collective incentives adapt…
Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, G.
In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in
An empirical study using a well structured questionnaire survey, the work assesses the relationship that exists between tax incentive and economic development in Nigeria. This study was undertaken primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of tax incentive in developing the Nigerian economy. One hundred and twenty ...
Dijkstra, B.R.; Haan, M.
Cason (1993)argued thattheauction theEPAused in order to start the market for sulfur allowances, is not efficient. The set-up of the auction gives both buyers and sellers an incentive to understate their valuation of an allowance. In this paper, we show that the sellers’ incentives are even more
Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd
Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used. In thi...
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives for new credit unions. 702.307 Section 702.307 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.307 Incentives...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.45 Forestry Incentives Program (FIP...
It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed
Defense AT&L: March-April 2016 16 Something for Nothing “Cash Flow” as a Contract Incentive John Pritchard n John Krieger Pritchard and...negligible resources are required to implement the incentive, this is the closest the government ever will come to getting something for nothing. The
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde
This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...
Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard
In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in
These incentives give the farmers job opportunity (32.79%), income (39.34%), and food (26.23%) among others. It is therefore recommended that incentives in the area of inputs should be used to support the establishment of Agroforestry system so as to boost food production and wood supply across the country. Key words: ...
Highton-Williamson, Elizabeth; Barnicot, Kirsten; Kareem, Tarrannum; Priebe, Stefan
Abstract Financial incentives for medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders are controversial. It is not yet known whether fears expressed by clinicians are borne out in reality. We aimed to explore community mental health clinicians’ experiences of the consequences of giving patients with psychotic disorders a financial incentive to take their depot medication. We implemented descriptive and thematic analyses of semistructured interviews with the clinicians of patients assigned to receive incentives within a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-nine clinicians were interviewed with regard to the effect of the incentives on 73 of the 78 patients allocated to receive incentives in the trial. Most commonly, the clinicians reported benefits for clinical management including improved adherence, contact, patient monitoring, communication, and trust (n = 52). Positive effects on symptoms, insight, or social functioning were reported for some (n = 33). Less commonly, problems for patient management were reported (n = 19) such as monetarization of the therapeutic relationship or negative consequences for the patient (n = 15) such as increased drug and alcohol use. Where requests for increased money occurred, they were rapidly resolved. It seems that, in most cases, the clinicians found that using incentives led to benefits for patient management and for patient health. However, in 33% of cases, some adverse effects were reported. It remains unclear whether certain clinical characteristics are associated with increased risk for adverse effects of financial incentives. The likelihood of benefit versus the smaller risk for adverse effects should be weighed up when deciding whether to offer incentives to individual patients. PMID:25692797
The study explores the impact of incentives on several factors like motivation, absenteeism, employee turnover, production and productivity, employee morale, health ... that incentives schemes are giving satisfactory results in improving employee performance apart from increasing incomes of the workers and other benefits.
Konheim-Kalkstein, Yasmine L.; van den Broek, Paul
This study examines the effect of incentives, a motivational manipulation, on cognitive processes of reading. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through the use of monetary incentives to assess its effect on information processing in reading. One group of college students was paid for what they remembered from several narrative passages they…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902... performers. (a) Incentives for high performer PHAs. A PHA that is designated a high performer will be... is designated high performer will be relieved of specific HUD requirements (for example, fewer...
Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele
We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances subje...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....
This paper reviews how to align the interests of employees and of owners of businesses and directs attention to policy issues that are critical to the attainment of this noble objective. It demonstrates that Tax Incentives and Reforms are necessary and offers recommendations on how to promote equity incentives in Nigeria.
Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling
OECD Publishing, 2017
This report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: (1) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; (2) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; (3)…
Incentives are regarded as motivational tools which can be used to propel construction workforces to achieve project objectives. This article contributes to the existing body of knowledge by evaluating the current practices of incentive mechanisms in the South African construction industry and identifying the challenges ...
Yenney, Sharon L.
The use of incentives by businesses is a well-accepted pattern of management-employee collaboration. Increasingly, U.S. businesses are using incentives to encourage employees to stay healthy. Research in the field of behavior modification indicates that positive reinforcement, negative consequences and restrictions, and feedback have great…
Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam
This study investigates how children respond to different treatments aimed to fostersustainable behavior in a productive (firm like) setting. We conduct a field experiment using teams of children (aged 11 or 12) that are participating in an entrepreneurship education program in the last grade...... of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...
Taleghani, G.; Kazemi Karegar, H.
Incentive have yet been viewed as a means of supporting technological developments until a new technology becomes cost competitive wind based electricity is not jet generally competitive with alternate sources of electricity such as fossil fuels. This paper presents the potential for wind and solar in Iran and shows how much electric energy is now produced by renewable power plants compared to steam and gas. The importance of renewable energy effects on Iran environment and economy is also discussed and the issue of the contribution of renewable energy for producing electricity in the future will be shown. Also this paper highlights the ability of Iran to manufacture the components of the wind turbine and solar system locally, and its effect on the price of wind turbine and solar energy
First, an overall picture is presented of the extension of the use of cogeneration by the Italian brick industry. The particular suitability and usefulness of this form of energy to the brick industry are pointed out. Then a look is given at the legal and financial incentives which have been built into the National Energy Plan to encourage on-site production by Italian industries. Finally, a review is made of initiatives made by SNAM (the Italian National Methane Distribution Society) to develop a favourable tariff structure for on-site power producers using methane as their energy source, as well as, of the Society's efforts to set up a cogeneration equipment consulting service which would provide advice on cogeneration plant design, operation and maintenance
Huang, Haijing; Mattke, Soeren; Batorsky, Benajmin; Miles, Jeremy; Liu, Hangsheng; Taylor, Erin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of wellness program configurations and financial incentives on employee participation rate. We analyze a nationally representative survey on workplace wellness programs from 407 employers using cluster analysis and multivariable regression analysis. Employers who offer incentives and provide a comprehensive set of program offerings have higher participation rates. The effect of incentives differs by program configuration, with the strongest effect found for comprehensive and prevention-focused programs. Among intervention-focused programs, incentives are not associated with higher participation. Wellness programs can be grouped into distinct configurations, which have different workplace health focuses. Although monetary incentives can be effective in improving employee participation, the magnitude and significance of the effect is greater for some program configurations than others.
Full Text Available The central purpose of this paper is to examine the incentive contract as an equilibrium phenomenon. We analyse a model of vertical differentiation in which we deal with the strategic role of the competitor’s decisions in a successive duopoly. Is it better for a processor to offer an incentive contract to an upstream producer or the spot market? We determine the equilibrium of a game in which the processors simultaneously decide whether to offer an incentive contract or to continue at the spot market to acquire their input. Our results show that under successive duopoly, offering an incentive contract constitutes the unique equilibrium solution, which highlights the incentive contract persistence.
Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.
Luís Armando Gandin
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições de Michael Apple para o campo da pesquisa em políticas educacionais. Na extensa obra de Michael Apple, destacamos seis elementos que podem auxiliar aqueles que estão interessados na área de políticas em educação: o princípio epistemológico da análise relacional; o exame do Estado como relação; a herança de Antonio Gramsci e de Raymond Williams que Michael Apple incorpora no uso de conceitos como hegemonia e senso comum; a análise que Michael Apple faz das políticas educacionais como políticas culturais, como disputas por visão de mundo, como luta por consolidação de uma hegemonia que vai além do econômico; a sua postura de pesquisador; e a capacidade que Michael Apple tem de ir além da lógica da reprodução e determinação para enfatizar o papel da agência e da contra-hegemonia. Através de exemplos práticos da própria obra de Apple e de outras pesquisas empíricas, apresentam-se as implicações de cada um dos seis pontos acima citados para os pesquisadores interessados na área de políticas educacionais. Conclui-se que muitas das contribuições de Apple podem auxiliar em pesquisas nessa área, tendo em vista a discussão que o autor realiza em sua obra e sua crítica ao determinismo econômico nas análises do campo educacional, salientando a importância, assim, de aspectos que estão relacionados à esfera da cultura.
Yin, Feng; Garifullina, Ainash; Tanaka, Fujie
Correction for 'Synthesis of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid derivatives via asymmetric Michael addition reactions of carboxylate-substituted enones' by Feng Yin et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 6089-6092.
Ilmunud ka: Baltiiskii kurss 2002/Zima/Vesna nr. 20 lk. 14-17. Iirimaa aukonsul Lätis, Michael Joseph Bourke arutleb Iirimaa majandusedu teemal ning pakub välja, mida Baltimaad saaksid sellest õppida. Tabel, diagramm. Lisa
Charitie V. Hyman
Full Text Available Book review of Michael T. Westrate. Living Soviet in Ukraine from Stalin to Maidan: Under the Falling Red Star in Kharkiv. Rowman & Littlefield, 2016. xx, 232 pp. Illustrations. Appendices. Bibliography. Index. $85.00, cloth.
Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid
The use of inexpensive, eco-friendly and readily available reagents, easy work-up, and high purity products makes the procedure a convenient and robust method for the synthesis of tandem Knoevenagel–Michael adducts.
Dong, Nan; Li, Xin; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Jin-Pei
A highly enantioselective Michael-aldol tandem reaction with respect to prochiral 2-substituted benzofuran-3-ones and enones by a facile primary amine catalyst was investigated. The approach provides rapid access to the desired pharmaceutically active griseofulvin analogues.
Ameerika kunstiajaloolased Keith Moxey ning Michael Ann Holly tutvustavad uut lähenemist kunstiajaloole (new art history). Nn. naasmine esteetika juurde tähendab püüet integreerida kunstiajalukku ja -teooriasse uuesti ja tugevamalt kunstiteos
Pors, Niels Ole
Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4......Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4...
Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J
Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.
Amit, Ronit; Jacobson, Susan K
Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative, structured, group communication process based on a Delphi technique as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, nongovernmental organizations, and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion. The final product integrated 862 ideas into 6 types of incentives: organization of communities, mechanisms for improved dialogue, citizen technical assistance, green labeling for community products, payment for the ecosystem service of biodiversity, and an assessment of financial alternatives. We used quantitative and qualitative techniques to indicate support for decisions about the design of incentives, which reduced researcher subjectivity. The diverse incentives developed and the cooperation from multiple stakeholders resulted in an incentive plan that integrated issues of governance, equity, and social norms. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.
Bezdek, R.H.; Wendling, R.M.
This paper (1) estimates the total costs of federal expenditures in support of incentives for the development of commercial nuclear energy through 1988, and (2) analyzes the results and benefits to the nation of this federal investment. The federal incentives analyzed include research and development, regulation of commercial nuclear energy, tax incentives, waste management and disposal, enrichment plants, liability insurance, the uranium mining industry, and all other federal support activities. The authors estimate that net federal incentives totaled about $45-50 billion (1988 dollars). They estimate the results of the federal incentives, focusing on six categories, namely, electric energy produced, the total (direct plus indirect) economic benefits of the industry created, R and D program benefits, value of energy imports displaced, environmental effects, and health, safety, and risk effects. The results total $1.9 trillion, with approximately $250-300 billion identified as net benefits. The authors conclude that the high return on the investment justified federal incentives for nuclear energy development over the past four decades and that the federal government and the nation have received a significant return on the incentives investment
Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).
Krummrich, C.R.; Johnston, R.E.; Crist, T.W.
The Western Business Unit Bakersfield drilling department of Chevron, U.S.A. Production Company developed a drilling performance incentive contract that was implemented during 1994 in the Lost Hills field of California. The performance incentive contract (PIC) financially rewarded all of the drilling contractor's rig employees for outperforming pre-established drilling performance goals. The key elements of the performance incentive program are: (1) Goals that rigger incentives are based on cost categories that are controllable by the drilling team; (2) Goals were established using a database of past years performance; (3) Goals that are not achieved negatively impact the incentive earned in an effort to deter repeated errors; (4) Accidents that occur on the job negatively impact the incentive earned; (5) Administration of the program is not time consuming. The results of using an incentive contract in the Lost Hills drilling program are: (1) Time and cost of operations are reduced; (2) The results are measurable and repeatable; (3) A team environment develops in which ideas are shared and acted upon by crew members and supervisory personnel
Lansky, David; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bozic, Kevin J
A variety of reforms to traditional approaches to provider payment and benefit design are being implemented in the United States. There is increasing interest in applying these financial incentives to orthopaedics, although it is unclear whether and to what extent they have been implemented and whether they increase quality or reduce costs. We reviewed and discussed physician- and patient-oriented financial incentives being implemented in orthopaedics, key challenges, and prerequisites to payment reform and value-driven payment policy in orthopaedics. We searched the MEDLINE database using as search terms various provider payment and consumer incentive models. We retrieved a total of 169 articles; none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. For incentive models known to the authors to be in use in orthopaedics but for which no peer-reviewed literature was found, we searched Google for further information. Provider financial incentives reviewed include payments for reporting, performance, and patient safety and episode payment. Patient incentives include tiered networks, value-based benefit design, reference pricing, and value-based purchasing. Reform of financial incentives for orthopaedic surgery is challenged by (1) lack of a payment/incentive model that has demonstrated reductions in cost trends and (2) the complex interrelation of current pay schemes in today's fragmented environment. Prerequisites to reform include (1) a reliable and complete data infrastructure; (2) new business structures to support cost sharing; and (3) a retooling of patient expectations. There is insufficient literature reporting the effects of various financial incentive models under implementation in orthopaedics to know whether they increase quality or reduce costs. National concerns about cost will continue to drive experimentation, and all anticipated innovations will require improved collaboration and data collection and reporting.
Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.
The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)
Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.
We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance...... for all wireless networks. Such incentives arise due to a well-known property of 802.11 networks, where low rate users that send traffic significantly degrade the performance of high rate users that are associated with the same access point. A key difference of this paper compared to other works...
Within the framework of legal and financial incentives made possible through Italian legislation on cogeneration plants for on-site power generation, this paper reviews the planning criteria that went into the formulation of the incentives and the response obtained from small, medium and large industrial firms. The discussion takes into account the following aspects: the optimal timing of retrofits, national energy conservation and environmental policy objectives, energy surcharges, benefits to consumers as compared with those for energy producers, benefits from incentives as a function of cogeneration plant size, and the technical complexity of application requirements for prospective applicants
Eirea Eiras, Carlos; Ortún Rubio, Vicente
We address the contribution of financial incentives linked to pay for performance (P4P) to improving the quality of care. The situation of P4P is analyzed internationally and in the distinct health services in Spain. The participation of P4P in wage compensation and the effects of the current economic crisis on these incentives is discussed. We review the results of recent studies to clarify the role of these incentive models and assess possible orientations and new proposals. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Duke, C. S.
In recent decades, ecological scientists’ capacity for generating data has increased at an exponential rate. The need to organize data in ways useful for problem solving has similarly accelerated in the face of global challenges such as climate change, widespread species extinctions, and declines in biodiversity. In light of these trends, virtually every field of ecology would benefit from more comprehensive and systematic documentation and publication of metadata, combined with general availability of data through online sources. Both organizations and individual scientists need to take action to meet these needs. In response, the Ecological Society of America (ESA) has led a series of NSF-sponsored workshops to help scientists find common ground on how to make data more readily discoverable and accessible in their own disciplines. The most recent of these focused in the development of incentives for data sharing, both at the individual and organizational level. This presentation will summarize the workshop recommendations, with a focus on preservation, curation, and access to data; access to analytical and visualization tools; and the need to make data archiving simple and routine. The roles of funders and publishers of research are also key and will be highlighted.
Full Text Available The present paper aims to be an answer for many investors with financial powers, seeking financial instruments with yields above the average interest rate on the banking market. One such tool, fairly new to the Romanian banking market, has been implemented for about 14 years, and is becoming more and more an instrument for savings, investments or an aid in the purchase of a house. Regardless of the perspective presented in the table of contents, the incentive for choosing such a banking product is the state benefit, a form through which the administration creates the conditions necessary to update and develop the housing system. In the thesis I have explored aspects of legislation which, in such a short period of time have changed 3 times the amount and the method of granting the state benefit and I have also tried a quick historical and legislative evolution of the implementation of Bauspar system throughout Europe. It is pointed out that in comparison with other countries - namely Germany, England or Austria where this system is well-known and has been implemented for over 120 years - Romania is at the beginning of its journey, a fact proved especially by the number of signed contracts in relation to the number of inhabitants.
Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian
Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.
Kuuskraa, V.A.; Stevens, S.H.
It was widely believed that the development of unconventional natural gas (coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas) would die once US Sec. 29 credits stopped. Quieter voices countered, and hoped, that technology advances would keep these large but difficult to produce gas resources alive and maybe even healthy. Sec. 29 tax credits for new unconventional gas development stopped at the end of 1992. Now, nearly three years later, who was right and what has happened? There is no doubt that Sec. 29 tax credits stimulated the development of coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas. What is less known is that the tax credits helped spawn and push into use an entire new set of exploration, completion, and production technologies founded on improved understanding of unconventional gas reservoirs. As set forth below, while the incentives inherent in Sec. 29 provided the spark, it has been the base of science and technology that has maintained the vitality of these gas sources. The paper discusses the current status; resource development; technology; unusual production, proven reserves, and well completions if coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas; and international aspects
Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care
Park, Jung-Yeon; Ahn, Nam-Sung; Yoon, Yong-Beum; Koh, Kyung-Ho; Bunn, Derek W.
This paper develops a model-based analysis of the effects of various capacity incentive systems on new investment in the Korean electricity market. The restructuring process in Korea allocated power generation to six firms, competing within a wholesale market, albeit strictly on a cost basis. Because of this cost-based pool, capacity payments were also introduced to encourage new investment. However, it is an open question whether the current fixed capacity payment scheme is enough to secure resource adequacy, and consideration is being given to alternative mechanisms such as the use of LOLP. Using a detailed market simulation model, based on system dynamics, we compare these approaches in terms of how they may influence the investors' decisions and thereby determine the system reserve margin. The simulation results suggest that there may be serious problems in staying with the current fixed capacity payments in order to achieve resource adequacy. In contrast, an LOLP-based capacity mechanism may, in the longer term, increase the reserve margin compared with a fixed capacity payment. More generally, this paper indicates how crucial the effective modeling of the investment behavior of the independent power producers is for adequate policy support, even if they only constitute a fringe in a substantially centrally influenced market
Vollebergh, H.R.J.; De Vries, J.L.; Koutstaal, P.R.
In this paper it is analyzed how hybrid systems of carbon taxes and tradeable permits optimize some conflicting dimensions of political acceptability related to the design of these instruments. Pure systems like taxes without exemptions or auctioned tradeable permits cause problems for political acceptability in open economies due to high overall costs (abatement cost plus payments on the tax or auctions) for current polluters. Unfortunately, pure systems based on grandfathering of emission rights across the board do not provide a feasible alternative because of monitoring and enforcement problems. In contrast, consciously designed hybrid systems employ grandfathering of emission rights together with either carbon taxes or auctioned carbon permits in order to overcome acceptability problems of pure systems, while leaving incentives to reduce emissions at the margin untouched. Moreover, monitoring and enforcement costs of the hybrid systems are less due to the lower number of participating agents compared with the pure systems, while opportunities for cost- or burden-sharing exist as well. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs
Ian A. Nell
Full Text Available In June 2007, I had the privilege of attending a Healing of Memories workshop lead by Father Michael Lapsley, one of the founder members of the Institute for Healing of Memories. The purpose of the workshop was to help the predominantly white members of a middle class Dutch Reformed congregation in the Northern Suburbs of Cape Town and the predominantly coloured members of a congregation of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Elsies River on the Cape Flats, to share their stories of the past with regard to apartheid with each other. Apart from the stories that were told and the sharing of experiences about the apartheid history that took place, I was struck by the way in which Father Lapsley conducted the workshop. There was a deep compassion for all the participants as was embodied through the way in which he treated each of us with respect. But apart from his cordiality in leading the workshop, one could sense a deeper source of compassion, a source revealing a compassionate understanding of God�s presence amidst the violence and turmoil in our broken world. The aim of this article is to reflect on whether one could speak of something like �compassionate leadership�, and to take a closer look at the relationship between compassion and God images in the life and work of Michael Lapsley. Special attention will be given to the way in which he exercises leadership through his many involvements related to his own personal story of trauma.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article presents literary research on the notion of compassionate leadership as a specific kind of leadership. The results indicate that the leadership of Father Michael Lapsley does indeed portray features of this kind of leadership. The research can become the source for finding new strategies for religious leadership.
Almeida, Fábio Py Murta de
Michael Löwy, diretor emérito do Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) em Paris, escreve Romantismo e messianismo: ensaios sobre Lukács e Walter Benjamin, para demonstrar o romantismo e o messianismo como importantes ideais de Lukács e Benjamin. Para a historiografia, a novidade da obra decorre do mapear das influências alternativas (heterodoxas) no bojo do marxismo europeu do século XX. Assim, para iniciá-la faz a indagação: “Será o romantismo um movimento essencialmente conser...
Full Text Available The Great War has featured regularly in Michael Longley’s poetry, for personal, family, aesthetic and political reasons. His collection published in 2011 under the title A Hundred Doors contains a number of poems relating to his father and the so-called War Poets, in connection with others in which love and nature, life and death are also dominant themes. This article will show how, as elsewhere in his poetry, everything is interrelated, “the nature poetry”, in Longley’s words, “fertilizing the war poetry”.
Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George
Michael Servetus was the first doctor ever to challenge and scientifically argue against the theories of Galen, which predominated for 14 centuries in medical schools worldwide. Even though he was relatively correct in scientific terms, Servetus was punished because of his boldness in challenging Galen's theories and was condemned to death by the Holy Inquisition. Yet, by publicly challenging Galen's and Hippocrates' predominant and unquestionable lessons on medicine for the first time, Servetus opened the door for other doctors to challenge and correct those theories and subsequently to bring about a new view of human anatomy and physiology. This article underlines the contribution of Servetus to the description of the pulmonary circulation.
Full Text Available After the synthesis of polyethylenimine supported on silica, it has been used as a new and efficient catalyst in Knoevenagel and Michael condensations. The presence of the polyethylenimine in the catalytic system together with silica displays an acido-basic character allows a better catalytic activity in the condensations. Carried out under microwave irradiation, without organic solvent and during short time, the syntheses are respectful towards green chemistry. The solid catalyst can be easily reused. This catalyst has the acido-basic character at the same time.
Thomas, John Meurig
Biographers of Michael Faraday, as well as many dictionaries of science, often describe him as a physicist, which he certainly was. But he was also an astonishingly effective chemist: in fact, he was the Fullerian Professor of Chemistry (at the Royal Institution, RI) from 1834 until the time of his death in August, 1867. To mark the sesquicentenary of his passing, this editorial, by one of his distant successors as Director and Fullerian Professor at the RI, focuses on Faraday's output and influence as a scientist.
Made in Nigeria” concept and Companies that engage in made in Nigeria goods. It will explore how tax incentives can accelerate the growth of companies engaged in manufacturing of such made in Nigeria goods. From this paper, written ...
O.A. Onemu (Okemena)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Gender differences in preferences regarding social relationships and competitive environments are well documented in psychology and economics. Research also shows that social relationships and competition among co-workers are affected by the incentive schemes workers
Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny
the scope of research to other behavioral aspects where consumers in CE are often found to deviate from homo economicus. We develop a theoretical model where not only Willingness to pay (WTP) measures but also decision processing can be affected by the introduction of an economic incentive. Specifically...... incentive, we find marked benefits in relation to a number of behavioral aspects that together would favor the use of an economic incentive regardless of hypothetical bias being present or not.......This paper explores the potential impacts of introducing real economic incentives in choice experiments (CE). While many others have investigated such impacts before, the majority of the literature has focused solely on mitigation of hypothetical bias. We contribute to this literature by widening...
Matheson, Flora I; Forrester, Pamela; Brazil, Amanda; Doherty, Sherri; Affleck, Lindy
We explored current policies and practices on the use of incentives in research involving adult offenders under correctional supervision in prison and in the community (probation and parole) in Canada. We contacted the correctional departments of each of the Canadian provinces and territories, as well as the federal government department responsible for offenders serving sentences of two years or more. Findings indicated that two departments had formal policy whereas others had unwritten practices, some prohibiting their use and others allowing incentives on a case-by-case basis. Given the differences across jurisdictions, it would be valuable to examine how current incentive policies and practices are implemented to inform national best practices on incentives for offender-based research.
Morey, Richard C.
Presents a stochastic model and subsequent risk analysis that should enable an administrator to evaluate an incentive contract. A numerical illustration points out the types of issues that can be addressed by the model. (Author/IRT)
The primary objective of this research is to estimate the "incentive" (price) elasticity of demand for using non-motorized transportation (specifically walking and bicycling) to work. Results can be used directly in the formation of local policies to...
Sturm, H.; Austvoll-Dahlgren, A.; Aaserud, M.; Oxman, A. D.; Ramsay, C.; Vernby, A.; Koesters, J. P.
Background Pharmaceuticals, while central to medical therapy, pose a significant burden to health care budgets. Therefore regulations to control prescribing costs and improve quality of care are implemented increasingly. These include the use of financial incentives for prescribers, namely increased
Lunze, Karsten; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K
Economic incentives to promote healthy behavior are becoming increasingly common and have been suggested as an approach to decreasing healthcare costs. Ethical concerns about programs with such incentives are that they may contribute to inequities, be coercive, interfere with therapeutic relationships, undermine personal responsibility for health, and decrease social solidarity. Additionally, they may be a source of stigma or discrimination, promote dependence, and be unfair for those already engaged in targeted health behaviors or those who cannot fulfill the incentivized behaviors. Incentive programs need to incorporate appropriate safeguards to monitor these risks and support fairness in offering economic incentives to promote healthy behavior. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper discusses the incentive conflicts that arise in banking supervision in the EU in a principal-agent framework, where the regulator is the agent and the taxpayers is the principal. The regulatory agent in addition to maintaining financial stability (the objective of the principal) may pursue private interests. Incomplete information, insufficient accountability of the agent and lack of enforceability of compliance result in an incentive problem. A reform of the European supervisory s...
Christopher L. House; Matthew D. Shapiro
Investment decisions are inherently forward-looking. The payoff of acquiring capital goods, particularly long-lived capital goods, is governed almost exclusively by events in the far future. Because the timing of the investment itself does not affect future payoffs, there are strong incentives to delay or accelerate investment to take advantage of predictable intertemporal variations in cost. For sufficiently long-lived capital goods, these incentives are so strong that the intertemporal elas...
Full Text Available Due to the issue of cost and benefit, the investment demand and consumption demand of micro-grids are insufficient in the early stages, which makes all parties lack motivation to participate in the development of micro-grid projects and leads to the slow development of micro-grids. In order to promote the development of micro-grids, the corresponding incentive mechanism should be designed to motivate the development of micro-grid projects. Therefore, this paper builds a multi-stage incentive model of micro-grid project development involving government, grid corporation, energy supplier, equipment supplier, and the user in order to study the incentive problems of micro-grid project development. Through the solution and analysis of the model, this paper deduces the optimal subsidy of government and the optimal cooperation incentive of the energy supplier, and calculates the optimal pricing strategy of grid corporation and the energy supplier, and analyzes the influence of relevant factors on optimal subsidy and incentive. The study reveals that the cost and social benefit of micro-grid development have a positive impact on micro-grid subsidy, technical level and equipment quality of equipment supplier as well as the fact that government subsidies positively adjust the level of cooperation incentives and price incentives. In the end, the validity of the model is verified by numerical analysis, and the incentive strategy of each participant is analyzed. The research of this paper is of great significance to encourage project development of micro-grids and to promote the sustainable development of micro-grids.
Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention. Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals. Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context. Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed. Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention. Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.
Controlling Program Abuse 9 Objectives, Scope, and Methodology 12 Chapter 2 14 Features of Physician Paracelsus Plan 14 MeSH Physician Incentive Plan...Pasadena General Hospital, Pasadena, Texas, would likely violate the Medicare anti-kickback statute. Paracelsus Plan While the details of the physician...incentive plans used at the 14 hospi- tals in the Paracelsus Healthcare Corporation chain vary somewhat, they are basically similar. In each hospital
This paper explores the effect of incentive pay on gender pay gaps in Finland, Norway and Sweden among professionals and managers within MNCs. Mercer 2009 Total Remuneration Survey data is utilised. Uniform job ladder, occupation, industry and wage definitions enable consistent cross-country comparisons. In addition to the between-country variation, the within-country variation of gender gap with respect to incentive pay is analysed. The results indicate that gender pay gaps differ among the ...
Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul
This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff.......This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....
Federal incentives for the development of solar energy are examined. A Federal incentive is any action that can be taken by the government to expand residential and commercial use of solar energy. The development of solar energy policy could be enhanced by identification, quantification, and analysis of Federal incentives that have been used to simulate the development of other forms of energy. The text of this report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. Four viewpoints used in this discussion come from 4 types of analysis: economic, political, organizational, and legal. The next chapter identifies actions (primarily domestic) that the Federal government has taken concerning energy. This analysis uses the typology of actions described in the previous chapter to identify actions, and the four viewpoints described there to determine whether an action concerns energy. Once identified, the actions are described and then quantified by an estimate of the 1976 cost of accomplishing them. Then incentives, investments, liabilities, regulations, and other factors are analyzed in detail for nuclear energy, hydroelectric power, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Incentives of all energy sources are then discussed with respect to solar energy policy. (MCW)
Francesca M Filbey
Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.
Hooker, Stephanie A; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Ross, Kaile M; Masters, Kevin S
To examine the effects of an employer-based monetary incentive program on membership termination and usage at a fitness center. Retrospective nested case-control study examining the relationship between participation in an incentive program, visits to the fitness center, and membership termination at 1 year. University-based fitness center. Members (N = 1122) of a university-based fitness center. Members were offered either a US$25 incentive for each month they visited the fitness center at least 10 times or no incentive. Data were extracted from the membership database and included membership termination at 1 year (yes, no), length of membership (days), participation in the incentive program (yes, no), and visits to the fitness center per month. Cox proportional hazards model. Members in the incentive program visited the fitness center on average more times per month (5.3 vs 4.3; P fitness center may be initially associated with a greater fitness center utilization but may not be associated with a reduced risk of membership termination.
McDermott, K.A. (Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield (United States)); South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))
In many quarters, traditional cost-plus regulation has come to be perceived as a failure. This perception is, in part, the result of a conjunction of events, changing philosophy, and measurable performance problems in the electric utility industry. Risk, competition and prudence issues will dominate the regulatory agenda in the 1990s. The experience being gained through application of alternative regulation in the telecommunications industry will have a significant impact on the willingness of regulators to experiment with new incentive approaches in the electric and natural gas industries. If the goals of a program are well specified, and if the incentive mechanism is designed in the appropriate fashion, incentives can play a major role in least-cost planning programs and in more accommodating regulatory environments. Significant attention has been given to alternative incentive programs in the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is not to review the extensive literature on incentives, but rather to provide a nuts and bolts, common-sense analysis of the strategic value of incentive mechanisms as a regulatory policy. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Grant, Ruth W; Sugarman, Jeremy
There is considerable confusion regarding the ethical appropriateness of using incentives in research with human subjects. Previous work on determining whether incentives are unethical considers them as a form of undue influence or coercive offer. We understand the ethical issue of undue influence as an issue, not of coercion, but of corruption of judgment. By doing so we find that, for the most part, the use of incentives to recruit and retain research subjects is innocuous. But there are some instances where it is not. Specifically, incentives become problematic when conjoined with the following factors, singly or in combination with one another: where the subject is in a dependency relationship with the researcher, where the risks are particularly high, where the research is degrading, where the participant will only consent if the incentive is relatively large because the participant's aversion to the study is strong, and where the aversion is a principled one. The factors we have identified and the kinds of judgments they require differ substantially from those considered crucial in most previous discussions of the ethics of employing incentives in research with human subjects.
Martin, R.L.; Baker, K.; Olson, J.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors incentive programs established by state regulators in order to obtain current information and to consider the potential safety effects of the incentive programs as applied to nuclear units. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5509, Incentive Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants by State Public Utility Commissions, published in December 1989. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulator and each utility with a minimum entitlement of 10%. The agreements, orders, and settlements from which each incentive program was implemented were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program. The programs currently in effect represent the adoption of an existing nuclear performance incentive program proposal and one new program. In addition, since 1989 a number of nuclear units have been included in one existing program; while one program was discontinued and another one concluded. 6 refs., 27 tabs
Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.
With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.
PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS LECTURE IS CANCELLED Friday, 8 March - from 11.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Globe of Science and Innovation Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva International Women’s Day Conference Lecture will be in English - Interpreting available in French Limited number of seats - registration is essential Reservation: + 41 22 767 76 76 or email@example.com Dr. Michael Kimmel, a renowned sociologist and an expert on male-female relationships, will share his latest findings on gender collaboration and how it can lead to innovation and improved relationships both at work and in the world outside. Michael Kimmel is among the world’s leading experts on male-female relationships. A Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, he is the author or editor of more than 20 books on the topic. He consults corporations, NGOs and public sector organisations all over the world on gender equity issues, including work-family balance, reducing workplac...
Gerevich, József; Ungvari, Gabor S
To illustrate the use of fiction in understanding psychiatric disorders and refocus attention towards fiction as a valuable source of psychopathology, thereby contributing to the restoration of the narrative in psychiatry. A psychopathological analysis of the novella Michael Kohlhaas written by Heinrich von Kleist, one of the outstanding literary figures of the German romantic movement of the early 19th century. The protagonist of Kleist's novella, Michael Kohlhaas, a querulant horse trader, carries out an armed uprising disproportionate to the minor injustice of the unlawful seizure of his horses. Following unsuccessful attempts at legal recourse, Kohlhaas takes up arms against the authorities, and in the course of his uncompromising pursuit of justice eventually sacrifices his own and his family's lives. Kleist accurately portrays Kohlhaas' psychopathological development from a psychologically balanced, emotionally warm family man to one who causes utter destruction, mayhem and the loss of innocent lives. This literary work is a remarkably authentic, insightful and rich representation of litigious/querulant behaviour, described by classical authors as litigious paranoia, a diagnostic category currently subsumed under 'delusional disorder, persecutory type', in DSM-5 and 'persistent delusional disorder' in ICD-10. Kleist's novella offers important clues to better understand the development of litigious-querulant behaviour and the inner world of its sufferers. An analysis of the novella also illustrates the contribution that fiction could make to resuscitate the narrative as a complement to criterion-based diagnostic practice prevailing in contemporary psychiatry. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nye, Mary Jo
In Michael Polanyi and His Generation, Mary Jo Nye investigates the role that Michael Polanyi and several of his contemporaries played in the emergence of the social turn in the philosophy of science. This turn involved seeing science as a socially based enterprise that does not rely on empiricism and reason alone but on social communities, behavioral norms, and personal commitments. Nye argues that the roots of the social turn are to be found in the scientific culture and political events of Europe in the 1930s, when scientific intellectuals struggled to defend the universal status of scientific knowledge and to justify public support for science in an era of economic catastrophe, Stalinism and Fascism, and increased demands for applications of science to industry and social welfare. At the center of this struggle was Polanyi, who Nye contends was one of the first advocates of this new conception of science. Nye reconstructs Polanyi’s scientific and political milieus in Budapest, Berlin, and Manchester f...
Full Text Available The present essay aims to remap the modernist writing of Clement Greenberg and his successor Michael Fried from the late 1930s to the 1960s. For many years these two critics/theorists were considered leaders of the American modernist camp that promoted the purity of the medium and the total dependence of reading art on the primacy of perception. Attentive reading of the canonical texts they authored will surprisingly reveal that between the theoretical lines of their writings dwells an essential element that contradicts the absolute dominance of eyesight. Lying at the heart of the Greenbergian act is a metaphysical foundation that poses the question of the invisible as part of the inquiry into the "essence of the visible". As such the modernist debate will be revealed not only as a means for assembling a canon of works, but also as a means to formulating an experience of revelation in terms of the visual. Attentive reading of the writings of Clement Greenberg and the early Michael Fried, reveals a theoretical element or regulative idea that will be termed here "the unrepresentable".
Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.
Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.
This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sending a monetary incentive with postal questionnaires has been found to improve the proportion of responders, in research in non-healthcare settings. However, there is little research on use of incentives to improve follow-up rates in clinical trials, and existing studies are inconclusive. We conducted a randomised trial among participants in the Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial (MINT to investigate the effects on the proportion of questionnaires returned and overall non-response of sending a £5 gift voucher with a follow-up questionnaire. Methods Participants in MINT were randomised to receive either: (a a £5 gift voucher (incentive group or (b no gift voucher (no incentive group, with their 4 month or 8 month follow-up questionnaire. We recorded, for each group, the number of questionnaires returned, the number returned without any chasing from the study office, the overall number of non-responders (after all chasing efforts by the study office, and the costs of following up each group. Results 2144 participants were randomised, 1070 to the incentive group and 1074 to the no incentive group. The proportion of questionnaires returned (RR 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16 and the proportion returned without chasing (RR 1.14 (95% CI 1.05, 1.24 were higher in the incentive group, and the overall non-response rate was lower (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.53, 0.87. Adjustment for injury severity and hospital of recruitment to MINT made no difference to these results, and there were no differences in results between the 4-month and 8-month follow up questionnaires. Analysis of costs suggested a cost of £67.29 per additional questionnaire returned. Conclusion Monetary incentives may be an effective way to increase the proportion of postal questionnaires returned and minimise loss to follow-up in clinical trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN61305297
Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge
Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured
Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.
The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)
Full Text Available Agricultural development policy in Kenya has emphasised the use of incentives towards increased production and therefore self-sufficiency in maize which is a basic staple for most households. The channels used to provide incentives to maize farmers over the years include setting higher producer prices; subsidisation of inputs; provision of agricultural credit, research and extension services; construction and maintenance of roads, development of irrigation and water systems; legislative, institutional and macroeconomic reforms. Despite these efforts outputof maize has remained below domestic requirements in most years and the country continues to rely on imports to meet the deficits. Studies have assessed the responsiveness of maize to output price and reported inelastic responses and have recommended policies targeting non-price incentives to complement prices for the required increased production of maize. The studies, however, did not analyse the influence of the non-price incentives on the production of the crop. The findings of those studies are therefore deficient in explaining the relative importance of different non-price incentives and how they complement prices in influencing maize production in Kenya. This study investigated the response of maize production to both price and non-price incentives. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative importance of non-price factors in influencing production of the crops as well as complementarity between price and non-price incentives. The findings show that maize production responds positively to its output price, development expenditures in agriculture, maize sales to marketing boards, growth in per capita GDP, liberalisation and governance reforms. However, maize production responds negatively to fertiliser price and unfavourable weather conditions. The response of maize output to its price is lower with rising inflation and grain market liberalisation.
Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417
Martinsson, Camilla; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Kwak, Lydia; Bergström, Gunnar; Hellman, Therese
To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: "law and provisions", "consequences for the workplace", "knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions", "characteristics of the intervention", "communication and collaboration with the provider". The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Method Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Results Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: “law and provisions”, “consequences for the workplace”, “knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions”, “characteristics of the intervention”, “communication and collaboration with the provider”. The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. Conclusions This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.
Cheng, Weiren; Wu, Decheng; Liu, Ye
Michael addition polymerizations of amines and acrylic monomers are versatile approaches to biomaterials for various applications. A combinatorial library of poly(β-amino ester)s and diverse poly(amido amine)s from diamines and diacrylates or bis(acrylamide)s have been reported, respectively. Furthermore, novel linear and hyperbranched polymers from Michael addition polymerizations of trifunctional amines and acrylic monomers significantly enrich this category of biomaterials. In this Review, we focus on the biomaterials from Michael addition polymerizations of trifunctional amines and acrylic monomers. First we discuss how the polymerization mechanisms, which are determined by the reactivity sequence of the three types of amines of trifunctional amines, i.e., secondary (2°) amines (original), primary (1°) amines, and 2° amines (formed), are affected by the chemistry of monomers, reaction temperature, and solvent. Then we update how to design and synthesize linear and hyperbranched polymers based on the understanding of polymerization mechanisms. Linear polymers containing 2° amines in the backbones can be obtained from polymerizations of diacrylates or bis(acrylamide)s with equimolar trifunctional amine, and several approaches, e.g., 2A 2 +BB'B″, A 3 +2BB'B', A 2 +BB'B″, to hyperbranched polymers are developed. Further through molecular design of monomers, conjugation of functional species to 2° amines in the backbones of linear polymers and the abundant terminal groups of hyperbranched polymers, the amphiphilicity of polymers can be adjusted, and additional stimuli, e.g., thermal, redox, reactive oxidation species (ROS), and light, responses can be integrated with the intrinsic pH response. Finally we discuss the applications of the polymers for gene/drug delivery and bioimaging through exploring their self-assemblies in various motifs, e.g., micelles, polyplexes particles/nanorings and hydrogels. Redox-responsive hyperbranched polymers can display 300
Haff, Nancy; Patel, Mitesh S; Lim, Raymond; Zhu, Jingsan; Troxel, Andrea B; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G
To evaluate the use of behavioral economics to design financial incentives to promote health behavior change and to explore associations with demographic characteristics. Studies performed by the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics at the University of Pennsylvania published between January 2006 and March 2014. Randomized, controlled trials with available participant-level data. Studies that did not use financial incentives to promote health behavior change were excluded. Participant-level data from seven studies were pooled. Meta-analysis on the pooled sample using a random-effects model with interaction terms to examine treatment effects and whether they varied by incentive structure or demographic characteristics. The pooled study sample comprised 1403 participants, of whom 35% were female, 70% were white, 24% were black, and the mean age was 48 years (standard deviation 11.2 years). In the fully adjusted model, participants offered financial incentives had higher odds of behavior change (odds ratio [OR]: 3.96; p financial incentives and gender, age, race, income, or education. When further adjusting for incentive structure, blacks had higher odds than whites of achieving behavior change (OR: 1.67; p Financial incentives designed using concepts from behavioral economics were effective for promoting health behavior change. There were no large and consistent relationships between the effectiveness of financial incentives and observable demographic characteristics. Second-order examinations of incentive structure suggest potential relationships among the effectiveness of financial incentives, incentive structure, and the demographic characteristics of race and income.
Full Text Available Readily available chiral ammonium salts derived from cinchona alkaloids have proven to be effective phase transfer catalysts in the asymmetric Michael reaction of 3-substituted isoindolinones. This protocol provides a convenient method for the construction of valuable asymmetric 3,3-disubstituted isoindolinones in high yields and moderate to good enantioselectivity. Diastereoselectivity was also investigated in the construction of contiguous tertiary and quaternary stereocenters. The use of acrolein as Michael acceptor led to an interesting tricyclic derivative, a pyrroloisoindolinone analogue, via a tandem conjugated addition/cyclization reaction.
An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalysed vinylogous Michael addition of deconjugated butenolides was developed. In the presence of 5 mol% of the NHC catalyst, both γ-alkyl and aryl-substituted deconjugated butenolides undergo vinylogous Michael addition with various α, β-unsaturated ketones, esters, or nitriles to afford γ,γ-disubstituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities. In this process, the free carbene is assumed to act as a strong Brønsted base to promote the conjugate addition.
Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Volmink, Jimmy
Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis, is frequently less than ideal, and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives (given as cash, vouchers and tokens), have been used to improve adherence. To assess the effects of material incentives in people undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for tuberculosis. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications; to 22 June 2011. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for tuberculosis, or on treatment for latent or active disease. At least two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. The effects of interventions are compared using risk ratios (RR), and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 11 eligible studies. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). One additional trial recruited malnourished men receiving active treatment for tuberculosis in Timor-Leste.Material incentives may increase the return rate for reading of tuberculin skin test results compared to normal care (two trials, 1371 participants: RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.29, low quality evidence).Similarly, incentives probably improve clinic re-attendance for initiation or continuation of antituberculosis prophylaxis (three trials, 595 participants: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence), and may improve subsequent completion of prophylaxis in some settings (three trials, 869 participants: RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 4
Full Text Available Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist who play a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinion could have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment game where intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found that intermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effect of monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentives for intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest, investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentive schemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra of incentivization of social and public conventional policy.
Yu, Chengpu; Holroyd, Eleanor; Cheng, Yu; Lau, Joseph Tak Fai
In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation. Participatory observations were conducted at two blood donation stations and four blood collecting vehicles in Changsha city, China. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 staff and 58 blood donors at the aforementioned venues from May to October 2008 in Changsha. Thematic analysis revealed the operation of four primary type incentives: policy-driven, symbolic, information feedback and role models, which constituted the system of institutional incentives. The current blood reimbursement system was not the primary motivation for blood donation; instead this system was a subtheme of future assurance for emergency blood needs. It was evident that symbolic incentives stressed the meaning and value of blood donation. Furthermore, post-donation information services and the inherent mechanisms of communication, enhanced by some public role models, served to draw the public to donate blood. At the institutional level, blood donation was not only informed by altruism, but also carried a system of benefit and reward for the donors and their family members. We would recommend that such arrangements, if accommodated effectively into China's health promotion strategies, would increase the likelihood of blood donation.
Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana
Financial incentives are increasingly offered to recruit nursing personnel to work in underserved communities. The authors describe and compare the characteristics of federal, provincial and territorial financial recruitment incentive programs for registered nurses (RNs), nurse practitioners (NPs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), registered practical nurses or registered psychiatric nurses. The authors identified incentive programs from government, health ministry and student aid websites and by contacting program officials. Only government-funded recruitment programs providing funding beyond the normal employee wages and benefits and requiring a service commitment were included. The authors excluded programs offered by hospitals, regional or private firms, and programs that rewarded retention. All provinces and territories except QC and NB offer financial recruitment incentive programs for RNs; six provinces (BC, AB, SK, ON, QC and NL) offer programs for NPs, and NL offers a program for LPNs. Programs include student loan forgiveness, tuition forgiveness, education bursaries, signing bonuses and relocation expenses. Programs target trainees, recent graduates and new hires. Funding and service requirements vary by program, and service requirements are not always commensurate with funding levels. This snapshot of government-funded recruitment incentives provides program managers with data to compare and improve nursing workforce recruitment initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
Krotov, V.V.; Staroverov, S.M.; Nesterenko, P.N.; Lisichkin. G.V.
A series of heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric Michael additions was synthesized based on ephedrine chemically bound to the surface of silica. The length of the hydrocarbon chain binding the active center to the support surface affects the sign of rotation of the reaction product from the asymmetric addition of thiophenol to benzylideneacetophenone. Grafting ephedrine to the silica surface via a short hydrocarbon chain results in a change in the configuration of the reaction product. Silanol groups on the silica surface are involved in the transition state, as evidenced by data obtained using silica which has been exhaustively treated with trimethylchlorosilane. The absolute specific rotation of 1,3-diphenyl-3-thiophenylpropan-1-one has been established.
Full Text Available This essay examines some theoretical and methodological aspects of Michael Baxandall’s book Giotto and the Orators. Humanist observers of painting in Italy and the discovery of pictorial composition of 1971. It includes reflections on the book’s reorientations of the scholarly debate over the relationship between Renaissance/Early Modern humanism and painting, as well as consideration of the linguistic theories that either directly or tangentially inform Baxandall’s method. Sources such as Wittgenstein, Cassirer, Ordinary Language Philosophy, and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis are discussed. Some of the book’s aims and methods are clarified by a comparison to Panofsky’s Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism of 1951.
Full Text Available The paper treats the relationship between the art historian Michael Fried and the philosopher Stanley Cavell, as well as their readings of Wittgenstein’s late philosophy. It argues that Fried’s entire historic-artistic method rests on Wittgensteinian grounds; there is special emphasis on theses concerning the grammatical criteria of language and scepticism. Namely, Fried, like Cavell, interprets modernism as a crisis of a priori criteria by which we come to think a given object as a successful work of art. Fried labels an artwork’s failure to convince, to communicate with the recipient, with the term theatre. This text establishes an analogy between Fried’s concept of theatre, Cavell’s concept of scepticism, and Wittgenstein’s thesis of the impossibility of a private language, situating those theses in the wider context of discussions of modernism.
This short paper was presented to a conference in honour of the 60(th) year of the JAP and was one of others that acknowledged the contribution of Michael Fordham. The subtitle refers to the paper's overview of Fordham's published oeuvre and the particular place of the Journal of Analytical Psychology, for which he was the founding editor. Fordham's contribution to a Jungian-based model of development is discussed, with reference to his papers in the British Journal of Medical Psychology. The paper notes miscellaneous pieces from Fordham's commentaries, obituaries, papers and reviews which capture not only the development of Fordham as a thinker but also his character. There is discussion of his reviews of Melanie Klein's Envy and Gratitude and manuscripts by Erich Neumann. A reminiscence of Fordham as supervisor is recounted. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Lupulescu, Afina; Henry, Scott; Marken, Karen; Lampman, Steven
Many of the metal casting processes are still empirical in nature. Many others are deeply rooted in mathematics and therefore, suitable for modeling. Science of casting and solidification is a major technical asset for foundry operations and of extreme importance in understanding different length scales microstructural changes and evolution as well as developing new processes and materials. In his attempt to describe combinations of solidification theory, research results and industrial practice, Professor Doru Michael Stefanescu (ASM Fellow, 1997) has made tremendous contributions to the field. Many of his views on casting and solidification are valued as important impacts within professional environments such as TMS and ASM International. He has written many articles for the ASM Handbook series on subjects including basic metallurgy of cast iron, compacted graphite irons, solidification, thermodynamic properties of iron-base alloys, and computational modeling. He was also Volume Chair for Volume 15: Casting, of the 9th Edition Metals Handbook.
Miller, Lantz Fleming
This new book from Michael Hauskeller explores the currently marketed or projected sex/love products that exhibit some trait of so-called "posthumanistic" theory or design. These products are so designated because of their intention to fuse high technologies, including robotics and computing, with the human user. The author offers several arguments for why the theory behind these products leads to inconsistencies. The book uses a unique approach to philosophical argument by enmeshing the argument's major points in a concomitant discussion of pieces from world literature pertaining to posthumanism. The method is compelling, heightened by great world authorial insights that rarely find their way into philosophy and shores up some strong argumentative points. Yet some of the argument still needs more elucidating.
Full Text Available The correspondence of 1948 between Karl Popper and Michael Oakeshott, translated for the first time in Italian and published in the appendix to this paper, demonstrates the existence of two different ways of thinking about politics: the rationalist approach, founded on the “argumentation” as a rational means for the non-violent solution of problems (Popper, and the traditionalist mode, inspired by the method of “conversation” as a guarantee of constant openness to the diversity of identities (Oakeshott. To rise from the letters is a mutual influence on the interpretation of the key concepts that characterize the thought of the two authors, which however does not cancel the fundamental divergence of their political orientation.
Full Text Available As is the case with other thinkers linked to what can be broadly defined as conservatism, it is arguable whether Michael Oakeshott was just a conservative, or whether he was also a liberal. He often rejected this last label. He also tried to avoid the classic debate between the left/right wing divide, conferring instead a mantle of neutrality on his work. This analysis shows, on the one hand, that Oakeshott´s work is ideologically orientated and, on the other hand, that it contains a substantial liberal component. In fact, he offered a liberal-conservative synthesis in which the free market appears to be not only the best, but the only feasible outcome in the proposed scenario of political prudence. I will fi rst connect Oakeshott with the main traditions of thought, then analyse the theoretical implications of his position, and finally explore the consequences derived from all this for everyday political practice.
Boddaert, Thomas; Coquerel, Yoann; Rodriguez, Jean
A study of the organocatalytic activity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) in the Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds has allowed us to identify 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) as an excellent catalyst for this transformation (up to 99 % yield with a 2.5 mol % catalyst loading), and the reaction was found to be of broad scope. Two early applications of this unprecedented catalytic activity of NHCs are described, that is, the domino carbocyclization reactions of simple cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl and malonic acid derivatives, which allow stereoselective access to bridged bicyclic compounds, and the stereoselective synthesis of cyclohexanols (or cyclohexene). Early mechanistic investigations are also reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Godfrey, Stephanie S; Gardner, Michael G
Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species ( Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri ) on the sleepy lizard ( Tiliqua rugosa ). In this article, we provide an overview of how this research journey developed to become one of the longest-running studies of lizards and their ticks, totalling 35 years of continuous surveys of ticks on lizards, and the insights and knowledge that he generated along that journey.
Stephanie S. Godfrey
Full Text Available Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species (Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri on the sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa. In this article, we provide an overview of how this research journey developed to become one of the longest-running studies of lizards and their ticks, totalling 35 years of continuous surveys of ticks on lizards, and the insights and knowledge that he generated along that journey. Keywords: Skink, Long-term research, Disease ecology, Acari, Wildlife parasitology, Field-based research
Acocella, Maria Rosaria
Here, we show that graphite-based catalysts, mainly graphite oxide (GO) and exfoliated GO, are effective recyclable catalysts for a relevant stereoselective Mukaiyama-Michael addition, outperforming currently available catalysts. Moreover, the graphite-based catalysts described here invert the diastereoselectivity relative to that observed with known catalysts, with the unprecedented large prevalence of the anti diastereoisomer. This inverted diastereoselectivity is increased when the catalyst concentration is reduced and after catalyst recycling. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the selectivity is determined by two types of supramolecular interactions operating between the catalyst and the substrates at the diastereoselectivity- determining transition state, specifically, the π-stacking of b-nitrostyrene with graphite and the van der Waals interaction between the SiMe3 group of the silyl ether and the graphite. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Full Text Available Michael Oakeshott conceives the history of European political thought as a structuring of ideas and arguments of the practical experience aimed to understanding political expressions in vogue in the culture of a people. It is not a continuous and cumulative history of abstract and disembodied ideas, as it is wrongly conceived, but of some men who thought politics in a certain way on the basis of the language and of the set of actions, moral beliefs and contingencies of the people which they belong to. The article highlights the comparison between Oakeshott, Quentin Skinner and Gianfranco Miglio on the search for the most appropriate method to be applied in the study of the history of political thought.
Lin, Tengfei; Ma, Siwei; Lu, Yang; Guo, Baochun
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) based on natural rubber were fabricated by crosslinking epoxidized natural rubber with zinc diacrylate (ZDA) using the oxa-Michael reaction. These SMPs possessed excellent shape fixity and recovery. The glass transition largely accounted for the fixing of the SMPs temporary shape. Increasing the ZDA content allowed the trigger temperature (20-46 °C) and recovery time (14-33 s) of the SMPs to be continuously tuned. Nanosized silica (nanosilica) was incorporated into the neat polymers to further increase the flexibility and tune the recovery stress. The nanosilica-SMPs exhibited exceptionally high strength in a rubbery state (>20 MPa). The nanosilica-SMPs exhibited high transparency, making them suitable in visible heat-shrinkable tubes.
Grčić Mirko D.
Full Text Available Michael I. Pupin was a professor at the University of Columbia, member and the president of Academy of Science in New York; one of the esteemed members of USA National Academy of Science; member and president of many experts and scientific institutions and societies in the USA; member of State Council for Scientific Research by president of the USA during the World War I. Of the great importance for political geography and geopolitics was his activity in Paris during the Peace Conference after the World War I in 1919 also as his great contribution to establishment of state borders of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (later Yugoslavia, which helped those nations to establish their national borders at maximum level. Pupin claimed that he was Yugoslav patriot and American citizen. Role of M. Pupin in battle for national interests and Yugoslav borders after the World War I is shown in this article.
Fabio Mascaro Querido
Full Text Available A emergência da crise ecológica, como sintoma mais nítido de uma verdadeira crise civilizató-ria, impôs novos desafios ao pensamento crítico e, em especial, ao marxismo. Partindo desse pressuposto, o objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a defesa de Michael Löwy de uma radicalização ecossocialista da crítica marxista da modernidade, tarefa para a qual a grande recusa de Walter Benjamin das ideologias do pro- gresso é uma das fontes decisivas de inspiração. Para Michael Löwy, a ruptura com as ideologias do progresso e com o paradigma civilizatório capitalista moderno é uma condição indispensável para a atua-lização ecossocialista do marxismo.The emergence of the ecological crisis as a clearer symptom of a true civilizatory crisis has imposed new challenges to critical thought and, in particular, to Marxism. Based on this assumption, this article aims to present Michael Löwy's defense of an ecosocialist radicalization of the Marxist critique of modernity, a task for which Walter Benjamin's great refusal of the ideologies of progress is one of the critical sources of inspiration. To Michael Löwy, breaking away from the ideologies of progress and from the modern capitalistic civilizatory paradigm is a prerequisite for the ecosocialist updating of Marxism.
This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions (PUCs). Economic performance incentives established by state PUCs are applicable to the construction or operation of about 45 nuclear power reactors owned by 30 utilities in 17 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant
Full Text Available Mobile crowd sensing (MCS is a novel sensing paradigm which can sense human-centered daily activities and the surrounding environment. The impact of mobility and selfishness of participants on the data reliability cannot be ignored in most mobile crowd sensing systems. To address this issue, we present a universal system model based on the reverse auction framework and formulate the problem as the Multiple Quality Multiple User Selection (MQMUS problem. The quality-aware incentive mechanism (QAIM is proposed to meet the quality requirement of data reliability. We demonstrate that the proposed incentive mechanism achieves the properties of computational efficiency, individual rationality, and truthfulness. And meanwhile, we evaluate the performance and validate the theoretical properties of our incentive mechanism through extensive simulation experiments.
This paper analyzes the effect of federal corporate income tax incentives on coal and nuclear power developments. It estimates (1) the magnitudes of tax incentives in relationship to utility costs, (2) the relative magnitude of benefits going to coal and nuclear facilities, and (3) the influence which the time paths of tax payments and after-tax net income have upon possible incentives for premature construction and excess capacity. Utility planners currently believe that nuclear power enjoys an after-tax competitive advantage over coal plants. Investigation of investment-related credits, deductions, and exclusions in the Internal Revenue Code shows that nuclear power enjoys a more favorable tax subsidy because of its greater capital intensity. In the absence of tax subsidies, no utility would prefer nuclear power to coal generation. Tax changes now under consideration could increase the tax benefits to both without disturbing the differential advantage held by nuclear power. 43 references, 2 figures, 4 tables
Full Text Available Mobile crowdsourcing networks (MCNs are a promising method of data collecting and processing by leveraging the mobile devices’ sensing and computing capabilities. However, because of the selfish characteristics of the service provider (SP and mobile users (MUs, crowdsourcing participants only aim to maximize their own benefits. This paper investigates the incentive mechanism between the above two parties to create mutual benefits. By modeling MCNs as a labor market, a contract-based crowdsourcing model with moral hazard is proposed under the asymmetric information scenario. In order to incentivize the potential MUs to participate in crowdsourcing tasks, the optimization problem is formulated to maximize the SP’s utility by jointly examining the crowdsourcing participants’ risk preferences. The impact of crowdsourcing participants’ attitudes of risks on the incentive mechanism has been studied analytically and experimentally. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for the crowdsourcing incentive.
Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius
To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept...... consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...
This paper examines a self-enforced relational incentive contract between a risk neutral principal and a risk averse agent where the agent's human capital is essential in ex post realization of values. I analyse the effect of outside options on the optimal bonus level, showing how the presence of ex post outside options may impede desirable degrees of performance pay. The effect of risk aversion and incentive responsiveness is analysed by allowing for linear contracts. I show that the first order effect of these parameters are the same as in verifiable contracts, but second order effects show that the optimal bonus level's sensitivity to risk aversion and incentive responsiveness increases with the discount factor. The analysis has interesting implications on firm boundaries and specificity choices. (author)
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled......Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...
Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei
In a restructured power system, the monopoly generation utility is replaced by different electricity producers. There exists extreme price volatility caused by random failures by generation or/and transmission systems. In these cases, producers' profits can be much higher than those in the normal...... state. The reliability management of producers usually cannot be directly controlled by the system operators in a restructured power system. Producers may have no motivation to improve their reliabilities, which can result in serious system unreliability issues in the new environment. Incentive market...... mechanisms for improving the restructured power system reliabilities have been designed in this paper. In the proposed incentive mechanisms, penalty will be implemented on a producer if the failures of its generator(s) result in the variation of electricity prices. Incentive market mechanisms can motivate...
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the impact of tax incentives on research and development and compare its effectiveness to direct government support of research and development. The analysis is based on regression analysis, which compares effect of tax incentives for research and development and direct government support (as percentage of GDP in 28 countries of OECD in 2013 on innovative effectiveness of these countries measured by number of registered triadic patent families per billion GDP in the same year. Results suggest that tax incentives are more effective form of research and development support than direct government funding. Research also revealed interesting case of Switzerland’s research and development performance backed by almost none government support, which should be subject to future study.
We present an incentive-based architecture for providing recommendations in a social network. We maintain a distinct reputation system for each individual and we rely on users to identify appropriate correlations and rate the items using a system-provided recommendation language. The key idea is to design an incentive structure and a ranking system such that any inaccuracy in the recommendations implies the existence of a profitable arbitrage opportunity, hence making the system resistant to malicious spam and presentation bias. We also show that, under mild assumptions, our architecture provides users with incentive to minimize the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the ratings and the actual item qualities, quickly driving the system to an equilibrium state with accurate recommendations. Copyright 2009 ACM.
Langbroek, Joram H.M.; Franklin, Joel P.; Susilo, Yusak O.
In order to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles (EVs), packages of policy incentives are provided in many countries. However, it is still unclear how effective different policy incentives are. Also, it is questionable that they have the same impact on different groups of people. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effect of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption, as well as the influence of socio-psychological determinants are investigated, using constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The probability of stated EV-adoption increases if policy incentives are offered in the choice experiment, which is expected because of the decrease of the generalized cost of EV-use. The high stated valuation of free parking or access to bus lanes makes those incentives an efficient alternative to expensive subsidies. EV-adoption probability increases for people that are further in the process of behavioural change. However, the responsiveness to subsidies decreases for people in more advanced stages-of-change. People that believe EVs to be effective in decreasing the negative externalities of the current transport system and people whose travel patterns can cope with the use of EVs also have a higher probability to choose the EV. - Highlights: •Policy incentives have a positive influence on electric vehicle adoption. •Being in advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption increases likelihood to adopt EVs. •People in more advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption are less price-sensitive. •People with a high self-efficacy and response efficacy are more likely to adopt EVs.
Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte
This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...... to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...
APR EZT:: F I AN 73S e OsL:-: UNCLASSI?:-- Q4~.’~- .A.., 6, *~*i i~~*~~*.- U ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH UNKNOWN COST...AD-A161 885 ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH i/1 UNKNOWN COST FUNCTIONALSCU) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DECISION AND CONTROL LAB T...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7.. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION CoriaeLcenef~pda~ Joint Services Electronics Program Laboratory, Univ. of Illinois N/A
in Denmark that use publication incentive payments. Most often it is used when heads of department outside the humanities think it is a good idea to reward scholars financially for publications. In-depth analysis of the cases reveals, however, that department heads cannot only be divided between ‘believers......’ and ‘non-believers’. Almost half expressed confidence in that publication incentive payments motivate researchers to perform better, not because of the monetary reward, but because of the positive feedback signalled by the pay supplement...
Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph
We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...... and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed...
Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp
This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behavior of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely debt repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. A set of conditional estimates suggest that the main findings generalize to the majority of developing countries...
Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behaviour of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. Only countries that tend to vote predominantly with the US in the UN General Assembly are not significantly discouraged from...... servicing their debt by inflows of foreign aid....
Bláha, Michal; Trhlíková, Olga; Podešva, Jiří; Abbrent, Sabina; Steinhart, Miloš; Dybal, Jiří; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava
Roč. 74, č. 1 (2018), s. 58-67 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Aza-Michael addition * solvent-free * catalyst-free Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016
Murphy, Tonia Hap
This article describes the author's experience of incorporating Michael Novak's "Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life" into a Business Law course. The author views it as a positive addition to the course, one that may be of interest to her colleagues at other institutions. Accordingly, after an overview of Novak's analysis in…
Rachael L. Johnstone
Full Text Available A review of: Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic, Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013. pp. 314 + xviii, 65.00 GBP (hardcover; 16.56GBP (kindle edition ISBN: 9781107042759 ISBN: 9781107042759
Full Text Available Book notice of: Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann and Michael North (eds., Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia (Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2014. 348 pp. ISBN 978-90-8964-569-2. € 99,00.
Intervjuu Ameerika Ühendriikide ühe hinnatuma Venemaa-tundja, Stanfordi ülikooli professori ja endise suursaadikuga Venemaal Michael McFauliga viimasel ajal tekkinud USA-Venemaa vastasseisust Läänemerel ning Venemaa ja lääne suhetest
Zhang, Jun-Wei; Cai, Quan; Gu, Qing; Shi, Xiao-Xin; You, Shu-Li
Chiral phosphoric acid and Hoveyda-Grubbs II were found to catalyze an olefin cross-metathesis-intramolecular oxo-Michael cascade reaction of the ortho-allylphenols and enones to provide a variety of benzofuran and benzoxazine derivatives in moderate to good yields and enantioselectivity.
Mabry, John H.
Jack Michael was an early enthusiast for what is now called applied behavior analysis. His many seminal contributions were through early publications in applied behavior analysis and the work of the students he trained (e.g., T. Ayllon, M. M. Wolf). His close mentorship of students earned him acclaim as a teacher along with his many theoretical…
Michael, Kurt D.
Kurt Michael is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University (ASU) where he teaches history and systems of psychology, abnormal psychology, child psychopathology, and interventions for children and adolescents. He received his BA (cum laude) from the University of Colorado at Boulder and his MS and PhD in…
Substituted 2'-hydroxychalcones were found to give an equilibrium mixture of the starting chalcone and the corresponding flavanone inf 4.6-1:3 ratio in the presence of DBU gave two hitherto unknown diasteromeric dimers in a highly diastereoselective Michael addition of the carban...
Mead, Walter B.
This is intended as an introductory statement to the explorations undertaken in the essays that follow. The authors of these essays attempt to introduce the reader to some of the insights of Michael Polanyi and their implications for the reader who wishes to come to a greater understanding of modern technological society, which--for better or…
Sinha, Jasmine; Podgórski, Maciej; Huang, Sijia; Bowman, Christopher N
Multifunctional vinyl sulfonates and vinyl sulfonamides were conveniently synthesized and assessed in thiol-Michael crosslinking polymerizations. The monomer reactivities, mechanical behavior and hydrolytic properties were analyzed and compared with those of analogous thiol-acrylate polymerizations. Materials with a broad range of mechanical properties and diverse hydrolytic stabilities were obtained.
3. - 5. sept. 2001 toimus Riias sümpoosion "Unter diesem braunen Himmel. Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz und die deutsche Literatur des Baltikums", 7. - 9. sept. Tartus "Torm ja tung Liivimaal. Mässu mudelid", pühendatud J. M. R. Lenzi ja Kristian Jaak Petersoni loomingule. Ülevaade
Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.; Palmer, David C.
When the B. F. Skinner Foundation reprinted Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" in 1992, Jack Michael wrote one of its two forewords, a detailed outline of the book's purpose and scope. On the 60th anniversary of the first publication (1957) of "Verbal Behavior", Jack reflects on the book's impact and its importance to the…
Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015
In this webinar, long-time educator and developer of education technology Michael Jay discussed the importance of using technology to support learning and gave examples of how teachers can integrate technology into their instruction based on the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The PowerPoint presentation and…
N-heterocyclic carbenes have been utilised as highly efficient nucleophilic organocatalysts to mediate vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael reactions of 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan with enones to afford γ-substituted butenolides in 44-99% yield with 3:1-32:1 diastereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 43949, LLCA930000, 3810-FF-P] Public Land Order No. 7807: Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Camp Michael Monsoor Mountain Warfare and Training Facility, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order...
Ciobanu, A; Domente, L; Soltan, V; Bivol, S; Severin, L; Plesca, V; Van den Bergh, R; Kumar, A M V; de Colombani, P
Tuberculosis (TB) health facilities in the Republic of Moldova, where various incentives were provided to TB patients to improve treatment outcomes. To compare treatment outcomes among new drug-susceptible TB patients registered for treatment before (2008) and after (2011) introduction of incentives. Retrospective cohort study using data from the national electronic patient database and incentive registers. Of 2378 patients registered in 2011, 1895 (80%) received incentives (cash, food vouchers, travel reimbursement). Compared to 2008 (no incentives, n = 2492), the patients registered with incentives in 2011 had higher treatment success (88% vs. 79%, P Moldova.
Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie Snyder; Steven Taff; Joseph Schertz
This study assessed family forest owner interest in formally committing to the types of land use and management practices that characterize good stewardship if compensated for doing so, using Minnesota's Sustainable Forest Incentives Act (SFIA) as a proxy measure of forest stewardship. The SFIA provides an annual payment in return for obtaining and using a forest...
Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Services in Jakarta (Indonesia). Since 2001 Indonesia has been ... Sewer networks serve only a small proportion of the population, solid waste collection is inconsistent and waste disposal sites are inadequate. Cholera and malaria are ...
Jul 31, 2016 ... The use of incentives and material gains in elections has become a culture in Nigeria and voters had .... country's aggregate level of life satisfaction is able to account for the variance in vote shares in ... than they value their preferred political contender. Although social exchange theory proposes that social.
Full Text Available Corruption continues to dominate the business world in Easter Europe. Multinational corporations are legally obliged to prevent their employees from paying bribes. However, not all employees are willing to stick to the rules. Hence, additional control mechanisms seem to be needed. This article discusses whether whistleblowing incentives could help to combat bribery in multinational corporations.
Full Text Available This article takes an agency theory approach towards bribery in multinational corporations. In particular, it is advocated that incentives could help to align the interests of principals and agents and reduce information asymmetries. This could help to increase anti-bribery compliance and hence support the fight against corruption in Eastern Europe.
This article takes an agency theory approach towards bribery in multinational corporations. In particular, it is advocated that incentives could help to align the interests of principals and agents and reduce information asymmetries. This could help to increase anti-bribery compliance and hence support the fight against corruption in Eastern Europe.
Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura
Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…
L.W. Kranenburg (Leonieke); A. Schram (Andre); W.C. Zuidema (Wilij); W. Weimar (Willem); M.T. Hilhorst (Medard); E. Hessing (Ellen); J. Passchier (Jan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)
textabstractBackground. One of the most fiercely debated strategies to increase the number of kidneys for transplantation is the introduction of financial incentives. As the success of such strategy largely depends on public support, we performed a public survey on this topic. Methods. We developed
Dijkstra, BR; Haan, M
Cason (1993, J. Environ. Econom, Management 25, 177-195, doi:10.1006/jeem 1993.1041) argued that the auction which the EPA used in order to start the market for sulfur allowances may reduce the efficiency of the market since it gives sellers an incentive to understate their valuation. In this paper
Health spending 133. MMJ 26(4) December 2014 www.mmj.medcol.mw. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi. Abstract. This analysis examines ... This is largely due to poverty, inadequate financing of health care ... The disease burden. Common to other sub-Saharan African countries, Malawi's.
... relationship of total final negotiated cost to total target cost. The final price is subject to a price ceiling, negotiated at the outset. The two forms of fixed-price incentive contracts, firm target and successive... becomes apparent that final negotiated cost will be substantially different from the target cost. [48 FR...
... Price Incentive (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The Target profit of this contract is $___. The target price (target cost plus target profit) of this contract is $___. [The ceiling price is $___.] The cost sharing for target cost underruns is: Government ___percent; Contractor...
... credit the next payment voucher for the amount due, as directed by the Contracting Officer. (2) When the performance level exceeds the standard level, the Contractor may request payment of the incentive amount associated with a given level of performance, provided that such payments shall not be more frequent than...
Ghosh, C.; Giambona, E.; Harding, J.P.; Sirmans, C.F.
We examine the influence of managerial incentives, traditional managerial monitoring mechanisms and managerial entrenchment on the capital structure of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). Using panel data, we estimate a system of simultaneous equations for leverage and maturity and find that
J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)
textabstractCivil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive
Sloof, R.; Sonnemans, J.
We consider repeated trust game experiments to study the interplay between explicit and relational incentives. After having gained experience with two payoff variations of the trust game, subjects in the final part explicitly choose which of these two variants to play. Theory predicts that subjects
M.A. Carree (Martin); A.R. Thurik (Roy)
textabstractIn this study the determinants of entry and exit and the interrelationship between these market phenomena are investigated. We examine incentives, barriers, displacement and replacement for a panel data-set of 23 Dutch shoptypes for the 1981–1988 period. Results indicate that profit as a
Søgaard, Jakob Egholt; Anton Schultz, Esben; Schaarup, Jonas Zielke
We exploit a temporary tax rebate introduced in Denmark in 2008 to estimate the effect of financial incentives on retirement decisions. The scheme offered individuals in a limited number of cohorts a tax rebate of up to 100,000 DKK (approximately $20,000) if they stayed on the labor market until...
Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.
This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education…
Participation in decision-making process, incentives and training as predictors of organizational commitment among industrial workers. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Results indicated that the three motivational factors jointly and significantly predicted organizational commitment. Also, each ...
The study investigated the effects of incentive and gender on computer skill acquisition. The participants comprised of 40 (20 males and 20 females) Diploma II students of International Management and Finance Institute, (IMFI) Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The participants were selected through a simple random sampling.
Bauries, Scott R.
Pursuant to the recommendations and findings in Dr. Barnett Berry's policy brief, the proposed set of legislative enactments presented in this paper offers both monetary incentives and positive working conditions requirements likely to further three goals: (a) cause more effective teachers to choose to work in high-need schools and fields, (b)…
Forbringer, Linda L.
Special educators frequently provide consultation for parents and general education teachers who are struggling to manage student behavior. One intervention often discussed is the use of rewards to increase student motivation. While research has shown that well-designed incentive systems can provide an effective intervention, poorly designed…
Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.
– The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.
– The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...
Rosi Dagit; Cy Carlberg; Christy Cuba; Thomas Scott
Numerous ordinances and laws recognize the value of oak trees and woodlands, and dictate serious and expensive consequences for removing or harming them. Unfortunately, the methods used to calculate these values are equally numerous and often inconsistent. More important, these ordinances typically lack economic incentives to avoid impacts to oak woodland values...
based on respect, trust, teamwork, commitment and shared goals. (OGC, 2003: online). Lu & Yan (2007: 243) establish .... awareness of the role of groups in the workplace (Mayo's theory), and the need to provide motivators ... importance of designing an incentive plan to incorporate both financial and non-financial metrics.
.... Overview Information Teacher Incentive Fund; General TIF Competition and TIF Competition with a Focus on... implementation of the TIF-funded PBCS are high-need schools (as defined in this notice), including high-poverty...-poverty school listed, the most current data on the percentage of students who are eligible for free or...
Reiter, Kristin L; Nahra, Tammie A; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wheeler, John R C
Not-for-profit hospitals are complex organizations and, therefore, may face unique challenges in responding to financial incentives for quality. In this research, we explore the types of behavioural changes made by not-for-profit Michigan hospitals in response to a pay-for-performance system for quality. We also identify factors that motivate or facilitate changes in effort. We apply a conceptual framework based on agency theory to motivate our research questions. Using data derived from structured interviews and surveys administered to 86 hospitals participating in a pay-for-performance system, we compare hospitals reporting and not reporting behavioural changes. Separate analyses are performed for hospitals reporting structure-related changes and hospitals reporting process-related changes. Our findings confirm that hospitals respond to incentive payments; however, our findings also reveal that hospital responses are not universal. Rather, involvement by boards of trustees, willingness to exert leverage with physicians, and financial and competitive motivations are all associated with hospitals' behavioural responses to incentives. Results of this research will help inform payers and hospital managers considering the use of incentives about the nature of hospitals' responses.
van Herpen, M.; Cools, K.; van Praag, C.M.
This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their consequent incentive effects empirically. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. Our findings indicate
Charles H. Wolf
An attendance bonus paid by a wood processing firm was studied to determine its effectiveness in reducing absenteeism. Employees were divided into permanent and short-term groups, and their response to the bonus was studied, using non-parametric tests. The evidence suggested that the incentive favorably influenced the work attendance of only the permanent group....
Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Tselios, Vassilis
This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100 ON European individuals, we show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people-based and household-based effects
Leveraging on the outcomes, therefore, a Tax Incentive – Corporate Profitability Impact Model (TICPIM) is conceptualized and presented herein, to accord meaningful impetus to a pragmatic proprietary system advocacy (PPSA), which is expedient for the Nigerian economy. It is expected that these tax appeals and ideals ...
Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Services in Jakarta (Indonesia). Since 2001 Indonesia has been undergoing large-scale decentralization, transferring various responsibilities to regional and local governments. Local governments are now responsible for water and ...
Norde, Henk; Ozen, Ulas; Slikker, Marco
We study incentive issues seen in a firm performing global planning and manufacturing, and local demand management. The stochastic demands in local markets are best observed by the regional business units, and the firm relies on the business units’ forecasts for planning of global manufacturing
Jul 26, 2012 ... indication of growing concern for economic growth and sustainable development. These tax ... and Klemm (2004) mainly relate to impact of investment subsidies and application of tax incentives on ... Income tax was first introduced in Nigeria in 1904, and this was charged on the income of individuals, not ...
... financial officer, chief investment officer, chief legal officer, chief lending officer, chief risk officer... Mac: The Chairman of the Board of Directors, chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief... aspects of financial oversight, can play an important role in helping ensure that incentive compensation...
Humphrey, Daniel C.; Gallagher, H. Alix; Yee, Kaily M.; Goss, G. Kyle; Campbell, Ashley Z.; Cassidy, Lauren J.; Mitchell, Nyema M.
The Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) supports projects that are designed to reform teacher and principal compensation. Initially, the Department of Education (the Department) made two rounds of awards, in 2006 and 2007, to a total of 34 grantees. The specific goals of TIF were to reward teachers and principals for improving student achievement,…
Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.
A vast body of empirical studies lends support to the incentive effects of rankorder tournaments. Evidence comes from experiments in laboratories and non-experimental studies exploiting sports or firm data. Selection of competitors across tournaments may bias these non-experimental studies, whereas
Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klauw, B.
A vast body of empirical studies lends support to the incentive effects of rankorder tournaments. Direct evidence comes from experiments in laboratories or from non-experimental sports events (golf, tennis). The short duration of the tasks at hand or the lack of distractors may, however, limit the
... incentives do not work in incomplete food agricultural marketing systems. Implied is that making food agriculture an effective poverty reduction tool requires both medium – and long-term state-led investments in processing and food market outlet development. This position revives the argument that the role of the state in ...
Zuiches, James J.
This article reports on an assessment of North Carolina State University's Extension, Engagement, and Economic Development Seed Grant Program (2004-2009). The research questions addressed the extent to which the grants (1) stimulated faculty interest in the engagement and outreach mission of the university; (2) served as incentives for faculty…
Mills, Melinda; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; McDonald, Peter; Velde, Egbert Te
BACKGROUND: Never before have parents in most Western societies had their first children as late as in recent decades. What are the central reasons for postponement? What is known about the link between the delay of childbearing and social policy incentives to counter these trends? This review
J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to eligible hospitals. 495.104... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY... hospitals. (a) General rule. A qualifying hospital (as defined in this subpart) must receive the special...
van Herpen, M.; Cools, C.; van Praag, M.
This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their incentive effects within one firm. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. We furthermore show that a promotion
Fabio Mascaro Querido
Full Text Available Partindo da concreticidade da crise ecológica e das transformações contemporâneas no âmbito dos processos de acumulação capitalista, o objetivo geral deste artigo é versar algumas notas preliminares a propósito da perspectiva teórica e política do assim chamado ecossocialismo, tal qual formulado em Michael Löwy. “Corrente de pensamento e de ação” cuja resposta à crise ecológica, a um só tempo romântica e socialista, constitui igualmente uma crítica às potencialidades destrutivas contidas no interior do paradigma societário e produtivo da modernidade. Neste trajeto, busca -se uma aproximação à apropriação löwiniana da obra de Walter Benjamin, especialmente de sua crítica do “progresso” moderno e das ideologias apologetas da “modernização”. Almeja -se assim antever a forma através da qual Michael Löwy e os ecossocialistas respondem às profundas transformações da (pós modernidade capitalista contemporânea, com ênfase particular sobre um argumento central projetado na obra do intelectual franco -brasileiro, qual seja: a defesa da necessidade de que o marxismo radicalize “sua crítica da modernidade, do paradigma da civilização ocidental, industrial, moderna, burguesa” (LÖWY, 2000c, p.242, argumento que o levaria, já em meados da década de 1980, a valorizar as potencialidades revolucionárias subjacentes a crítica romântica da modernidade. Por fim, indaga -se sobre a projeção ecossocialista da necessidade de superação revolucionária do paradigma civilizatório propalado pelo capitalismo moderno
Full Text Available O conjunto das três entrevistas que seguem aborda a mesma temática, isto é, aspectos de tradução/adaptação em geral e da tradução do romance Estive em Lisboa e lembrei de você de Luiz Ruffato em particular. O romance de Ruffato foi escrito em 2009, editado em Portugal (Quetzal, 2010 e traduzido para diferentes línguas, como italiano (La Nuova Frontiera, 2011, espanhol (Eterna Cadencia, 2011, francês (Chandeigne, 2015, alemão (Assoziation A, 2016 e, nos próximos meses será publicado em finlandês (Into. O livro foi adaptado para o cinema em 2015, pelo cineasta português José Barahona, sendo exibido em festivais nacionais e internacionais. As entrevistas abaixo foram feitas com os tradutores Gian Luigi De Rosa, Mathieu Dosse e Michael Kegler em 2016. Gian Luigi De Rosa (Itália/1969-- possui doutorado em “Culture e Istituzioni dei paesi di lingue iberiche in età moderna e contemporanea” e é professor de português na Universidade do Salento, em Lecce. É autor de livros e ensaios sobre língua e linguística portuguesa, literatura portuguesa e brasileira e tradução audiovisual e intersemiótica. É também responsável pela elaboração das legendas em italiano do filme Estive em Lisboa e lembrei de você. Mathieu Dosse (Brasil/1978-- é formado pela Université Paris 8, onde estudou Teoria da Tradução. Traduziu para o francês Graciliano Ramos, Luiz Ruffato e João Guimarães Rosa. Michael Kegler (Alemanha/1967-- estudou literatura brasileira e portuguesa na universidade de Frankfurt, sem concluir o curso. Trabalhou como livreiro no Centro do Livro de Língua Portuguesa, antes de se tornar tradutor literário. Traduziu para o alemão José Eduardo Agualusa, Moacyr Scliar, Luiz Ruffato, entre outros autores. Em julho de 2016, junto com Ruffato, recebeu o prêmio literário Hermann Hesse na Alemanha, pela qualidade da obra publicada em conjunto com a sua tradução.
Kihm, Steve [Seventhware, Madison, WI (United States); Beecher, Janice [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Inst. of Public Utilities; Lehr, Ronald L.
Electric power is America's most capital-intensive industry, with more than $100 billion invested each year in energy infrastructure. Investment needs are likely to grow as electric utilities make power systems more reliable and resilient, deploy advanced digital technologies, and facilitate new services to meet some consumers' expectations for greater choice and control. But do current regulatory approaches provide the appropriate incentives for grid modernization investments? This report presents three perspectives: -Financial analyst Steve Kihm begins by explaining that any major investor-owned electric utility that wants to raise capital today can do so at a reasonable cost. The question is whether utility managers want to raise capital for grid modernization. Specifically, they look for investments that create the most value for their existing shareholders. In cases where grid modernization investments are not the best choice in terms of shareholder value, Kihm describes shareholder incentive mechanisms that regulators could consider to encourage such investments when they are in the public interest. -From an institutional perspective, Dr. Janice Beecher finds that the traditional rate-base/rate of return regulatory model provides powerful incentives for utilities to pursue investments, cost control, efficiency and even innovation, and it is well suited to the policy objectives of grid modernization. Prudence of grid modernization investments (fair returns) depends on careful evaluation of the specific asset, and any special incentives (bonus returns) should be used only if they promote economic efficiency consistent with the core goals of economic regulation. According to Beecher, realizing the promises of grid modernization depends on effective implementation of the traditional regulatory model and ratemaking tools to serve the public interest. -Conversely, former commissioner and clean energy consultant Ron Lehr says that rapid electric industry