WorldWideScience

Sample records for incentives financial incentives

  1. Financial incentives and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Industry Related Financial Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-29

    insurance is loss "realry" for middle managers. Does not participate in insurance mutual pacts. -CE 53HT Propoerty rnsurance nandied by off- snore captive [ E...incentives. Preparedness activities had the greatest impact on production interruption. Goodyear explained that sound , well rehearsed emergency plans and...response activities followed a pattern similar to preparedness activities. The experts determined that sound response procedures and proper response

  3. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between ?nudging,? which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The lit...

  4. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  5. Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies. market far less lucrative than for other diseases, which results in chronic underinvestment; reduced investment in TB drug R&D,. Pfizer withdrawal from TB R&D; AstraZeneca abandon TB R&D & close site; Novartis pull out; 4/22 Big Pharma producing antibacterials ...

  6. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  7. Financial Incentives for Steering Education and Training. Getting Skills Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: (1) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; (2) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; (3)…

  8. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  9. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  10. Offering Financial Incentives to Increase Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highton-Williamson, Elizabeth; Barnicot, Kirsten; Kareem, Tarrannum; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Financial incentives for medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders are controversial. It is not yet known whether fears expressed by clinicians are borne out in reality. We aimed to explore community mental health clinicians’ experiences of the consequences of giving patients with psychotic disorders a financial incentive to take their depot medication. We implemented descriptive and thematic analyses of semistructured interviews with the clinicians of patients assigned to receive incentives within a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-nine clinicians were interviewed with regard to the effect of the incentives on 73 of the 78 patients allocated to receive incentives in the trial. Most commonly, the clinicians reported benefits for clinical management including improved adherence, contact, patient monitoring, communication, and trust (n = 52). Positive effects on symptoms, insight, or social functioning were reported for some (n = 33). Less commonly, problems for patient management were reported (n = 19) such as monetarization of the therapeutic relationship or negative consequences for the patient (n = 15) such as increased drug and alcohol use. Where requests for increased money occurred, they were rapidly resolved. It seems that, in most cases, the clinicians found that using incentives led to benefits for patient management and for patient health. However, in 33% of cases, some adverse effects were reported. It remains unclear whether certain clinical characteristics are associated with increased risk for adverse effects of financial incentives. The likelihood of benefit versus the smaller risk for adverse effects should be weighed up when deciding whether to offer incentives to individual patients. PMID:25692797

  11. Review: Pharmaceutical policies : effects of financial incentives for prescribers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, H.; Austvoll-Dahlgren, A.; Aaserud, M.; Oxman, A. D.; Ramsay, C.; Vernby, A.; Koesters, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals, while central to medical therapy, pose a significant burden to health care budgets. Therefore regulations to control prescribing costs and improve quality of care are implemented increasingly. These include the use of financial incentives for prescribers, namely increased

  12. Using financial incentives to improve value in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, David; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bozic, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    A variety of reforms to traditional approaches to provider payment and benefit design are being implemented in the United States. There is increasing interest in applying these financial incentives to orthopaedics, although it is unclear whether and to what extent they have been implemented and whether they increase quality or reduce costs. We reviewed and discussed physician- and patient-oriented financial incentives being implemented in orthopaedics, key challenges, and prerequisites to payment reform and value-driven payment policy in orthopaedics. We searched the MEDLINE database using as search terms various provider payment and consumer incentive models. We retrieved a total of 169 articles; none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. For incentive models known to the authors to be in use in orthopaedics but for which no peer-reviewed literature was found, we searched Google for further information. Provider financial incentives reviewed include payments for reporting, performance, and patient safety and episode payment. Patient incentives include tiered networks, value-based benefit design, reference pricing, and value-based purchasing. Reform of financial incentives for orthopaedic surgery is challenged by (1) lack of a payment/incentive model that has demonstrated reductions in cost trends and (2) the complex interrelation of current pay schemes in today's fragmented environment. Prerequisites to reform include (1) a reliable and complete data infrastructure; (2) new business structures to support cost sharing; and (3) a retooling of patient expectations. There is insufficient literature reporting the effects of various financial incentive models under implementation in orthopaedics to know whether they increase quality or reduce costs. National concerns about cost will continue to drive experimentation, and all anticipated innovations will require improved collaboration and data collection and reporting.

  13. [Financial incentives in improving healthcare quality. SESPAS Report 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirea Eiras, Carlos; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2012-03-01

    We address the contribution of financial incentives linked to pay for performance (P4P) to improving the quality of care. The situation of P4P is analyzed internationally and in the distinct health services in Spain. The participation of P4P in wage compensation and the effects of the current economic crisis on these incentives is discussed. We review the results of recent studies to clarify the role of these incentive models and assess possible orientations and new proposals. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  15. Financial Recruitment Incentive Programs for Nursing Personnel in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana

    2015-03-01

    Financial incentives are increasingly offered to recruit nursing personnel to work in underserved communities. The authors describe and compare the characteristics of federal, provincial and territorial financial recruitment incentive programs for registered nurses (RNs), nurse practitioners (NPs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), registered practical nurses or registered psychiatric nurses. The authors identified incentive programs from government, health ministry and student aid websites and by contacting program officials. Only government-funded recruitment programs providing funding beyond the normal employee wages and benefits and requiring a service commitment were included. The authors excluded programs offered by hospitals, regional or private firms, and programs that rewarded retention. All provinces and territories except QC and NB offer financial recruitment incentive programs for RNs; six provinces (BC, AB, SK, ON, QC and NL) offer programs for NPs, and NL offers a program for LPNs. Programs include student loan forgiveness, tuition forgiveness, education bursaries, signing bonuses and relocation expenses. Programs target trainees, recent graduates and new hires. Funding and service requirements vary by program, and service requirements are not always commensurate with funding levels. This snapshot of government-funded recruitment incentives provides program managers with data to compare and improve nursing workforce recruitment initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  16. Public survey of financial incentives for kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W. Kranenburg (Leonieke); A. Schram (Andre); W.C. Zuidema (Wilij); W. Weimar (Willem); M.T. Hilhorst (Medard); E. Hessing (Ellen); J. Passchier (Jan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. One of the most fiercely debated strategies to increase the number of kidneys for transplantation is the introduction of financial incentives. As the success of such strategy largely depends on public support, we performed a public survey on this topic. Methods. We developed

  17. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health spending 133. MMJ 26(4) December 2014 www.mmj.medcol.mw. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi. Abstract. This analysis examines ... This is largely due to poverty, inadequate financing of health care ... The disease burden. Common to other sub-Saharan African countries, Malawi's.

  18. The Effects of Financial Incentives on Retirement Decisions:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt; Anton Schultz, Esben; Schaarup, Jonas Zielke

    2013-01-01

    We exploit a temporary tax rebate introduced in Denmark in 2008 to estimate the effect of financial incentives on retirement decisions. The scheme offered individuals in a limited number of cohorts a tax rebate of up to 100,000 DKK (approximately $20,000) if they stayed on the labor market until...

  19. The influence of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry on the nation's family forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; John L. Greene; Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; Steven E. Daniels

    2006-01-01

    Financial incentive programs were evaluated to assess their contribution to promoting sustainable forestry practices on the nation’s family forests. The evaluation consisted of an extensive review of the literature on financial incentive programs, a mail survey of the lead administrator of financial incentive programs in each state forestry agency, and focus groups...

  20. Financial Incentives to Enable Clean Energy Deployment: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Financial incentives have been widely implemented by governments around the world to support scaled up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices. As of 2015, at least 48 countries have adopted financial incentives to support renewable energy and energy efficiency deployment. Broader clean energy strategies and plans provide a crucial foundation for financial incentives that often complement regulatory policies such as renewable energy targets, standards, and other mandates. This policy brief provides a primer on key financial incentive design elements, lessons from different country experiences, and curated support resources for more detailed and country-specific financial incentive design information.

  1. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer-reviewed r......Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  2. Improving the cost effectiveness of financial incentives in managing travel demand management (TDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Providing financial incentives to commuters to use alternative modes is a common element of managing transportation demand. Although these incentives have become common during the past two decades as elements of transportation demand management (TDM)...

  3. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David; Bauld, Linda; Purves, David; Boyd, Kathleen; Sinclair, Lesley; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Friel, Brenda; McConnachie, Alex; de Caestecker, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; Radley, Andrew; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-27

    To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 612 self reported pregnant smokers in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde who were English speaking, at least 16 years of age, less than 24 weeks pregnant, and had an exhaled carbon monoxide breath test result of 7 ppm or more. 306 women were randomised to incentives and 306 to control. The control group received routine care, which was the offer of a face to face appointment to discuss smoking and cessation and, for those who attended and set a quit date, the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy for 10 weeks provided by pharmacy services, and four, weekly support phone calls. The intervention group received routine care plus the offer of up to £400 of shopping vouchers: £50 for attending a face to face appointment and setting a quit date; then another £50 if at four weeks' post-quit date exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed quitting; a further £100 was provided for continued validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide after 12 weeks; a final £200 voucher was provided for validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide at 34-38 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was cotinine verified cessation at 34-38 weeks' gestation through saliva (<14.2 ng/mL) or urine (<44.7 ng/mL). Secondary outcomes included birth weight, engagement, and self reported quit at four weeks. Recruitment was extended from 12 to 15 months to achieve the target sample size. Follow-up continued until September 2013. Of the 306 women randomised, three controls opted out soon after enrolment; these women did not want their data to be used, leaving 306 intervention and 303 control group participants in the

  4. The role of behavioral economic incentive design and demographic characteristics in financial incentive-based approaches to changing health behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, Nancy; Patel, Mitesh S; Lim, Raymond; Zhu, Jingsan; Troxel, Andrea B; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the use of behavioral economics to design financial incentives to promote health behavior change and to explore associations with demographic characteristics. Studies performed by the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics at the University of Pennsylvania published between January 2006 and March 2014. Randomized, controlled trials with available participant-level data. Studies that did not use financial incentives to promote health behavior change were excluded. Participant-level data from seven studies were pooled. Meta-analysis on the pooled sample using a random-effects model with interaction terms to examine treatment effects and whether they varied by incentive structure or demographic characteristics. The pooled study sample comprised 1403 participants, of whom 35% were female, 70% were white, 24% were black, and the mean age was 48 years (standard deviation 11.2 years). In the fully adjusted model, participants offered financial incentives had higher odds of behavior change (odds ratio [OR]: 3.96; p financial incentives and gender, age, race, income, or education. When further adjusting for incentive structure, blacks had higher odds than whites of achieving behavior change (OR: 1.67; p Financial incentives designed using concepts from behavioral economics were effective for promoting health behavior change. There were no large and consistent relationships between the effectiveness of financial incentives and observable demographic characteristics. Second-order examinations of incentive structure suggest potential relationships among the effectiveness of financial incentives, incentive structure, and the demographic characteristics of race and income.

  5. Entrepreneurship and Financial Incentives of Return, Risk, and Skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Peter; Hartog, Joop; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the role of the opportunity cost in the choice for entrepreneurship in favor of wage employment, that is, the wages given up as an employee. We argue that just like outside observers, potential entrepreneurs will face great difficulty to predict their earnings from entrepreneurship....... The focus on earnings forgone may help to solve the lack of robust empirical support for the effect of financial incentives on the decision to become an entrepreneur. We find, consistent with standard theory, that a higher mean, lower variance, and higher skew in the relevant wage distribution reduce...... the likelihood of entrepreneurship....

  6. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics? We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Cash or shopping voucher-type financial incentives for healthy behaviours are

  7. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Giles

    Full Text Available Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics?We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets; value of incentive (a continuous variable; schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained; other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both; and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women.Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment.Cash or shopping voucher-type financial incentives for healthy

  8. Acceptability of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging uptake of healthy behaviours: focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-31

    There is evidence that financial incentive interventions, which include both financial rewards and also penalties, are effective in encouraging healthy behaviours. However, concerns about the acceptability of such interventions remain. We report on focus groups with a cross-section of adults from North East England exploring their acceptance of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviours amongst adults. Such information should help guide the design and development of acceptable, and effective, financial incentive interventions. Eight focus groups with a total of 74 adults were conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Focus groups lasted approximately 60 minutes and explored factors that made financial incentives acceptable and unacceptable to participants, together with discussions on preferred formats for financial incentives. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and analysed in Nvivo 10. Participants largely distrusted health promoting financial incentives, with a concern that individuals may abuse such schemes. There was, however, evidence that health promoting financial incentives may be more acceptable if they are fair to all recipients and members of the public; if they are closely monitored and evaluated; if they are shown to be effective and cost-effective; and if clear health education is provided alongside health promoting financial incentives. There was also a preference for positive rewards rather than negative penalties, and for shopping vouchers rather than cash incentives. This qualitative empirical research has highlighted clear suggestions on how to design health promoting financial incentives to maximise acceptability to the general public. It will also be important to determine the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives in a range of stakeholders, and in particular, those who fund such schemes, and policy-makers who are likely to be involved with the design

  9. Legal and institutional implications of providing financial incentives to encourage the development of solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, R. J.

    1979-07-01

    The legal basis to provide financial incentives is found in the enumerated powers of the Constitution for the exercise of federal authority, the police and tax powers for the exercise of state authority, and state delegated powers for the exercise of local authority. These powers are limited by the federal and state constitutions, and the scope of delegated authority. The major types of financial incentives are tax incentives, including income tax deductions and credits, accelerated depreciation allowances, tax-exempt bonds, and reduction in property and sales taxes; loan incentives, including low interest loans, government guaranteed and insured loans, and elimination of statutory and secondary market constraints; and government transfer incentives, including grants in aid from all levels of government. Other incentives that will indirectly affect the financing and availability of solar energy technologies include eliminating or reducing financial incentives benefiting competitive energy sources, government action to insure the operation of solar energy equipment, government-sponsored education, research, and development programs, government demonstration and procurement programs, and placing priority on rapid passage of solar energy legislation dealing with financial incentives. In most cases, a financial incentives program constituting one or more of these incentives will probably not confront any major, unique, legal or institutional impediments. The minor impediments that do exist can usually be eliminated by preventive legislation.

  10. Financial incentives for healthy behavior: ethical safeguards for behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2013-06-01

    Economic incentives to promote healthy behavior are becoming increasingly common and have been suggested as an approach to decreasing healthcare costs. Ethical concerns about programs with such incentives are that they may contribute to inequities, be coercive, interfere with therapeutic relationships, undermine personal responsibility for health, and decrease social solidarity. Additionally, they may be a source of stigma or discrimination, promote dependence, and be unfair for those already engaged in targeted health behaviors or those who cannot fulfill the incentivized behaviors. Incentive programs need to incorporate appropriate safeguards to monitor these risks and support fairness in offering economic incentives to promote healthy behavior. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Financial Incentives and Physician Practice Participation in Medicare's Value-Based Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitz, Adam A; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-07-26

    To evaluate whether greater experience and success with performance incentives among physician practices are related to increased participation in Medicare's voluntary value-based payment reforms. Publicly available data from Medicare's Physician Compare (n = 1,278; January 2012 to November 2013) and nationally representative physician practice data from the National Survey of Physician Organizations 3 (NSPO3; n = 907,538; 2013). We used regression analysis to examine practice-level relationships between prior exposure to performance incentives and participation in key Medicare value-based payment reforms: accountable care organization (ACO) programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System ("Physician Compare"), and the Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology program ("Meaningful Use"). Prior experience and success with financial incentives were measured as (1) the percentage of practices' revenue from financial incentives for quality or efficiency; and (2) practices' exposure to public reporting of quality measures. We linked physician participation data from Medicare's Physician Compare to the NSPO3 survey. There was wide variation in practices' exposure to performance incentives, with 64 percent exposed to financial incentives, 45 percent exposed to public reporting, and 2.2 percent of practice revenue coming from financial incentives. For each percentage-point increase in financial incentives, there was a 0.9 percentage-point increase in the probability of participating in ACOs (standard error [SE], 0.1, p Financial incentives were not associated with participation in Physician Compare. Among ACO participants, a 1 percentage-point increase in incentives was associated with a 0.7 percentage-point increase in the probability of being "very well" prepared to utilize cost and quality data (SE, 0.1, p financial incentives with additional efforts to address the needs of practices with less experience with such incentives to promote value-based payment

  12. Financial incentives for exercise adherence in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marc S; Goodman, Jack M; Alter, David A; John, Leslie K; Oh, Paul I; Pakosh, Maureen T; Faulkner, Guy E

    2013-11-01

    Less than 5% of U.S. adults accumulate the required dose of exercise to maintain health. Behavioral economics has stimulated renewed interest in economic-based, population-level health interventions to address this issue. Despite widespread implementation of financial incentive-based public health and workplace wellness policies, the effects of financial incentives on exercise initiation and maintenance in adults remain unclear. A systematic search of 15 electronic databases for RCTs reporting the impact of financial incentives on exercise-related behaviors and outcomes was conducted in June 2012. A meta-analysis of exercise session attendance among included studies was conducted in April 2013. A qualitative analysis was conducted in February 2013 and structured along eight features of financial incentive design. Eleven studies were included (N=1453; ages 18-85 years and 50% female). Pooled results favored the incentive condition (z=3.81, p1 year), and two studies found exercise adherence persisted after the incentive was withdrawn. Promising incentive design feature attributes were noted. Assured, or "sure thing," incentives and objective behavioral assessment in particular appear to moderate incentive effectiveness. Previously sedentary adults responded favorably to incentives 100% of the time (n=4). The effect estimate from the meta-analysis suggests that financial incentives increase exercise session attendance for interventions up to 6 months in duration. Similarly, a simple count of positive (n=8) and null (n=3) effect studies suggests that financial incentives can increase exercise adherence in adults in the short term (<6 months). © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  13. Irregular incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicchetti, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Public utility regulation lacks a formal proxy for the economic profits that can be earned in an effectively competitive market if a firm is efficient or innovative. After all, public utility regulation operated on cost-plus basis. If a utility is efficient or innovative and lowers its costs, its typical reward is to have its rates reduced. This is a perverse incentive to motivate a utility to produce at the most efficient level. In addition, since regulation operates on this cost-plus basis, a utility can increase its net income, all other things being equal, by overinvesting in (or open-quotes gold-platingclose quotes) its system, another perverse incentive. Recognizing these flaws of regulation, academicians, utility executives, regulators, and legislators have tried over the last several years to implement incentive regulation plans that correct such perverse incentives. However, under many of the earnings-sharing or price-regulation incentive plans, the rewards for efficient production are not tied directly to measures under a company's control. In fact, such plans could prove highly detrimental to ratepayers and competitors of the regulated company and its affiliates. An incentive regulation plan that ties an appropriate reward for efficient production to specific efficiency gains is a better proxy of an effectively competitive environment. What's more, it is superior to an incentive plan that rewards circumstances beyond the company's control or self-serving manipulation. This is particularly true if no earnings cap is associated with the reward for efficiency. Rewards for efficient production should be tied to specific actions. A suitable incentive plan does not preclude appropriately derived flexible prices for certain products or services where warranted

  14. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace....

  15. Financial incentives and maternal health: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Balster, Robert L; Bellows, Ben W; Brandes, Neal; Comfort, Alison B; Eichler, Rena; Glassman, Amanda; Hatt, Laurel E; Conlon, Claudia M; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Health financing strategies that incorporate financial incentives are being applied in many low- and middle-income countries, and improving maternal and neonatal health is often a central goal. As yet, there have been few reviews of such programmes and their impact on maternal health. The US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives was convened on 24-25 April 2012 to address this gap. This article, the final in a series assessing the effects of financial incentives--performance-based incentives (PBIs), insurance, user fee exemption programmes, conditional cash transfers, and vouchers--summarizes the evidence and discusses issues of context, programme design and implementation, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. We suggest key areas to consider when designing and implementing financial incentive programmes for enhancing maternal health and highlight gaps in evidence that could benefit from additional research. Although the methodological rigor of studies varies, the evidence, overall, suggests that financial incentives can enhance demand for and improve the supply of maternal health services. Definitive evidence demonstrating a link between incentives and improved health outcomes is lacking; however, the evidence suggests that financial incentives can increase the quantity and quality of maternal health services and address health systems and financial barriers that prevent women from accessing and providers from delivering quality, lifesaving maternal healthcare.

  16. Corruption of pharmaceutical markets: addressing the misalignment of financial incentives and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains how the current architecture of the pharmaceutical markets has created a misalignment of financial incentives and public health that is a central cause of harmful practices. It explores three possible solutions to address that misalignment: taxes, increased financial penalties, and drug pricing based on value. Each proposal could help to partly realign financial incentives and public health. However, because of the limits of each proposal, there is no easy solution to fixing the problem of financial incentives. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Impact of financial incentives on behavior change program participation and risk reduction in worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than $100 and those with incentives of $100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.

  18. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries to...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace.......How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...

  19. A moderate financial incentive can increase effort, but not intelligence test performance in adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Gilles E

    2018-02-10

    A positive correlation between self-reported test-taking motivation and intelligence test performance has been reported. Additionally, some financial incentive experimental evidence suggests that intelligence test performance can be improved, based on the provision of financial incentives. However, only a small percentage of the experimental research has been conducted with adults. Furthermore, virtually none of the intelligence experimental research has measured the impact of financial incentives on test-taking motivation. Consequently, we conducted an experiment with 99 adult volunteers who completed a battery of intelligence tests under two conditions: no financial incentive and financial incentive (counterbalanced). We also measured self-reported test-taking importance and effort at time 1 and time 2. The financial incentive was observed to impact test-taking effort statistically significantly. By contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for the intelligence test performance scores. Finally, the intelligence test scores were found to correlate positively with both test-taking importance (r c  = .28) and effort (r c  = .37), although only effort correlated uniquely with intelligence (partial r c  = .26). In conjunction with other empirical research, it is concluded that a financial incentive can increase test-taking effort. However, the potential effects on intelligence test performance in adult volunteers seem limited. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The law, policy, and ethics of employers' use of financial incentives to improve health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin M; Volpp, Kevin G; Halpern, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) turns to a nontraditional mechanism to improve public health: employer-provided financial incentives for healthy behaviors. Critics raise questions about incentive programs' effectiveness, employer involvement, and potential discrimination. We support incentive program development despite these concerns. The ACA sets the stage for a broad-based research and implementation agenda through which we can learn to structure incentive programs to not only promote public health but also address prevalent concerns. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. The importance of financial incentives on retirement choices : New evidence for Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, Michele; Alessie, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This study exploits a new dataset to quantify the effect of financial incentives on retirement choices. This dataset contains-for the first time for Italy-information on seniority. The effects of marginal incentives and social security wealth (SSW) on retirement go in the expected direction; when

  2. Family forest stewardship: do owners need a financial incentive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie Snyder; Steven Taff; Joseph Schertz

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed family forest owner interest in formally committing to the types of land use and management practices that characterize good stewardship if compensated for doing so, using Minnesota's Sustainable Forest Incentives Act (SFIA) as a proxy measure of forest stewardship. The SFIA provides an annual payment in return for obtaining and using a forest...

  3. The impact of state financial incentives on market deployment of solar technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarzynski, Andrea; Larrieu, Jeremy; Shrimali, Gireesh

    2012-01-01

    Many states have adopted financial incentives to encourage market deployment of solar energy technology. This paper employs a cross-sectional time-series approach to evaluate the extent to which state solar financial incentives systematically encouraged market deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology from 1997 to 2009. The results demonstrate that states offering cash incentives such as rebates and grants experienced more extensive and rapid deployment of grid-tied PV technology than states without cash incentives over the study period. The analysis also finds that the presence of state renewable energy portfolio standards and specific solar carve-out provisions within them heavily influenced the market deployment of grid-tied solar PV technology through 2009. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the impact of state financial incentives on solar technology adoption. ► Cash incentives and renewable portfolio standards strongly influenced deployment. ► The impact of cash incentives and RPS grew significantly over time. ► Tax incentives had little systematic effect on solar market deployment.

  4. Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouchoe, S.; Everette, V.; Haynes, R.

    2002-09-01

    The North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, examined 10 state financial-incentive programs in six states using a case-study approach in order to clarify the key factors-both internal and external to the program-that influence their effectiveness at stimulating deployment of renewable energy technologies. While existing information resources such as the National Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE, www.dsireusa.org) have documented what incentive programs are available, the effectiveness of such programs is not well understood. Understanding the impact of current financial incentives on the deployment of renewables and the factors that influence their effectiveness is critical to a variety of stakeholders, particularly in states considering new incentives or interested in improving or discarding existing ones.

  5. A systematic review of financial incentives given in the health care setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molema, Claudia C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C Wanda; Pujik, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A substantial amount of the western population is inactive according to current physical activity guidelines, which is an important risk factor for chronic conditions and mortality. Financial incentives may encourage people to become more active. The objective of this review...... was to provide insight in the effectiveness of financial incentives used for promoting physical activity in the healthcare setting. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in three databases: Medline, EMBASE and SciSearch. In total, 1395 papers published up until April 2015 were identified. Eleven......-term effects, neither of the studies showed significant long-term effects of the financial incentive. Discussion: Based on the limited number of studies and the diversity in findings, no solid conclusion can be drawn regarding effectiveness of financial incentives on physical activity in the healthcare setting...

  6. Improving the cost effectiveness of financial incentives in managing travel demand management (TDM) : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades, financial incentives : have become common in efforts to reduce : demand on roadways by motivating commuters to : use alternative modes of transportation. Despite : common use, limited effort has been made to : understand ...

  7. Penetrating the "black box": financial incentives for enhancing the quality of physician services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A; Christianson, Jon B

    2004-09-01

    This article addresses the impact of financial incentives on physician behavior, focusing on quality of care. Changing market conditions, evolving social forces, and continuing organizational evolution in health services have raised societal awareness and expectations concerning quality. This article proceeds in four parts. First, the authors place financial incentives in the context of broader forces shaping the quality of physician services. Second, the article reviews the literature on financial incentive effects on physician behavior. Third, a simple net income maximization model of physician choices is presented, from which are derived formal hypotheses regarding the effect of financial incentives on physician choices of quality per unit of physician service and the quantity of services per patient. The model is extended qualitatively to offer further hypotheses and research directions. Finally, gaps and limitations of the model and of the extant empirical research are articulated, and additional researchable questions are posed.

  8. Federal Financial Incentives to Induce Early Experience Producing Unconventional Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camm, Frank; Bartis, James T; Bushman, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explains an analytic way to design and assess packages of financial incentives that the government can use to cost effectively promote early experience with coal-to-liquids (CTL...

  9. Should we pay the student? A randomised trial of financial incentives in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Tobias; Brown, Jamie; Wieland, Anna; Anders, Sven; Harendza, Sigrid

    2013-09-01

    Financial incentives are effective in moderating physician and patient behaviour, but they have not been studied in the context of medical education. This study assessed whether financial incentives can motivate students to acquire electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation skills. Students enrolled for a cardio-respiratory teaching module (n = 121) were randomised to an intervention (financial incentive) or a control (book voucher raffle) condition. All students took three validated exams of ECG interpretation skills (at module entry, module exit and seven weeks later). Only the exit exam was financially incentivised in the intervention group. The primary outcome was the proportion of students who correctly identified ≥60% of clinically important diagnoses in the exit exam. Financial incentives more than doubled the odds of correctly identifying ≥60% of diagnoses in the exit exam (adjusted odds ratio 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.05-5.67) and significantly increased student learning time. However, there was no significant effect on performance levels in the retention exam. Financial incentives increase reported learning time and examination results in the short-term. The lack of a sustained effect on performance suggests that financial incentives may foster a superficial or strategic rather than a deep approach to learning.

  10. Financial incentive increases CPAP acceptance in patients from low socioeconomic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Tarasiuk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We explored whether financial incentives have a role in patients' decisions to accept (purchase a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device in a healthcare system that requires cost sharing. DESIGN: Longitudinal interventional study. PATIENTS: The group receiving financial incentive (n = 137, 50.8±10.6 years, apnea/hypopnea index (AHI 38.7±19.9 events/hr and the control group (n = 121, 50.9±10.3 years, AHI 39.9±22 underwent attendant titration and a two-week adaptation to CPAP. Patients in the control group had a co-payment of $330-660; the financial incentive group paid a subsidized price of $55. RESULTS: CPAP acceptance was 43% greater (p = 0.02 in the financial incentive group. CPAP acceptance among the low socioeconomic strata (n = 113 (adjusting for age, gender, BMI, tobacco smoking was enhanced by financial incentive (OR, 95% CI (3.43, 1.09-10.85, age (1.1, 1.03-1.17, AHI (>30 vs. 30 vs. 30 vs. <30 (5.25, 1.34-18.5. CONCLUSIONS: Minimizing cost sharing reduces a barrier for CPAP acceptance among low socioeconomic status patients. Thus, financial incentive should be applied as a policy to encourage CPAP treatment, especially among low socioeconomic strata patients.

  11. Financial incentive increases CPAP acceptance in patients from low socioeconomic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasiuk, Ariel; Reznor, Gally; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Reuveni, Haim

    2012-01-01

    We explored whether financial incentives have a role in patients' decisions to accept (purchase) a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device in a healthcare system that requires cost sharing. Longitudinal interventional study. The group receiving financial incentive (n = 137, 50.8±10.6 years, apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) 38.7±19.9 events/hr) and the control group (n = 121, 50.9±10.3 years, AHI 39.9±22) underwent attendant titration and a two-week adaptation to CPAP. Patients in the control group had a co-payment of $330-660; the financial incentive group paid a subsidized price of $55. CPAP acceptance was 43% greater (p = 0.02) in the financial incentive group. CPAP acceptance among the low socioeconomic strata (n = 113) (adjusting for age, gender, BMI, tobacco smoking) was enhanced by financial incentive (OR, 95% CI) (3.43, 1.09-10.85), age (1.1, 1.03-1.17), AHI (>30 vs. acceptance was affected by AHI (>30 vs. 30 vs. acceptance among low socioeconomic status patients. Thus, financial incentive should be applied as a policy to encourage CPAP treatment, especially among low socioeconomic strata patients.

  12. Effects of financial incentives on the intention to consent to organ donation: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, D; Fitzgerald, A; Benetka, G; Fitzgerald, R

    2006-11-01

    Shortage of donor organs is a serious problem for transplantation medicine. One controversial suggestion to increase the number of organ donors is financial incentives for consent. The aim of this study was to test whether different forms and amounts of financial incentives were apt to increase the consent to organ donation. Data were collected via questionnaires in urban and rural regions of Austria and randomly assigned to settings with three different amounts of financial incentives. The questionnaire was designed by using the theory of planned behaviour of Ajzen. Parents 69 mothers and 35 fathers; ages 25 to 65 years were evaluated for intention to consent to organ donation, perceived social norm, and positive/ negative aspects of organ donation without and with various financial incentives. The intention to consent to organ donation dropped highly significantly (Z = -7.556 P = .000) from the basic condition (M = 1.13; confidence interval [CIs] 0.78 to 1.51) to the condition with financial incentives (M = -1.58; CI, 1.96 to -1.15). No influence of the amount of financial incentive was observed. Highly significant differences were measured between both conditions for the social norm (Z = -5.638; P organ donation (Z = -1.962; P organ donation seems to be a strict taboo for most people in Austrian society.

  13. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments; promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers; selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals; placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and

  14. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E

    2009-06-26

    In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments); promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers); selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals); placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and retention); support (programmes

  15. Framing Financial Incentives to Increase Physical Activity Among Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh S; Asch, David A; Rosin, Roy; Small, Dylan S; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Heuer, Jack; Sproat, Susan; Hyson, Chris; Haff, Nancy; Lee, Samantha M; Wesby, Lisa; Hoffer, Karen; Shuttleworth, David; Taylor, Devon H; Hilbert, Victoria; Zhu, Jingsan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Xingmei; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-03-15

    Financial incentive designs to increase physical activity have not been well-examined. To test the effectiveness of 3 methods to frame financial incentives to increase physical activity among overweight and obese adults. Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 02030119). University of Pennsylvania. 281 adult employees (body mass index ≥27 kg/m2). 13-week intervention. Participants had a goal of 7000 steps per day and were randomly assigned to a control group with daily feedback or 1 of 3 financial incentive programs with daily feedback: a gain incentive ($1.40 given each day the goal was achieved), lottery incentive (daily eligibility [expected value approximately $1.40] if goal was achieved), or loss incentive ($42 allocated monthly upfront and $1.40 removed each day the goal was not achieved). Participants were followed for another 13 weeks with daily performance feedback but no incentives. Primary outcome was the mean proportion of participant-days that the 7000-step goal was achieved during the intervention. Secondary outcomes included the mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal during follow-up and the mean daily steps during intervention and follow-up. The mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.37) in the control group, 0.35 (CI, 0.28 to 0.42) in the gain-incentive group, 0.36 (CI, 0.29 to 0.43) in the lottery-incentive group, and 0.45 (CI, 0.38 to 0.52) in the loss-incentive group. In adjusted analyses, only the loss-incentive group had a significantly greater mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal than control (adjusted difference, 0.16 [CI, 0.06 to 0.26]; P = 0.001), but the adjusted difference in mean daily steps was not significant (861 [CI, 24 to 1746]; P = 0.056). During follow-up, daily steps decreased for all incentive groups and were not different from control. Single employer. Financial incentives framed as a loss were most effective for achieving physical

  16. The influence of provider characteristics and market forces on response to financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Brock; Tyson, Mark; Graves, Amy J; Barocas, Daniel A; Chang, Sam S; Penson, David F; Resnick, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations, use financial incentives as levers for change to facilitate the transition from volume to value. However, implementation raises concerns about adverse changes in market competition and the resultant physician response. We sought to identify physician characteristics and market-level factors associated with variation in response to financial incentives for cancer care that may ultimately be leveraged in risk-shared payment models. Retrospective cohort study of physicians providing minimally invasive bladder cancer procedures to fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries. We examined the relationship of between-group differences in market-level factors (competition [Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)] and provider density) and physician-level factors (use of unique billing codes, number of billing codes per patient, and competing financial interest) to responsiveness to financial incentives. Incentive-responsive providers had increased odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.35) of practicing in markets with the highest quartile of provider density but not HHI (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.05). Incentive-responsive providers were more likely to bill in the highest quartile for unique codes (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.32-1.69) and codes per patient (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25) and less likely to have a competing financial interest (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.81). Responsiveness to financial incentives in cancer care is associated with high market provider density, profit-maximizing billing behavior, and lack of competing financial ownership interests. Identifying physicians and markets responsive to financial incentives may ultimately promote the successful implementation of alternative payment models in cancer care.

  17. Active Choice and Financial Incentives to Increase Rates of Screening Colonoscopy-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shivan J; Feingold, Jordyn; Vandertuyn, Matthew; Niewood, Tess; Cox, Catherine; Doubeni, Chyke A; Volpp, Kevin G; Asch, David A

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral economic approaches could increase uptake for colorectal cancer screening. We performed a randomized controlled trial of 2245 employees to determine whether an email containing a phone number for scheduling (control), an email with the active choice to opt in or opt out (active choice), or the active choice email plus a $100 incentive (financial incentive) increased colonoscopy completion within 3 months. Higher proportions of participants in the financial incentive group underwent screening (3.7%) than in the control (1.6%) or active choice groups (1.5%) (P = .01 and P < .01). We found no difference in uptake of screening between the active choice and control groups (P = .88). The $100 conditional incentive modestly but significantly increased colonoscopy use. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02660671. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reports of unintended consequences of financial incentives to improve management of hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia J Hysong

    Full Text Available Given the increase in financial-incentive programs nationwide, many physicians and physician groups are concerned about potential unintended consequences of providing financial incentives to improve quality of care. However, few studies examine whether actual unintended consequences result from providing financial incentives to physicians. We sought to document the extent to which the unintended consequences discussed in the literature were observable in a randomized clinical trial (RCT of financial incentives.We conducted a qualitative observational study nested within a larger RCT of financial incentives to improve hypertension care. We conducted 30-minute telephone interviews with primary care personnel at facilities participating in the RCT housed at12 geographically dispersed Veterans Affairs Medical Centers nationwide. Participants answered questions about unintended effects, clinic team dynamics, organizational impact on care delivery, study participation. We employed a blend of inductive and deductive qualitative techniques for analysis.Sixty-five participants were recruited from RCT enrollees and personnel not enrolled in the larger RCT, plus one primary care leader per site.Emergent themes included possible patient harm, emphasis on documentation over improving care, reduced professional morale, and positive spillover. All discussions of unintended consequences involving patient harm were only concerns, not actual events. Several unintended consequences concerned ancillary initiatives for quality improvement (e.g., practice guidelines and performance measurement systems rather than financial incentives.Many unintended consequences of financial incentives noted were either only concerns or attributable to ancillary quality-improvement initiatives. Actual unintended consequences included improved documentation of care without necessarily improving actual care, and positive unintended consequences.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  19. Reports of unintended consequences of financial incentives to improve management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; SoRelle, Richard; Broussard Smitham, Kristen; Petersen, Laura A

    2017-01-01

    Given the increase in financial-incentive programs nationwide, many physicians and physician groups are concerned about potential unintended consequences of providing financial incentives to improve quality of care. However, few studies examine whether actual unintended consequences result from providing financial incentives to physicians. We sought to document the extent to which the unintended consequences discussed in the literature were observable in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of financial incentives. We conducted a qualitative observational study nested within a larger RCT of financial incentives to improve hypertension care. We conducted 30-minute telephone interviews with primary care personnel at facilities participating in the RCT housed at12 geographically dispersed Veterans Affairs Medical Centers nationwide. Participants answered questions about unintended effects, clinic team dynamics, organizational impact on care delivery, study participation. We employed a blend of inductive and deductive qualitative techniques for analysis. Sixty-five participants were recruited from RCT enrollees and personnel not enrolled in the larger RCT, plus one primary care leader per site. Emergent themes included possible patient harm, emphasis on documentation over improving care, reduced professional morale, and positive spillover. All discussions of unintended consequences involving patient harm were only concerns, not actual events. Several unintended consequences concerned ancillary initiatives for quality improvement (e.g., practice guidelines and performance measurement systems) rather than financial incentives. Many unintended consequences of financial incentives noted were either only concerns or attributable to ancillary quality-improvement initiatives. Actual unintended consequences included improved documentation of care without necessarily improving actual care, and positive unintended consequences. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00302718.

  20. The Impact of Financial Incentives on Early and Late Adopters among U.S. Hospitals: Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna); J.F. Figueroa (Jose); J. Zheng (Jie); E.J. Orav (John); A.K. Jha (Ashish)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE To examine how hospitals that volunteered to be under financial incentives for more than a decade as part of the Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (early adopters) compared with similar hospitals where these incentives were implemented later under the

  1. Effect of financial incentives on improvement in medical quality indicators for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagan, Thomas F; Du, Hongyan; Saver, Barry G; Adams, Gerald J; Graham, Douglas M; McCray, Regina; Goodrick, G Ken

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of rewarding physicians financially for preventive services is unproven. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physician pay-for-performance program similar to the Medicare Physician Quality Reporting Initiative program on quality of preventive care in a network of community health centers. A retrospective review of administrative data was done to evaluate a natural quasi-experiment in a network of publicly funded primary care clinics. Physicians in 6 of 11 clinics were given a financial incentive twice the size of the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' incentive for achieving group targets in preventive care that included cervical cancer screening, mammography, and pediatric immunization. They also received productivity incentives. Six years of performance indicators were compared between incentivized and nonincentivized clinics. We also surveyed the incentivized clinicians about their perception of the incentive program. Although some performance indicators improved for all measures and all clinics, there were no clinically significant differences between clinics that had incentives and those that did not. A linear trend test approached conventional significance levels for Papanicolaou smears (P = .08) but was of very modest magnitude compared with observed nonlinear variations; there was no suggestion of a linear trend for mammography or pediatric immunizations. The survey revealed that most physicians felt the incentives were not very effective in improving quality of care. We found no evidence for a clinically significant effect of financial incentives on performance of preventive care in these community health centers. Based on our findings and others, we believe there is great need for more research with strong research designs to determine the effects, both positive and negative, of financial incentives on clinical quality indicators in primary care.

  2. The effect of financial incentives on adherence to antipsychotic depot medication: does it change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Bremner, Stephen A; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    A recent cluster-randomized controlled trial found that offering financial incentives improves adherence to long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs). The present study investigates whether the impact of incentives diminishes over time and whether the improvement in adherence is linked to the amount of incentives offered. Seventy-three teams with 141 patients with psychotic disorders (using ICD-10) were randomized to the intervention or control group. Over 1 year, patients in the intervention group received £15 (US $23) for each LAI, while control patients received treatment as usual. Adherence levels, ie, the percentage of prescribed LAIs that were received, were calculated for quarterly intervals. The amount of incentives offered was calculated from the treatment cycle at baseline. Multilevel models were used to examine the time course of the effect of incentives and the effect of the amount of incentives offered on adherence. Adherence increased in both the intervention and the control group over time by an average of 4.2% per quarterly interval (95% CI, 2.8%-5.6%; P time and treatment group. Further, a higher total amount of incentives was associated with poorer adherence (βbootstrapped = -0.11; 95% CIbootstrapped, -0.20 to -0.01; P = .023). A substantial effect of financial incentives on adherence to LAIs occurs within the first 3 months of the intervention and is sustained over 1 year. A higher total amount of incentives does not increase the effect. ISRCTN.com identifier: ISRCTN77769281 and UKCRN.org identifier: 7033. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Personal financial incentives in health promotion: where do they fit in an ethic of autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the ethical controversy concerning the use of monetary incentives in health promotion, focussing specifically on the arguments relating to the impact on personal autonomy of such incentives. Offering people small amounts of money in the context of health promotion and medical care has been attempted in a number of settings in recent years. This use of personal financial incentives has attracted a degree of ethical controversy. One form of criticism is that such schemes interfere with the autonomy of the patient or citizen in an illegitimate way. This paper presents a thematic analysis of the main arguments concerning personal autonomy and the use of monetary incentives in behaviour change. The main moral objections to the uses of incentives are that they may be in general or in specific instances paternalistic, coercive, involve bribery, or undermine the agency of the person. While incentive schemes may engage these problems on occasion, there is no good reason to think that they do so inherently and of necessity. We need better behavioural science evidence to understand how incentives work, in order to evaluate their moral effects in practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Social values and the corruption argument against financial incentives for healthy behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca C H

    2017-03-01

    Financial incentives may provide a way of reducing the burden of chronic diseases by motivating people to adopt healthy behaviours. While it is still uncertain how effective such incentives could be for promoting health, some argue that, even if effective, there are ethical objections that preclude their use. One such argument is made by Michael Sandel, who suggests that monetary transactions can have a corrupting effect on the norms and values that ordinarily regulate exchange and behaviour in previously non-monetised contexts. In this paper, I outline Sandel's corruption argument and consider its validity in the context of health incentives. I distinguish between two forms of corruption that are implied by Sandel's argument: efficiency corruption and value corruption While Sandel's thought-provoking discussion provides a valuable contribution to debates about health policies generally and health incentives specifically, I suggest the force of his criticism of health incentives is limited: further empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning are required to support the suggestion that health incentives are an inappropriate tool for promoting health. While I do not find Sandel's corruption argument compelling, this only constitutes a partial defence of health incentives, since other criticisms relating to their use may prove more successful. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Augmenting the impact of technology adoption with financial incentive to improve radiology report signature times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P; Prevedello, Luciano M; Dufault, Allen; Pezeshk, Parham; Bransfield, Robert; Hanson, Richard; Doubilet, Peter M; Seltzer, Steven E; Khorasani, Ramin

    2010-03-01

    Radiology report signature time (ST) can be a substantial component of total report turnaround time. Poor turnaround time resulting from lengthy ST can adversely affect patient care. The combination of technology adoption with financial incentive was evaluated to determine if ST improvement can be augmented and sustained. This prospective study was performed at a 751-bed, urban, tertiary care adult teaching hospital. Test-site imaging volume approximated 48,000 examinations per month. The radiology department has 100 trainees and 124 attending radiologists serving multiple institutions. Over a study period of 4 years and 4 months, three interventions focused on radiologist signature performance were implemented: 1) a notification paging application that alerted radiologists when reports were ready for signature, 2) a picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)-integrated speech recognition report generation system, and 3) a departmental financial incentive to reward radiologists semiannually for ST performance. Signature time was compared before and after the interventions. Wilcoxon and linear regression statistical analyses were used to assess the significance of trends. Technology adoption (paging plus speech recognition) reduced median ST from >5 to 24 to 15 to 18 hours (P financial incentive further improved 80th-percentile ST to 4 to 8 hours (P Technology interventions coupled with financial incentive can result in synergistic and sustainable improvement in radiologist report-signing behavior. The addition of a financial incentive leads to better performance than that achievable through technology alone.

  6. Effectiveness of UK provider financial incentives on quality of care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Rishi; Mehta, Nishchay; Schilder, Anne; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-11-01

    Provider financial incentives are being increasingly adopted to help improve standards of care while promoting efficiency. To review the UK evidence on whether provider financial incentives are an effective way of improving the quality of health care. Systematic review of UK evidence, undertaken in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched in August 2016. Original articles that assessed the relationship between UK provider financial incentives and a quantitative measure of quality of health care were included. Studies showing improvement for all measures of quality of care were defined as 'positive', those that were 'intermediate' showed improvement in some measures, and those classified as 'negative' showed a worsening of measures. Studies showing no effect were documented as such. Quality was assessed using the Downs and Black quality checklist. Of the 232 published articles identified by the systematic search, 28 were included. Of these, nine reported positive effects of incentives on quality of care, 16 reported intermediate effects, two reported no effect, and one reported a negative effect. Quality assessment scores for included articles ranged from 15 to 19, out of a maximum of 22 points. The effects of UK provider financial incentives on healthcare quality are unclear. Owing to this uncertainty and their significant costs, use of them may be counterproductive to their goal of improving healthcare quality and efficiency. UK policymakers should be cautious when implementing these incentives - if used, they should be subject to careful long-term monitoring and evaluation. Further research is needed to assess whether provider financial incentives represent a cost-effective intervention to improve the quality of care delivered in the UK. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  7. Effect of Financial Incentives to Physicians, Patients, or Both on Lipid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, David A; Troxel, Andrea B; Stewart, Walter F; Sequist, Thomas D; Jones, James B; Hirsch, AnneMarie G; Hoffer, Karen; Zhu, Jingsan; Wang, Wenli; Hodlofski, Amanda; Frasch, Antonette B; Weiner, Mark G; Finnerty, Darra D; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Gangemi, Kelsey; Volpp, Kevin G

    2015-11-10

    Financial incentives to physicians or patients are increasingly used, but their effectiveness is not well established. To determine whether physician financial incentives, patient incentives, or shared physician and patient incentives are more effective than control in reducing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among patients with high cardiovascular risk. Four-group, multicenter, cluster randomized clinical trial with a 12-month intervention conducted from 2011 to 2014 in 3 primary care practices in the northeastern United States. Three hundred forty eligible primary care physicians (PCPs) were enrolled from a pool of 421. Of 25,627 potentially eligible patients of those PCPs, 1503 enrolled. Patients aged 18 to 80 years were eligible if they had a 10-year Framingham Risk Score (FRS) of 20% or greater, had coronary artery disease equivalents with LDL-C levels of 120 mg/dL or greater, or had an FRS of 10% to 20% with LDL-C levels of 140 mg/dL or greater. Investigators were blinded to study group, but participants were not. Primary care physicians were randomly assigned to control, physician incentives, patient incentives, or shared physician-patient incentives. Physicians in the physician incentives group were eligible to receive up to $1024 per enrolled patient meeting LDL-C goals. Patients in the patient incentives group were eligible for the same amount, distributed through daily lotteries tied to medication adherence. Physicians and patients in the shared incentives group shared these incentives. Physicians and patients in the control group received no incentives tied to outcomes, but all patient participants received up to $355 each for trial participation. Change in LDL-C level at 12 months. Patients in the shared physician-patient incentives group achieved a mean reduction in LDL-C of 33.6 mg/dL (95% CI, 30.1-37.1; baseline, 160.1 mg/dL; 12 months, 126.4 mg/dL); those in physician incentives achieved a mean reduction of 27.9 mg/dL (95% CI

  8. Incentives in Rheumatology: the Potential Contribution of Physician Responses to Financial Incentives, Public Reporting, and Treatment Guidelines to Health Care Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark; Milbers, Katherine; Mihic, Tamara; Anis, Aslam H

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the sustainability of current health care expenditure are focusing attention on the cost, quality and value of health care provision. Financial incentives, for example pay-for-performance (P4P), seek to reward quality and value in health care provision. There has long been an expectation that P4P schemes are coming to rheumatology. We review the available evidence about the use of incentives in this setting and provide two emerging examples of P4P schemes which may shape the future of service provision in rheumatology. Currently, there is limited and equivocal evidence in rheumatology about the impact of incentive schemes. However, reporting variation in the quality and provision of rheumatology services has highlighted examples of inefficiencies in the delivery of care. If financial incentives can improve the delivery of timely and appropriate care for rheumatology patients, then they may have an important role to play in the sustainability of health care provision.

  9. Provider and Patient Directed Financial Incentives to Improve Care and Outcomes for Patients with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Ilona S.; Lawson, Brittany C. T.

    2012-01-01

    Incentive programs directed at both providers and patients have become increasingly widespread. Pay-for-performance (P4P) where providers receive financial incentives to carry out specific care or improve clinical outcomes has been widely implemented. The existing literature indicates they probably spur initial gains which then level off or partially revert if incentives are withdrawn. The literature also indicates that process measures are easier to influence through P4P programs but that intermediate outcomes such as glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol control are harder to influence, and the long term impact of P4P programs on health is largely unknown. Programs directed at patients show greater promise as a means to influence patient behavior and intermediate outcomes such as weight loss; however, the evidence for long term effects are lacking. In combination, both patient and provider incentives are potentially powerful tools but whether they are cost-effective has yet to be determined. PMID:23225214

  10. "Not Just for the Money?" How Financial Incentives Affect the Number of Publications at Danish Research Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Pallesen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    . We investigate how the introduction of financial incentives to publish affects the number of publications at 162 Danish research institutions (17 government research institutions and subunits of 10 universities) when the perception of the incentives is taken into account. The results show......Do public employees work "for the money?" Do financial incentives determine their work effort? The literature gives conflicting answers, but Frey (1997) offers a possible explanation: If financial incentives are perceived as supportive, they can "crowd in" intrinsic motivation and increase the work...... effort. But if financial incentives are perceived as controlling, the intrinsic motivation is "crowded out," and the work effort decreases with increasing financial incentives to work. However, the empirical evidence concerning Frey's proposition is limited, and our article aims to fill part of this gap...

  11. Voluntary Separation Incentive Anniversary Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    The overall audit objective was to determine whether the Voluntary Separation Incentive Trust Fund's FY 1994 financial statements were presented fairly in accordance with generally accepted accounting...

  12. The effectiveness of financial incentives for health behaviour change: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Giles

    Full Text Available Financial incentive interventions have been suggested as one method of promoting healthy behaviour change.To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviour change; to explore whether effects vary according to the type of behaviour incentivised, post-intervention follow-up time, or incentive value.Searches were of relevant electronic databases, research registers, www.google.com, and the reference lists of previous reviews; and requests for information sent to relevant mailing lists.Controlled evaluations of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions, compared to no intervention or usual care, to encourage healthy behaviour change, in non-clinical adult populations, living in high-income countries, were included.The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess all included studies. Meta-analysis was used to explore the effect of financial incentive interventions within groups of similar behaviours and overall. Meta-regression was used to determine if effect varied according to post-intervention follow up time, or incentive value.Seventeen papers reporting on 16 studies on smoking cessation (n = 10, attendance for vaccination or screening (n = 5, and physical activity (n = 1 were included. In meta-analyses, the average effect of incentive interventions was greater than control for short-term (≤ six months smoking cessation (relative risk (95% confidence intervals: 2.48 (1.77 to 3.46; long-term (>six months smoking cessation (1.50 (1.05 to 2.14; attendance for vaccination or screening (1.92 (1.46 to 2.53; and for all behaviours combined (1.62 (1.38 to 1.91. There was not convincing evidence that effects were different between different groups of behaviours. Meta-regression found some, limited, evidence that effect sizes decreased as post-intervention follow-up period and incentive value increased. However, the latter effect may be confounded by the former

  13. The effectiveness of financial incentives for health behaviour change: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Robalino, Shannon; McColl, Elaine; Sniehotta, Falko F; Adams, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Financial incentive interventions have been suggested as one method of promoting healthy behaviour change. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviour change; to explore whether effects vary according to the type of behaviour incentivised, post-intervention follow-up time, or incentive value. Searches were of relevant electronic databases, research registers, www.google.com, and the reference lists of previous reviews; and requests for information sent to relevant mailing lists. Controlled evaluations of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions, compared to no intervention or usual care, to encourage healthy behaviour change, in non-clinical adult populations, living in high-income countries, were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess all included studies. Meta-analysis was used to explore the effect of financial incentive interventions within groups of similar behaviours and overall. Meta-regression was used to determine if effect varied according to post-intervention follow up time, or incentive value. Seventeen papers reporting on 16 studies on smoking cessation (n = 10), attendance for vaccination or screening (n = 5), and physical activity (n = 1) were included. In meta-analyses, the average effect of incentive interventions was greater than control for short-term (≤ six months) smoking cessation (relative risk (95% confidence intervals): 2.48 (1.77 to 3.46); long-term (>six months) smoking cessation (1.50 (1.05 to 2.14)); attendance for vaccination or screening (1.92 (1.46 to 2.53)); and for all behaviours combined (1.62 (1.38 to 1.91)). There was not convincing evidence that effects were different between different groups of behaviours. Meta-regression found some, limited, evidence that effect sizes decreased as post-intervention follow-up period and incentive value increased. However, the latter effect may be confounded by the former. The

  14. Shared vision and autonomous motivation vs. financial incentives driving success in corporate acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Byron C

    2014-01-01

    Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A) management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives.

  15. Shared Vision and Autonomous Motivation versus Financial Incentives Driving Success in Corporate Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron C Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives.

  16. Financial incentives and coverage of child health interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego G; Arora, Paul; Wazny, Kerri; Gaffey, Michelle F; Lenters, Lindsey; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used strategies to alleviate poverty, foster development, and improve health. Cash transfer programs, microcredit, user fee removal policies and voucher schemes that provide direct or indirect monetary incentives to households have been used for decades in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and more recently in Southeast Asia. Until now, no systematic review of the impact of financial incentives on coverage and uptake of health interventions targeting children under 5 years of age has been conducted. The objective of this review is to provide estimates on the effect of six types of financial incentive programs: (i) Unconditional cash transfers (CT), (ii) Conditional cash transfers (CCT), (iii) Microcredit (MC), (iv) Conditional Microcredit (CMC), (v) Voucher schemes (VS) and (vi) User fee removal (UFR) on the uptake and coverage of health interventions targeting children under the age of five years. We conducted systematic searches of a series of databases until September 1st, 2012, to identify relevant studies reporting on the impact of financial incentives on coverage of health interventions and behaviors targeting children under 5 years of age. The quality of the studies was assessed using the CHERG criteria. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the effect when multiple studies meeting our inclusion criteria were available. Our searches resulted in 1671 titles identified 25 studies reporting on the impact of financial incentive programs on 5 groups of coverage indicators: breastfeeding practices (breastfeeding incidence, proportion of children receiving colostrum and early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for six months and duration of breastfeeding); vaccination (coverage of full immunization, partial immunization and specific antigens); health care use (seeking healthcare when child was ill, visits to health facilities for preventive reasons, visits to health facilities for any reason, visits for health

  17. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs: a literature review suggests that it is time to shift the focus from 'financial incentives' to 'reciprocity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-04-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly higher one for deceased donation (DD); and a general preference for alternative forms, such as removal of disincentives or expressions of social reciprocity. Across different national and methodological settings we observed a considerable preference of noncommercial forms. This does not preclude the opportunity to consider various types of acknowledgement of economic value given in return for the organ. This provides reason to shift the focus from incentives to reciprocity. © 2013 The Authors Transplant International © 2013 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Quality-based financial incentives in health care: can we improve quality by paying for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A; Perry, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This article asks whether financial incentives can improve the quality of health care. A conceptual framework drawn from microeconomics, agency theory, behavioral economics, and cognitive psychology motivates a set of propositions about incentive effects on clinical quality. These propositions are evaluated through a synthesis of extant peer-reviewed empirical evidence. Comprehensive financial incentives--balancing rewards and penalties; blending structure, process, and outcome measures; emphasizing continuous, absolute performance standards; tailoring the size of incremental rewards to increasing marginal costs of quality improvement; and assuring certainty, frequency, and sustainability of incentive payoffs--offer the prospect of significantly enhancing quality beyond the modest impacts of prevailing pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. Such organizational innovations as the primary care medical home and accountable health care organizations are expected to catalyze more powerful quality incentive models: risk- and quality-adjusted capitation, episode of care payments, and enhanced fee-for-service payments for quality dimensions (e.g., prevention) most amenable to piece-rate delivery.

  19. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives

  20. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: protocol for a single arm intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Theresa M; Thorne, Josephine; Aveyard, Paul; Hirst, Julie; Sokal, Rachel

    2013-03-15

    Smoking during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a major cause of low birth weight and a range of adverse infant health outcomes. Stop smoking services can double quit rates, but only 17% of pregnant women smoking at the time they book for antenatal care use these services. In a recent Cochrane review on the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy, financial incentives were found to be the single most effective intervention. We describe a single arm intervention study offering participation in a financial incentive scheme for smoking cessation to all pregnant smokers receiving antenatal care in one area in England. The aim of the study is to assess the potential effectiveness of using financial incentives to achieve smoking cessation in pregnant women who smoke, to inform the use of financial incentive schemes in routine clinical practice as well as the interpretation of existing trials and the design of future studies. 500 consecutive pregnant smokers are offered participation in the scheme, which involves attending for up to 32 assessments until six months post-partum, to verify smoking cessation by self report and a negative exhaled carbon monoxide measurement. At each visit when cessation is verified, participants receive a shopping voucher starting at a value of £8 and increasing by £1 at each consecutive successful visit. Assessments decline in frequency, occurring most frequently during the first two weeks after quitting and the first two weeks after delivery. The maximum cumulative total that can be earned through the scheme is £752. The results of this study will inform the use of financial incentive schemes in routine clinical practice as well as the interpretation of existing trials and the design of future studies. The main results are (a) an estimate of the proportion of pregnant smokers who enrol in the scheme; (b) estimates of the proportion of pregnant smokers who participate in the scheme and who achieve prolonged

  1. Financial incentive programs' influence in promoting sustainable forestry in the northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; John L. Greene; Michael A. Kilgore; Steven E. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Selected forestry officials in each of the 20 northern states were surveyed concerning their opinions on the public and private financial incentive programs available to nonindustrial private forest owners in their state. The officials were asked to name and describe the programs and to assess forest owners' awareness of each one, its appeal among the owners aware...

  2. How financial incentives and cognitive abilities affect task performance in laboratory settings: an illustration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydval, O.; Ortmann, Andreas

    -, č. 221 (2004), s. 1-9 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8002119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : financial incentives * cognitive abilities * experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp221.pdf

  3. How financial incentives and cognitive abilities affect task performance in laboratory settings: an illustration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydval, O.; Ortmann, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2004), s. 315-320 ISSN 0165-1765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : financial incentives * cognitive abilities * experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.361, year: 2004

  4. [Quality improvement in primary care. Financial incentives related to quality indicators in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolozsvári, László Róbert; Rurik, Imre

    2013-07-14

    Quality improvement in primary care has been an important issue worldwide for decades. Quality indicators are increasingly used quantitative tools for quality measurement. One of the possible motivational methods for doctors to provide better medical care is the implementation of financial incentives, however, there is no sufficient evidence to support or contradict their effect in quality improvement. Quality indicators and financial incentives are used in the primary care in more and more European countries. The authors provide a brief update on the primary care quality indicator systems of the United Kingdom, Hungary and other European countries, where financial incentives and quality indicators were introduced. There are eight countries where quality indicators linked to financial incentives are used which can influence the finances/salary of family physicians with a bonus of 1-25%. Reliable data are essential for quality indicators, although such data are lacking in primary care of most countries. Further, improvement of indicator systems should be based on broad professional consensus.

  5. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  6. Financial incentives to promote active travel: an evidence review and economic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-12-01

    Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between "nudging," which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierzchula, William; Bakker, Sjoerd; Maat, Kees; Wee, Bert van

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates. - Highlights: • This research analyzes electric vehicle adoption of 30 countries in 2012. • Financial incentives and charging infrastructure were statistically significant factors. • Country-specific factors help to explain diversity in national adoption rates. • Socio-demographic variables e.g., income and education level were not significant

  8. Influence and effectiveness of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Jacobson; John L. Greene; Thomas J. Straka; Steven E. Daniels; Michael A. Kilgore

    2009-01-01

    State forestry officials responsible for forestry incentive programs in each of the 13 southern states were surveyed concerning their opinions on financial incentiveprograms available to nonindustrial private forest owners. The forestry officials were asked to name and describe the public and...

  9. The effect of performance-based financial incentives on improving patient care experiences: a statewide evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector P; von Glahn, Ted; Elliott, Marc N; Rogers, William H; Safran, Dana Gelb

    2009-12-01

    Patient experience measures are central to many pay-for-performance (P4P) programs nationally, but the effect of performance-based financial incentives on improving patient care experiences has not been assessed. The study uses Clinician & Group CAHPS data from commercially insured adult patients (n = 124,021) who had visits with 1,444 primary care physicians from 25 California medical groups between 2003 and 2006. Medical directors were interviewed to assess the magnitude and nature of financial incentives directed at individual physicians and the patient experience improvement activities adopted by groups. Multilevel regression models were used to assess the relationship between performance change on patient care experience measures and medical group characteristics, financial incentives, and performance improvement activities. Over the course of the study period, physicians improved performance on the physician-patient communication (0.62 point annual increase, p performance on patient experience measures experienced larger improvements (p performance on the physician communication (p performance-based financial incentives, patient care experiences significantly improved. In order to promote patient-centered care in pay for performance and public reporting programs, the mechanisms by which program features influence performance improvement should be clarified.

  10. Consumer responses towards home energy financial incentives: A survey-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tingting; Bell, Lindsey; Horner, Mark W.; Sulik, John; Zhang Jinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy-efficient and renewable energy (EERE) products play an important role in energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction. Various financial incentive programs have been developed to promote the adoption of these products. However, their effectiveness in attracting consumers is not very well understood. In this study, we investigated impacts of financial incentives on homeowner's decision making towards six EERE products. Two forms of incentives, tax credits and interest-free loans, were examined through a household mailing survey in Florida, the United States. Results showed that, although half of the respondents were interested in EERE products, the high investment cost was a major concern that hindered their purchase activities. Homeowners were attracted to financial incentives and valued tax credits much higher than interest-free loans. The current federal home energy tax credit levels were found to attract only 2–12 percent of homeowners to buy EERE products. The willingness of participation was especially low for the costly products (such as solar panels). The participation rate was also very low for lower income (i.e., annual household income below $50,000) families living in older residences. This study contributes to the understanding of economic and social aspects of consumer decision making on energy efficiency and alternative energy. - Highlights: ► We investigated consumer responses to energy efficiency incentives. ► These included tax credits and interest-free loans for six types of energy products. ► We found that tax credits are more effective than interest-free loans. ► The current tax credit rates are insufficient for expensive products (e.g., solar panels). ► A higher amount of incentives is required for the lower-income (<$50 K/yr) households.

  11. Physician practice responses to financial incentive programs: exploring the concept of implementation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie; Lemak, Christy Harris

    2012-01-01

    To develop a framework for studying financial incentive program implementation mechanisms, the means by which physician practices and physicians translate incentive program goals into their specific office setting. Understanding how new financial incentives fit with the structure of physician practices and individual providers' work may shed some insight on the variable effects of physician incentives documented in numerous reviews and meta-analyses. Reviewing select articles on pay-for-performance evaluations to identify and characterize the presence of implementation mechanisms for designing, communicating, implementing, and maintaining financial incentive programs as well as recognizing participants' success and effects on patient care. Although uncommonly included in evaluations, evidence from 26 articles reveals financial incentive program sponsors and participants utilized a variety of strategies to facilitate communication about program goals and intentions, to provide feedback about participants' progress, and to assist-practices in providing recommended services. Despite diversity in programs' geographic locations, clinical targets, scope, and market context, sponsors and participants deployed common strategies. While these methods largely pertained to communication between program sponsors and participants and the provision of information about performance through reports and registries, they also included other activities such as efforts to engage patients and ways to change staff roles. This review covers a limited body of research to develop a conceptual framework for future research; it did not exhaustively search for new articles and cannot definitively link particular implementation mechanisms to outcomes. Our results underscore the effects implementation mechanisms may have on how practices incorporate new programs into existing systems of care which implicates both the potential rewards from small changes as well as the resources which may be

  12. Financial Incentives to Increase Advance Care Planning Among Medicaid Beneficiaries: Lessons Learned From Two Pragmatic Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnato, Amber E; Moore, Robert; Moore, Charity G; Kohatsu, Neal D; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2017-07-01

    Medicaid populations have low rates of advance care planning (ACP). Potential policy interventions include financial incentives. To test the effectiveness of patient plus provider financial incentive compared with provider financial incentive alone for increasing ACP discussions among Medicaid patients. Between April 2014 and July 2015, we conducted two sequential assessor-blinded pragmatic randomized trials in a health plan that pays primary care providers (PCPs) $100 to discuss ACP: 1) a parallel cluster trial (provider-delivered patient incentive) and 2) an individual-level trial (mail-delivered patient incentive). Control and intervention arms included encouragement to complete ACP, instructions for using an online ACP tool, and (in the intervention arm) $50 for completing the online ACP tool and a small probability of $1000 (i.e., lottery) for discussing ACP with their PCP. The primary outcome was provider-reported ACP discussion within three months. In the provider-delivered patient incentive study, 38 PCPs were randomized to the intervention (n = 18) or control (n = 20) and given 10 patient packets each to distribute. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, there were 27 of 180 ACP discussions (15%) in the intervention group and 5 of 200 (2.5%) in the control group (P = .0391). In the mail-delivered patient incentive study, there were 5 of 187 ACP discussions (2.7%) in the intervention group and 5 of 189 (2.6%) in the control group (P = .99). ACP rates were low despite an existing provider financial incentive. Adding a provider-delivered patient financial incentive, but not a mail-delivered patient incentive, modestly increased ACP discussions. PCP encouragement combined with a patient incentive may be more powerful than either encouragement or incentive alone. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Simulation Modeling Framework to Optimize Programs Using Financial Incentives to Motivate Health Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Kiernan, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    While increasingly popular among mid- to large-size employers, using financial incentives to induce health behavior change among employees has been controversial, in part due to poor quality and generalizability of studies to date. Thus, fundamental questions have been left unanswered: To generate positive economic returns on investment, what level of incentive should be offered for any given type of incentive program and among which employees? We constructed a novel modeling framework that systematically identifies how to optimize marginal return on investment from programs incentivizing behavior change by integrating commonly collected data on health behaviors and associated costs. We integrated "demand curves" capturing individual differences in response to any given incentive with employee demographic and risk factor data. We also estimated the degree of self-selection that could be tolerated: that is, the maximum percentage of already-healthy employees who could enroll in a wellness program while still maintaining positive absolute return on investment. In a demonstration analysis, the modeling framework was applied to data from 3000 worksite physical activity programs across the nation. For physical activity programs, the incentive levels that would optimize marginal return on investment ($367/employee/year) were higher than average incentive levels currently offered ($143/employee/year). Yet a high degree of self-selection could undermine the economic benefits of the program; if more than 17% of participants came from the top 10% of the physical activity distribution, the cost of the program would be expected to always be greater than its benefits. Our generalizable framework integrates individual differences in behavior and risk to systematically estimate the incentive level that optimizes marginal return on investment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. 'Show me the money': financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Marian J; Schmidt, Matthias; Davis, Belinda K; Baynes, Anne M; O'Keefe, Elissa J; Bavinton, Tim P; McNiven, Michelle; Martin, Sarah J; Bowden, Francis J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesise that text-messaging and financial incentives would increase tertiary student participation in chlamydia screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted over two phases on eight tertiary campuses during 2007. During Phase 1 (6 months) study activities were advertised through student organisations and media. Education and screening were offered during a range of student activities. During Phase 2 (4 days) education and screening were offered via text messages. Non-financial incentives were offered during Phase 1 and a $10 cash incentive was offered during Phase 2. Rates of specimens provided by students and the direct costs incurred during each phase were compared. 2786 students attended the 31 activities conducted in Phase 1. Of these, 627 students (22.5%) provided urine specimens for chlamydia testing. During Phase 2, the dissemination of 866 text messages resulted in urine specimens from 392 students (45.3%). Costs per test were AUD $175.11 in Phase 1 and AUD $27.13 in Phase 2. Compared with more labour intensive (and therefore more expensive) screening activities conducted over a 6-month period, offering a small financial incentive to tertiary students through text messaging over a 4-day period significantly increased participation in on-campus chlamydia screening. This model could readily be applied to other populations to increase participation in chlamydia screening.

  15. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  16. Financial valuation of incentive arrangements in managed care contracts: a real options approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R T

    2001-01-01

    Managed care provider contracts with risk-based compensation arrangements are similar to derivative securities in that the value of a contract depends on the value of a more fundamental asset: the health plan's investment in the provider's member panel. As such, the financial value of the incentive to avoid investing in the health of the member panel can be modeled using financial engineering techniques.

  17. The impact of removing financial incentives from clinical quality indicators: longitudinal analysis of four Kaiser Permanente indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Helen; Schmittdiel, Julie; Selby, Joe; Fireman, Bruce; Campbell, Stephen; Lee, Janelle; Whippy, Alan; Madvig, Philip

    2010-05-11

    To evaluate the effect of financial incentives on four clinical quality indicators common to pay for performance plans in the United Kingdom and at Kaiser Permanente in California. Longitudinal analysis. 35 medical facilities of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 1997-2007. 2 523 659 adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Main outcomes measures Yearly assessment of patient level glycaemic control (HbA(1c) financial incentives were attached to screening for diabetic retinopathy (1999-2003), the rate rose from 84.9% to 88.1%. This was followed by four years without incentives when the rate fell year on year to 80.5%. During the two initial years when financial incentives were attached to cervical cancer screening (1999-2000), the screening rate rose slightly, from 77.4% to 78.0%. During the next five years when financial incentives were removed, screening rates fell year on year to 74.3%. Incentives were then reattached for two years (2006-7) and screening rates began to increase. Across the 35 facilities, the removal of incentives was associated with a decrease in performance of about 3% per year on average for screening for diabetic retinopathy and about 1.6% per year for cervical cancer screening. Policy makers and clinicians should be aware that removing facility directed financial incentives from clinical indicators may mean that performance levels decline.

  18. Are financial incentives cost-effective to support smoking cessation during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kathleen A; Briggs, Andrew H; Bauld, Linda; Sinclair, Lesley; Tappin, David

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the cost-effectiveness of up to £400 worth of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy as an adjunct to routine health care. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a Phase II randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a cost-utility analysis using a life-time Markov model. The RCT was undertaken in Glasgow, Scotland. The economic analysis was undertaken from the UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. A total of 612 pregnant women randomized to receive usual cessation support plus or minus financial incentives of up to £400 vouchers (US $609), contingent upon smoking cessation. Comparison of usual support and incentive interventions in terms of cotinine-validated quitters, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct costs to the NHS. The incremental cost per quitter at 34-38 weeks pregnant was £1127 ($1716).This is similar to the standard look-up value derived from Stapleton & West's published ICER tables, £1390 per quitter, by looking up the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CIPT) incremental cost (£157) and incremental 6-month quit outcome (0.14). The life-time model resulted in an incremental cost of £17 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -£93, £107] and a gain of 0.04 QALYs (95% CI = -0.058, 0.145), giving an ICER of £482/QALY ($734/QALY). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates uncertainty in these results, particularly regarding relapse after birth. The expected value of perfect information was £30 million (at a willingness to pay of £30 000/QALY), so given current uncertainty, additional research is potentially worthwhile. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy are highly cost-effective, with an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years of £482, which is well below recommended decision thresholds. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Impact of the HITECH financial incentives on EHR adoption in small, physician-owned practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin F

    2016-10-01

    Physicians in small physician-owned practices in the United States have been slower to adopt EHRs than physicians in large practices or practices owned by large organizations. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 included provisions intended to address many of the potential barriers to EHR adoption cited in the literature, including a financial incentives program that has paid physicians and other professionals $13 billion through December 2015. Given the range of factors that may be influencing physicians' decisions on whether to adopt an EHR, and given the level of HITECH expenditures to date, there is significant policy value in assessing whether the HITECH incentives have actually had an impact on EHR adoption decisions among U.S. physicians in small, physician-owned practices. This study addresses this question by analyzing physicians' own views on the influence of the HITECH incentives as well as other potential considerations in their decision-making on whether to adopt an EHR. Using data from a national survey of physicians, five composite scales were created from groups of survey items to reflect physician views on different potential facilitators and barriers for EHR adoption as of 2011, after the launch of the HITECH incentives program. Multinomial and binary logistic regression models were specified to test which of these physician-reported considerations have a significant relationship with EHR adoption status among 1043 physicians working in physician-owned practices with no more than 10 physicians. Physicians' views on the importance of the HITECH financial incentives are strongly associated with EHR adoption during the first three years of the HITECH period (2010-2012). In the study's primary model, a one-point increase on a three-point scale for physician-reported influence of the HITECH financial incentives increases the relative risk of being in the process of adoption in 2011, compared to the

  20. Acceptability of Parental Financial Incentives and Quasi-Mandatory Interventions for Preschool Vaccinations: Triangulation of Findings from Three Linked Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available Childhood vaccinations are a core component of public health programmes globally. Recent measles outbreaks in the UK and USA have prompted debates about new ways to increase uptake of childhood vaccinations. Parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions (e.g. restricting entry to educational settings to fully vaccinated children have been successfully used to increase uptake of childhood vaccinations in developing countries, but there is limited evidence of effectiveness in developed countries. Even if confirmed to be effective, widespread implementation of these interventions is dependent on acceptability to parents, professionals and other stakeholders.We conducted a systematic review (n = 11 studies included, a qualitative study with parents (n = 91 and relevant professionals (n = 24, and an on-line survey with embedded discrete choice experiment with parents (n = 521 exploring acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions for preschool vaccinations. Here we use Triangulation Protocol to synthesise findings from the three studies.There was a consistent recognition that incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions could be effective, particularly in more disadvantaged groups. Universal incentives were consistently preferred to targeted ones, but relative preferences for quasi-mandatory interventions and universal incentives varied between studies. The qualitative work revealed a consistent belief that financial incentives were not considered an appropriate motivation for vaccinating children. The costs of financial incentive interventions appeared particularly salient and there were consistent concerns in the qualitative work that incentives did not represent the best use of resources for promoting preschool vaccinations. Various suggestions for improving delivery of the current UK vaccination programme as an alternative to incentives and quasi-mandates were made.Parental financial

  1. Acceptability of Parental Financial Incentives and Quasi-Mandatory Interventions for Preschool Vaccinations: Triangulation of Findings from Three Linked Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; McNaughton, Rebekah J; Wigham, Sarah; Flynn, Darren; Ternent, Laura; Shucksmith, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Childhood vaccinations are a core component of public health programmes globally. Recent measles outbreaks in the UK and USA have prompted debates about new ways to increase uptake of childhood vaccinations. Parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions (e.g. restricting entry to educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been successfully used to increase uptake of childhood vaccinations in developing countries, but there is limited evidence of effectiveness in developed countries. Even if confirmed to be effective, widespread implementation of these interventions is dependent on acceptability to parents, professionals and other stakeholders. We conducted a systematic review (n = 11 studies included), a qualitative study with parents (n = 91) and relevant professionals (n = 24), and an on-line survey with embedded discrete choice experiment with parents (n = 521) exploring acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions for preschool vaccinations. Here we use Triangulation Protocol to synthesise findings from the three studies. There was a consistent recognition that incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions could be effective, particularly in more disadvantaged groups. Universal incentives were consistently preferred to targeted ones, but relative preferences for quasi-mandatory interventions and universal incentives varied between studies. The qualitative work revealed a consistent belief that financial incentives were not considered an appropriate motivation for vaccinating children. The costs of financial incentive interventions appeared particularly salient and there were consistent concerns in the qualitative work that incentives did not represent the best use of resources for promoting preschool vaccinations. Various suggestions for improving delivery of the current UK vaccination programme as an alternative to incentives and quasi-mandates were made. Parental financial incentives and quasi

  2. Do family physicians need more payment for working better? Financial incentives in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolozsvári, László Róbert; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Rurik, Imre

    2014-05-01

    Financial incentives are widely used in health services to improve the quality of care or to reach some specific targets. Pay for performance systems were also introduced in the primary health care systems of many European countries. Our study aims to describe and compare recent existing primary care indicators and related financing in European countries. Literature search was performed and questionnaires were sent to primary care experts of different countries within the European General Practice Research Network. Ten countries have published primary care quality indicators (QI) associated with financial incentives. The number of QI varies from 1 to 134 and can modify the finances of physicians with up to 25% of their total income. The implementations of these schemes should be critically evaluated with continuous monitoring at national or regional level; comparison is required between targets and their achievements, health gains and use of resources as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Incentive-based Financial Support Scheme for Immature Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2015-01-01

    Most of today’s renewable energy systems rely heavily on investments as well as public financial support. This support is often given by means of a higher sales price for each kWh produced, i.e. feed-in tariffs (FITs), green certificates or Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs), or by a fixed...... amount, being a percentage of the construction costs of the facility. All these ways of financing have different downsides. The feed-in tariff based kWh prices have some incentives to improve the technology, but enables infeasible solutions to stay financially supported even while R&D is in status quo...... for determining the level of support, based on production target curves. This incentive-based approach pushes development to constantly improve, and enables both investors and the general public to have a transparent view of which technologies are performing and improving the most, i.e. aiming for the steepest...

  4. Administrator Responses to Financial Incentives: Insights from a TIF Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    King Rice, Jennifer; Malen, Betty; Jackson, Cara; Hoyer, Kathleen Mulvaney

    2017-01-01

    This article provides evidence and generates insights about the power of financial rewards to motivate school administrators and the design features that influence their motivational potency. The multi-year mixed-methods study is grounded in expectancy and goal setting theories that suggest (a) awards must be salient and sizable enough to appeal…

  5. Aging and Strategic Learning: The Impact of Spousal Incentives on Financial Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joanne W

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to be less financially literate than men, consistent with a division of labor where husbands manage finances. However, women tend to outlive their husbands. I find that older women acquire financial literacy as they approach widowhood - 80 percent would catch up with their husbands by the expected onset of widowhood. These gains are not attributable to husbands' cognitive decline, as captured by cognition tests. The results are consistent with a model in which the division of labor collapses when a spouse dies: women have incentives to delay acquiring financial human capital, but also to begin learning before widowhood.

  6. Some Recent Developments on Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T; Solomon, Laura J

    2016-03-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and immediate and longer-term adverse health outcomes among exposed offspring. Developing more effective smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women has been a public-health priority for more than thirty years. We review developments over the past three years (2012-15) on the use of financial incentives to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women. We searched the literature for reports on primary and secondary analyses and reviews of controlled trials on this topic published in peer-reviewed journals using the search engine PubMed, reviewed bibliographies of published articles, and consulted expert colleagues. The search revealed several important developments, with the following three being especially noteworthy. First, the review identified four new randomized controlled trials, three of which further supported the efficacy of this treatment approach. One of the three trials supporting efficacy also included the first econometric analysis of this treatment approach showing financial incentives with pregnant smokers to be highly cost-effective. Second, two Cochrane reviews were published during this 3-year period covering the more recent and earlier efficacy trials. Meta-analyses in both reviews supported the efficacy of the approach. Lastly, the first effectiveness trial was reported demonstrating that financial incentives increased abstinence rates above control levels when implemented by obstetrical clinic staff in a large urban hospital working with community tobacco interventionists. Overall, t here is a growing and compelling body of evidence supporting the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation among pregnant women.

  7. Financial incentives for generic drugs: case study on a reimbursement program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inocencio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the use of financial incentives in choice of medication and to assess the economic results concerning the use of financial incentives to promote the use of genetic medication in lieu of reference drugs in a company with a reimbursement program. Methods: A case study was carried out in a large supermarket. The data was obtained in the company responsible for managing medication. The study reached 83,625 users between August 2005 and July 2007. The data was submitted to regressions in order to analyze trends and hypothesis tests to assess differences in medication consumption. The results were compared with general data regarding medication consumption of five other organizations and also with data about the national consumption of generic medication in Brazil. Results: The use of financial incentives to replace brand medications for generics, in the company studied, increased the consumption of generic drugs without reducing the company expenses with the reimbursement programs. Conclusions: This study show the occurrence of unplanned results (increase in the consumption of medications and the positive consequences of the reimbursement program concerning access to medication.

  8. Small financial incentives increase smoking cessation in homeless smokers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Kesh, Anshula; Cuate, Erica L; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Wetter, David W

    2014-03-01

    Although over 70% of homeless individuals smoke, few studies have examined the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of shelter-based smoking cessation clinic usual care (UC) to an adjunctive contingency management (CM) treatment that offered UC plus small financial incentives for smoking abstinence. Sixty-eight homeless individuals in Dallas, Texas (recruited in 2012) were assigned to UC (n=58) or UC plus financial incentives (CM; n=10) groups and were followed for 5 consecutive weeks (1 week pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit). A generalized linear mixed model regression analysis was conducted to compare biochemically-verified abstinence rates between groups. An additional model examined the interaction between time and treatment group. The participants were primarily male (61.8%) and African American (58.8%), and were 49 years of age on average. There was a significant effect of treatment group on abstinence overall, and effects varied over time. Follow-up logistic regression analyses indicated that CM participants were significantly more likely than UC participants to be abstinent on the quit date (50% vs. 19% abstinent) and at 4 weeks post-quit (30% vs. 1.7% abstinent). Offering small financial incentives for smoking abstinence may be an effective way to facilitate smoking cessation in homeless individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Financial incentives for a healthy life style and disease prevention among older people: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim

    2016-09-05

    To motivate people to lead a healthier life and to engage in disease prevention, explicit financial incentives, such as monetary rewards for attaining health-related targets (e.g. smoking cessation, weight loss or increased physical activity) or disincentives for reverting to unhealthy habits, are applied. A review focused on financial incentives for health promotion among older people is lacking. Attention to this group is necessary because older people may respond differently to financial incentives, e.g. because of differences in opportunity costs and health perceptions. To outline how explicit financial incentives for healthy lifestyle and disease prevention work among older persons, this study reviews the recent evidence on this topic. We applied the method of systematic literature review and we searched in PUBMED, ECONLIT and COCHRANE LIBRARY for studies focused on explicit financial incentives targeted at older adults to promote health and stimulate primary prevention as well as screening. The publications selected as relevant were analyzed based on directed (relational) content analysis. The results are presented in a narrative manner complemented with an appendix table that describes the study details. We assessed the design of the studies reported in the publications in a qualitative manner. We also checked the quality of our review using the PRISMA 2009 checklist. We identified 15 studies on the role of explicit financial incentives in changing health-related behavior of older people. They include both, quantitative studies on the effectiveness of financial rewards as well as qualitative studies on the acceptability of financial incentives. The quantitative studies are characterized by a great diversity of designs and provide mixed results on the effects of explicit financial incentives. The results of the qualitative studies indicate limited trust of older people in the use of explicit financial incentives for health promotion and prevention. More

  10. The effect of financial incentives on the quality of health care provided by primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anthony; Sivey, Peter; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Willenberg, Lisa; Naccarella, Lucio; Furler, John; Young, Doris

    2011-09-07

    The use of blended payment schemes in primary care, including the use of financial incentives to directly reward 'performance' and 'quality' is increasing in a number of countries. There are many examples in the US, and the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QoF) for general practitioners (GPs) in the UK is an example of a major system-wide reform. Despite the popularity of these schemes, there is currently little rigorous evidence of their success in improving the quality of primary health care, or of whether such an approach is cost-effective relative to other ways to improve the quality of care. The aim of this review is to examine the effect of changes in the method and level of payment on the quality of care provided by primary care physicians (PCPs) and to identify:i) the different types of financial incentives that have improved quality;ii) the characteristics of patient populations for whom quality of care has been improved by financial incentives; andiii) the characteristics of PCPs who have responded to financial incentives. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychLIT, and ECONLIT. Searches of Internet-based economics and health economics working paper collections were also conducted. Finally, studies were identified through the reference lists of retrieved articles, websites of key organisations, and from direct contact with key authors in the field. Articles were included if they were published from 2000 to August 2009. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before and after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) evaluating the impact of different financial interventions on the quality of care delivered by primary healthcare physicians (PCPs). Quality of care was defined as patient reported outcome

  11. Addressing maternal healthcare through demand side financial incentives: experience of Janani Suraksha Yojana program in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Saji S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demand side financing (DSF is a widely employed strategy to enhance utilization of healthcare. The impact of DSF on health care seeking in general and that of maternal care in particular is already known. Yet, its effect on financial access to care, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS and provider motivations is not considerably established. Without such evidence, DSFs may not be recommendable to build up any sustainable healthcare delivery approach. This study explores the above aspects on India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY program. Methods This study employed design and was conducted in three districts of Orissa, selected through a three-stage stratified sampling. The quantitative method was used to review the Health Management Information System (HMIS. The qualitative methods included focus groups discussions with beneficiaries (n = 19 and community intermediaries (n = 9, and interviews (n = 7 with Ministry of Health officials. HMIS data enabled to review maternal healthcare utilization. Group discussions and interviews explored the perceived impact of JSY on in-facility delivery, OOPS, healthcare costs, quality of care and performance motivation of community health workers. Results The number of institutional deliveries, ante-and post-natal care visits increased after the introduction of JSY with an annual net growth of 18.1%, 3.6% and 5% respectively. The financial incentive provided partial financial risk-protection as it could cover only 25.5% of the maternal healthcare cost of the beneficiaries in rural areas and 14.3% in urban areas. The incentive induced fresh out-of-pocket spending for some mothers and it could not address maternal care requirements comprehensively. An activity-based community worker model was encouraging to augment maternal healthcare consumption. However, the existing level of financial incentives and systemic support were inadequate to motivate the volunteers optimally on their

  12. Addressing maternal healthcare through demand side financial incentives: experience of Janani Suraksha Yojana program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Saji S; Durairaj, Varatharajan

    2012-09-15

    Demand side financing (DSF) is a widely employed strategy to enhance utilization of healthcare. The impact of DSF on health care seeking in general and that of maternal care in particular is already known. Yet, its effect on financial access to care, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) and provider motivations is not considerably established. Without such evidence, DSFs may not be recommendable to build up any sustainable healthcare delivery approach. This study explores the above aspects on India's Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program. This study employed design and was conducted in three districts of Orissa, selected through a three-stage stratified sampling. The quantitative method was used to review the Health Management Information System (HMIS). The qualitative methods included focus groups discussions with beneficiaries (n = 19) and community intermediaries (n = 9), and interviews (n = 7) with Ministry of Health officials. HMIS data enabled to review maternal healthcare utilization. Group discussions and interviews explored the perceived impact of JSY on in-facility delivery, OOPS, healthcare costs, quality of care and performance motivation of community health workers. The number of institutional deliveries, ante-and post-natal care visits increased after the introduction of JSY with an annual net growth of 18.1%, 3.6% and 5% respectively. The financial incentive provided partial financial risk-protection as it could cover only 25.5% of the maternal healthcare cost of the beneficiaries in rural areas and 14.3% in urban areas. The incentive induced fresh out-of-pocket spending for some mothers and it could not address maternal care requirements comprehensively. An activity-based community worker model was encouraging to augment maternal healthcare consumption. However, the existing level of financial incentives and systemic support were inadequate to motivate the volunteers optimally on their performance. Demand side financial incentive could enhance financial

  13. Financial assistance for investments in wind power in Germany. Business incentives provided by the Deutsche Ausgleichsbank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M. [Deutsche Ausgleichsbank, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Within a generous financial framework investments in wind energy power have rapidly increased in Germany since the late 1980`s. In addition to direct subsidies or incentive stipulated by statutory provisions the DtA has encouraged investments in wind energy projects by loans at preferential interest rates with tremendous success and it will continue to do so. At present especially new ways of supporting environmental investments are being seek which have a cross-border environmental impact. The goal is to provide financial assistance both to domestic and foreign companies willing to invest in transboundary projects which may be located in East European Countries

  14. Financial assistance for investments in wind power in Germany. Business incentives provided by the Deutsche Ausgleichsbank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Within a generous financial framework investments in wind energy power have rapidly increased in Germany since the late 1980's. In addition to direct subsidies or incentive stipulated by statutory provisions the DtA has encouraged investments in wind energy projects by loans at preferential interest rates with tremendous success and it will continue to do so. At present especially new ways of supporting environmental investments are being seek which have a cross-border environmental impact. The goal is to provide financial assistance both to domestic and foreign companies willing to invest in transboundary projects which may be located in East European Countries

  15. Financial incentives to improve organ donation: what is the opinion of the Vaud French-speaking population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosisio, Francesca; Santiago, Marie; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2011-12-09

    With the increase of the organ shortage, several authors assume that financial incentives would improve organ donation rates and fill the unbalance between the demand and the organs available for transplant medicine. This line of argument has been criticised with people arguing that an exchange of money for organs would violate the legal and the ethical principle of gratuity, decrease voluntarism and increase the body parts commodification phenomena. Switzerland is often highlighted as having under-average organ donation rates compared to other European countries. In this paper we investigate the opinions of the Vaud French-speaking population concerning direct, indirect and non financial incentives in order to assess their opinions and anticipate the further debate. As part of a broad survey about the organ donation decision-making process, questions about incentives for both living and deceased organ donation were addressed to Vaud inhabitants and physicians. The data collected showed that respondents were opposed to rewarding both living and deceased organ donation. The analysis of positive answers showed that indirect and non financial incentives were the most likely choice to acknowledge the donor's act. People in critical financial situations preferred direct financial incentives. These results showed that altruism and gratuity were key-values in the organ donation and transplantation social perceptions of the respondents. Thus, we assume that introducing financial incentives could tarnish the image of transplant medicine. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to evaluate if their introduction would improve the organ donation rates or decrease voluntarism.

  16. Public acceptability of financial incentives to reward pregnant smokers who quit smoking: a United Kingdom-France comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Noémi; Goldzahl, Léontine; Bauld, Linda; Hoddinott, Pat; Berlin, Ivan

    2017-06-23

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted on financial incentives to increase abstinence from smoking among pregnant smokers. If demonstrated to be effective, financial incentives could be proposed as part of health care interventions to help pregnant smokers quit. Public acceptability is important; as such interventions could be publicly funded. Concerns remain about the acceptability of these interventions in the general population. We aimed to assess the acceptability of financial incentives to reward pregnant smokers who stop smoking using a survey conducted in the UK and then subsequently in France, two developed countries with different cultural and social backgrounds. More French than British respondents agreed with financial incentives for rewarding quitting smoking during pregnancy, not smoking after delivery, keeping a smoke-free household, health service payment for meeting target and the maximum amount of the reward. However, fully adjusted models showed significant differences only for the two latter items. More British than French respondents were neutral toward financial incentives. Differences between the representative samples of French and British individuals demonstrate that implementation of financial incentive policies may not be transferable from one country to another.

  17. Incentives and Big E Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-11-01

    The kind of engagement industrial psychologists have shown can produce optimal performance relates more to a state of mind than to increasing participation in programs or motivating a workforce with financial incentives. In the context of quality improvement methodologies, the health promotion profession has yet to discover when, where and how large financial incentives should be and how they best fit in our processes. That is, there is no "standard work" for the use of extrinsic motivators. Yet, to argue against incentives given evidence to date has more to do with polemics than science.

  18. Association of patient case-mix adjustment, hospital process performance rankings, and eligibility for financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Liang, Li; Karve, Amrita M; Hernandez, Adrian F; Rumsfeld, John S; Fonarow, Gregg C; Peterson, Eric D

    2008-10-22

    While most comparisons of hospital outcomes adjust for patient characteristics, process performance comparisons typically do not. To evaluate the degree to which hospital process performance ratings and eligibility for financial incentives are altered after accounting for hospitals' patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and mix of treatment opportunities. Using data from the American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines program between January 2, 2000, and March 28, 2008, we analyzed hospital process performance based on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' defined core measures for acute myocardial infarction. Hospitals were initially ranked based on crude composite process performance and then ranked again after accounting for hospitals' patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and eligibility for measures using a hierarchical model. We then compared differences in hospital performance rankings and pay-for-performance financial incentive categories (top 20%, middle 60%, and bottom 20% institutions). Hospital process performance ranking and pay-for-performance financial incentive categories. A total of 148,472 acute myocardial infarction patients met the study criteria from 449 centers. Hospitals for which crude composite acute myocardial infarction performance was in the bottom quintile (n = 89) were smaller nonacademic institutions that treated a higher percentage of patients from racial or ethnic minority groups and also patients with greater comorbidities than hospitals ranked in the top quintile (n = 90). Although there was overall agreement on hospital rankings based on observed vs adjusted composite scores (weighted kappa, 0.74), individual hospital ranking changed with adjustment (median, 22 ranks; range, 0-214; interquartile range, 9-40). Additionally, 16.5% of institutions (n = 74) changed pay-for-performance financial status categories after accounting for patient and treatment opportunity mix. Our findings suggest that

  19. The impact of financial incentives on physical activity in adults: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, My-Linh Nguyen; Bennell, Kim L; Hall, Michelle; Harris, Anthony; Hinman, Rana S

    2018-01-25

    Most adults fail to meet global physical activity guidelines set out by the World Health Organization. In recent years, behavioural economic principles have been used to design novel interventions that increase physical activity. Immediate financial rewards, for instance, can motivate an individual to change physical activity behaviour by lowering the opportunity costs of exercise. This systematic review will summarise the evidence about the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions for improving physical activity in adults. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, EconLit, SPORTDiscus, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception using a comprehensive, electronic search strategy. The search strategy will include terms related to 'financial incentive' and 'physical activity'. Only randomised controlled trials that investigate the effect of financial incentives on physical activity in adult populations and that are written in the English language will be included. Two review authors will independently screen abstracts and titles, complete full text reviews and extract data on objective and self-reported physical activity outcomes. The authors will also assess the study quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and provide a systematic presentation and synthesis of the included studies' characteristics and results. If more than two studies are sufficiently similar in population, settings and interventions, we will pool the data to conduct a meta-analysis. If we are unable to perform a meta-analysis, we will conduct a narrative synthesis of the results and produce forest plots for individual studies. Our subgroup analyses will examine the differential effects of an intervention in healthy

  20. Risk management versus incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, E.; Lovas, K.; Osmundsen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Portfolio theory indicates that risk management should take place at the group level. Hedging at the project level or in the individual business areas may lead to suboptimal results. However, the efficiency of a profit centre depends on its management's being able to influence factors that are crucial to the unit's financial results. Price hedging could be one such factor. In the wider perspective, this constitutes part of the balancing between centralisation and decentralisation. This article covers important elements of risk management and incentive design. It goes on to discuss the balancing of overall risk management at the group level and incentive design in profit centres and corporate units. Throughout the article, the oil industry serves as a case. (author)

  1. Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. Methods We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives. In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations. We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction, program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas, and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes

  2. Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E

    2009-05-29

    In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future) health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives). In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation) and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations). We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction), program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas), and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes). Of the 43 reviewed studies 34

  3. Acceptability of financial incentives for maintenance of weight loss in mid-older adults: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Bronwyn; O'Hara, Blythe J; Grunseit, Anne C; Bauman, Adrian; Osborne, Dale; Lawler, Luke; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2018-02-13

    Health insurers worldwide implement financial incentive schemes to encourage health-related behaviours, including to facilitate weight loss. The maintenance of weight loss is a public health challenge, and as non-communicable diseases become more prevalent with increasing age, mid-older adults could benefit from programs which motivate weight loss maintenance. However, little is understood about their perceptions of using financial incentives to maintain weight loss. We used mixed methods to explore the attitudes and views of participants who had completed an Australian weight loss and lifestyle modification program offered to overweight and obese health insurance members with weight-related chronic diseases, about the acceptability and usefulness of different types of financial incentives to support weight loss maintenance. An online survey was completed by 130 respondents (mean age = 64 years); and a further 28 participants (mean age = 65 years) attended six focus groups. Both independent samples of participants supported a formalised maintenance program. Online survey respondents reported that non-cash (85.2%) and cash (77%) incentives would be potentially motivating; but only 40.5% reported that deposit contracts would motivate weight loss maintenance. Results of in-depth discussions found overall low support for any type of financial incentive, but particularly deposit contracts and lotteries. Some participants expressed that improved health was of more value than a monetary incentive and that they felt personally responsible for their own health, which was at odds with the idea of financial incentives. Others suggested ongoing program and peer support as potentially useful for weight loss maintenance. If financial incentives are considered for mid-older Australian adults in the health insurance setting, program planners will need to balance the discordance between participant beliefs about the individual responsibility for health and their desire

  4. Design of effective interventions for smoking cessation through financial and non-financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama, Fanor; Longo, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Smoking has a tremendous negative impact on the Canadian economy and contributes to growing costs in the healthcare system. Efforts to reduce smoking rates may therefore reduce strain on the healthcare system and free up scarce resources. Academic literature on economic smoking cessation incentives presents a countless variety of interventions that have met with varying degrees of success. This study reviews six different variables used in the design of incentives in smoking cessation interventions: direction, form, magnitude, certainty, recipient grouping, and target demographic. The purpose of this study is to provide analysis and recommendations about the contribution of each variable into the overall effectiveness of smoking cessation programs and help health leaders design better interventions according to their specific needs.

  5. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Financial incentives and accountability for integrated medical care in Department of Veterans Affairs mental health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Greenwald, Devra E; Hermann, Richard C; Charns, Martin P; McCarthy, John F; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which mental health leaders perceive their programs as being primarily accountable for monitoring general medical conditions among patients with serious mental illness, and it assessed associations with modifiable health system factors. As part of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) 2007 national Mental Health Program Survey, 108 mental health program directors were queried regarding program characteristics. Perceived accountability was defined as whether their providers, as opposed to external general medical providers, were primarily responsible for specific clinical tasks related to serious mental illness treatment or high-risk behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether financial incentives or other system factors were associated with accountability. Thirty-six percent of programs reported primary accountability for monitoring diabetes and cardiovascular risk after prescription of second-generation antipsychotics, 10% for hepatitis C screening, and 17% for obesity screening and weight management. In addition, 18% and 27% of program leaders, respectively, received financial bonuses for high performance for screening for risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and for alcohol misuse. Financial bonuses for diabetes and cardiovascular screening were associated with primary accountability for such screening (odds ratio=5.01, pFinancial incentives to improve quality performance may promote accountability in monitoring diabetes and cardiovascular risk assessment within mental health programs. Integrated care strategies (co-location) might be needed to promote management of high-risk behaviors among patients with serious mental illness.

  7. Motivation for Participating in a Weight Loss Program and Financial Incentives: An Analysis from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Linnan, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost). There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation. PMID:22577524

  8. Acceptability of offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Sinclair, Julia; Burton, Alexandra; Marougka, Stamatina; Larsen, John; Firn, Mike; Ashcroft, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness is controversial. To explore the views of different stakeholders on the ethical acceptability of the practice. Focus group study consisting of 25 groups with different stakeholders. Eleven themes dominated the discussions and fell into four categories: (1) 'wider concerns', including the value of medication, source of funding, how patients would use the money, and a presumed government agenda behind the idea; (2) 'problems requiring clear policies', comprising of practicalities and assurance that incentives are only one part of a tool kit; (3) 'challenges for research and experience', including effectiveness, the possibility of perverse incentives, and impact on the therapeutic relationship; (4) 'inherent dilemmas' around fairness and potential coercion. The use of financial incentives is likely to raise similar concerns in most stakeholders, only some of which can be addressed by empirical research and clear policies.

  9. Investigation of existing financial incentive policies for solar photovoltaic systems in U.S. regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some of the existing incentives for solar photovoltaic (PV energy generation in the U.S. Four types of buildings (e.g., hospitals, large offices, large hotels, and secondary schools located in five different U.S. states, each having their own incentives, are selected and analyzed for the PV incentive policies. The payback period of the PV system is chosen as an indicator to analyze and critique the effectiveness of each incentive by comparing the payback periods before and after taking the incentive into consideration. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to determine the influence of the variation in key parameters, such as PV system capacity, capital cost of PV, sell back ratio and the performance-based incentive rate, on the performance of the PV system. The results show how the existing incentives can be effectively used to promote the PV systems in the U.S. and how variations of the parameters can impact the payback period of the PV systems. Through the evaluation of the existing incentive policies and the parametric study, this paper demonstrates that the type and level of incentives should be carefully determined in policy-making processes to effectively promote the PV systems.

  10. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice....... The main insights stem from a trade-off between ‘good monetary incentives' and ‘good reputational incentives'. We show that the principal optimally designs contracts to create ambiguity about agents' abilities. This may make it optimal to contract on relative performance measures, even though the extant...... rationales for such schemes are absent. Linking the structure of contracts to organizational design, we show that it can be optimal for the principal to adopt an opaque organization where performance is not verifiable, despite the constraints that this imposes on contracts....

  11. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Giles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI. Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. Methods We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Results Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential ‘gaming’, and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI – including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for ‘gaming the system’. Secondly, a tension between participants’ own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants’ personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that

  12. Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819 Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy S. Gouchoe, V. Everette, and R. Haynes North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute · Battelle · Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819Case Studies on the Effecti

  13. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI). Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential 'gaming', and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI - including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for 'gaming the system'. Secondly, a tension between participants' own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants' personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that they could be a valuable behaviour change tool. There are aspects of

  14. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  15. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  16. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    against incentives • Gerald Ledford and Barry Gerhart in “Negative Effects of Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation : More Smoke Than Fire” argue...undermine intrinsic motivation making the incentive effect much more powerful than if it relies on extrinsic motivation alone Proposed Approach...with opportunities to innovate that can enhance intrinsic motivation • A notional approach for incentives that are tied to the achievement of cost

  17. Delegation and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Krähmer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between authority and incentives. It extends the standard principal--agent model by a project selection stage in which the principal can either delegate the choice of project to the agent or keep the authority. The agent's subsequent choice of effort depends both on monetary incentives and the selected project. We find that the consideration of effort incentives makes the principal less likely to delegate the authority over projects to the agent. In fact, if t...

  18. Incentive drilling contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moomjian, C.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Incentive drilling contracts historically have been based on the footage and turnkey concepts. Because these concepts have not been used widely in the international and offshore arenas, this paper discusses other innovative approaches to incentive contracts. Case studies of recently completed or current international and offshore contracts are presented to describe incentive projects based on a performance bonus (Case 1), lump sum per well (Case 2), target time and cap for a specified hole section (Case 3), and per-well target time (Case 4). This paper concludes with a review and comparison of the case studies and a general discussion of factors that produce successful innovative incentive programs that enhance drilling efficiency

  19. Financial incentive approaches for reducing peak electricity demand, experience from pilot trials with a UK energy provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Peter; Coke, Alexia; Leach, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Whilst tariff-based approaches to load-shifting are common in the residential sector, incentive-based approaches are rare. This is so, even though providing customers incentives to shape their power consumption patterns has substantial potential. This paper presents findings from an exploratory UK pilot study that trials financial payments and detailed energy feedback to incentivise load-shifting of residential electricity consumption. An intervention study was implemented measuring actual energy use by individual households as well as conducting surveys and interviews. From the trials it was found that the approaches resulted in reductions in peak time energy use. Evidence from the study found that the incentives-based approaches were able to overcome some of the barriers to response experienced in Time-of-Use studies, though less good on others. Interestingly, the height of the barriers varied by the electricity-using practice and the incentivising approach applied. The height of the barriers also varied by participant. The study concludes by identifying that broad participation in demand response is likely to require a suite of incentivising approaches that appeal to different people, a key policy finding of interest to international agencies, government, public and private sector entities. - Highlights: • Novel study of financial incentive approaches for shifting residential energy. • First academic paper comprehensively identifying barriers to time of use tariffs. • First study reporting barriers to financial incentive approaches for demand response. • Incentive study design can be applied by government and energy companies.

  20. A Trial of Financial and Social Incentives to Increase Older Adults' Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Kristin A; Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Karlawish, Jason; Glanz, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence that regular physical activity confers health benefits, physical activity rates among older adults remain low. Both personal and social goals may enhance older adults' motivation to become active. This study tested the effects of financial incentives, donations to charity, and the combined effects of both interventions on older adults' uptake and retention of increased levels of walking. RCT comparing three interventions to control. Data collection occurred from 2012 to 2013. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2016. Ninety-four adults aged ≥65 years from Philadelphia-area retirement communities. All participants received digital pedometers, walking goals of a 50% increase in daily steps, and weekly feedback on goal attainment. Participants were randomized to one of four groups: (1) Control: received weekly feedback only; (2) Financial Incentives: received payment of $20 each week walking goals were met; (3) Social Goals: received donation of $20 to a charity of choice each week walking goals were met; and (4) Combined: received $20 each week walking goals were met that could be received by participant, donated to a charity of choice, or divided between the participant and charity. Mean proportion of days walking goals were met during the 16-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. After adjusting for baseline walking, the proportion of days step goals were met during the 16-week intervention period was higher in all intervention groups versus controls (relative risk, 3.71; 95% CI=1.37, 10.01). During the 4-week follow up period, the proportion of days step goals were met did not differ in intervention groups compared to control (relative risk, 2.91; 95% CI=0.62, 13.64). Incentive schemes that use donations to a charity of choice, personal financial incentives, or a combination of the two can each increase older adults' initial uptake of increased levels of walking. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01643538. Copyright

  1. Financial incentives for DSM [demand-side management]: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent efforts to provide incentives for electric utilities in the USA to undertake demand-side management (DSM) programs are reviewed. The major need for incentives is seen as the overcoming of disincentives inherent in traditional regulation that affect utilities' interest in, and motivation for, DSM programs. These disincentives include the failure to recover all program costs, loss of revenues, and loss of financial opportunity. In addition, utilities seldom perceive DSM as a low-risk proposition; principal areas of concern include regulatory risk, competitive risk, and balance sheet risk. In view of these disincentives and risks, any DSM program therefore should provide for full and timely recovery of all program costs; adjust for DSM-induced revenue losses; and counterbalance risk and loss of financial opportunity by providing a bonus above cost. Three utility-specific incentive proposals are presented for the case of utilities in New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. Each of these programs meets the goal of overcoming the disincentives that surround utility DSM programs. The most significant differences across the mechanisms are found in the bonus component. Mechanisms that reduce the utility's uncertainty about the receipt of a bonus by providing it in a lump sum will likely prove more powerful motivators than those that spread the bonus out over a period of years. Use of preapproved per-unit or per-customer impact measurements reduces uncertainty and thus increases the apparent value of the bonus. Annual review of program plans and assumed impacts, supported by continuing evaluation activities, minimizes the risk that the utilities will gamble with the system or receive excessive awards. 6 refs

  2. Donor organ shortage crisis: a case study review of a financial incentive-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sebayel, M; Alenazi, A M; Sabbagh, R; Al Ageel, T; Al Enazi, M; Al Bahili, H; Elsiesy, H

    2014-01-01

    Current organ supply system depends on altruistic noncoercive donation, which has failed to meet the demand of organ transplantation. Providing financial incentives to donors is one of several approaches to address organ shortage. However, its feasibility is debatable as it relates to medical, ethical, and economic dimensions. An incentive-based procurement system (IBPS) applied by the Mobile Donor Action Team (MDAT) was instituted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, resulting in a 3-fold increase in donation rate. The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative review of a 7-year experience with IBPS. A qualitative approach was used. Documents were reviewed to create a chronological audit and shape interview questions. Sampling was purposeful and inclusive of MDAT members. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and findings were subjected to thematic analysis. Documents reflected the evolution of MDAT. The essence of MDAT is field work and liberal use of financial incentives, which resulted in a 3-fold increase in the donation rate. MDAT members believed that IBPS is the main reason behind this increase. Moreover, IBPS is viewed as acceptable from a moral, ethical, and religious standpoint, with a high degree of professional satisfaction. Theoretical assumptions doubted the feasibility of IBPS. This real-life experience with IBPS proved the contrary. The findings may be applicable only to the setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, however; further research is thus needed to explore its transferability to other settings. IBPS may be an alternative to altruistic noncoercive donation and should be piloted in different settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship of Financial Incentives and Consumers' Willingness to Disclose Information to eCommerce Marketers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhosseini, Parissa

    2009-01-01

    In this study the problem examined was a lack of research based information on the degree to which incentives can be used to encourage consumers to volunteer private information. The purpose of this study was to determine if monetary incentives would be a beneficial means to increase consumers' involvement in eCommerce and thereby boost the growth…

  4. Do Financial Incentives Increase the Use of Electronic Health Records? Findings from an Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Moreno; Suzanne Felt-Lisk; Stacy Dale

    2013-01-01

    This working paper reviews impacts of the Electronic Health Records Demonstration implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, finding that moderate incentive payments did not lead to universal electronic health record (EHR) adoption and use in a two-year time frame. However, the demonstration showed that incentives can influence physician use of EHRs.

  5. Are Financial Incentives for Lifestyle Behavior Change Informed or Inspired by Behavioral Economics? A Mapping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Bronwyn; O'Hara, Blythe J; Bauman, Adrian; Grunseit, Anne C; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2018-01-01

    To identify the behavioral economics (BE) conceptual underpinnings of lifestyle financial incentive (FI) interventions. A mapping review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted by searching electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were real-world FI interventions explicitly mentioning BE, targeting individuals, or populations with lifestyle-related behavioral outcomes. Exclusion criteria were hypothetical studies, health professional focus, clinically oriented interventions. Study characteristics were tabulated according to purpose, categorization of BE concepts and FI types, design, outcome measures, study quality, and findings. Data Synthesis and Analysis: Financial incentives were categorized according to type and payment structure. Behavioral economics concepts explicitly used in the intervention design were grouped based on common patterns of thinking. The interplay between FI types, BE concepts, and outcome was assessed. Seventeen studies were identified from 1452 unique records. Analysis showed 76.5% (n = 13) of studies explicitly incorporated BE concepts. Six studies provided clear theoretical justification for the inclusion of BE. No pattern in the type of FI and BE concepts used was apparent. Not all FI interventions claiming BE inclusion did so. For interventions that explicitly included BE, the degree to which this was portrayed and woven into the design varied. This review identified BE concepts common to FI interventions, a first step in providing emergent and pragmatic information to public health and health promotion program planners.

  6. Do financial incentives linked to ownership of specialty hospitals affect physicians' practice patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jean M

    2008-07-01

    Although physician-owned specialty hospitals have become increasingly prevalent in recent years, little research has examined whether the financial incentives linked to ownership influence physicians' referral rates for services performed at the specialty hospital. We compared the practice patterns of physician owners of specialty hospitals in Oklahoma, before and after ownership, to the practice patterns of physician nonowners who treated similar cases over the same time period in Oklahoma markets without physician-owned specialty hospitals. We constructed episodes of care for injured workers with a primary diagnosis of back/spine disorders. We used pre-post comparisons and difference-in-differences analysis to evaluate changes in practice patterns for physician owners and nonowners over the time period spanned by the entry of the specialty hospital. Findings suggest the introduction of financial incentives linked to ownership coincided with a significant change in the practice patterns of physician owners, whereas such changes were not evident among physician nonowners. After physicians established ownership interests in a specialty hospital, the frequency of use of surgery, diagnostic, and ancillary services used in the treatment of injured workers with back/spine disorders increased significantly. Physician ownership of specialty hospitals altered the frequency of use for an array of procedures rendered to patients treated at these hospitals. Given the growth in physician-owned specialty hospitals, these findings suggest that health care expenditures will be substantially greater for patients treated at these institutions relative to persons who obtain care from nonself-referral providers.

  7. Financial incentives, quality improvement programs, and the adoption of clinical information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C; Casalino, Lawrence P; Gillies, Robin R; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Shortell, Stephen S; Fernandes-Taylor, Sara

    2009-04-01

    Physician use of clinical information technology (CIT) is important for the management of chronic illness, but has lagged behind expectations. We studied the role of health insurers' financial incentives (including pay-for-performance) and quality improvement initiatives in accelerating adoption of CIT in large physician practices. National survey of all medical groups and independent practice association (IPA) physician organizations with 20 or more physicians in the United States in 2006 to 2007. The response rate was 60.3%. Use of 19 CIT capabilities was measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of financial and organizational factors associated with adoption and use of CIT. Use of information technology varied across physician organizations, including electronic access to laboratory test results (medical groups, 49.3%; IPAs, 19.6%), alerts for potential drug interactions (medical groups, 33.9%; IPAs, 9.5%), electronic drug prescribing (medical groups, 41.9%; IPAs, 25.1%), and physician use of e-mail with patients (medical groups, 34.2%; IPAs, 29.1%). Adoption of CIT was stronger for physician organizations evaluated by external entities for pay-for-performance and public reporting purposes (P = 0.042) and for those participating in quality improvement initiatives (P < 0.001). External incentives and participation in quality improvement initiatives are associated with greater use of CIT by large physician practices.

  8. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  9. Controlling health care costs in the military: the case for using financial incentives to improve beneficiary personal health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Neal A; Higgins, Stephen T

    2012-11-01

    To provide insight on the feasibility and utility of implementing a broad based incentive program for health within the Military Health System (MHS). Published studies, articles, and information on the use of financial incentives in the military setting and to promote healthy behaviors were reviewed. Health care costs in the MHS have more than doubled over the past decade. The high prevalence of modifiable risk behaviors such as tobacco abuse, physical inactivity and obesity and their associated chronic diseases are accounting for a significant percentage of the growth. One evidence-based approach to address this issue would be the implementation of a broad based incentive program for health whereby all MHS beneficiaries would be eligible to receive some type of financial remuneration for meeting positive personal health metrics (e.g. not smoking or a normal body mass index). This approach if designed appropriately has the potential to have a high level of acceptance within the current beneficiary population since financial incentives are already used widely in the military to help meet overall manpower requirements. The use of a MHS wide financial incentives program to instill healthy behaviors in beneficiaries' may be an effective means to curb rising healthcare cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Financial Incentives on Breastfeeding: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Thomas, Kate J; Whelan, Barbara; Walters, Stephen J; Burrows, Julia; Scott, Elaine; Viksveen, Petter; Johnson, Maxine; Baston, Helen; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anokye, Nana; Umney, Darren; Renfrew, Mary J

    2018-02-05

    Although breastfeeding has a positive effect on an infant's health and development, the prevalence is low in many communities. The effect of financial incentives to improve breastfeeding prevalence is unknown. To assess the effect of an area-level financial incentive for breastfeeding on breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. The Nourishing Start for Health (NOSH) trial, a cluster randomized trial with 6 to 8 weeks follow-up, was conducted between April 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, in 92 electoral ward areas in England with baseline breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum less than 40%. A total of 10 010 mother-infant dyads resident in the 92 study electoral ward areas where the infant's estimated or actual birth date fell between February 18, 2015, and February 17, 2016, were included. Areas were randomized to the incentive plus usual care (n = 46) (5398 mother-infant dyads) or to usual care alone (n = 46) (4612 mother-infant dyads). Usual care was delivered by clinicians (mainly midwives, health visitors) in a variety of maternity, neonatal, and infant feeding services, all of which were implementing the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative standards. Shopping vouchers worth £40 (US$50) were offered to mothers 5 times based on infant age (2 days, 10 days, 6-8 weeks, 3 months, 6 months), conditional on the infant receiving any breast milk. The primary outcome was electoral ward area-level 6- to 8-week breastfeeding period prevalence, as assessed by clinicians at the routine 6- to 8-week postnatal check visit. Secondary outcomes were area-level period prevalence for breastfeeding initiation and for exclusive breastfeeding at 6 to 8 weeks. In the intervention (5398 mother-infant dyads) and control (4612 mother-infant dyads) group, the median (interquartile range) percentage of women aged 16 to 44 years was 36.2% (3.0%) and 37.4% (3.6%) years, respectively. After adjusting for baseline breastfeeding prevalence and local government

  11. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges

  12. What explains DRG upcoding in neonatology? The roles of financial incentives and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane

    2015-09-01

    We use the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) in German neonatology to study the determinants of upcoding. Since 2003, reimbursement is based inter alia on birth weight, with substantial discontinuities at eight thresholds. These discontinuities create incentives to upcode preterm infants into classes of lower birth weight. Using data from the German birth statistics 1996-2010 and German hospital data from 2006 to 2011, we show that (1) since the introduction of DRGs, hospitals have upcoded at least 12,000 preterm infants and gained additional reimbursement in excess of 100 million Euro; (2) upcoding rates are systematically higher at thresholds with larger reimbursement hikes and in hospitals that subsequently treat preterm infants, i.e. where the gains accrue; (3) upcoding is systematically linked with newborn health conditional on birth weight. Doctors and midwives respond to financial incentives by not upcoding newborns with low survival probabilities, and by upcoding infants with higher expected treatment costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicians' responses to financial and social incentives: A medically framed real effort experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Mylène; Blaauw, Duane

    2017-04-01

    Because compensation policies have critical implications for the provision of health care, and evidence of their effects is limited and difficult to study in the real world, laboratory experiments may be a valuable methodology to study the behavioural responses of health care providers. With this experiment undertaken in 2013, we add to this new literature by designing a new medically framed real effort task to test the effects of different remuneration schemes in a multi-tasking context. We assess the impact of different incentives on the quantity (productivity) and quality of outputs of 132 participants. We also test whether the existence of benefits to patients influences effort. The results show that salary yields the lowest quantity of output, and fee-for-service the highest. By contrast, we find that the highest quality is achieved when participants are paid by salary, followed by capitation. We also find a lot of heterogeneity in behaviour, with intrinsically motivated individuals hardly sensitive to financial incentives. Finally, we find that when work quality benefits patients directly, subjects improve the quality of their output, while maintaining the same levels of productivity. This paper adds to a nascent literature by providing a new approach to studying remuneration schemes and modelling the medical decision making environment in the lab. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of financial incentive, low-income, elderly and multifamily residential conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.; Hubbard, M.; White, D.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes thirty-nine utility-sponsored residential conservation programs for four types of markets. The program types considered are: (1) financial incentive programs for the general residential market, (2) programs for low-income households, (3) programs for the elderly, and (4) programs for the multifamily market. Each program description contains information on incentive terms, eligibility, conservation measures, program history, design and marketing, and the utility/agency motivation for operating the program. The names, addresses and phone numbers of contact persons also are included. Two methods were used to select the programs to be described. First, nominations of successful programs of each type were solicited from experts on residential energy conservation. Second, managers of the programs on this initial list were asked to describe their programs and to suggest other successful programs that should be included in the sample. Because of the selection process used, this report covers mainly the best known and most frequently studied programs that are aimed at the four market types.

  15. Development of immunity following financial incentives for hepatitis B vaccination among people who inject drugs: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Carolyn A; Shanahan, Marian; Wand, Handan; Topp, Libby; Haber, Paul S; Rodgers, Craig; Deacon, Rachel; Walsh, Nick; Kaldor, John; van Beek, Ingrid; Maher, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) but have low rates of vaccination completion. The provision of modest financial incentives increases vaccination schedule completion, but their association with serological protection has yet to be determined. To investigate factors associated with vaccine-induced immunity among a sample of PWID randomly allocated to receive AUD$30 cash following receipt of doses two and three ('incentive condition') or standard care ('control condition') using an accelerated 3-dose (0,7,21 days) HBV vaccination schedule. A randomised controlled trial among PWID attending two inner-city health services and a field site in Sydney, Australia, assessing vaccine-induced immunity measured by hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb ≥ 10 mIU/ml) at 12 weeks. The cost of the financial incentives and the provision of the vaccine program are also reported. Just over three-quarters of participants - 107/139 (77%)--completed the vaccination schedule and 79/139 (57%) were HBsAb ≥ 10 mIU/ml at 12 weeks. Vaccine series completion was the only variable significantly associated with vaccine-induced immunity in univariate analysis (62% vs 41%, pvaccination completion, provision of financial incentives was not associated with enhanced serological protection. Further research into factors which affect response rates and the optimal vaccination regimen and incentive schemes for this population are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Paying for the wrong kind of performance? Financial incentives and behaviour changes in National Health Service dentistry 1992-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; McDonald, Ruth; Franklin, Jarrod; Aggarwal, Vishal R; Milsom, Keith; Reeves, David

    2011-10-01

    There is a tension between financial incentives and professional codes and norms, both of which are believed to influence the behaviour of health care professionals. This study examined the impact of changes to financial incentive structures on the behaviour of dentists working in the English National Health Service (NHS) as a result of a new national contract. Comparison of six reference treatments delivered by all NHS dentists in England for the period 1992-2009. Large and abrupt changes in the provision of the reference treatments coincided with the introduction of changes in the incentive structure in 2006. Treatments which can be provided in the least amount of time (and therefore costs to dentists) such as extractions increased and treatments which are time consuming or have significant additional materials costs such as bridgework, crowns, root fillings and radiographs reduced substantially. Changes to financial incentive structures can produce large and abrupt changes in professional behaviours. In the context of multiple and conflicting goals, greater thought needs to be given to policies to change incentive structures to mitigate their unintended consequences. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Compliance with quality prescribing indicators in terms of their relationship to financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urrusuno, Rocío; Montero Balosa, Ma Carmen; Pérez Pérez, Pastora; Pascual de la Pisa, Beatriz

    2013-10-01

    To develop quality prescribing indicators for general practitioners (GPs) who are non-monitored and not included in pay-for-performance programs, and to determine compliance with incentivized and non-incentivized indicators. Descriptive cross sectional study. Aljarafe Primary Health Care Area (Andalusian Public Health Care Service, Spain), a rural and suburban area with a population of 323,857 inhabitants. Health assistance in this area is provided by 176 GPs in 37 health centers. Prescribing indicators were developed by a multidisciplinary group using a qualitative technique based on consensus. The members of the consensus group searched for updated recommendations focused on clinical evidence. Prescribing data were obtained from the computerised pharmacy records of reimbursed drugs and clinical data from the electronic clinical databases and hospital admission records. Fourteen indicators based on the selection of drugs of different therapeutic groups or linked to patient´s clinical information were designed. The compliance with indicators based on the selection of drugs linked to financial incentives was higher than that of indicators not linked to financial incentives. The compliance with indicators based on clinical information varied widely. Inappropriate prescribing ranged from 7 %, in the use of long-acting beta-agonists in asthma, to 86 % in the use of drugs for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in young women. This study shows better compliance by GPs with indirect and incentivized quality prescribing indicators, included in pay-for-performance programs, compared with not-incentivized indicators based on the relative use of drugs and on the appropriateness prescribing.

  18. Aligning ambition and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    2011-01-01

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice....... The main insights stem from a trade-off between ‘good monetary incentives’ and ‘good reputational incentives’. We show that the principal optimally designs contracts to create ambiguity about agents’ abilities. This may make it optimal to contract on relative performance measures, even though the extant...... rationales for such schemes are absent. Linking the structure of contracts to organizational design, we show that it can be optimal for the principal to adopt an opaque organization where performance is not verifiable, despite the constraints that this imposes on contracts....

  19. Effects of Performance-Based Financial Incentives on Work Performance: A Study of Technical-Level Employees in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Dabere, Sampath

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of performance-based financial incentives on work performance. The study hypothesized that the design features of performance-based financial incentive schemes themselves may influence individuals' work performance. For the study, survey methodology was used and 93 technical-level employees…

  20. Take the Money and Run: The Challenges of Designing and Evaluating Financial Incentives in Healthcare; Comment on “Paying for Performance in Healthcare Organisations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Mannion

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are turning their attention to the use of explicit financial incentives to drive desired improvements in healthcare performance. However, we have only a weak evidence-base to inform policy in this area. The research challenge is to generate robust evidence on what financial incentives work, under what circumstances, for whom and with what intended and unintended consequences.

  1. A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial of Financial Incentives and Peer Networks to Promote Walking among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Harkins, Kristin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Gonzales, Amy; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.; Asch, David A.; Heisler, Michele; Karlawish, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background: Financial incentives and peer networks could be delivered through eHealth technologies to encourage older adults to walk more. Methods: We conducted a 24-week randomized trial in which 92 older adults with a computer and Internet access received a pedometer, daily walking goals, and weekly feedback on goal achievement. Participants…

  2. Effect of Non Financial Incentives on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools--Survey of Kisii Sub County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Asiago Lenah; Okibo, Walter; Nyang'au, Andrew; Ondima, Cleophas

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction is a major challenge among employees in many organizations. The purpose of this research project is to assess the effect of non-financial incentives on job satisfaction of teachers in public secondary schools of Kisii Sub County in the Republic of Kenya. The specific objectives for the study include: to assess the effect of…

  3. A systematic review of financial incentives given in the healthcare setting : Do they effectively improve physical activity levels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, C.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Puijk, L.; Jensen, J.D.; Schuit, A.J.; de Wit, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background According to current physical activity guidelines, a substantial percentage of the population in high-income countries is inactive, and inactivity is an important risk factor for chronic conditions and mortality. Financial incentives may encourage people to become more active. The

  4. A systematic review of financial incentives given in the healthcare setting; do they effectively improve physical activity levels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Claudia C M; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Puijk, Lisanne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgaard; Schuit, A Jantine; de Wit, G Ardine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to current physical activity guidelines, a substantial percentage of the population in high-income countries is inactive, and inactivity is an important risk factor for chronic conditions and mortality. Financial incentives may encourage people to become more active. The

  5. The impact of removing financial incentives from clinical quality indicators: longitudinal analysis of four Kaiser Permanente indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, H.; Schmittdiel, J.; Selby, J.; Fireman, B.; Campbell, S.M.; Lee, J.; Whippy, A.; Madvig, P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of financial incentives on four clinical quality indicators common to pay for performance plans in the United Kingdom and at Kaiser Permanente in California. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis. SETTING: 35 medical facilities of Kaiser Permanente Northern California,

  6. Compliance with quality prescribing indicators linked to financial incentives: what about not incentivized indicators?: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urrusuno, R; Pérez Pérez, P; Montero Balosa, M C; Márquez Calzada, C; Pascual de la Pisa, B

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether general practitioners (GPs) who complied with quality prescribing indicators included in the pay-for-performance programmes also complied with quality prescribing indicators which are not linked to incentives and to compare the prescribing behaviour between those GPs who showed compliance with quality prescribing indicators linked to financial incentives and those who did not. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was conducted in 2007 in the Aljarafe Primary Care Area (Andalusia, Spain) and involved 37 Health Care Centres and 176 GPs. The main outcome was the results of a comparison of six quality prescribing indicators linked to incentives and 14 quality prescribing indicators not linked to incentives. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. Quantitative variables were tested using Student's t test upon confirmation of normality. Those GPs showing compliance with the indicators included in the pay-for performance programme showed low levels of compliance with quality prescribing indicators that were unincentivised. With respect to compliance with the indicators not linked to financial incentives, we found no statistical difference between GPs who showed compliance with incentivised indicators (n = 57) and those showing non-compliance (n = 112) in terms of drug selection, with the exception of the selection of second- and third-line antibiotics and antihistamines, nor in terms of the appropriate use of drugs linked to patient's clinical conditions. The compliance of GPs showing compliance with quality prescribing indicators included in pay-for-performance programmes was not better than that of those who showed no compliance with other relevant quality prescribing indicators not linked to financial incentives.

  7. Birth weight differences between those offered financial voucher incentives for verified smoking cessation and control participants enrolled in the Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), employing an intuitive approach and a Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Alex; Haig, Caroline; Sinclair, Lesley; Bauld, Linda; Tappin, David M

    2017-07-20

    The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), which offered financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in cessation. However, infant birth weight was not seen to be affected. This study re-examines birth weight using an intuitive and a complier average causal effects (CACE) method to uncover important information missed by intention-to-treat analysis. CPIT offered financial incentives up to £400 to pregnant smokers to quit. With incentives, 68 women (23.1%) were confirmed non-smokers at primary outcome, compared to 25 (8.7%) without incentives, a difference of 14.3% (Fisher test, p financial incentives to quit. Viewed in this way, the overall birth weight gain with incentives is attributable only to potential quitters. We compared an intuitive approach to a CACE analysis. Mean birth weight of potential quitters in the incentives intervention group (who therefore quit) was 3338 g compared with potential quitters in the control group (who did not quit) 3193 g. The difference attributable to incentives, was 3338 - 3193 = 145 g (95% CI -617, +803). The mean difference in birth weight between the intervention and control groups was 21 g, and the difference in the proportion who managed to quit was 14.3%. Since the intervention consisted of the offer of incentives to quit smoking, the intervention was received by all women in the intervention group. However, "compliance" was successfully quitting with incentives, and the CACE analysis yielded an identical result, causal birth weight increase 21 g ÷ 0.143 = 145 g. Policy makers have great difficulty giving pregnant women money to stop smoking. This study indicates that a small clinically insignificant improvement in average birth weight is likely to hide an important clinically significant increase in infants born to pregnant smokers who want to stop but cannot achieve smoking cessation without the addition of financial

  8. Financial Incentives Differentially Regulate Neural Processing of Positive and Negative Emotions during Value-Based Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Farrell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and economic incentives often conflict in decision environments. To make economically desirable decisions then, deliberative neural processes must be engaged to regulate automatic emotional reactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we evaluated how fixed wage (FW incentives and performance-based (PB financial incentives, in which pay is proportional to outcome, differentially regulate positive and negative emotional reactions to hypothetical colleagues that conflicted with the economics of available alternatives. Neural activity from FW to PB incentive contexts decreased for positive emotional stimuli but increased for negative stimuli in middle temporal, insula, and medial prefrontal regions. In addition, PB incentives further induced greater responses to negative than positive emotional decisions in the frontal and anterior cingulate regions involved in emotion regulation. Greater response to positive than negative emotional features in these regions also correlated with lower frequencies of economically desirable choices. Our findings suggest that whereas positive emotion regulation involves a reduction of responses in valence representation regions, negative emotion regulation additionally engages brain regions for deliberative processing and signaling of incongruous events.

  9. Financial Incentives for Chronic Disease Management: Results and Limitations of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials With New York Medicaid Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEpps, Eric M; Troxel, Andrea B; Villamil, Elizabeth; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Zhu, Jingsan; Chin, Jo-Yu; Matson, Jacqueline; Anarella, Joseph; Roohan, Patrick; Gesten, Foster; Volpp, Kevin G

    2018-01-01

    To identify whether financial incentives promote improved disease management in Medicaid recipients diagnosed with hypertension or diabetes, respectively. Four-group, multicenter, randomized clinical trials. Between 2013 and 2016, New York State Medicaid managed care members diagnosed with hypertension (N = 920) or with diabetes (N = 959). Participants in each 6-month trial were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 arms: (1) process incentives-earned by attending primary care visits and/or receiving prescription medication refills, (2) outcome incentives-earned by reducing systolic blood pressure (hypertension) or hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ; diabetes) levels, (3) combined process and outcome incentives, and (4) control (no incentives). Systolic blood pressure (hypertension) and HbA 1c (diabetes) levels, primary care visits, and medication prescription refills. Analysis and Results: At 6 months, there were no statistically significant differences between intervention arms and the control arm in the change in systolic blood pressure, P = .531. Similarly, there were no significant differences in blood glucose control (HbA 1c ) between the intervention arms and control after 6 months, P = .939. The majority of participants had acceptable systolic blood pressure (Financial incentives-regardless of whether they were delivered based on disease-relevant outcomes, process activities, or a combination of the two-have a negligible impact on health outcomes for Medicaid recipients diagnosed with either hypertension or diabetes in 2 studies in which, among other design and operational limitations, the majority of recipients had relatively well-controlled diseases at the time of enrollment.

  10. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  11. Incentives to promote family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Legal and financial methods for reducing low emission sources: Options for incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samitowski, W. [Office of Economic and Legal Advisors POLINVEST Ltd., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    There are two types of the so-called low emission sources in Cracow: over 1,000 local boiler houses and several thousand solid fuel-fired stoves. The accomplishment of each of 5 sub-projects offered under the American-Polish program entails solving the technical, financial, legal and public relations-related problems. The elimination of the low emission source requires, therefore, a joint effort of the following pairs: (a) local authorities, (b) investors, (c) owners and users of low emission sources, and (d) inhabitants involved in particular projects. The results of the studies developed by POLINVEST indicate that the accomplishment of the projects for the elimination of low emission sources will require financial incentives. Bearing in mind the today`s resources available from the community budget, this process may last as long as a dozen or so years. The task of the authorities of Cracow City is making a long-range operational strategy enabling reduction of low emission sources in Cracow.

  13. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  14. Benefits of adding small financial incentives or optional group meetings to a web-based statewide obesity initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Subak, Leslee L; Fava, Joseph; Schembri, Michael; Thomas, Graham; Xu, Xiaomeng; Krupel, Katie; Kent, Kimberly; Boguszewski, Katherine; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad; Wing, Rena

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether adding either small, variable financial incentives or optional group sessions improves weight losses in a community-based, Internet behavioral program. Participants (N = 268) from Shape Up Rhode Island 2012, a 3-month Web-based community wellness initiative, were randomized to: Shape Up+Internet behavioral program (SI), Shape Up+Internet program+incentives (SII), or Shape Up+Internet program+group sessions (SIG). At the end of the 3-month program, SII achieved significantly greater weight losses than SI (SII: 6.4% [5.1-7.7]; SI: 4.2% [3.0-5.6]; P = 0.03); weight losses in SIG were not significantly different from the other two conditions (SIG: 5.8% [4.5-7.1], P's ≥ 0.10). However, at the 12-month no-treatment follow-up visit, both SII and SIG had greater weight losses than SI (SII: 3.1% [1.8-4.4]; SIG: 4.5% [3.2-5.8]; SI: 1.2% [-0.1-2.6]; P's ≤ 0.05). SII was the most cost-effective approach at both 3 (SII: $34/kg; SI: $34/kg; SIG: $87/kg) and 12 months (SII: $64/kg; SI: $140/kg; SIG: $113/kg). Modest financial incentives enhance weight losses during a community campaign, and both incentives and optional group meetings improved overall weight loss outcomes during the follow-up period. However, the use of the financial incentives is the most cost-effective approach. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  15. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a single-arm intervention study assessing cessation and gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierfino, Diana; Mantzari, Eleni; Hirst, Julie; Jones, Tina; Aveyard, Paul; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Aims Financial incentives were the single most effective intervention for smoking cessation in pregnancy in a recent Cochrane Review, but based on a few small trials in the United States using only 7-day point prevalence measures of cessation. This study estimates (a) prolonged cessation in an unselected population of English pregnant smokers who are offered financial incentives for quitting and (b) ‘gaming’, i.e. false reporting of smoking status to enter the scheme or gain an incentive. Design Single-arm intervention study Setting Antenatal clinic and community Participants A total of 239 pregnant smokers enrolled into the financial incentive scheme, attending for maternity care at one hospital in an area of high deprivation in England over a 42-week period. Measurements Smoking cessation at delivery and 6 months postpartum, assessed using salivary cotinine; gaming assessed using urinary and salivary cotinine at enrolment, 28 and 36 weeks gestation, and 2 days and 6 months postpartum. Findings Thirty-nine per cent (239 of 615) of smokers were enrolled into the scheme, 60% (143 of 239) of whom made a quit attempt. Of those enrolled, 20% [48 of 239; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 14.9%, 25.1%] were quit at delivery and 10% (25 of 239; 95% CI = 6.2%, 13.8%) at 6 months postpartum. There was no evidence that women gamed to enter the scheme, but evidence that 4% (10 of 239) of those enrolled gamed on one or more occasions to gain vouchers. Conclusions Enrolment on an incentive scheme in an unselected English cohort of pregnant smokers was associated with prolonged cessation rates comparable to those reported in US trials. Rates of gaming were arguably insufficiently high to invalidate the use of such schemes. PMID:25727238

  16. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  17. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  18. A business case for HIT adoption: effects of "meaningful use" EHR financial incentives on clinic revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behkami, Nima A; Dorr, David A; Morrice, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe a framework that allows decision makers to efficiently evaluate factors that affect Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption and test suitable interventions; specifically financial incentives. The United States healthcare delivery system is experiencing a transformation to improve population health. There is strong agreement that "meaningful use" of Health Information Technology (HIT) is a major enabler in this effort. However it's also understood that the high cost of implementing an EHR is an obstacle for adoption. To help understand these complexities we developed a simulation model designed to capture the dynamic nature of policy interventions that affect the adoption of EHR. We found that "Effective" use of HIT approaches break-even-point and larger clinic revenue many times faster that "average" or "poor" use of HIT. This study uses a systems perspective to the evaluate EHR adoption process through the "meaningful use" redesign as proposed in the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act 2009 in the United States healthcare industry by utilizing the System Dynamics methodology and Scenario Analysis.

  19. Behavioural economics: Cash incentives avert deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Juan Camilo

    2017-10-01

    There is tension in developing countries between financial incentives to clear forests and climate regulation benefits of preserving trees. Now research shows that paying private forest owners in Uganda reduced deforestation, adding to the debate on the use of monetary incentives in forest conservation.

  20. Financial incentives and psychiatric services in Australia: an empirical analysis of three policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doessel, D P; Scheurer, Roman W; Chant, David C; Whiteford, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    Australia has a national, compulsory and universal health insurance scheme, called Medicare. In 1996 the Government changed the Medicare Benefit Schedule Book in such a way as to create different financial incentives for consumers or producers of out-of-hospital private psychiatric services, once an individual consumer had received 50 such services in a 12-month period. The Australian Government introduced a new Item (319) to cover some special cases that were affected by the policy change. At the same time, the Commonwealth introduced a 'fee-freeze' for all medical services. The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it is necessary to describe the three policy interventions (the constraints on utilization, the operation of the new Item and the general 'fee-freeze'.) The new Item policy was essentially a mechanism to 'dampen' the effect of the 'constraint' policy, and these two policy changes will be consequently analysed as a single intervention. The second objective is to evaluate the policy intervention in terms of the (stated) Australian purpose of reducing utilization of psychiatric services, and thus reducing financial outlays. Thus, it is important to separate out the different effects of the three policies that were introduced at much the same time in November 1996 and January 1997. The econometric results indicate that the composite policy change (constraining services and the new 319 Item) had a statistically significant effect. The analysis of the Medicare Benefit (in constant prices) indicates that the 'fee-freeze' policy also had a statistically significant effect. This enables separate determination of the several policy changes. In fact, the empirical results indicate that the Commonwealth Government underestimated the 'savings' that would arise from the 'constraint' policy.

  1. Agency-level financial incentives and electronic reminders to improve continuity of care after discharge from residential treatment and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Andrea; Lee, Margaret T; Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M; Ritter, Grant A; Panas, Lee; Campbell, Kevin; Bean-Mortinson, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of continuity of care after detoxification and residential treatment, many clients do not receive further treatment services after discharged. This study examined whether offering financial incentives and providing client-specific electronic reminders to treatment agencies lead to improved continuity of care after detoxification or residential treatment. Residential (N = 33) and detoxification agencies (N = 12) receiving public funding in Washington State were randomized into receiving one, both, or none (control group) of the interventions. Agencies assigned to incentives arms could earn financial rewards based on their continuity of care rates relative to a benchmark or based on improvement. Agencies assigned to electronic reminders arms received weekly information on recently discharged clients who had not yet received follow-up treatment. Difference-in-difference regressions controlling for client and agency characteristics tested the effectiveness of these interventions on continuity of care. During the intervention period, 24,347 clients received detoxification services and 20,685 received residential treatment. Overall, neither financial incentives nor electronic reminders had an effect on the likelihood of continuity of care. The interventions did have an effect among residential treatment agencies which had higher continuity of care rates at baseline. Implementation of agency-level financial incentives and electronic reminders did not result in improvements in continuity of care, except among higher performing agencies. Alternative strategies at the facility and systems levels should be explored to identify ways to increase continuity of care rates in specialty settings, especially for low performing agencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: a case study on the occupation-specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD, a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. Objective: First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines ‘perfect implementation’ pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. Methods: A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. Results: The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. Conclusion: The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.

  3. The 'Pounds for Pounds' weight loss financial incentive scheme: an evaluation of a pilot in NHS Eastern and Coastal Kent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Li, Jessica

    2011-12-01

    Financial incentive programmes have the potential to modify health-related behaviours, including those associated with achieving weight loss. This study evaluated a pilot NHS commissioned financial incentive weight loss programme, based on the commercial Weight Wins 'Pounds for Pounds' programme. Participants chose a weight loss plan based on their target weight. Plans ranged from 15 lb (6.8 kg) weight loss over 3 months to 50 lb (22.7 kg) weight loss over 7 months, with optional additional 'maintenance' periods. Rewards, which were received after successful plan completion, ranged from £70 to £425 per year. Mean baseline weight for the 402 participants was 101.8 kg (SD 46.1 kg), with 77.4% having a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2). Clinically significant weight loss (≥5%) occurred in 44.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0-49.7%] of participants. Estimated mean weight loss at 12 months was 4.0 kg (95% CI: 2.4-5.6 kg) under the assumption of return-to-baseline weight for those who had left the programme before reporting a 12 month weight. The estimated mean 12 month weight loss of 4.0 kg at 12 months is comparable to other evaluations of other non-medical weight loss interventions. A randomized controlled trial is required to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this financial incentive scheme.

  4. Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: a case study on the occupation-specific dispensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlopo, Prudence; Blaauw, Duane; Rispel, Laetitia C; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy

    2013-01-24

    In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD), a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines 'perfect implementation' pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.

  5. Effects of Individual Physician-Level and Practice-Level Financial Incentives on Hypertension Care: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Laura A.; Simpson, Kate; Pietz, Kenneth; Urech, Tracy H.; Hysong, Sylvia J.; Profit, Jochen; Conrad, Douglas A.; Dudley, R. Adams; Woodard, LeChauncy D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Pay for performance is intended to align incentives to promote high quality care, but results have been contradictory. Objective To test the effect of explicit financial incentives to reward guideline-recommended hypertension care. Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster randomized controlled trial of 12 Veterans Affairs hospital-based outpatient clinics with five performance periods and a 12-month washout. We enrolled 83 primary care physicians and 42 non-physician personnel (e.g., nurses, pharmacists) working with physicians to deliver hypertension care. Interventions Clinics randomized to one of four groups: physician-level (individual) incentives; practice-level incentives; individual- plus practice-level incentives (combined); or none. Intervention participants received up to five payments every four months; all participants could access feedback reports. Main outcome measures For each four-month period, the number of hypertensive patients among a random sample who achieved guideline-recommended blood pressure thresholds or received an appropriate response to uncontrolled blood pressure; and/or been prescribed guideline-recommended medications and the number who developed hypotension. Results Mean (standard deviation) total payments over the study were $4,270 ($459), $2,672 ($153), and $1,648 ($248) for the combined, individual, and practice-level interventions, respectively. The adjusted change over the study in patients meeting the combined blood pressure/appropriate response measure was 8.84 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.20–11.80) for the individual-level, 3.70 (95% CI, 0.24–7.68) for the practice-level, 5.54 (95% CI, 1.92–9.52) for the combined, and 0.47 (95% CI, −3.12–4.04) for the control groups. For medications, the change was 9.07 (95% CI, 4.52–13.44), 4.98 (95% CI, 0.64–10.08), 7.26 (95% CI, 2.92–12.48), and 4.35 (95% CI, −0.28–9.28) percentage points, respectively. The adjusted estimated

  6. Financial incentives to promote renewable energy systems in European electricity markets: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Huber, C.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy systems may contribute to sustainable development. Therefore, one of the challenges for energy policy is to ensure that renewable energy options have a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents a survey on promotion mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewable energies in European electricity markets. Strategies include rebates and tax incentives, regulated rates, system benefit charges, bidding-oriented mechanisms and various types of green pricing programs. The paper concludes that efficient promotion mechanisms should focus on incentives per kWh generated rather than on rebates on the investment in generating capacity (kW), and that there is no one single program type which has the best application to the promotion of all renewable technologies. For example, enhanced buy-back rates work as a dissemination strategy for wind energy but they do not work for photovoltaics. (author)

  7. Financial incentives and purchase restrictions in a food benefit program affect the types of foods and beverages purchased: results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Rydell, Sarah A; Mitchell, Nathan R; Michael Oakes, J; Elbel, Brian; Harnack, Lisa

    2017-09-16

    This research evaluated the effects of financial incentives and purchase restrictions on food purchasing in a food benefit program for low income people. Participants (n=279) were randomized to groups: 1) Incentive- 30% financial incentive for fruits and vegetables purchased with food benefits; 2) Restriction- no purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet baked goods, or candies with food benefits; 3) Incentive plus Restriction; or 4) Control- no incentive or restrictions. Participants received a study-specific debit card where funds were added monthly for 12-weeks. Food purchase receipts were collected over 16 weeks. Total dollars spent on grocery purchases and by targeted food categories were computed from receipts. Group differences were examined using general linear models. Weekly purchases of fruit significantly increased in the Incentive plus Restriction ($4.8) compared to the Restriction ($1.7) and Control ($2.1) groups (p beverage purchases significantly decreased in the Incentive plus Restriction (-$0.8 per week) and Restriction ($-1.4 per week) groups compared to the Control group (+$1.5; pfoods and beverages purchased with food program funds may support more healthful food purchases compared to no incentives or restrictions. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02643576 .

  8. Financial Incentives: Only One Piece of the Workplace Wellness Puzzle; Comment on “Corporate Wellness Programs: Implementation Challenges in the Modern American Workplace”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Van Busum

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, we argue that financial incentives are only one of many key components that employers should consider when designing and implementing a workplace wellness program. Strategies such as social encouragement and providing token rewards may also be effective in improving awareness and engagement. Should employers choose to utilize financial incentives, they should tailor them to the goals for the program as well as the targeted behaviors and health outcomes.

  9. DEVELOPING CIRCULAR ECONOMY FOR THE RETAIL REFRIGERATION INDUSTRY: HOW FINANCIAL INCENTIVES COULD INFLUENCE REMANUFACTURiNG OF REFRIGERATED DISPLAY CABINETS IN THE UK

    OpenAIRE

    Muranko, Z; Andrews, D; Chaer, I; Newton, E; Proudman, P; Longhurst, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how influential financial incentives could be in achieving a Circular Economy, with particular reference to the retail refrigeration industry. It underlines the potential monetary benefits for consumers who purchase remanufactured retail refrigeration equipment and highlights the potential financial incentives, which could help the producers of Refrigerated Display Cabinets (RDCs) to remanufacture. The Circular Economy is an economic and industrial system where resources a...

  10. Respect as an Incentive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees' further effort, the duration of relationships, and the profits of employers. Furthermore, we study whether employers......' decisions to give symbolic rewards are driven by strategic considerations, by manipulating the bargaining power of employers and employees.  We find that employers make use of symbolic rewards and chiefly to express their satisfaction with the employee.  Indeed, symbolic rewards are more frequently used......, the opportunity of expressing respect does not improve efficiency compared with an environment in which it does not exist, possibly due to a crowding-out of extrinsic incentives by the availability of non-monetary incentives....

  11. Incentives and moral hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the unique contractual arrangement between a large Ethiopian sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. The only significant difference between the sugarcane production on the factory-operated sugarcane plantation and on the outgrower-operated plots is the remuneration...... system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of these two production schemes using a cross-sectional plot-level data set. As sugarcane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g., soil type, cane variety, etc.), we......-operated plots have-ceteris paribus-a statistically and economically significantly higher productivity than factory-operated plots, which can be explained by outgrowers having stronger incentives to put more effort into their work than the employees of the sugar factory....

  12. An overview of reviews evaluating the effectiveness of financial incentives in changing healthcare professional behaviours and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodgren, Gerd; Eccles, Martin P; Shepperd, Sasha; Scott, Anthony; Parmelli, Elena; Beyer, Fiona R

    2011-07-06

    There is considerable interest in the effectiveness of financial incentives in the delivery of health care. Incentives may be used in an attempt to increase the use of evidence-based treatments among healthcare professionals or to stimulate health professionals to change their clinical behaviour with respect to preventive, diagnostic and treatment decisions, or both. Financial incentives are an extrinsic source of motivation and exist when an individual can expect a monetary transfer which is made conditional on acting in a particular way. Since there are numerous reviews performed within the healthcare area describing the effects of various types of financial incentives, it is important to summarise the effectiveness of these in an overview to discern which are most effective in changing health professionals' behaviour and patient outcomes. To conduct an overview of systematic reviews that evaluates the impact of financial incentives on healthcare professional behaviour and patient outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) (The Cochrane Library); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE); TRIP; MEDLINE; EMBASE; Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; NHS EED; HEED; EconLit; and Program in Policy Decision-Making (PPd) (from their inception dates up to January 2010). We searched the reference lists of all included reviews and carried out a citation search of those papers which cited studies included in the review. We included both Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), interrupted time series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies (CBAs) that evaluated the effects of financial incentives on professional practice and patient outcomes, and that reported numerical results of the included individual studies. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of each review according to the AMSTAR

  13. How Financial and Reputational Incentives Can Be Used to Improve Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Martin; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-12-01

    Narrative review of the impact of pay-for-performance (P4P) and public reporting (PR) on health care outcomes, including spillover effects and impact on disparities. The impact of P4P and PR is dependent on the underlying payment system (fee-for-service, salary, capitation) into which these schemes are introduced. Both have the potential to improve care, but they can also have substantial unintended consequences. Evidence from the behavioral economics literature suggests that individual physicians will vary in how they respond to incentives. We also discuss issues to be considered when including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) or patient-reported experience measures into P4P and PR schemes. We provide guidance to payers and policy makers on the design of P4P and PR programs so as to maximize their benefits and minimize their unintended consequences. These include involving clinicians in the design of the program, taking into account the payment system into which new incentives are introduced, designing the structure of reward programs to maximize the likelihood of intended outcomes and minimize the likelihood of unintended consequences, designing schemes that minimize the risk of increasing disparities, providing stability of incentives over some years, and including outcomes that are relevant to patients' priorities. In addition, because of the limitations of PR and P4P as effective interventions in their own right, it is important that they are combined with other policies and interventions intended to improve quality to maximize their likely impact. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Behavior analysts in the war on poverty: A review of the use of financial incentives to promote education and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Jarvis, Brantley P; Silverman, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a pervasive risk factor underlying poor health. Many interventions that have sought to reduce health disparities associated with poverty have focused on improving health-related behaviors of low-income adults. Poverty itself could be targeted to improve health, but this approach would require programs that can consistently move poor individuals out of poverty. Governments and other organizations in the United States have tested a diverse range of antipoverty programs, generally on a large scale and in conjunction with welfare reform initiatives. This paper reviews antipoverty programs that used financial incentives to promote education and employment among welfare recipients and other low-income adults. The incentive-based, antipoverty programs had small or no effects on the target behaviors; they were implemented on large scales from the outset, without systematic development and evaluation of their components; and they did not apply principles of operant conditioning that have been shown to determine the effectiveness of incentive or reinforcement interventions. By applying basic principles of operant conditioning, behavior analysts could help address poverty and improve health through development of effective antipoverty programs. This paper describes a potential framework for a behavior-analytic antipoverty program, with the goal of illustrating that behavior analysts could be uniquely suited to make substantial contributions to the war on poverty. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Perceived Self-Efficacy and Financial Incentives: Factors Affecting Health Behaviors and Weight Loss in a Workplace Weight Loss Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Pouran D; Simon, Julia; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Gorin, Amy

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate if self-efficacy (SE) and financial incentives (FI) mediate the effect of health behavior on weight loss in a group of overweight and obese nursing-home employees participating in a 16-week weight-loss intervention with 12-week follow-up. Ninety nine overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > 25) employees from four nursing-homes participated, with a mean age of 46.98 years and BMI of 35.33. Nursing-homes were randomized to receiving an incentive-based intervention (n = 51) and no incentive (n = 48). Participants' health behaviors and eating and exercise self-efficacy (Ex-SE) were assessed at week 1, 16, and 28 using a self-reported questionnaire. Mediation and moderated mediation analysis assessed relationships among these variables. Eating self-efficacy (Eat-SE) and Ex-SE were significant mediators between health behaviors and weight loss (P interventions.

  16. Incentives for students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of certificates and deadlines on student performance. It exploits time lags in reforms of two similar degree programs at a business school, which create quasi-experimental settings. Students’ performance is found to increase if certificates are awarded to them early...... in their program. Deadlines to pass exams prevent them from submitting blank sheets to fail and resit exams. Both effects are stronger among average students compared to high-ability or low-ability students. These findings show that the policies that govern degree programs can create incentives for students...

  17. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  18. Paying people to lose weight: the effectiveness of financial incentives provided by health insurers for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthapavan, J; Peterson, A; Sacks, G

    2017-12-20

    Curbing the obesity epidemic is likely to require a suite of interventions targeting the obesogenic environment as well as individual behaviour. Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of behaviour modification programmes can be enhanced by financial incentives that immediately reward weight loss behaviour. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of incentives with a focus on assessing the relative effectiveness of incentives that target different behaviours as well as factors of importance when implementing these programmes in real-world settings (health insurer settings). A narrative review of the academic and grey literature including a variety of study designs was undertaken. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria and were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Results suggest that incentivizing weight loss is effective in the short term while the incentives are in place. There are various incentive designs, and although the relative effectiveness of each of these on weight loss is not clear, it appears that positive incentives increase the uptake into programmes and may reduce dropouts. As with other weight loss initiatives, there is a need to explore ways to maintain weight loss in the longer term - incentives for weight maintenance could play a role. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. The Mechanisms of Financial Incentives and Credit Support of Small Business in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Mortaza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to analyze the existing programs and technologies in the field of financial incentives and credit support of business, as well as justification of qualitatively new methodological tools in the study area for its adaptation in domestic practice. Subject of the article is relevant because it is devoted to description of sources of financial incentives and credit support to small businesses, which are currently the engine of the modern economy. In the first part of the article, an overview of the financial resources and types of funding sources of organizations and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME in major developed European countries is provided. Also a description is provided of modern methods of creation of an innovative climate, support innovative ideas and internal business. The second part of the article describes the direction, forms of financing small and medium enterprises (SME in the major developed European countries, taking into account the peculiarities of the development and functioning. The possibility of using foreign experience in Russia is analyzed. The presented research topic is particularly relevant in connection to an increase in the role of sources of financing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME. In current economic environment exists the need to address problem of financial support of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME, attraction of new sources of funding, as well as the development of bank credit loans. Processes of market transformation of small and medium-sized businesses have acquired a special importance in relation to the defining role of these enterprises in the system of provision of the economic security of the country. Methods: the methodological bases of this article are the economic and statistical analysis methods, regulatory documents in the field of economic security, publications in the field of economic and financial security, public

  20. Financial incentives improve recognition but not treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in severe mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Wilson

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness (SMI is associated with premature cardiovascular disease, prompting the UK primary care payment-for-performance system (Quality and Outcomes Framework, QOF to incentivise annual physical health reviews. This study aimed to assess the QOF's impact on detection and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with SMI.A retrospective open cohort study of UK general practice was conducted between 1996 and 2014, using segmented logistic regression with 2004 and 2011 as break points, reflecting the introduction of relevant QOF incentives in these years. 67239 SMI cases and 359951 randomly-selected unmatched controls were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD.There was strong evidence (p≤0.015 the 2004 QOF indicator (general health resulted in an immediate increase in recording of elevated cholesterol (odds ratio 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.51; obesity (OR 1.21 (1.06 to 1.38; and hypertension (OR 1.19 (1.04 to 1.38 in the SMI group compared with the control group, which was sustained in subsequent years. Similar findings were found for diabetes, although the evidence was weaker (p = 0.059; OR 1.21 (0.99 to 1.49. There was evidence (p<0.001 of a further, but unsustained, increase in recording of elevated cholesterol and obesity in the SMI group following the 2011 QOF indicator (cardiovascular specific. There was no clear evidence that the QOF indicators affected the prescribing of lipid modifying medications or anti-diabetic medications.Incentivising general physical health review for SMI improves identification of cardiovascular risk factors, although the additional value of specifically incentivising cardiovascular risk factor assessment is unclear. However, incentives do not affect pharmacological management of these risks.

  1. Decision-making in general practice: the effect of financial incentives on the use of laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkerud, Siri Fauli

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the reaction of general practitioners (GPs) to a reform in 2004 in the remuneration system for using laboratory services in general practice. The purpose of this paper is to study whether income motivation exists regarding the use of laboratory services in general practice, and if so, the degree of income motivation among general practitioners (GPs) in Norway. We argue that the degree of income motivation is stronger when the physicians are uncertain about the utility of the laboratory service in question. We have panel data from actual physician-patient encounters in general practices in the years 2001-2004 and use discrete choice analysis and random effects models. Estimation results show that an increase in the fees will lead to a small but significant increase in use. The reform led to minor changes in the use of laboratory analyses in GPs' offices, and we argue that financial incentives were diluted because they were in conflict with medical recommendations and existing medical practice. The patient's age has the most influence and the results support the hypothesis that the impact of income increases with increasing uncertainty about diagnosis and treatment. The policy implication of our results is that financial incentives alone are not an effective tool for influencing the use of laboratory services in GPs' offices.

  2. Public acceptability of financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breast feeding: a survey of the British public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Sewel, Kate; Thomson, Gill; Bauld, Linda; Yi, Deokhee; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey public attitudes about incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy and for breast feeding to inform trial design. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants British general public. Methods Seven promising incentive strategies had been identified from evidence syntheses and qualitative interview data from service users and providers. These were shopping vouchers for: (1) validated smoking cessation in pregnancy and (2) after birth; (3) for a smoke-free home; (4) for proven breast feeding; (5) a free breast pump; (6) payments to health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy targets and (7) breastfeeding targets. Ipsos MORI used area quota sampling and home-administered computer-assisted questionnaires, with randomised question order to assess agreement with different incentives (measured on a five-point scale). Demographic data and target behaviour experience were recorded. Analysis used multivariable ordered logit models. Results Agreement with incentives was mixed (ranging from 34% to 46%) among a representative sample of 1144 British adults. Mean agreement score was highest for a free breast pump, and lowest for incentives for smoking abstinence after birth. More women disagreed with shopping vouchers than men. Those with lower levels of education disagreed more with smoking cessation incentives and a breast pump. Those aged 44 or under agreed more with all incentive strategies compared with those aged 65 and over, particularly provider targets for smoking cessation. Non-white ethnic groups agreed particularly with breastfeeding incentives. Current smokers with previous stop attempts and respondents who had breast fed children agreed with providing vouchers for the respective behaviours. Up to £40/month vouchers for behaviour change were acceptable (>85%). Conclusions Women and the less educated were more likely to disagree, but men and women of childbearing age to agree, with incentives designed for their benefit

  3. Incentives and moral hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard

    . As sugar-cane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g. soil type, cane variety, etc.), we estimate the production function by a nonparametric kernel regression method that takes into account both continuous and categorical explanatory variables......We investigate the unique contractual arrangement between a large Ethiopian sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. The only significant difference between the sugarcane production on the factory-operated sugarcane plantation and on the outgrower-operated plots is the remuneration...... system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of the factory-operated plantation with the outgrower-operated plots based on a new cross-sectional plot-level data set that includes all plots that are operated by the sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations...

  4. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  5. Use of care management practices in small- and medium-sized physician groups: do public reporting of physician quality and financial incentives matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Maeng, Daniel; Casalino, Lawrence P; Rittenhouse, Diane

    2013-04-01

    To examine the effect of public reporting (PR) and financial incentives tied to quality performance on the use of care management practices (CMPs) among small- and medium-sized physician groups. Survey data from The National Study of Small and Medium-sized Physician Practices were used. Primary data collection was also conducted to assess community-level PR activities. The final sample included 643 practices engaged in quality reporting; about half of these practices were subject to PR. We used a treatment effects model. The instrumental variables were the community-level variables that capture the level of PR activity in each community in which the practices operate. (1) PR is associated with increased use of CMPs, but the estimate is not statistically significant; (2) financial incentives are associated with greater use of CMPs; (3) practices' awareness/sensitivity to quality reports is positively related to their use of CMPs; and (4) combined PR and financial incentives jointly affect CMP use to a greater degree than either of these factors alone. Small- to medium-sized practices appear to respond to PR and financial incentives by greater use of CMPs. Future research needs to investigate the appropriate mix and type of incentive arrangements and quality reporting. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Health worker motivation in Africa: the role of non-financial incentives and human resource management tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhoff Ingo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a serious human resource crisis in the health sector in developing countries, particularly in Africa. One of the challenges is the low motivation of health workers. Experience and the evidence suggest that any comprehensive strategy to maximize health worker motivation in a developing country context has to involve a mix of financial and non-financial incentives. This study assesses the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in two cases, in Benin and Kenya. Methods The study design entailed semi-structured qualitative interviews with doctors and nurses from public, private and NGO facilities in rural areas. The selection of health professionals was the result of a layered sampling process. In Benin 62 interviews with health professionals were carried out; in Kenya 37 were obtained. Results from individual interviews were backed up with information from focus group discussions. For further contextual information, interviews with civil servants in the Ministry of Health and at the district level were carried out. The interview material was coded and quantitative data was analysed with SPSS software. Results and discussion The study shows that health workers overall are strongly guided by their professional conscience and similar aspects related to professional ethos. In fact, many health workers are demotivated and frustrated precisely because they are unable to satisfy their professional conscience and impeded in pursuing their vocation due to lack of means and supplies and due to inadequate or inappropriately applied human resources management (HRM tools. The paper also indicates that even some HRM tools that are applied may adversely affect the motivation of health workers. Conclusion The findings confirm the starting hypothesis that non-financial incentives and HRM tools play an important role with respect to increasing motivation of health professionals. Adequate HRM tools can uphold and strengthen the

  7. Acceptability and feasibility of a financial incentive intervention to improve retention in HIV care among pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Mongwenyana, Constance; Musina, Melda; Bokaba, Dorah; Long, Lawrence; Maskew, Mhairi; Ahonkhai, Aima; Fox, Matthew P

    2018-04-01

    Women initiating antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy are at high risk of dropping out of HIV care after delivery. We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of a financial incentive - a one-time R50 (∼USD4) supermarket voucher for completing one postpartum visit ≤10 weeks of delivery - to improve postpartum retention. We enrolled 100 pregnant, HIV-positive women at a primary health clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and we reviewed files to assess retention ≥14 weeks postpartum. Median (IQR) respondent age was 28 years (24-31) and 31% were employed. Most (86%) said the incentive would motivate them to return and 76% supported clinics offering incentives. Among the 23% who found the intervention unacceptable, the most frequent reason was perceived personal responsibility for health. Feasibility was demonstrated, as 79.7% (51/64) of eligible participants received a voucher. When asked to rank preferred hypothetical incentive interventions, assistance with social services ranked first (29%), followed by infant formula (22%) and cash (21%); assistance with social services was the top-ranked choice by both those who found the voucher incentive intervention acceptable and unacceptable. To encourage HIV-positive women to remain in care, respondents most frequently suggested health education (34%), counseling (29%), financial incentives (25%), home visits (13%), and better service (6%). Our results suggest financial incentives are acceptable, but women frequently expressed preference for integrated services and improved education and counseling to improve retention. Interventions exploring the feasibility and efficacy of education and counseling interventions to improve postpartum HIV care are warranted.

  8. ABOUT THE MECHANISM OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVE FOR THE DEVELOPERS OF IT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Dobrynin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of the developers of hardware and software systems and IT systems it is inextricably linked with quality incentives. People are motivated to work and are able to achieve good results, focusing on decent remuneration. Non-rational approaches to remuneration are able to generate social problems and greatly reduce the overall efficiency of the organizational systems. Motivation mobile teams of IT developers and individuals engaged in the operational management of the project implementation is of paramount importance. The article examines the mechanisms for stimulating the synthesis development of IT systems based on the principle of coordinated control that allows you to bring together the interests of the customers and performers. It is expected that customers and performers interested in creating all the necessary conditions (investment, social, technological to obtain high-quality final product. The customer agrees with the developer on the approximate number of design iterations, each iteration of the composition, timing and budgets required to achieve the desired result. By means of evaluating the effectiveness of business results are metric tests, including functional and modular (unit tests, created in direct contact representatives of the customer and the developer. This mechanism should be used in mobile teams, in which the development is relatively short iterations with stepwise refinement of business requirements.

  9. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  10. Effectiveness and acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing uptake of vaccinations in preschool children: systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Bateman, Belinda; Becker, Frauke; Cresswell, Tricia; Flynn, Darren; McNaughton, Rebekah; Oluboyede, Yemi; Robalino, Shannon; Ternent, Laura; Sood, Benjamin Gardner; Michie, Susan; Shucksmith, Janet; Sniehotta, Falko F; Wigham, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Uptake of preschool vaccinations is less than optimal. Financial incentives and quasi-mandatory policies (restricting access to child care or educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been used to increase uptake internationally, but not in the UK. To provide evidence on the effectiveness, acceptability and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations. Systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment (DCE) with questionnaire. Community, health and education settings in England. Qualitative study - parents and carers of preschool children, health and educational professionals. DCE - parents and carers of preschool children identified as 'at high risk' and 'not at high risk' of incompletely vaccinating their children. Qualitative study - focus groups and individual interviews. DCE - online questionnaire. The review included studies exploring the effectiveness, acceptability or economic costs and consequences of interventions that offered contingent rewards or penalties with real material value for preschool vaccinations, or quasi-mandatory schemes that restricted access to 'universal' services, compared with usual care or no intervention. Electronic database, reference and citation searches were conducted. Systematic review - there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions considered are effective. There was some evidence that the quasi-mandatory interventions were acceptable. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Qualitative study - there was little appetite for parental financial incentives. Quasi-mandatory schemes were more acceptable. Optimising current services was consistently preferred to the interventions proposed. DCE and questionnaire - universal parental financial incentives were preferred to quasi-mandatory interventions, which were preferred to targeted

  11. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  12. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  13. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, G.

    2013-01-01

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  14. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  15. Ethical acceptability of offering financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication: Patients' and clinicians' perspectives after a 12-month randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Noordraven (Ernst); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P. Blanken (Peter); C.L. Mulder (Niels); A.I. Wierdsma (André)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A randomized controlled trial 'Money for Medication'(M4M) was conducted in which patients were offered financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication. This study assessed the attitudes and ethical considerations of patients and clinicians who participated in

  16. A climate concept with heat pump system. Financial incentives for a climate protection project; Ein Klimakonzept mit Waermepumpensystem. Foerdermittel fuer ein Klimaschutzprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    For the building of its new production location, the company Kunzemann Praezisionsdrehteile GmbH (Mochenwangen, Federal Republic of Germany) received financial incentives from European funds for climatic protection projects at a value of nearly 25,000 Euro. The reason: The company installed a heat pump system with which the annual output of the climatic harmful carbon dioxide is reduced by 90 tons.

  17. Lightweight electric-powered vehicles. Which financial incentives after the large-scale field tests at Mendrisio?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Frick, R.; Hammer, S.

    1999-08-01

    How should lightweight electric-powered vehicles be promoted, after the large-scale fleet test being conducted at Mendrisio (southern Switzerland) is completed in 2001, and are there reasons to put question marks behind the current approach? The demand for electric vehicles, and particularly the one in the automobile category, has remained at a persistently low level. As it proved, any appreciable improvement of this situation is almost impossible, even with substantial financial incentives. However, the unsatisfactory sales figures have little to do with the nature of the fleet test itself or with the specific conditions at Mendrisio. The problem is rather of structural nature. For (battery-operated) electric cars the main problem at present is the lack of an expanding market which could become self-supporting with only a few additional incentives. Various strategies have been evaluated. Two alternatives were considered in particular: a strategy to promote explicitly electric vehicles ('EL-strategy'), and a strategy to promote efficient road vehicles in general which would have to meet specific energy and environmental-efficiency criteria ('EF-strategy'). The EL-strategies make the following dilemma clear. If the aim is to raise the share of these vehicles up to 5% of all cars on the road (or even 8%) in a mid-term prospect, then substantial interventions in the relevant vehicle markets would be required, either with penalties for conventional cars, or a large-scale funding scheme, or interventions at the supply level. The study suggests a differentiated strategy with two components: (i) 'institutionalised' promotion with the aim of a substantial increase of the share of 'efficient' vehicles (independently of the propulsion technology), and (ii) the continuation of pilot and demonstration projects for the promotion of different types of innovative technologies. (author) [de

  18. Uptake and patient outcomes of laparoscopic colon and rectal cancer surgery in a publicly funded system and following financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Marko; Baxter, Nancy N; Sutradhar, Rinku; Liu, Ning; Cadeddu, Margherita; Urbach, David

    2013-11-01

    To assess patterns of uptake and outcomes of laparoscopic colon and rectal cancer surgery in Ontario, and the potential influence of surgical fee incentives instituted on October 1, 2005. We used Ontario administrative databases from fiscal years 2002 to 2009. Study outcomes were uptake rates of laparoscopic surgery, hospital length of stay, 30-day operative mortality, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. The main descriptor for multivariable regression models was a 5% increase in rate of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery in the previous year. The annual rate of laparoscopic colon and rectal cancer surgery, respectively, rose from 8.7 to 38.9% and from 4.8 to 19.6%. The greatest increase in rate of laparoscopic colon surgery occurred shortly after October 1, 2005. For each 5% increase in rate of laparoscopic surgery, the odds of 30-day mortality was 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.01, p = 0.264], the hazard of cancer-specific survival was 1.0 (95% CI 0.97-1.00, p = 0.139), the hazard of overall survival was 1.0 (95% CI 0.98-1.00, p = 0.051), and length of hospital stay was lower (estimate = -0.10, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.06, p < 0.001). In Ontario by the year 2009, 39% of colon and 20% of rectal cancer surgery was provided laparoscopically. Increased rates were associated with a minimal decrease in hospital length of stay and no changes in 30-day mortality, cancer-specific survival, or overall survival. Financial incentives were likely responsible for the marked increase in laparoscopic colon cancer surgery observed after October 1, 2005.

  19. "Meaningful use" of EHR in dental school clinics: how to benefit from the U.S. HITECH Act's financial and quality improvement incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Walji, Muhammad; Ramoni, Rachel B

    2013-04-01

    Through the 2009 HITECH (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health) Act, the U.S. government committed $27 billion to incentivize the adoption and "meaningful use" of certified electronic health records (EHRs) by providers, including dentists. Given their patient profiles, dental school clinics are in a position to benefit from this time-delimited commitment to support the adoption and use of certified EHR technology under the Medicaid-based incentive. The benefits are not merely financial: rather, the meaningful use objectives and clinical quality measures can drive quality improvement initiatives within dental practices and help develop a community of medical and dental professionals focused on quality. This article describes how dentists can qualify as eligible providers and the set of activities that must be undertaken and attested to in order to obtain this incentive. Two case studies describe the approaches that can be used to meet the Medicaid threshold necessary to be eligible for the incentive. Dentists can and have successfully applied for meaningful use incentive payments. Given the diverse set of patients who are treated at dental schools, these dental practices are among those most likely to benefit from the incentive programs.

  20. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  1. The European platform for financial education as incentive for the national efforts in implementing financial literacy programs: The case of the Association of Serbian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredojević Slađana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable financial system relies on two pillars: the functional and healthy financial institutions, as well as the financially competent customers-investors-entrepreneurs. The responsibility for the implementation of training programs and preparation for the well-informed choice does not lie only with the natural persons and legal entities. This is a shared responsibility of different stakeholders: individuals, families, small and medium enterprises, public administration, the Ministry of Education, the financial services sector, employers and representatives of trade unions and consumer protection organizations as well as other civil society initiatives. A prime example of such an integrated approach towards the same goal is the European Platform for Financial Education, an initiative launched by the European Banking Federation, the European Banking Training Network and other institutions (professional associations, in February 2017 in Brussels as an incentive for the national level efforts in implementing the respective financial literacy programs. In this paper we analyzed the importance and role of the European Platform for Financial Education in the case of the Serbian banking sector through the activities of the Association of Serbian Banks. These activities will be implemented by the Association of Banks of Serbia continuously throughout the year, and after the celebration of the European Money Week on 27-31 March 2017.

  2. Impact of Small Monetary Incentives on Exercise in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohacker, Kelley; Galárraga, Omar; Emerson, Jessica; Fricchione, Samuel R; Lohse, Mariah; Williams, David M

    2015-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that health outcomes are significantly improved with the application of financial incentives. However, relatively larger incentives are not typically sustainable and removal of incentives tends to result in attrition of behavior. The feasibility of using relatively smaller incentives to improve physical activity is unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether small financial incentives (maximum $5.00 per week) can improve exercise-related energy expenditure of inactive individuals. Twenty-two university students (20 ±1.6 years old) were randomized into incentive or non-incentive conditions. Exercise-related caloric expenditure was tracked over 10 weeks. The sample size yielded 62% power. The repeated measures ANCOVA, controlling for body mass index, indicated a main effect of condition (F = 5.50, p =.03) with no significant interaction (F = 2.25, p = .06). This pilot study demonstrates initial feasibility in implementing small financial incentives to promote exercise behavior in previously inactive young adults. Due to the small sample size, results should be interpreted with caution and further research is warranted to improve and maintain exercise behavior in response to relatively smaller incentives.

  3. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  4. Is there a financial incentive to immigrate? Examining of the health worker salary gap between India and popular destination countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gavin; Rhodes, Bruce

    2017-10-19

    International migration is one of the factors resulting in the shortage of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in India. Literature suggests that migration is fuelled by the prospect of higher salaries available abroad. The extent of these salary differentials are unknown, and this study seeks to examine the salaries of selected HRH in India and four popular destination countries (United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada and the United Arab Emirates), whilst accounting for the in-country cost of living. This study will therefore determine truer financial incentives for Indian HRH to migrate abroad. A purchasing power parity (PPP) ratio is employed to equalise the international price of buying a representative basket of commonly bought goods (including food, entertainment, fuel and utilities). Using the PPP index, real differences in salaries are directly compared for selected work categories and different levels of work experience in the four respective countries. Nurses in the USA can earn up to 82.7% more than their Indian counterparts. Nurses in Canada and the UAE reveal more modest salary differentials, yet still significant better off by up to 28 and 20% respectively. Only nurses in the UK are potentially materially worse off than nurses working in India. We observe significant potential PPP gains of up to 57.4, 99.1 and 94.4% for medical doctors in the USA, Canada and the UAE respectively. Medical specialists potentially experience the greatest income disparities with anaesthetists potentially earning up to 600% more than their counterparts in India. Radiologists operating in the UK and general surgeons working in the USA can potentially earn more than double that of their counterparts working in India. We observe more modest positive or negligible PPP gains in other selected countries for health specialists. Even when considering the differences in the cost of living, the financial incentive for selected cadres of Indian HRH to seek work abroad remains

  5. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  6. Do not trash the incentive! Monetary incentives and waste sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Montinari, N.; Piovesan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the pricing systems experienced during the 1999-2008 decade by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel

  7. BSN completion barriers, challenges, incentives, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Marie T; Friesen, Mary Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Swengros, Diane; Shanks, Laura A; Waiter, Pamela A; Sheridan, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore RN perceptions regarding barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion and identify recommendations to increase RN BSN completion. The Institute of Medicine's 2011 The Future of Nursing report recommended the proportion of RNs with a BSN increase to 80% by 2020. This qualitative study included 41 RNs who participated in 1 of 6 focus groups based on their BSN completion status. Primary themes were sacrifices, barriers/challenges, incentives/supports, value, how to begin, and pressure. Primary BSN completion barriers/challenges were work-life balance and economic issues. Incentives/supports identified were financial compensation, assistance from employer and academic institution, and encouragement from family. Institutional strategies recommended for increasing BSN completion rates were improved access to education and financial support facilitated by collaboration between hospitals and academic institutions. Exploring RN barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion can lead to implementation of institutional strategies, such as tuition reimbursement and academic collaboration.

  8. National differences in incentive compensation practices : The differing roles of financial performance measurement in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E. Pieter; Merchant, Kenneth A.; Van der Stede, Wim A.

    This paper describes the findings of a study aimed at providing an international replication of a US-based study by Gibbs et al. [Gibbs, M., Merchant, K., Van der Stede, W., & Vargus, M. (2004). Determinants and effects of subjectivity in incentives. The Accounting Review, 79(2), 409-436; Gibbs, M.,

  9. What might the English NHS learn about quality from Tuscany? Moving from financial and bureaucratic incentives towards 'social' drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.; Vainieri, M.; Bonini, A.; Nuti, S.; Calnan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Governance systems which are based on assumptions of purposive-rational action have received significant criticism. For example recent quality and performance frameworks of the English NHS have tended towards incentives and sanctions, and have been critiqued in terms of both the logic on which they

  10. The effect of financial incentives on top of behavioral support on quit rates in tobacco smoking employees: study protocol of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, F A; Nagelhout, G E; Winkens, B; Evers, S M A A; Kotz, D; Chavannes, N H; van Schayck, C P

    2016-10-06

    Stimulating successful tobacco cessation among employees has multiple benefits. Employees who quit tobacco are healthier, more productive, less absent from work, and longer employable than employees who continue to use tobacco. Despite the evidence for these benefits of tobacco cessation, a successful method to stimulate employees to quit tobacco is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding a financial incentive to behavioral support (compared with no additional incentive) is effective and cost-effective in increasing abstinence rates in tobacco smoking employees participating in a smoking cessation group training. In this cluster-randomized trial employees in the intervention and control group both participate in a smoking cessation group training consisting of seven weekly counseling sessions of ninety minutes each. In addition to the training, employees in the intervention group receive a voucher as an incentive for being abstinent from smoking at the end of the training (€50), after three months (€50), after six months (€50), and after one year (€200). The control group does not receive any incentive. The primary outcome is carbon monoxide validated 12-month continuous abstinence from smoking (Russel's standard). Additionally, an economic evaluation is performed from a societal and an employer perspective. The present paper describes the methods and design of this cluster-randomized trial in detail. We hypothesize that the financial incentive for abstinence in the form of vouchers increases abstinence rates over and above the group training. The results of this study can provide important recommendations for enhancement of employee tobacco cessation. Dutch Trial Register: NTR5657 . First received 27-01-2016.

  11. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  12. Offering Incentives from the Outside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2017-01-01

    Incentives offer a good deal of underexplored opportunities to help manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. This study has two primary objectives. First, it furthers the discussion of how external third parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available ...

  13. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  14. Variation in Incentive Effects across Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hanly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.

  15. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...

  16. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements. ...

  17. Addressing maternal healthcare through demand side financial incentives: experience of Janani Suraksha Yojana program in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalan, Saji S; Varatharajan, Durairaj

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Demand side financing (DSF) is a widely employed strategy to enhance utilization of healthcare. The impact of DSF on health care seeking in general and that of maternal care in particular is already known. Yet, its effect on financial access to care, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) and provider motivations is not considerably established. Without such evidence, DSFs may not be recommendable to build up any sustainable healthcare delivery approach. This study explores the abo...

  18. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  19. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  20. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  1. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  2. Calculations of Financial Incentives for Providers in a Pay-for-Performance Program: Manual Review Versus Data From Structured Fields in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Tracy H; Woodard, LeChauncy D; Virani, Salim S; Dudley, R Adams; Lutschg, Meghan Z; Petersen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Hospital report cards and financial incentives linked to performance require clinical data that are reliable, appropriate, timely, and cost-effective to process. Pay-for-performance plans are transitioning to automated electronic health record (EHR) data as an efficient method to generate data needed for these programs. To determine how well data from automated processing of structured fields in the electronic health record (AP-EHR) reflect data from manual chart review and the impact of these data on performance rewards. Cross-sectional analysis of performance measures used in a cluster randomized trial assessing the impact of financial incentives on guideline-recommended care for hypertension. A total of 2840 patients with hypertension assigned to participating physicians at 12 Veterans Affairs hospital-based outpatient clinics. Fifty-two physicians and 33 primary care personnel received incentive payments. Overall, positive and negative agreement indices and Cohen's kappa were calculated for assessments of guideline-recommended antihypertensive medication use, blood pressure (BP) control, and appropriate response to uncontrolled BP. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess how similar participants' calculated earnings were between the data sources. By manual chart review data, 72.3% of patients were considered to have received guideline-recommended antihypertensive medications compared with 65.0% by AP-EHR review (κ=0.51). Manual review indicated 69.5% of patients had controlled BP compared with 66.8% by AP-EHR review (κ=0.87). Compared with 52.2% of patients per the manual review, 39.8% received an appropriate response by AP-EHR review (κ=0.28). Participants' incentive payments calculated using the 2 methods were highly correlated (r≥0.98). Using the AP-EHR data to calculate earnings, participants' payment changes ranged from a decrease of $91.00 (-30.3%) to an increase of $18.20 (+7.4%) for medication use (interquartile range, -14.4% to 0

  3. Increasing performance of health care services within economic constraints: working towards improved incentive structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, Thomas; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that health care systems can create better value for money by improving performance and setting the right incentives. Worldwide this has led to an emergence of financial and non-financial incentive structures as a strategy to improve performance. The role of incentives

  4. Discerning Novel Value Chains in Financial Malware : On the Economic Incentives and Criminal Business Models in Financial Malware Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wegberg, R.S.; Klievink, A.J.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    Fraud with online payment services is an ongoing problem, with significant financial-economic and societal impact. One of the main modus operandi is financial malware that compromises consumer and corporate devices, thereby potentially undermining the security of critical financial systems.

  5. Discerning Novel Value Chains in Financial Malware : On the Economic Incentives and Criminal Business Models in Financial Malware Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegberg, R.S. van; Klievink, A.J.; Eeten, M.J.G. van

    2017-01-01

    Fraud with online payment services is an ongoing problem, with significant financial-economic and societal impact. One of the main modus operandi is financial malware that compromises consumer and corporate devices, thereby potentially undermining the security of critical financial systems. Recent

  6. The use of incentives for fertility reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishik, S M

    1978-02-01

    Incentives, i.e., either monetary or other benefits, can be used to reward couples for limiting their fertility; disincentives, or penalties, can be imposed for excessive fertility. Examples of the use of incentives or disincentives by the governments of India, Singapore, and Hawaii are cited. Direct cash payments or tax exemptions (timed variously) are the most common incentive used. The effectiveness and the morality of incentive/disincentive programs are discussed. It is felt that incentives should only be used after a social consensus has been reached and after family planning services have been made available to all groups in the society.

  7. Incentives – Effectiveness and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hinderlich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the question if and how incentive schemes work evaluated by their impact on company performance (market capitalization and profit before tax. Based on a unique data set for German executive directors of DAX companies it can be proved that neither short (STI nor long term incentives (LTI plans necessarily support the company success. It rather depends on the efficiency of each plan, i. e. on its design. Special attention has to be paid on target setting. Short term focused objectives often miss their targets, whereas long term oriented objectives significantly support the company success. To solve the prisoner’s dilemma between employers and employees by a quasi-endless game, additional measures may be helpful, such as share ownership guidelines.

  8. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other incentives without also providing a cost incentive (or constraint). (b) Except for award-fee... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive...

  9. Accounting Conservatism and Managerial Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Young K. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    There are two sources of agency costs under moral hazard: (1) distortions in incentive contracts and (2) implementation of suboptimal decisions. In the accounting literature, the relation between conservative accounting and agency costs of type (1) has received considerable attention (cf. Watts 2002). However, little appears to be known about the effects of accounting conservatism on agency costs of type (2) or trade-offs between agency costs of types (1) and (2). The purpose of this study is...

  10. College diversity and investment incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Thomas; Legros, Patrick; Newman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the aggregate economic effects of diversity policies such as affirmative action in college admission. If agents are constrained in the side payments they can make, the free market allocation displays excessive segregation relative to the first-best. Affirmative action policies can restore diversity within colleges but also affect incentives to invest in pre-college scholastic achievement. Affirmative action policies that are achievement-based can increase aggregate investme...

  11. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...... to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium, the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming either Cournot or Bertrand competition....

  12. A lesson in business: cost-effectiveness analysis of a novel financial incentive intervention for increasing physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallat, Mary Anne T; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Cairns, Karen J; Kee, Frank

    2013-10-10

    Recently both the UK and US governments have advocated the use of financial incentives to encourage healthier lifestyle choices but evidence for the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is lacking. Our aim was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a quasi-experimental trial, exploring the use of financial incentives to increase employee physical activity levels, from a healthcare and employer's perspective. Employees used a 'loyalty card' to objectively monitor their physical activity at work over 12 weeks. The Incentive Group (n=199) collected points and received rewards for minutes of physical activity completed. The No Incentive Group (n=207) self-monitored their physical activity only. Quality of life (QOL) and absenteeism were assessed at baseline and 6 months follow-up. QOL scores were also converted into productivity estimates using a validated algorithm. The additional costs of the Incentive Group were divided by the additional quality adjusted life years (QALYs) or productivity gained to calculate incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and population expected value of perfect information (EVPI) was used to characterize and value the uncertainty in our estimates. The Incentive Group performed more physical activity over 12 weeks and by 6 months had achieved greater gains in QOL and productivity, although these mean differences were not statistically significant. The ICERs were £2,900/QALY and £2,700 per percentage increase in overall employee productivity. Whilst the confidence intervals surrounding these ICERs were wide, CEACs showed a high chance of the intervention being cost-effective at low willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. The Physical Activity Loyalty card (PAL) scheme is potentially cost-effective from both a healthcare and employer's perspective but further research is warranted to reduce uncertainty in our results. It is based on a sustainable "business model" which

  13. Incentives for reporting disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks.

  14. Discerning Novel Value Chains in Financial Malware: On the Economic Incentives and Criminal Business Models in Financial Malware Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    van Wegberg, R.S.; Klievink, A.J.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Fraud with online payment services is an ongoing problem, with significant financial-economic and societal impact. One of the main modus operandi is financial malware that compromises consumer and corporate devices, thereby potentially undermining the security of critical financial systems. Recent research into the underground economy has shown that cybercriminals are organised around highly specialised tasks, such as pay-per-install markets for infected machines, malware-as-a-service and mon...

  15. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  16. Incentives, Program Configuration, and Employee Uptake of Workplace Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haijing; Mattke, Soeren; Batorsky, Benajmin; Miles, Jeremy; Liu, Hangsheng; Taylor, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of wellness program configurations and financial incentives on employee participation rate. We analyze a nationally representative survey on workplace wellness programs from 407 employers using cluster analysis and multivariable regression analysis. Employers who offer incentives and provide a comprehensive set of program offerings have higher participation rates. The effect of incentives differs by program configuration, with the strongest effect found for comprehensive and prevention-focused programs. Among intervention-focused programs, incentives are not associated with higher participation. Wellness programs can be grouped into distinct configurations, which have different workplace health focuses. Although monetary incentives can be effective in improving employee participation, the magnitude and significance of the effect is greater for some program configurations than others.

  17. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia; Rosen, Jamie

    2014-02-07

    Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Psgames (P<.001), suggesting that players influenced each others' weight outcomes. DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced excellent 4-week weight loss results. Given its reach and potential public health impact, future research

  18. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  19. Incentives for improvement of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Finlay, R.B.

    1988-12-01

    CANDU is a relatively young technology which has demonstrated many achievements as an electrical power generation system. These achievements include an unsurpassed safety record, high annual and lifetime capacity factors, low electricity cost and a broad range of other performance strengths which together indicate that the CANDU technology is fundamentally sound. Known capabilities not yet fully exploited, such as advanced fuel cycle options, indicate that CANDU technology will continue to pay strong dividends on research, development and design investment. This provides a strong incentive for the improvement of CANDU on a continuing basis

  20. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions (PUCs). Economic performance incentives established by state PUCs are applicable to the construction or operation of about 45 nuclear power reactors owned by 30 utilities in 17 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  1. 76 FR 21169 - Incentive-Based Compensation Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... financial officer, chief investment officer, chief legal officer, chief lending officer, chief risk officer... Mac: The Chairman of the Board of Directors, chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief... aspects of financial oversight, can play an important role in helping ensure that incentive compensation...

  2. Issues - III. Renewable energies and financial issues - The organisation of a renewable energy sector: the supply in wood-fuel in Auvergne; profitable ecology: which incentive financial and tax tools in favour of renewable energies?; the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production: a precarious support mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, Laurence; Taverne, Marie; Guerra, Fabien; Rouge, Sandra; Gelas, Helene

    2012-01-01

    A first article reports the results of an investigation of the organisation of wood-fuel supply in the French region of Auvergne (presentation of the supply chain analysis, use of the transaction cost theory, factors affecting organisational choices within supply chains). The second article presents and comments the various incentive financial and tax measures in favour of renewable energies (State tax incentives for companies and for individuals, local incentives, and financial incentives). The third article outlines the precarious legal character of the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production, as well as the precarious will of the Government regarding this mandatory purchase

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Financial Incentives to Promote Adherence to Depot Antipsychotic Medication: Economic Evaluation of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Henderson

    Full Text Available Offering a modest financial incentive to people with psychosis can promote adherence to depot antipsychotic medication, but the cost-effectiveness of this approach has not been examined.Economic evaluation within a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial. 141 patients under the care of 73 teams (clusters were randomised to intervention or control; 138 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder or bipolar disorder participated. Intervention participants received £15 per depot injection over 12 months, additional to usual acute, mental and community primary health services. The control group received usual health services. Main outcome measures: incremental cost per 20% increase in adherence to depot antipsychotic medication; incremental cost of 'good' adherence (defined as taking at least 95% of the prescribed number of depot medications over the intervention period.Economic and outcome data for baseline and 12-month follow-up were available for 117 participants. The adjusted difference in adherence between groups was 12.2% (73.4% control vs. 85.6% intervention; the adjusted costs difference was £598 (95% CI -£4,533, £5,730. The extra cost per patient to increase adherence to depot medications by 20% was £982 (95% CI -£8,020, £14,000. The extra cost per patient of achieving 'good' adherence was £2,950 (CI -£19,400, £27,800. Probability of cost-effectiveness exceeded 97.5% at willingness-to-pay values of £14,000 for a 20% increase in adherence and £27,800 for good adherence.Offering a modest financial incentive to people with psychosis is cost-effective in promoting adherence to depot antipsychotic medication. Direct healthcare costs (including costs of the financial incentive are unlikely to be increased by this intervention.ISRCTN.com 77769281.

  4. Incentives for cogeneration in Italy: Logic and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomassetti, G.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of legal and financial incentives made possible through Italian legislation on cogeneration plants for on-site power generation, this paper reviews the planning criteria that went into the formulation of the incentives and the response obtained from small, medium and large industrial firms. The discussion takes into account the following aspects: the optimal timing of retrofits, national energy conservation and environmental policy objectives, energy surcharges, benefits to consumers as compared with those for energy producers, benefits from incentives as a function of cogeneration plant size, and the technical complexity of application requirements for prospective applicants

  5. Are Delegation and Incentives Complementary Instruments ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied b...... thisframework it is shown that delegation and incentives are not necessarilycomplementary instruments; some decisions should be centralized whenincentives are introduced....

  6. Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options

  7. On incentives for assurance of petroleum supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Aven, Terje; Tomasgard, Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    Assurance of supply is a crucial objective for producers and consumers of oil and gas. A basic requirement to meet this objective is that producers and transmitters have sufficient economic incentives and capabilities to assure a desired degree of supply. The topic of this paper is to evaluate these incentives from a broad perspective. We examine economic trade-offs inherent in a delay of production, including reputational issues, as well as contract incentives for gas sellers, drilling companies, and oil service companies.

  8. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  9. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit incent...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  10. Effects of Strategy Training and Incentives on Students' Performance, Confidence, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Schraw, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of strategy instruction and incentives on performance, confidence, and calibration accuracy. Individuals (N = 107) in randomly assigned treatment groups received a multicomponent strategy instruction intervention, financial incentives for high performance, or both. The authors predicted that incentives would improve…

  11. Database of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives and Policies Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Brian

    2018-03-28

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) is an online resource that provides summaries of all financial incentives and regulatory policies that support the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency across all 50 states. This project involved making enhancements to the database and website, and the ongoing research and maintenance of the policy and incentive summaries.

  12. Incentive Problems in Banking Supervision: The European Case

    OpenAIRE

    Schüler, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the incentive conflicts that arise in banking supervision in the EU in a principal-agent framework, where the regulator is the agent and the taxpayers is the principal. The regulatory agent in addition to maintaining financial stability (the objective of the principal) may pursue private interests. Incomplete information, insufficient accountability of the agent and lack of enforceability of compliance result in an incentive problem. A reform of the European supervisory s...

  13. Dynamics of incentives and value creation in (de-)centralised incentive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, N.

    2016-01-01

    When young and small organisations grow into medium-sized organisations they often implement monetary incentive systems with unclear consequences. Whilst implemented to increase employee (innovative) output and value creation, they have ambiguous effects and may even reduce value creation. Due to the different effects of monetary incentives, this paper distinguishes reciprocal and opportunistic employees’ different reactions to incentives. It analyses the effects of decentralised incentive sy...

  14. Reduction of the renewable energy incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the state deficit the French government plans to reduce the financial incentives in all sectors and particularly in the sector of renewable energies. The photovoltaic sector is the most hit with a tax credit rate dropping from 50% (in 2009) to 22.5% (in 2011). For the other renewable energy sectors the tax credit rate will be reduced by 10% in 2011. The French government wants the cost of the tax credit on the renewable energies to drop from 2.8*10 9 euros in 2009 to 2.0*10 9 euros in 2011. (A.C.)

  15. Effect of financial incentives on inequalities in the delivery of primary clinical care in England: analysis of clinical activity indicators for the quality and outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Tim; Fullwood, Catherine; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Reeves, David

    2008-08-30

    The quality and outcomes framework is a financial incentive scheme that remunerates general practices in the UK for their performance against a set of quality indicators. Incentive schemes can increase inequalities in the delivery of care if practices in affluent areas are more able to respond to the incentives than are those in deprived areas. We examined the relation between socioeconomic inequalities and delivered quality of clinical care in the first 3 years of this scheme. We analysed data extracted automatically from clinical computing systems for 7637 general practices in England, data from the UK census, and data for characteristics of practices and patients from the 2006 general medical statistics database. Practices were grouped into equal-sized quintiles on the basis of area deprivation in their locality. We calculated overall levels of achievement, defined as the proportion of patients who were deemed eligible by the practices for whom the targets were achieved, for 48 clinical activity indicators during the first 3 years of the incentive scheme (from 2004-05 to 2006-07). Median overall reported achievement was 85.1% (IQR 79.0-89.1) in year 1, 89.3% (86.0-91.5) in year 2, and 90.8% (88.5-92.6) in year 3. In year 1, area deprivation was associated with lower levels of achievement, with median achievement ranging from 86.8% (82.2-89.6) for quintile 1 (least deprived) to 82.8% (75.2-87.8) for quintile 5 (most deprived). Between years 1 and 3, median achievement increased by 4.4% for quintile 1 and by 7.6% for quintile 5, and the gap in median achievement narrowed from 4.0% to 0.8% during this period. Increase in achievement during this time was inversely associated with practice performance in previous years (pfinancial incentive schemes have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the reduction of inequalities in the delivery of clinical care related to area deprivation.

  16. Participatory development of incentives to coexist with jaguars and pumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Ronit; Jacobson, Susan K

    2018-01-22

    Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative, structured, group communication process based on a Delphi technique as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, nongovernmental organizations, and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion. The final product integrated 862 ideas into 6 types of incentives: organization of communities, mechanisms for improved dialogue, citizen technical assistance, green labeling for community products, payment for the ecosystem service of biodiversity, and an assessment of financial alternatives. We used quantitative and qualitative techniques to indicate support for decisions about the design of incentives, which reduced researcher subjectivity. The diverse incentives developed and the cooperation from multiple stakeholders resulted in an incentive plan that integrated issues of governance, equity, and social norms. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  18. A performance incentive contract that pays off for all parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummrich, C.R.; Johnston, R.E.; Crist, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Western Business Unit Bakersfield drilling department of Chevron, U.S.A. Production Company developed a drilling performance incentive contract that was implemented during 1994 in the Lost Hills field of California. The performance incentive contract (PIC) financially rewarded all of the drilling contractor's rig employees for outperforming pre-established drilling performance goals. The key elements of the performance incentive program are: (1) Goals that rigger incentives are based on cost categories that are controllable by the drilling team; (2) Goals were established using a database of past years performance; (3) Goals that are not achieved negatively impact the incentive earned in an effort to deter repeated errors; (4) Accidents that occur on the job negatively impact the incentive earned; (5) Administration of the program is not time consuming. The results of using an incentive contract in the Lost Hills drilling program are: (1) Time and cost of operations are reduced; (2) The results are measurable and repeatable; (3) A team environment develops in which ideas are shared and acted upon by crew members and supervisory personnel

  19. Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthorn, Julia; Wöhlke, Sabine; Schmidt, Fabian; Schicktanz, Silke

    2014-07-05

    There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n = 755). The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p = 0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p economics (p = 0.034). Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward.

  20. The Effects of Incentives on Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    States that reading incentives have not been critically examined as to their effectiveness in promoting positive attitudes toward reading, more frequent reading, or increased proficiency. Examines available evidence on the effect of reading incentives in school and library programs for students. Concludes there is no clear causal relationship…

  1. Incentives for Teachers: What Motivates, What Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concept of motivation and two central, theoretical disputes: how intrinsic and extrinsic rewards function and whether incentives must be focused to be effective. Reviews studies on merit pay and career ladder plans and considers the potential role of group-based collegial incentives in teacher motivation. Appended are 123 footnotes.…

  2. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a) The Agency will offer a borrower, who submits a prepayment request meeting the conditions of § 3560...

  3. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... information technology. We will summarize the comments that we receive and include them in the OTS request for... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by providing a common prudential foundation for incentive compensation arrangements across banking...

  4. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to authorize the Department to select more than sixteen high-need schools per local educational agency (LEA...

  5. Moving toward more ratemaking incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brew, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Adaptive, responsive and innovative management will be required for utilities to navigate successfully the challenges and uncertainties facing the electric industry in the 1990s. Regulatory schemes riddled with inconsistent and contradictory signals will impede the best-intentioned efforts of utility managers to develop and implement integrated resource plans. Effective reform in this area requires regulators to undertake a thorough review of incentives provided by the rate-setting process, an willingness to entertain alternative approaches and risks, and shifting the rewards of ratemaking to better utility earnings with management's performance and ratepayer interests. This article highlights a number of alternative rate-setting approaches that the New York Public Service Commission has adopted or considered in recent years. 16 refs.

  6. Customer response on price incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naesje, Paal C.; Andersen, Thale K.; Saele, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between end-users energy attitudes and their corresponding energy behaviour. It presents empirical findings from analyses of the effects of two-way communication between consumers and power companies. Two-way communication has made available high quality data on energy consumption. In the build-up to the analysis in this paper the a number of aspects thought to influence energy consumption has been looked at; including standard of housing, number and age of residents, as well as socio-economic factors, behaviour and preferences. Here we choose to focus specifically on attitudes and behaviour. These aspects are controlled for price incentives. The combination of very tight peak power balance in the Nordic power system and few investments in extension of power networks has turned the focus towards manual or automatic demand-response which requires hourly metering for documentation. The data are two-fold: Hourly recordings of meter-data of electric consumption of 10,894 customers (nearly half of these had installed technology for remote load control) in two different network areas and survey-data from a questionnaire distributed to consumers that resulted in nearly 550 answers. During the winter 2003/2004 these customers were offered different price incentives. The analyses showed a net reduction in electricity consumption of 1,0 kWh/h at the most in peak load hours. The paper is based on two connected studies, 'End-user flexibility by efficient use of ICT' and 'Improving end-user knowledge for managing energy loads end consumption' conducted in Norway by the SINTEF group

  7. Incentive issues in the South African construction industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based on respect, trust, teamwork, commitment and shared goals. (OGC, 2003: online). Lu & Yan (2007: 243) establish .... awareness of the role of groups in the workplace (Mayo's theory), and the need to provide motivators ... importance of designing an incentive plan to incorporate both financial and non-financial metrics.

  8. Financial incentives for smoking cessation among depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women: effects on smoking abstinence and depression ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexa A; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-04-01

    We examined whether pregnant and newly postpartum smokers at risk for postpartum depression respond to an incentive-based smoking-cessation treatment and how the intervention impacts depression ratings. This study is a secondary data analysis. Participants (N = 289; data collected 2001-2013) were smokers at the start of prenatal care who participated in 4 controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation. Women were assigned either to an intervention wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on abstaining from smoking or to a control condition wherein they received vouchers of comparable value independent of smoking status. Treatments were provided antepartum through 12-weeks postpartum. Depression ratings (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-1A) were examined across 7 antepartum/postpartum assessments. Women who reported a history of prior depression or who had BDI scores ≥ 17 at the start of prenatal care were categorized as depression-prone (Dep+), while those meeting neither criterion were categorized as depression-negative (Dep-). The intervention increased smoking abstinence independent of depression status (p postpartum BDI ratings as well as the proportion of women scoring in the clinical range (≥17 and >21) compared with the control treatment (ps ≤ .05). Treatment effects on depression ratings were attributable to changes in Dep+ women. These results demonstrate that depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women respond well to this incentive-based smoking-cessation intervention in terms of achieving abstinence, and the intervention also reduces the severity of postpartum depression ratings in this at-risk population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Carbon credits: source of financial incentives to construction of SHPs; Creditos de carbono: fonte de incentivo financeiro para construcao de PCHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Fernando Weigert; Pedroso, Andreia [ADD Engenharia, Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: machado@addconsultoria.com

    2011-07-15

    At the last renewable energy auction performed in 2010, it was hired nearly 2.000 MW of wind power by the average energy price of R$ 130,00/MWh and only 130 MW of Small Hydro Power - SHP by the average price of R$ 142,00/MWh. After this event, claims from executives of SHP sector in order to acquire more incentives from Federal Government have been further constant. Although there is different incentives to install wind powers and SHPs, what can be seen in practice is that besides this discussion, incentives as carbon credits, which can mean 3% till 5% of enterprise's annual revenues, increasing its competitiveness in face other energy sources, have been despised or badly managed. In the ONU context, SHPs are considered renewable energy sources and each MWh produced by the plant can be converted in carbon credits. In order to receive the carbon credits effectively, the SHP must develop a special project called PDD and approve it at ONU. This project should be performed close the beginning of the plant construction otherwise it is not eligible whether postponed. The specific objectives of this paper are to show the current scenario of development of carbon credits projects for SHP in Brazil, the steps to approve a carbon credit project, how to calculate the amount of carbon credits for a SHP, the most important conditions that should be verified, a case to demonstrate the potential of financial return that there is in this source of resources and opportunities available. (author)

  10. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  11. Scaling relative incentive value: different adjustments to incentive downshift in pigeons and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Santiago; López Seal, María Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests that pigeons and rats show differences in their behavioral adjustments in spaced-trial, incentive-downshift situations. Also, Papini and Pellegrini [Papini, M.R., Pellegrini, S., 2006. Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior. Learn. Motiv. 37, 357-378] and Pellegrini and Papini [Pellegrini, S., Papini, M.R., 2007. Scaling relative incentive value in anticipatory behavior. Learn. Motiv. 38, 128-154] showed that changes in the rat's lever-pressing performance, runway running, and consumption of sucrose solutions after downshifts in incentive magnitude were a function of the ratio of postshift/preshift incentive magnitudes. Here, two experiments using a Pavlovian autoshaping procedure studied the adjustment of pigeons and rats to changes in incentive magnitude. In Experiment 1, pigeons received light-food pairings, whereas in Experiment 2, rats received lever-sucrose pairings. As a result, key-pecking and lever-pressing developed in each experiment, respectively. Preshift incentive magnitudes were downshifted so as to obtain postshift/preshift ratios of 0.125 and 0.25. Pigeons responded during the postshift phase according to the preshift incentive value and independently of the ratio value. However, rats showed ratio constancy, responding during the postshift in accordance with the postshift/preshift ratio, rather than with the absolute magnitudes of either the preshift or postshift incentives. These results support the comparative hypothesis that the mechanisms underlying ratio constancy during incentive downshifts are unique to mammals.

  12. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the expe...

  13. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Baker, K.; Olson, J.

    1991-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors incentive programs established by state regulators in order to obtain current information and to consider the potential safety effects of the incentive programs as applied to nuclear units. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5509, Incentive Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants by State Public Utility Commissions, published in December 1989. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulator and each utility with a minimum entitlement of 10%. The agreements, orders, and settlements from which each incentive program was implemented were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program. The programs currently in effect represent the adoption of an existing nuclear performance incentive program proposal and one new program. In addition, since 1989 a number of nuclear units have been included in one existing program; while one program was discontinued and another one concluded. 6 refs., 27 tabs

  14. Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Levy, Douglas E; Macias-Navarro, Lorena; Rimm, Eric B; Thorndike, Anne N

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the effectiveness of financial incentives and traffic-light labels to reduce purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in a community supermarket. In this randomized controlled trial, after a 2-month baseline period (February-March 2014), in-store traffic-light labels were posted to indicate healthy (green), less healthy (yellow) or unhealthy (red) beverages. During the subsequent five months (April-August 2014), participants in the intervention arm were eligible to earn a $US 25 in-store gift card each month they refrained from purchasing red-labelled beverages. Urban supermarket in Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income Latino community. Participants were customers of this supermarket who had at least one child living at home. A total of 148 customers (n 77 in the intervention group and n 71 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. Outcomes were monthly in-store purchases tracked using a store loyalty card and self-reported consumption of red-labelled beverages. Compared with control participants, the proportion of intervention participants who purchased any red-labelled beverages decreased by 9 % more per month (P=0·002). More intervention than control participants reduced their consumption of red-labelled beverages (-23 % v. -2 % for consuming ≥1 red beverage/week, P=0·01). Overall, financial incentives paired with in-store traffic-light labels modestly reduced purchase and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by customers of a community supermarket.

  15. EHR Incentive Programs - Data and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of March 2013, more than 259,000 health care providers received payment for participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive...

  16. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral therapy. "Marijuana remains one of the most widely used ...

  17. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function economic development. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc.

  18. Incentives for Accuracy in Analyst Research

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Crifo; Hind Sami

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to analyze the dynamic relations between incentive contracts and analysts' effort in providing accurate research when both ethical and reputational concerns matter. First, we show that reputation picks up ability and thus serves as a sorting device: when analysts have a relatively low reputation for providing research quality (below a threshold level) banks find it more profitable to offer a mix of monetary and non monetary (ethic based) incentives and rely on the ...

  19. Incentive Effects of Peer Pressure in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.

  20. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how children respond to different treatments aimed to fostersustainable behavior in a productive (firm like) setting. We conduct a field experiment using teams of children (aged 11 or 12) that are participating in an entrepreneurship education program in the last grade...... of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  1. Cogeneration plants: SNAM (Italy) initiatives and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipparelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    First, an overall picture is presented of the extension of the use of cogeneration by the Italian brick industry. The particular suitability and usefulness of this form of energy to the brick industry are pointed out. Then a look is given at the legal and financial incentives which have been built into the National Energy Plan to encourage on-site production by Italian industries. Finally, a review is made of initiatives made by SNAM (the Italian National Methane Distribution Society) to develop a favourable tariff structure for on-site power producers using methane as their energy source, as well as, of the Society's efforts to set up a cogeneration equipment consulting service which would provide advice on cogeneration plant design, operation and maintenance

  2. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  3. When and why do university managers use publication incentive payments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark that use publication incentive payments. Most often it is used when heads of department outside the humanities think it is a good idea to reward scholars financially for publications. In-depth analysis of the cases reveals, however, that department heads cannot only be divided between ‘believers......’ and ‘non-believers’. Almost half expressed confidence in that publication incentive payments motivate researchers to perform better, not because of the monetary reward, but because of the positive feedback signalled by the pay supplement...

  4. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Muwonge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties’ surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects’ ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts’ Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417

  5. The Effect of Differential Incentives on Attrition Bias: Evidence from the PASS Wave 3 Incentive Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderer, Barbara; Müller, Gerrit; Kreuter, Frauke; Winter, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Respondent incentives are widely used to increase response rates, but their effect on nonresponse bias has not been researched as much. To contribute to the research, we analyze an incentive experiment embedded within the third wave of the German household panel survey "Panel Labor Market and Social Security" conducted by the German…

  6. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Smarter task assignment or greater effort: the impact of incentives on team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, S.; Propper, C.; Ratto, M.; Scholder, S.; Tominey, E.

    2009-01-01

    We use an experiment to study the impact of team-based incentives, exploiting rich data from personnel records and management information systems. Using a triple difference design, we show that the incentive scheme had an impact on team performance, even with quite large teams. We examine whether this effect was due to increased effort from workers or strategic task reallocation. We find that the provision of financial incentives did raise individual performance but that managers also disprop...

  8. STATE BENEFIT - INCENTIVE FOR SAVINGS AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to be an answer for many investors with financial powers, seeking financial instruments with yields above the average interest rate on the banking market. One such tool, fairly new to the Romanian banking market, has been implemented for about 14 years, and is becoming more and more an instrument for savings, investments or an aid in the purchase of a house. Regardless of the perspective presented in the table of contents, the incentive for choosing such a banking product is the state benefit, a form through which the administration creates the conditions necessary to update and develop the housing system. In the thesis I have explored aspects of legislation which, in such a short period of time have changed 3 times the amount and the method of granting the state benefit and I have also tried a quick historical and legislative evolution of the implementation of Bauspar system throughout Europe. It is pointed out that in comparison with other countries - namely Germany, England or Austria where this system is well-known and has been implemented for over 120 years - Romania is at the beginning of its journey, a fact proved especially by the number of signed contracts in relation to the number of inhabitants.

  9. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  10. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  11. Generic host state incentive report. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Even the most carefully designed and operated low-level radioactive waste management facility will present potential risks and costs to nearby residents. Individuals who live near these facilities may receive some benefits, but they also bear the brunt of any adverse impacts. It is with this in mind that various siting techniques have been developed. Before any ''extra'' compensation or incentive can be discussed, however, it must first be clearly demonstrated that these facilities protect public health and the environment. This report addresses five distinct areas as follows: mitigation measure to prevent or reduce the impact of the facility; incentives and compensation techniques that might make a facility more acceptable; the use of agreement building in order to develop an arrangement between the host community and a facility proponent; the importance of economics resulting from a typical regional low-level radioactive waste facility; and the role of state government in promoting and legitimizing the use of incentives. 6 tabs

  12. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Easton, Sue; Walters, Stephen

    2016-04-11

    Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The 'Nourishing Start for Health' (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10,833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0-6 months. Participating organisations Research and Governance

  14. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  15. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Thomson

    Full Text Available Financial (positive or negative and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497 including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing

  16. Hospital responses to pay-for-performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Nahra, Tammie A; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wheeler, John R C

    2006-05-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals are complex organizations and, therefore, may face unique challenges in responding to financial incentives for quality. In this research, we explore the types of behavioural changes made by not-for-profit Michigan hospitals in response to a pay-for-performance system for quality. We also identify factors that motivate or facilitate changes in effort. We apply a conceptual framework based on agency theory to motivate our research questions. Using data derived from structured interviews and surveys administered to 86 hospitals participating in a pay-for-performance system, we compare hospitals reporting and not reporting behavioural changes. Separate analyses are performed for hospitals reporting structure-related changes and hospitals reporting process-related changes. Our findings confirm that hospitals respond to incentive payments; however, our findings also reveal that hospital responses are not universal. Rather, involvement by boards of trustees, willingness to exert leverage with physicians, and financial and competitive motivations are all associated with hospitals' behavioural responses to incentives. Results of this research will help inform payers and hospital managers considering the use of incentives about the nature of hospitals' responses.

  17. Intelligent financial incentives as catalysts for sustainable restructuring of the German power supply system; Intelligente Anreizregulierung als Katalysator fuer einen nachhaltigen Umbau des deutschen Stromsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprich, U. [Inst. fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES) an der Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The reconstruction of the German power supply system into a more decentral structure, which is required for ecological reasons, necessitates a new regulation of electricity rates. The author analyzes relevant problem fields and presents detailed solution strategies in the context of an intelligent regulation by incentives. (orig.)

  18. Reforestation tax incentives under the American jobs creation act of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Straka; John L. Greene

    2007-01-01

    The American jobs creation act of 2004 made significant changes in the reforestation tax incentives available to private forest owners. Owners can now deduct outright reforestation costs up to $10,000 per year for each qualifying timber property and amortize any additional amount over 8 tax years. to assess the financial benefit the new incentives provide to forest...

  19. Existing and Potential Incentives for Practicing Sustainable Forestry on Non-industrial Private Forest Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Greene; Michael A. Kilgore; Michael G. Jacobson; Steven E. Daniels; Thomas J. Straka

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the compatibility between sustainable forestry practices and the framework of public and private financial incentive programs directed toward nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners. The incentives include tax, cost-share, and other types of programs. The study consisted of four components: a literature review, a mail survey of selected...

  20. Salary administration as part of employee incentive system at industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandykov Michail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the financial staff incentives at industrial enterprises. The paper concludes that the incentive system should be developed taking into account the developed staff motivation. The only efficient target of influence is the existing staff motivation components. A 3-element employee incentive framework for industrial enterprises is suggested. The article presents the critical analysis of the existing payroll systems of several industrial enterprises, elicits the common flaws of the incentive payments, and develops requirements for such systems. The paper also provides an industrial enterprise needs matrix and an incentive payment types matrix required to build up a rational monetary staff incentive system. These matrices can be adapted for any industrial enterprise with regard to its long-term objectives.

  1. Essays on incentives in regulation and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The thesis contains three essays on incentives in regulation and innovation. The first essay analyzes a problem of optimal regulatory design. Key feature of the problem is that there exists asymmetric information between the regulator and the industry concerning the costs of producing complementary

  2. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  3. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  4. Incentives for Innovation in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, John

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of bureaucratic structure and the incentive systems of the public schools reveals access points for enhancing the school's ability to adopt and implement innovative education. Research and development coordinated to those points can provide a greater diversity of educational possibilities, assuming such diversity to be a positive…

  5. 75 FR 8854 - Teacher Incentive Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... outside of the PBCS (such as salaries of a school's master, mentor or lead teacher) could conceivably be... instead on a single salary schedule that pays all teachers and principals the same based on experience and... Teacher Incentive Fund Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of...

  6. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  7. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ...

  8. Examining the Incentives in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2008-01-01

    In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…

  9. Monetary incentives: usually neither necessary nor sufficient?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortmann, Andreas; Hertwig, R.

    -, č. 307 (2006), s. 1-17 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : experimental practices * monetary incentives * rhetorical tactics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp307.pdf

  10. Incentives, behavioral biases, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    While economists believe that monetary incentives provide the most powerful motivation for individuals to undertake an activity, major schools in psychology and sociology emphasize the motives coming from within the individual and from the personal and cultural differences among individuals. This

  11. Enhancing Readiness of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) System via Use of Simulation Modeling and Contract Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasal, Omer

    1999-01-01

    ...) test system of the Turkish Army Command are the failure to address life cycle cost (LCC) considerations during financial resource allocations and the absence of contract reliability incentives...

  12. Effect of Electronic Reminders, Financial Incentives, and Social Support on Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction: The HeartStrong Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpp, Kevin G; Troxel, Andrea B; Mehta, Shivan J; Norton, Laurie; Zhu, Jingsan; Lim, Raymond; Wang, Wenli; Marcus, Noora; Terwiesch, Christian; Caldarella, Kristen; Levin, Tova; Relish, Mike; Negin, Nathan; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Snyder, Richard; Spettell, Claire M; Drachman, Brian; Kolansky, Daniel; Asch, David A

    2017-08-01

    Adherence to medications prescribed after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is low. Wireless technology and behavioral economic approaches have shown promise in improving health behaviors. To determine whether a system of medication reminders using financial incentives and social support delays subsequent vascular events in patients following AMI compared with usual care. Two-arm, randomized clinical trial with a 12-month intervention conducted from 2013 through 2016. Investigators were blinded to study group, but participants were not. Design was a health plan-intermediated intervention for members of several health plans. We recruited 1509 participants from 7179 contacted AMI survivors (insured with 5 large US insurers nationally or with Medicare fee-for-service at the University of Pennsylvania Health System). Patients aged 18 to 80 years were eligible if currently prescribed at least 2 of 4 study medications (statin, aspirin, β-blocker, antiplatelet agent), and were hospital inpatients for 1 to 180 days and discharged home with a principal diagnosis of AMI. Patients were randomized 2:1 to an intervention using electronic pill bottles combined with lottery incentives and social support for medication adherence (1003 patients), or to usual care (506 patients). Primary outcome was time to first vascular rehospitalization or death. Secondary outcomes were time to first all-cause rehospitalization, total number of repeated hospitalizations, medication adherence, and total medical costs. A total of 35.5% of participants were female (n = 536); mean (SD) age was 61.0 (10.3) years. There were no statistically significant differences between study arms in time to first rehospitalization for a vascular event or death (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.52; P = .84), time to first all-cause rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.09; P = .27), or total number of repeated hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.48; P

  13. Grid Computing BOINC Redesign Mindmap with incentive system (gamification)

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchen, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Grid Computing BOINC Redesign Mindmap with incentive system (gamification) this is a PDF viewable of https://figshare.com/articles/Grid_Computing_BOINC_Redesign_Mindmap_with_incentive_system_gamification_/1265350

  14. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Design Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Setting Scotland and North West England. Participants Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Methods Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Results Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; p<0.001). Net agreement for provider incentives for breastfeeding targets was 44.1% (219/497) and net disagreement was 38.6% (192/497). Agreement was more likely for women (compared with men): OR 1.81 (1.09 to 3.00; p=0.023) and health visitors/maternity staff (compared with doctors): OR 2.54 (95% CI 1.65 to 3.91; p<0.001). Key emergent themes were ‘moral tensions around acceptability’, ‘need for incentives’, ‘goals’, ‘collective or divisive action’ and ‘monitoring and proof’. While provider incentives can focus action and resources, tensions around the impact on relationships raised concerns. Pressure, burden of proof, gaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were

  15. 10 CFR 452.6 - Incentive award terms and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive award terms and limitations. 452.6 Section 452.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION PRODUCTION INCENTIVES FOR CELLULOSIC BIOFUELS § 452.6... auctions if the incentives sought will assist the addition of plant production capacity for the eligible...

  16. Social and cultural drivers of incentive effectiveness in infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, T.M.; Volker, L.

    2013-01-01

    Formal incentives systems aim to encourage improved performance by offering a reward for the achievement of project-specific goals. Despite argued benefits of incentive systems on project delivery outcomes, there remains debate over how incentive systems can be designed to encourage the formation of

  17. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  18. Incentive-Compatible Sovereign Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bersem, Mario R. C.

    This paper presents a theory of sovereign borrowing and lending when there is no court to enforce repayment obligations. Specifically, I extend the costly state verification approach in financial contracting to include an ex-post repayment decision in which the borrower repays creditors to avoid...

  19. Effects of compensation methods and physician group structure on physicians' perceived incentives to alter services to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James D; Hadley, Jack; Landon, Bruce E

    2006-08-01

    To examine how health plan payment, group ownership, compensation methods, and other practice management tools affect physician perceptions of whether their overall financial incentives tilt toward increasing or decreasing services to patients. Nationally representative data on physicians are from the 2000-2001 Community Tracking Study Physician Survey (N=12,406). Ordered and multinomial logistic regression were used to explore how physician, group, and market characteristics are associated with physician reports of whether overall financial incentives are to increase services, decrease services, or neither. Seven percent of physicians report financial incentives are to reduce services to patients, whereas 23 percent report incentives to increase services. Reported incentives to reduce services were associated with reports of lower ability to provide quality care. Group revenue in the form of capitation was associated with incentives to reduce services whereas practice ownership and variable compensation and bonuses for employee physicians were mostly associated with incentives to increase services to patients. Full ownership of groups, productivity incentives, and perceived competitive markets for patients were associated with incentives to both increase and reduce services. Practice ownership and the ways physicians are compensated affect their perceived incentives to increase or decrease services to patients. In the latter case, this adversely affects perceived quality of care and satisfaction, although incentives to increase services may also have adverse implications for quality, cost, and insurance coverage.

  20. Incentive-Compatible Sovereign Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bersem, Mario R. C.

    This paper presents a theory of sovereign borrowing and lending when there is no court to enforce repayment obligations. Specifically, I extend the costly state verification approach in financial contracting to include an ex-post repayment decision in which the borrower repays creditors to avoid...... defaults occur even under the optimal loan contract; (iii) why such defaults are neither marginal nor total repudiation; and (iv) how repudiation costs mitigate sovereign risk and determine debt capacity in the absence of enforcement....

  1. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-11-13

    To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Scotland and North West England. Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; pgaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were counterbalances to potential benefits. Provider incentives are favoured by non-medical staff. Solutions which increase trust and collaboration towards shared goals, without negatively impacting on relationships or increasing bureaucracy are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Financial incentives to influence maternal mortality in a low-income setting: making available 'money to transport' - experiences from Amarpatan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Ayesha; Patil, Rajkumar; Kushwah, Surgiv Singh; Diwan, Vinod Kumar

    2009-03-18

    Only 40.7% women in India deliver in an institution; leaving many vulnerable to maternal morbidity and mortality (India has 22% of global maternal deaths). While limited accessibility to functioning institutions may account in part, a common reason why women deliver at home is poverty. A lack of readily available financial resources for families to draw upon at the time of labor to transport the mother to an institution, is often observed. This paper reports a yearlong collaborative intervention (between the University and Department of Health) to study if providing readily available and easily accessible funds for emergency transportation would reduce maternal deaths in a rural, low income, and high maternal mortality setting in central India. It aimed to obviate a deterrent to emergency obstetric care; the non-availability of resources with mothers when most needed. Issues in implementation are also discussed. Maternal deaths were actively identified in block Amarpatan (0.2 million population) over a 2-year period. The project, with participation from local government and other groups, trained 482 local health care providers (public and private) to provide antenatal care. Emergency transport money (in cash) was placed with one provider in each village. Maternal mortality in the adjacent block (Maihar) was followed (as a 'control' block). Maternal deaths in Amarpatan decreased during the project year relative to the previous year, or in the control block the same year. Issues in implementation of the cash incentive scheme are discussed. Although the intervention reduced maternal deaths in this low-income setting, chronic poverty and malnutrition are underlying structural problems that need to be addressed.

  3. Tax incentives and enhanced oil recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, J.S.

    1991-05-01

    Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation

  4. Hybrid revenue caps and incentive regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Bjoern [School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg University, Box 610, 40530 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2008-05-15

    This paper analyzes the incentive effects of a hybrid revenue cap on a regulated monopolistic firm using non-discriminatory two-part pricing. It is shown that the fixed and the variable part of the cap have different meanings in terms of regulation - the fixed part of a hybrid revenue cap should be used to control the profit level of the regulated firm while the variable part should be used to control the social efficiency level. Since detailed information about the firm's cost function is required to determine the revenue cap parameters, the overall conclusion is that revenue caps are a rather bad idea in the area of incentive regulation. (author)

  5. Regulatory Incentives and Disincentives for Utility Investments in Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhware, Madison, WI (United States); Beecher, Janice [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Inst. of Public Utilities; Lehr, Ronald L.

    2017-05-31

    Electric power is America's most capital-intensive industry, with more than $100 billion invested each year in energy infrastructure. Investment needs are likely to grow as electric utilities make power systems more reliable and resilient, deploy advanced digital technologies, and facilitate new services to meet some consumers' expectations for greater choice and control. But do current regulatory approaches provide the appropriate incentives for grid modernization investments? This report presents three perspectives: -Financial analyst Steve Kihm begins by explaining that any major investor-owned electric utility that wants to raise capital today can do so at a reasonable cost. The question is whether utility managers want to raise capital for grid modernization. Specifically, they look for investments that create the most value for their existing shareholders. In cases where grid modernization investments are not the best choice in terms of shareholder value, Kihm describes shareholder incentive mechanisms that regulators could consider to encourage such investments when they are in the public interest. -From an institutional perspective, Dr. Janice Beecher finds that the traditional rate-base/rate of return regulatory model provides powerful incentives for utilities to pursue investments, cost control, efficiency and even innovation, and it is well suited to the policy objectives of grid modernization. Prudence of grid modernization investments (fair returns) depends on careful evaluation of the specific asset, and any special incentives (bonus returns) should be used only if they promote economic efficiency consistent with the core goals of economic regulation. According to Beecher, realizing the promises of grid modernization depends on effective implementation of the traditional regulatory model and ratemaking tools to serve the public interest. -Conversely, former commissioner and clean energy consultant Ron Lehr says that rapid electric industry

  6. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  7. Beyond Widgets -- Systems Incentive Programs for Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Utility incentive programs remain one of the most significant means of deploying commercialized, but underutilized building technologies to scale. However, these programs have been largely limited to component-based products (e.g., lamps, RTUs). While some utilities do provide ‘custom’ incentive programs with whole building and system level technical assistance, these programs require deeper levels of analysis, resulting in higher program costs. This results in custom programs being restricted to utilities with greater resources, and are typically applied mainly to large or energy-intensive facilities, leaving much of the market without cost effective access and incentives for these solutions. In addition, with increasingly stringent energy codes, cost effective component-based solutions that achieve significant savings are dwindling. Building systems (e.g., integrated façade, HVAC and/or lighting solutions) can deliver higher savings that translate into large sector-wide savings if deployed at the scale of these programs. However, systems application poses a number of challenges – baseline energy use must be defined and measured; the metrics for energy and performance must be defined and tested against; in addition, system savings must be validated under well understood conditions. This paper presents a sample of findings of a project to develop validated utility incentive program packages for three specific integrated building systems, in collaboration with Xcel Energy (CO, MN), ComEd, and a consortium of California Public Owned Utilities (CA POUs) (Northern California Power Agency(NCPA) and the Southern California Public Power Authority(SCPPA)). Furthermore, these program packages consist of system specifications, system performance, M&V protocols, streamlined assessment methods, market assessment and implementation guidance.

  8. Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Incentive Plans Cannot Work” in the Harvard Business Review ( 1993) presents several reasons on why no reward system can match intrinsic motivation as...argument is similar to Kohn’s in that intrinsic motivation with control over work, ability to master and develop one’s expertise, and having a higher...monotonous work efforts where intrinsic motivation is low. The counter to Kohn and Pink’s conclusions is presented by Gerald E. Ledford and Barry Gerhart

  9. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  10. Training, Job Security and Incentive Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Katsimi

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal level of firm-specific training by taking into account the positive effect of training on the expected duration of workers’ current employment. In the framework of an efficiency wage model, a short expected job tenure represents a disamenity that reduces the penalty from shirking. As this disamenity increases, workers have an incentive to continue providing a positive level of effort only if they are compensated by a higher wage. We endogenize the employment...

  11. Motivational incentives of nurses and nursing leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Bakola H.; Zyga S.; Panoutsopoulos G.; Alikari V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In the health sector which is characterized much more as a "labor intensive" rather than as "capital intensive" human capital is the core for improving efficiency, enhancing productivity and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method: Literature review was carried out based on research and ...

  12. Applied economics: The use of monetary incentives to modulate behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, S; Park, S Q; Strombach, T; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    According to standard economic theory higher monetary incentives will lead to higher performance and higher effort independent of task, context, or individual. In many contexts this standard economic advice is implemented. Monetary incentives are, for example, used to enhance performance at workplace or to increase health-related behavior. However, the fundamental positive impact of monetary incentives has been questioned by psychologists as well as behavioral economists during the last decade, arguing that monetary incentives can sometimes even backfire. In this chapter, studies from proponents as well as opponents of monetary incentives will be presented. Specifically, the impact of monetary incentives on performance, prosocial, and health behavior will be discussed. Furthermore, variables determining whether incentives have a positive or negative impact will be identified. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Incentive or habit learning in amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N Muzio

    Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.

  14. Avoiding unintended incentives in ACO payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Rudy; McGuire, Thomas G; McWilliams, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the Medicare Shared Savings Program for accountable care organizations (ACOs) is to reduce Medicare spending for ACOs' patients relative to the organizations' spending history. However, we found that current rules for setting ACO spending targets (or benchmarks) diminish ACOs' incentives to generate savings and may even encourage higher instead of lower Medicare spending. Spending in the three years before ACOs enter or renew a contract is weighted unequally in the benchmark calculation, with a high weight of 0.6 given to the year just before a new contract starts. Thus, ACOs have incentives to increase spending in that year to inflate their benchmark for future years and thereby make it easier to obtain shared savings from Medicare in the new contract period. We suggest strategies to improve incentives for ACOs, including changes to the weights used to determine benchmarks and new payment models that base an ACO's spending target not only on its own past performance but also on the performance of other ACOs or Medicare providers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  16. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere, significantly reduce our dependence on imported oil and resolve geopolitical issues related to energy consumption. The current status of hydrogen technology makes it prohibitive and financially risky for most investors to commit the money required for large-scale hydrogen production. Therefore, alternative strategies such as small and medium-scale hydrogen applications should be implemented during the early stages of the transition to the hydrogen economy in order to test potential markets and technology readiness. While many analysis tools have been built to estimate the requirements of the transition to a hydrogen economy, few have focused on small and medium-scale hydrogen production and none has paired financial with socioeconomic costs at the residential level. The computer-based tool (H2POWER) presented in this study calculates the capacity, cost and socioeconomic impact of the systems needed to meet the energy demands of a home or a community using home and neighborhood refueling units, which are systems that can provide electricity and heat to meet the energy demands of either (1) a home and automobile or (2) a cluster of homes and a number of automobiles. The financial costs of the production, processing and delivery sub-systems that conform the refueling units are calculated using cost data of existing technology and normalizing them to calculate capital and net present cost. The monetary value of the externalities (socioeconomic analysis) caused by each system is calculated by H2POWER through a statistical analysis of the cost associated to various externalities. Additionally, H2POWER calculates the financial impact of different penalties and incentives (such as net metering, low interest loans, fuel taxes, and emission penalties) on the cost of the system from the point of view of a developer and a homeowner. In order to assess the

  17. Using reporting requirements to improve employer wellness incentives and their regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Kristin; Schmidt, Harald; Volpp, Kevin G

    2014-10-01

    Employer interest in offering financial incentives for healthy behaviors has been increasing. Some employers have begun to tie health plan-based rewards or penalties to standards involving tobacco use or biometric measures such as body mass index. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act attempts to strike a balance between the potential benefits and risks of wellness incentive programs by permitting these incentives but simultaneously limiting their use. Evidence about the implications of the newest generation of incentive programs for health, health costs, and burdens on individual employees will be critical for informing both private and public decision makers. After describing the many pieces of information that would be valuable for assessing these programs, this article proposes more narrowly targeted reporting requirements that could facilitate incentive program development, evaluation, and oversight. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  18. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  19. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  20. Effectiveness of employer financial incentives in reducing time to report worker injury: an interrupted time series study of two Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tyler J; Gray, Shannon; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Collie, Alex

    2018-01-05

    Early intervention following occupational injury can improve health outcomes and reduce the duration and cost of workers' compensation claims. Financial early reporting incentives (ERIs) for employers may shorten the time between injury and access to compensation benefits and services. We examined ERI effect on time spent in the claim lodgement process in two Australian states: South Australia (SA), which introduced them in January 2009, and Tasmania (TAS), which introduced them in July 2010. Using administrative records of 1.47 million claims lodged between July 2006 and June 2012, we conducted an interrupted time series study of ERI impact on monthly median days in the claim lodgement process. Time periods included claim reporting, insurer decision, and total time. The 18-month gap in implementation between the states allowed for a multiple baseline design. In SA, we analysed periods within claim reporting: worker and employer reporting times (similar data were not available in TAS). To account for external threats to validity, we examined impact in reference to a comparator of other Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions. Total time in the process did not immediately change, though trend significantly decreased in both jurisdictions (SA: -0.36 days per month, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.09; TAS: 0.35, -0.50 to -0.20). Claim reporting time also decreased in both (SA: -1.6 days, -2.4 to -0.8; TAS: -5.4, -7.4 to -3.3). In TAS, there was a significant increase in insurer decision time (4.6, 3.9 to 5.4) and a similar but non-significant pattern in SA. In SA, worker reporting time significantly decreased (-4.7, -5.8 to -3.5), but employer reporting time did not (-0.3, -0.8 to 0.2). The results suggest that ERIs reduced claim lodgement time and, in the long-term, reduced total time in the claim lodgement process. However, only worker reporting time significantly decreased in SA, indicating that ERIs may not have shortened the process through the intended target of

  1. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  2. Relational incentives in Chinese family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Jiancai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses the choice of managerial compensation contracts in Chinese family firms. Relation or guanxi in Chinese language is an important factor that should be considered because it can bring the shirking cost to the relation-based manager and the caring cost to the owner under Chinese-style differential mode of association (“chaxu geju”. Our theoretical analysis shows that under some conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the efficiency wage contract, and that under other conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the share-based incentive contract.

  3. Tax issues and incentives for biomass projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.

    1993-01-01

    The federal government offers a number of tax incentives to developers of biomass projects. This paper describes each tax benefit, explains what conditions must be met before the benefit is available, and offers practical insights gained from working for over 10 years in the field. Understanding what tax benefits are available is important because the more tax benefits a developer can qualify for in connection with his project, the less expensive the project will be to build and operate and the easier it will be to arrange financing because there will be higher returns in the project for potential investors

  4. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C

    2014-09-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Excess Entry, Entry Regulation, and Entrant's Incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaehong

    2001-01-01

    Excess entry theorem, which shows that the free market can generate too many firms, is a theoretic base for entry regulation. When the current market is a monopoly, entry is considered as excessive if the social welfare under the post-entry Cournot-Nash equilibrium, net of entry coast, is lower than that under monopoly. However, this paper argues that, even if this is true, limiting entry is not an optimal choice of the benevolent government. The entrant has an incentive to produce more than ...

  6. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  7. Incentive Contracts and Efficient Unemployment Benefits in a Globalized World

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Helm; Dominique Demougin

    2012-01-01

    Several European countries have reformed their labor market institutions. Incentive effects of unemployment benefits have been an important aspect of these reforms. We analyse this issue in a principal-agent model, higher level of unemployment benefits improves the workers' position in wage bargaining, leading to stronger effort incentives and higher output. However, it also reduces incentives for labor market participation. Accordingly, there is a trade-off. We analyze how changes in the eco...

  8. Social Relations, Incentives, and Gender in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Onemu, Okemena

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Gender differences in preferences regarding social relationships and competitive environments are well documented in psychology and economics. Research also shows that social relationships and competition among co-workers are affected by the incentive schemes workers are exposed to. We combine these two stylized facts and hypothesize that men and women differ in how they rate their co-worker relationships when they work under individual incentives, group incentive...

  9. The Evolution Of Cooperation In Business: Individual Vs. Group Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ladley; Ian Wilkinson; Louise Young

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative relations, within and between firms, play important roles in business. How to produce such relations, however, is less well understood. Building on work in evolutionary biology we examine the conditions under which group based incentives result in better performance than individual based incentives. We find that when individual and group interests are not aligned, group incentive systems lead to both higher group and individual performance. Hybrid reward systems, with both group a...

  10. Issues in the Design of Saving and Investment Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    David F. Bradford

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of and interactions among measures to effect saving and investment incentives ("S-I incentives")in the context of an income tax system that is inadequately indexed for inflation. Examples are proposals for more rapid depreciation of buildings and equipment and proposals to exempt larger amounts of interest income. SI incentives are classified into "consumption tax" and "direct grant" types, and it is shown that these differ in their influence on portfol...

  11. Globalisation and National Incentives for Protecting Environmental Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Alkuin Kölliker

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to explain national incentives for protecting environmental goods either autonomously or collectively; it explores how globalisation has affected those incentives; and it suggests how national environmental policy might respond so as to ensure its effectiveness. The central argument is that national incentives for environmental protection may to a considerable extent be explained by a combination of the type of environmental good to be protected (in terms of public goods th...

  12. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility's open-quotes hidden costs,close quotes which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate)

  13. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  14. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  15. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process

  16. A Dynamic Incentive Mechanism for Transmission Expansion in Electricity Networks – Theory, Modeling and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rosellon, Juan; Weigt, Hannes

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the Hogan-Rosellón-Vogelsang (2007) (HRV) incentive mechanism for transmission expansion, and tests it for different network topologies. This new mechanism is based upon redefining transmission output in terms of point-to-point transactions or financial transmission rights (FTRs) and applies Vogelsang’s (2001) incentive-regulation logic that proposes rebalancing the variable and fixed parts of a two-part tariff to promote efficient, long-term expansion. We anal...

  17. Perestroika for public utilities? (Second thoughts on a conservation incentive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, S.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the various sides of the debate over whether financial incentives should be offered those utilities with aggressive conservation programs as part of their load management scheme. The author feels that the desire of some of the utilities to operate as pure businesses instead of as public service companies that have obligations to their community and society beyond the obligations of ordinary business will lead to the surrender of an ideal where electric utilities are public service corporations obligated to do the right thing

  18. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area

  19. Understanding the Complexities of Subnational Incentives in Supporting a National Market for Distributed Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.; Doris, E.; Getman, D.

    2014-09-01

    Subnational policies pertaining to photovoltaic (PV) systems have increased in volume in recent years and federal incentives are set to be phased out over the next few. Understanding how subnational policies function within and across jurisdictions, thereby impacting PV market development, informs policy decision making. This report was developed for subnational policy-makers and researchers in order to aid the analysis on the function of PV system incentives within the emerging PV deployment market. The analysis presented is based on a 'logic engine,' a database tool using existing state, utility, and local incentives allowing users to see the interrelationships between PV system incentives and parameters, such as geographic location, technology specifications, and financial factors. Depending on how it is queried, the database can yield insights into which combinations of incentives are available and most advantageous to the PV system owner or developer under particular circumstances. This is useful both for individual system developers to identify the most advantageous incentive packages that they qualify for as well as for researchers and policymakers to better understand the patch work of incentives nationwide as well as how they drive the market.

  20. Incentives for improving human resource outcomes in health care: overview of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Renee; Linder, Jordana; Lait, Jana; Hepp, Shelanne; Armitage, Gail; Jackson, Karen; Suter, Esther

    2014-01-01

    To review the effectiveness of financial and nonfinancial incentives for improving the benefits (recruitment, retention, job satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover, intent to leave) of human resource strategies in health care. Overview of 33 reviews published from 2000 to 2012 summarized the effectiveness of incentives for improving human resource outcomes in health care (such as job satisfaction, turnover rates, recruitment, and retention) that met the inclusion criteria and were assessed by at least two research members using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews quality assessment tool. Of those, 13 reviews met the quality criteria and were included in the overview. Information was extracted on a description of the review, the incentives considered, and their impact on human resource outcomes. The information on the relationship between incentives and outcomes was assessed and synthesized. While financial compensation is the best-recognized approach within an incentives package, there is evidence that health care practitioners respond positively to incentives linked to the quality of the working environments including opportunities for professional development, improved work life balance, interprofessional collaboration, and professional autonomy. There is less evidence that workload factors such as job demand, restructured staffing models, re-engineered work designs, ward practices, employment status, or staff skill mix have an impact on human resource outcomes. Overall, evidence of effective strategies for improving outcomes is mixed. While financial incentives play a key role in enhancing outcomes, they need to be considered as only one strategy within an incentives package. There is stronger evidence that improving the work place environment and instituting mechanisms for work-life balance need to be part of an overall strategy to improve outcomes for health care practitioners.

  1. Fundamental Characteristics of Incentive Streams Created by Legal Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.

    2002-01-01

    The law shapes people’s behaviour by creating incentives. For example, tort law induces motorists to drive carefully by making them pay compensation for the accidents they may cause. This study analyses the way the law can create incentives in those cases in which the courts or the administrative

  2. Governing by carrot and stick: A genealogy of the incentive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dix, G.

    2014-01-01

    Managers, politicians and scientists frequently use the term ‘incentive’ in their explanations of human action. At the same time, individuals in the public and private sectors are now governed with the help of incentives. In this thesis, I study the incentive from a theoretical and normative

  3. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to other incentives. 48.105 Section 48.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives...

  4. School and Teacher Performance Incentives: The Latin American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizala, Alejandra; Romaguera, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses performance evaluation and the introduction of incentives into education in Latin America from an analytical and methodological perspective. The aim is to describe ongoing strategies and learn from practical experiences in this field. The cases analyzed reveal that school-level evaluations and collective incentives adapt…

  5. Tax incentive as a catalyst for economic development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical study using a well structured questionnaire survey, the work assesses the relationship that exists between tax incentive and economic development in Nigeria. This study was undertaken primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of tax incentive in developing the Nigerian economy. One hundred and twenty ...

  6. Sellers' hedging incentives at EPA's emission trading auction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.R.; Haan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cason (1993)argued thattheauction theEPAused in order to start the market for sulfur allowances, is not efficient. The set-up of the auction gives both buyers and sellers an incentive to understate their valuation of an allowance. In this paper, we show that the sellers’ incentives are even more

  7. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used. In thi...

  8. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-03-05

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.

  9. 12 CFR 702.307 - Incentives for new credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives for new credit unions. 702.307 Section 702.307 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.307 Incentives...

  10. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.45 Forestry Incentives Program (FIP...

  11. The Wisconsin experience with incentives for demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgren, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed

  12. Something for Nothing: Cash Flow as a Contract Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Defense AT&L: March-April 2016 16 Something for Nothing “Cash Flow” as a Contract Incentive John Pritchard n John Krieger Pritchard and...negligible resources are required to implement the incentive, this is the closest the government ever will come to getting something for nothing. The

  13. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  14. Survey of Incentives Development in Agroforestry Establishments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These incentives give the farmers job opportunity (32.79%), income (39.34%), and food (26.23%) among others. It is therefore recommended that incentives in the area of inputs should be used to support the establishment of Agroforestry system so as to boost food production and wood supply across the country. Key words: ...

  15. Impact of Incentive Schemes on Employee Performance: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores the impact of incentives on several factors like motivation, absenteeism, employee turnover, production and productivity, employee morale, health ... that incentives schemes are giving satisfactory results in improving employee performance apart from increasing incomes of the workers and other benefits.

  16. The Effect of Incentives on Cognitive Processing of Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konheim-Kalkstein, Yasmine L.; van den Broek, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effect of incentives, a motivational manipulation, on cognitive processes of reading. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through the use of monetary incentives to assess its effect on information processing in reading. One group of college students was paid for what they remembered from several narrative passages they…

  17. 24 CFR 902.71 - Incentives for high performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902... performers. (a) Incentives for high performer PHAs. A PHA that is designated a high performer will be... is designated high performer will be relieved of specific HUD requirements (for example, fewer...

  18. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances subje...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  19. Equity Incentives: Aligning The Interests Of Employees And Owners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews how to align the interests of employees and of owners of businesses and directs attention to policy issues that are critical to the attainment of this noble objective. It demonstrates that Tax Incentives and Reforms are necessary and offers recommendations on how to promote equity incentives in Nigeria.

  20. Patent quality and incentives at the patent office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling

  1. Incentive issues in the South African construction industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incentives are regarded as motivational tools which can be used to propel construction workforces to achieve project objectives. This article contributes to the existing body of knowledge by evaluating the current practices of incentive mechanisms in the South African construction industry and identifying the challenges ...

  2. Using Incentives To Promote Employee Health. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    The use of incentives by businesses is a well-accepted pattern of management-employee collaboration. Increasingly, U.S. businesses are using incentives to encourage employees to stay healthy. Research in the field of behavior modification indicates that positive reinforcement, negative consequences and restrictions, and feedback have great…

  3. Wind and solar energy incentives in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, G.; Kazemi Karegar, H.

    2006-01-01

    Incentive have yet been viewed as a means of supporting technological developments until a new technology becomes cost competitive wind based electricity is not jet generally competitive with alternate sources of electricity such as fossil fuels. This paper presents the potential for wind and solar in Iran and shows how much electric energy is now produced by renewable power plants compared to steam and gas. The importance of renewable energy effects on Iran environment and economy is also discussed and the issue of the contribution of renewable energy for producing electricity in the future will be shown. Also this paper highlights the ability of Iran to manufacture the components of the wind turbine and solar system locally, and its effect on the price of wind turbine and solar energy

  4. Successive duopoly under moral hazard: Will incentive contracts persist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fernández-Olmos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this paper is to examine the incentive contract as an equilibrium phenomenon. We analyse a model of vertical differentiation in which we deal with the strategic role of the competitor’s decisions in a successive duopoly. Is it better for a processor to offer an incentive contract to an upstream producer or the spot market? We determine the equilibrium of a game in which the processors simultaneously decide whether to offer an incentive contract or to continue at the spot market to acquire their input. Our results show that under successive duopoly, offering an incentive contract constitutes the unique equilibrium solution, which highlights the incentive contract persistence.

  5. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.

  6. RECRUITING NEW TEACHERS TO URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS: WHAT INCENTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTHONY T. MILANOWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Many urban districts in the United States have difficulty attracting and retaining quality teachers, yet they are often themost in need of them. In response, U.S. states and districts are experimenting with financial incentives to attract andretain high-quality teachers in high-need, low-achieving, or hard-to-staff urban schools. However, relatively little isknown about how effective financial incentives are for recruiting new teachers to high-need urban schools. This researchexplores factors that are important to the job choices of teachers in training. Focus groups were held with students atthree universities, and a policy-capturing study was done using 64 job scenarios representing various levels of pay andworking conditions. Focus group results suggested that: a many pre-service teachers, even relatively late in their preparation,are not committed to a particular district and are willing to consider many possibilities, including high needschools; b although pay and benefits were attractive to the students, loan forgiveness and subsidies for further educationwere also attractive; and c small increments of additional salary did not appear as important or attractive as otherjob characteristics. The policy-capturing study showed that working conditions factors, especially principal support, hadmore influence on simulated job choice than pay level, implying that money might be better spent to attract, retain, ortrain better principals than to provide higher beginning salaries to teachers in schools with high-poverty or a high proportionof students of color.

  7. A review of case studies evaluating economic incentives to promote occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsler, Dietmar; Treutlein, Daniela; Rydlewska, Iza; Frusteri, Liliana; Krüger, Henning; Veerman, Theo; Eeckelaert, Lieven; Roskams, Nele; Van Den Broek, Karla; Taylor, Terry N

    2010-06-01

    In many European countries, external economic incentives are discussed as a policy instrument to promote occupational safety and health (OSH) in enterprises. This narrative case study review aims to support policy-makers in organizations providing such incentives by supplying information about different incentive schemes and their main characteristics such as effectiveness, efficiency, and feasibility. The focal point and topic centre network of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work were used to collect case studies about incentive schemes aimed at supporting the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in enterprises. Such incentives are rarely described in the scientific literature. To be considered for this review, studies had to focus on external financial benefits that could be provided as part of an insurance-related incentive or a governmental subsidy scheme. In total, 14 cases were included in the review: 6 insurance premium- and 8 subsidy-based schemes. Of these, 13 contained an evaluation of the incentive scheme, of which 7 use quantitative criteria. Three cases provided sufficient data to conduct a cost-benefit analysis. Most qualitative evaluations related to the successful management of the program and the effectiveness of the promoted measures in the workplace. Regarding the latter, quantitative criteria covered accident rates, sick leave, and general improvement in working conditions. The cost-benefit analyses all resulted in a positive payout ratio, ranging from 1.01-4.81 euros return for every 1 euro invested. Generally, we found economic incentive schemes to be feasible and reasonably effective. However, analysis regarding the efficiency of such schemes is scarce and our evaluation of the cost-benefit analysis had to rely on few cases that, nevertheless, delivered positive results for large samples. Besides this finding, our study also revealed deficits in the quality of evaluations. In order to enable policy-makers to make

  8. A systematic review finds underreporting of ethics approval, informed consent, and incentives in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Ly Quoc; Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Truong, Nguyen Duc; Turk, Tarek; Elshafie, Ahmed; Foly, Amr; Hien Tam, Dao Ngoc; Iraqi, Ahmed; Hong Van, Trinh Thi; Elgebaly, Ahmed; Ngoc, Tran Nhu; Vu, Tran Le Huy; Chu, Ngan Thy; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra; Huy, Nguyen Tien

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we aim to review researchers' reporting practices of the ethics statement, financial incentives, and local ethical committees' profile in their clinical trials. A systematic search was done through top-ranked 50 medical journals (Scimago Ranking) to retrieve 2,000 latest publications. Only primary clinical trials were included with no restriction to language or participants. Among the 927 included trials, 14 trials (1.5%) did not report an ethical statement and two-third (63%) did not completely report the investigated components (Institutional Review eBoard approval, Helsinki Declaration, and informed consent). Moreover, 21 trials (2.26%) reported motivational incentives with the method and amount of payment for participants. Of them, 15 trials offered monetary incentives to participants in different forms. In the remaining six trials, the incentives were mainly medical benefits. Only one trial reported the profile or quality of local Institutional Review Board. A potential gap in the reporting practices of ethics statement and financial incentives was addressed in this review. Authors are urged to fully report all ethical components related to their study, including incentives and compensations plan. Medical journals are also recommended to implement further publication requirements concerning ethics reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Panel presentation: Should some type of incentive regulation replace traditional methods for regulating LDC's?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the wants and fears of gas utility companies with regards to incentive regulation. The idea of replacing the traditional rate-of-return regulation with incentive regulation sound very desirous in that it should provide greater management flexibility, quicker and more streamlined regulatory processes, and utility financial rewards based on how well customer needs are met. However, the main fear is that this could result in arbitrary, inappropriate productivity or efficiency targets, or would embody a risk/reward ratio skewed more heavily toward financial penalties than opportunities to increase earnings. The paper presents some of the obstacles of traditional regulation which include a lack of incentive to minimize operational costs; a lack of incentive to introduce new technology, products, or services; prevent the need for flexibility to compete in contestable markets; and the diversion caused by utility managers having to manage the regulatory process rather than delivering value to customers. The paper concludes by comparing the incentive regulation program used in the telecommunications industry to the natural gas industry to demonstrate why the success of the telecommunications model doesn't apply to the gas utilities incentive model

  10. Teacher Incentive Pay Programs in the United States: Union Influence and District Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics of teacher incentive pay programs in the United States. Using the 2007–08 SASS data set, it found an inverse relationship between union influence and districts’ incentive pay offerings. Large and ethnically diverse districts in urban areas that did not meet the requirements for Adequate Yearly Progress as defined under the No Child Left Behind Act are more likely to offer a larger number of economic incentives. Although rural districts are likely to reward teachers in hard-to-staff schools, they are not more likely to reward teachers who are certified by the National Board or who teach in the subject areas of shortage, nor are they more likely to offer multiple financial incentives.

  11. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Reviewof Current Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Increasing levels of financial support for customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, provided through publicly-funded incentive programs, has heightened concerns about the long-term performance of these systems. Given the barriers that customers face to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the responsibility that PV incentive programs bear to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should, and often do, play a critical role in ensuring that PV systems receiving incentives perform well. To provide a point of reference for assessing the current state of the art, and to inform program design efforts going forward, we examine the approaches to encouraging PV system performance used by 32 prominent PV incentive programs in the U.S. We identify eight general strategies or groups of related strategies that these programs have used to address performance issues, and highlight important differences in the implementation of these strategies among programs.

  12. Costs and results of federal incentives for commercial nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdek, R.H.; Wendling, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper (1) estimates the total costs of federal expenditures in support of incentives for the development of commercial nuclear energy through 1988, and (2) analyzes the results and benefits to the nation of this federal investment. The federal incentives analyzed include research and development, regulation of commercial nuclear energy, tax incentives, waste management and disposal, enrichment plants, liability insurance, the uranium mining industry, and all other federal support activities. The authors estimate that net federal incentives totaled about $45-50 billion (1988 dollars). They estimate the results of the federal incentives, focusing on six categories, namely, electric energy produced, the total (direct plus indirect) economic benefits of the industry created, R and D program benefits, value of energy imports displaced, environmental effects, and health, safety, and risk effects. The results total $1.9 trillion, with approximately $250-300 billion identified as net benefits. The authors conclude that the high return on the investment justified federal incentives for nuclear energy development over the past four decades and that the federal government and the nation have received a significant return on the incentives investment

  13. The use of financial incentives to help improve health outcomes: is the quality and outcomes framework fit for purpose? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdown, Carwyn; Peckham, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    The quality and outcomes framework (QOF) is one of the world's largest pay-for-performance schemes, rewarding general practitioners for the quality of care they provide. This review examines the evidence on the efficacy of the scheme for improving health outcomes, its impact on non-incentivized activities and the robustness of the clinical targets adopted in the scheme. The review was conducted using six electronic databases, six sources of grey literature and bibliography searches from relevant publications. Studies were identified using a comprehensive search strategy based on MeSH terms and keyword searches. A total of 21,543 references were identified of which 32 met the eligibility criteria with 11 studies selected for the review. Findings provide strong evidence that the QOF initially improved health outcomes for a limited number of conditions but subsequently fell to the pre-existing trend. There was limited impact on non-incentivized activities with adverse effects for some sub-population groups. The QOF has limited impact on improving health outcomes due to its focus on process-based indicators and the indicators' ceiling thresholds. Further research is required to strengthen the quality of evidence available on the QOF's impact on population health to ensure that the incentive scheme is both clinically and cost-effective. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  15. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  16. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance...... for all wireless networks. Such incentives arise due to a well-known property of 802.11 networks, where low rate users that send traffic significantly degrade the performance of high rate users that are associated with the same access point. A key difference of this paper compared to other works...

  17. Tax Incentives Culture: An Analysis of Corporate Disclosures in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gomes dos Reis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of tax incentives Culture is essential for external users to make full analysis of the benefits generated by them. In this sense, the aim of this study was to verify the consistency and form of disclosure of the information disclosed by the Corporation Publicly Traded in southern Brazil, from the perspective of reducing the tax burden and the amount allocated to the Culture. The sample consisted of 27 Corporate Capital Open in southern Brazil and analyzed its financial statements, accompanying notes and supplementary reports through pre-established keywords, characterizing the research as descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The results showed the importance of the Notes, the Management Report and additional reports as Social and Sustainability Report. These reports had relevant information and helpful research. However, many of them did not have clear information about the tax incentives for culture. Some companies released the tax incentive culture along with other incentives, such as the Workers Food Program - PAT, which did not allow detailed analysis of the data. We found cases of disagreement between the Ministry of Culture and information disclosed statements. In some cases, were observed lack of information about the tax incentives in the statements and supplementary reports. It was concluded that the disclosure is lower than necessary, because only four out of a total of twenty seven companies analyzed, reported consistent, complete and appropriate on tax incentives for culture.

  18. Developing Incentives for Data Sharing in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, ecological scientists’ capacity for generating data has increased at an exponential rate. The need to organize data in ways useful for problem solving has similarly accelerated in the face of global challenges such as climate change, widespread species extinctions, and declines in biodiversity. In light of these trends, virtually every field of ecology would benefit from more comprehensive and systematic documentation and publication of metadata, combined with general availability of data through online sources. Both organizations and individual scientists need to take action to meet these needs. In response, the Ecological Society of America (ESA) has led a series of NSF-sponsored workshops to help scientists find common ground on how to make data more readily discoverable and accessible in their own disciplines. The most recent of these focused in the development of incentives for data sharing, both at the individual and organizational level. This presentation will summarize the workshop recommendations, with a focus on preservation, curation, and access to data; access to analytical and visualization tools; and the need to make data archiving simple and routine. The roles of funders and publishers of research are also key and will be highlighted.

  19. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  20. How unconventional gas prospers without tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Stevens, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    It was widely believed that the development of unconventional natural gas (coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas) would die once US Sec. 29 credits stopped. Quieter voices countered, and hoped, that technology advances would keep these large but difficult to produce gas resources alive and maybe even healthy. Sec. 29 tax credits for new unconventional gas development stopped at the end of 1992. Now, nearly three years later, who was right and what has happened? There is no doubt that Sec. 29 tax credits stimulated the development of coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas. What is less known is that the tax credits helped spawn and push into use an entire new set of exploration, completion, and production technologies founded on improved understanding of unconventional gas reservoirs. As set forth below, while the incentives inherent in Sec. 29 provided the spark, it has been the base of science and technology that has maintained the vitality of these gas sources. The paper discusses the current status; resource development; technology; unusual production, proven reserves, and well completions if coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas; and international aspects

  1. Investment incentives in the Korean electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Yeon; Ahn, Nam-Sung; Yoon, Yong-Beum; Koh, Kyung-Ho; Bunn, Derek W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a model-based analysis of the effects of various capacity incentive systems on new investment in the Korean electricity market. The restructuring process in Korea allocated power generation to six firms, competing within a wholesale market, albeit strictly on a cost basis. Because of this cost-based pool, capacity payments were also introduced to encourage new investment. However, it is an open question whether the current fixed capacity payment scheme is enough to secure resource adequacy, and consideration is being given to alternative mechanisms such as the use of LOLP. Using a detailed market simulation model, based on system dynamics, we compare these approaches in terms of how they may influence the investors' decisions and thereby determine the system reserve margin. The simulation results suggest that there may be serious problems in staying with the current fixed capacity payments in order to achieve resource adequacy. In contrast, an LOLP-based capacity mechanism may, in the longer term, increase the reserve margin compared with a fixed capacity payment. More generally, this paper indicates how crucial the effective modeling of the investment behavior of the independent power producers is for adequate policy support, even if they only constitute a fringe in a substantially centrally influenced market

  2. Hybrid carbon incentive mechanisms and political acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.; De Vries, J.L.; Koutstaal, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper it is analyzed how hybrid systems of carbon taxes and tradeable permits optimize some conflicting dimensions of political acceptability related to the design of these instruments. Pure systems like taxes without exemptions or auctioned tradeable permits cause problems for political acceptability in open economies due to high overall costs (abatement cost plus payments on the tax or auctions) for current polluters. Unfortunately, pure systems based on grandfathering of emission rights across the board do not provide a feasible alternative because of monitoring and enforcement problems. In contrast, consciously designed hybrid systems employ grandfathering of emission rights together with either carbon taxes or auctioned carbon permits in order to overcome acceptability problems of pure systems, while leaving incentives to reduce emissions at the margin untouched. Moreover, monitoring and enforcement costs of the hybrid systems are less due to the lower number of participating agents compared with the pure systems, while opportunities for cost- or burden-sharing exist as well. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs

  3. Impact of a patient incentive program on receipt of preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ateev; An, Ruopeng; Patel, Deepak N; Sturm, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Patient financial incentives are being promoted as a mechanism to increase receipt of preventive care, encourage healthy behavior, and improve chronic disease management. However, few empirical evaluations have assessed such incentive programs. In South Africa, a private health plan has introduced a voluntary incentive program which costs enrollees approximately $20 per month. In the program, enrollees earn points when they receive preventive care. These points translate into discounts on retail goods such as airline tickets, movie tickets, or cell phones. We chose 8 preventive care services over the years 2005 to 2011 and compared the change between those who entered the incentive program and those that did not. We used multivariate regression models with individual random effects to try to address selection bias. Of the 4,186,047 unique individuals enrolled in the health plan, 65.5% (2,742,268) voluntarily enrolled in the incentive program. Joining the incentive program was associated with statistically higher odds of receiving all 8 preventive care services. The odds ratio (and estimated percentage point increase) for receipt of cholesterol testing was 2.70 (8.9%); glucose testing 1.51 (4.7%); glaucoma screening 1.34 (3.9%); dental exam 1.64 (6.3%); HIV test 3.47 (2.6%); prostate specific antigen testing 1.39 (5.6%); Papanicolaou screening 2.17 (7.0%); and mammogram 1.90 (3.1%) (P < .001 for all 8 services). However, preventive care rates among those in the incentive program was still low. Voluntary participation in a patient incentive program was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of receiving preventive care, though receipt of preventive care among those in the program was still lower than ideal.

  4. Design of incentive programs for accelerating penetration of energy-efficient appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue du Can de la, Stephane; Leventis, Greg; Phadke, Amol; Gopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Incentives are policy tools that sway purchase, retail stocking, and production decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentives complement mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating market penetration of products that are more energy efficient than required by existing standards and by preparing the market for more stringent future mandatory requirements. Incentives can be directed at different points in the appliance's supply chain; one point may be more effective than another depending on the technology's maturity and market penetration. This paper seeks to inform future policy and program design by categorizing the main elements of incentive programs from around the world. We identify advantages and disadvantages of program designs through a qualitative overview of incentive programs worldwide. We find that financial incentive programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies with a small market share, and that program designs depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context. No program design is inherently superior to another. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and identification of the most important local obstacles to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies. - Highlights: • We researched incentive programs design and implementation worldwide. • This paper seeks to inform future policy and program design. • We identify design and identify advantages and disadvantages. • We find that incentive programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient products. • Program designs depend on the market barriers addressed and the local market context

  5. Payment incentives and integrated care delivery: levers for health system reform and cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Eldridge, Gloria N

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act encourages use of payment methods and incentives to promote integrated care delivery models including patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and primary care and behavioral health integration. These models rely on interdisciplinary provider teams to coordinate patient care; health information and other technologies to assure, monitor, and assess quality, and payment and financial incentives such as bundling, pay-for-performance, and gain-sharing to encourage value-based health care. In this paper, we review evidence about integrated care delivery, payment methods, and financial incentives to improve value in health care purchasing, and address how these approaches can be used to advance health system change.

  6. Is it all about the money? A qualitative exploration of the effects of performance-based financial incentives on Zimbabwe's voluntary male medical circumcision program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl Feldacker

    Full Text Available In 2013, Zimbabwe's voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program adopted performance-based financing (PBF to speed progress towards ambitious VMMC targets. The $25 USD PBF intended to encourage low-paid healthcare workers to remain in the public sector and to strengthen the public healthcare system. The majority of the incentive supports healthcare workers (HCWs who perform VMMC alongside other routine services; a small portion supports province, district, and facility levels.This qualitative study assessed the effect of the PBF on HCW motivation, satisfaction, and professional relationships. The study objectives were to: 1 Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the HCW level; 2 Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the site level; and 3 Inform scale up, modification, or discontinuation of PBF for the national VMMC program. Sixteen focus groups were conducted: eight with HCWs who received PBF for VMMC and eight with HCWs in the same clinics who did not work in VMMC and, therefore, did not receive PBF. Fourteen key informant interviews ascertained administrator opinion.Findings suggest that PBF appreciably increased motivation among VMMC teams and helped improve facilities where VMMC services are provided. However, PBF appears to contribute to antagonism at the workplace, creating divisiveness that may reach beyond VMMC. PBF may also cause distortion in the healthcare system: HCWs prioritized incentivized VMMC services over other routine duties. To reduce workplace tension and improve the VMMC program, participants suggested increasing HCW training in VMMC to expand PBF beneficiaries and strengthening integration of VMMC services into routine care.In the low-resource, short-staffed context of Zimbabwe, PBF enabled rapid VMMC scale up and achievement of ambitious targets; however, side effects make PBF less advantageous and sustainable than envisioned. Careful consideration is warranted in

  7. Is it all about the money? A qualitative exploration of the effects of performance-based financial incentives on Zimbabwe's voluntary male medical circumcision program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldacker, Caryl; Bochner, Aaron F; Herman-Roloff, Amy; Holec, Marrianne; Murenje, Vernon; Stepaniak, Abby; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Tshimanga, Mufata; Chitimbire, Vuyelwa; Makaure, Shingirai; Hove, Joseph; Barnhart, Scott; Makunike, Batsirai

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, Zimbabwe's voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program adopted performance-based financing (PBF) to speed progress towards ambitious VMMC targets. The $25 USD PBF intended to encourage low-paid healthcare workers to remain in the public sector and to strengthen the public healthcare system. The majority of the incentive supports healthcare workers (HCWs) who perform VMMC alongside other routine services; a small portion supports province, district, and facility levels. This qualitative study assessed the effect of the PBF on HCW motivation, satisfaction, and professional relationships. The study objectives were to: 1) Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the HCW level; 2) Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the site level; and 3) Inform scale up, modification, or discontinuation of PBF for the national VMMC program. Sixteen focus groups were conducted: eight with HCWs who received PBF for VMMC and eight with HCWs in the same clinics who did not work in VMMC and, therefore, did not receive PBF. Fourteen key informant interviews ascertained administrator opinion. Findings suggest that PBF appreciably increased motivation among VMMC teams and helped improve facilities where VMMC services are provided. However, PBF appears to contribute to antagonism at the workplace, creating divisiveness that may reach beyond VMMC. PBF may also cause distortion in the healthcare system: HCWs prioritized incentivized VMMC services over other routine duties. To reduce workplace tension and improve the VMMC program, participants suggested increasing HCW training in VMMC to expand PBF beneficiaries and strengthening integration of VMMC services into routine care. In the low-resource, short-staffed context of Zimbabwe, PBF enabled rapid VMMC scale up and achievement of ambitious targets; however, side effects make PBF less advantageous and sustainable than envisioned. Careful consideration is warranted in choosing

  8. Tax incentives and Made in Nigeria goods | Somorin | Economic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Made in Nigeria” concept and Companies that engage in made in Nigeria goods. It will explore how tax incentives can accelerate the growth of companies engaged in manufacturing of such made in Nigeria goods. From this paper, written ...

  9. Social Relations, Incentives, and Gender in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Onemu (Okemena)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Gender differences in preferences regarding social relationships and competitive environments are well documented in psychology and economics. Research also shows that social relationships and competition among co-workers are affected by the incentive schemes workers

  10. Behavioral implications of providing real incentives in stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny

    2014-01-01

    the scope of research to other behavioral aspects where consumers in CE are often found to deviate from homo economicus. We develop a theoretical model where not only Willingness to pay (WTP) measures but also decision processing can be affected by the introduction of an economic incentive. Specifically...... incentive, we find marked benefits in relation to a number of behavioral aspects that together would favor the use of an economic incentive regardless of hypothetical bias being present or not.......This paper explores the potential impacts of introducing real economic incentives in choice experiments (CE). While many others have investigated such impacts before, the majority of the literature has focused solely on mitigation of hypothetical bias. We contribute to this literature by widening...

  11. Incentives for research participation: policy and practice from Canadian corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Flora I; Forrester, Pamela; Brazil, Amanda; Doherty, Sherri; Affleck, Lindy

    2012-08-01

    We explored current policies and practices on the use of incentives in research involving adult offenders under correctional supervision in prison and in the community (probation and parole) in Canada. We contacted the correctional departments of each of the Canadian provinces and territories, as well as the federal government department responsible for offenders serving sentences of two years or more. Findings indicated that two departments had formal policy whereas others had unwritten practices, some prohibiting their use and others allowing incentives on a case-by-case basis. Given the differences across jurisdictions, it would be valuable to examine how current incentive policies and practices are implemented to inform national best practices on incentives for offender-based research.

  12. The Assessment of Risk in Educational Incentive Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a stochastic model and subsequent risk analysis that should enable an administrator to evaluate an incentive contract. A numerical illustration points out the types of issues that can be addressed by the model. (Author/IRT)

  13. Incentive Elasticity of Demand for Bike/Walk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-29

    The primary objective of this research is to estimate the "incentive" (price) elasticity of demand for using non-motorized transportation (specifically walking and bicycling) to work. Results can be used directly in the formation of local policies to...

  14. Temporary Investment Tax Incentives: Theory with Evidence from Bonus Depreciation

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher L. House; Matthew D. Shapiro

    2008-01-01

    Investment decisions are inherently forward-looking. The payoff of acquiring capital goods, particularly long-lived capital goods, is governed almost exclusively by events in the far future. Because the timing of the investment itself does not affect future payoffs, there are strong incentives to delay or accelerate investment to take advantage of predictable intertemporal variations in cost. For sufficiently long-lived capital goods, these incentives are so strong that the intertemporal elas...

  15. Incentive Mechanism of Micro-grid Project Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the issue of cost and benefit, the investment demand and consumption demand of micro-grids are insufficient in the early stages, which makes all parties lack motivation to participate in the development of micro-grid projects and leads to the slow development of micro-grids. In order to promote the development of micro-grids, the corresponding incentive mechanism should be designed to motivate the development of micro-grid projects. Therefore, this paper builds a multi-stage incentive model of micro-grid project development involving government, grid corporation, energy supplier, equipment supplier, and the user in order to study the incentive problems of micro-grid project development. Through the solution and analysis of the model, this paper deduces the optimal subsidy of government and the optimal cooperation incentive of the energy supplier, and calculates the optimal pricing strategy of grid corporation and the energy supplier, and analyzes the influence of relevant factors on optimal subsidy and incentive. The study reveals that the cost and social benefit of micro-grid development have a positive impact on micro-grid subsidy, technical level and equipment quality of equipment supplier as well as the fact that government subsidies positively adjust the level of cooperation incentives and price incentives. In the end, the validity of the model is verified by numerical analysis, and the incentive strategy of each participant is analyzed. The research of this paper is of great significance to encourage project development of micro-grids and to promote the sustainable development of micro-grids.

  16. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention. Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals. Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context. Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed. Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention. Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  17. Medicare. Physician Incentive Payments by Hospitals Could Lead to Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Controlling Program Abuse 9 Objectives, Scope, and Methodology 12 Chapter 2 14 Features of Physician Paracelsus Plan 14 MeSH Physician Incentive Plan...Pasadena General Hospital, Pasadena, Texas, would likely violate the Medicare anti-kickback statute. Paracelsus Plan While the details of the physician...incentive plans used at the 14 hospi- tals in the Paracelsus Healthcare Corporation chain vary somewhat, they are basically similar. In each hospital

  18. Incentive pay and gender gaps in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Westling, Tatu

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of incentive pay on gender pay gaps in Finland, Norway and Sweden among professionals and managers within MNCs. Mercer 2009 Total Remuneration Survey data is utilised. Uniform job ladder, occupation, industry and wage definitions enable consistent cross-country comparisons. In addition to the between-country variation, the within-country variation of gender gap with respect to incentive pay is analysed. The results indicate that gender pay gaps differ among the ...

  19. OBJECTIVES AND INCENTIVES AT THE EUROPEAN PATENT OFFICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff.......This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....

  20. What You Sow Is What You Reap? (Dis-Incentives for Adaptation Intentions in Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Buelow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation by farmers and other land managers responsible for climate-sensitive activities is central to ensuring resilience in the face of ongoing climate variability and change. However, there remains an adaptation deficit among agricultural producers: action to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change is insufficient. To motivate adaptation, diverse incentives are in place most notably through the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy which offers financial incentives to farmers. However, the effect of incentives on behaviour appears to be low. To better understand adaptation intentions, we report on the results of a survey experiment assessing framing effects on German farmers. Four framings of adaptation motifs—financial, norms, risk awareness, and technological innovation—are tested against a socio-cognitive model based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT. According to PMT, adaptation intentions are a function of an individual’s risk and coping appraisal. Results show that, contrary to assumptions of profit maximizing individuals, economic incentives trigger fewer overall change intentions. Economic rewards do act on risk perception, but are less likely to trigger coping perception, while other treatments do. As coping perception is one of two socio-cognitive reactions to climate change, financial incentive structures fail to act on about half the factors leading to adaptation intentions. These effects dependent on subgroups, farm structures, and are mediated by climate experience. To support transitions towards robust adaptation, adaptation incentives must move beyond financial framings alone, and leverage on farmers’ recent experiences with adverse climate impacts, understandings of climate change, and the influence of social norms.

  1. Clean development mechanism: an incentive for waste management projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöchl, Clemens; Wetzer, Wolfgang; Ragossnig, Arne

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was introduced by the Kyoto Protocol to provide a financial incentive to establish project activities in developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions while also fostering sustainable development. This article shows that waste management project activities play an important role in achieving the aims of the CDM. It describes how these activities have to prove additionality, how the emission reductions must be calculated and monitored in order to be eligible and in order to lead to Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). The article further provides an analysis about the various challenges that are involved in applying the CDM scheme to waste management project activities, which require a new specific set of technical skills and regulatory standards.

  2. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Federal incentives for the development of solar energy are examined. A Federal incentive is any action that can be taken by the government to expand residential and commercial use of solar energy. The development of solar energy policy could be enhanced by identification, quantification, and analysis of Federal incentives that have been used to simulate the development of other forms of energy. The text of this report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. Four viewpoints used in this discussion come from 4 types of analysis: economic, political, organizational, and legal. The next chapter identifies actions (primarily domestic) that the Federal government has taken concerning energy. This analysis uses the typology of actions described in the previous chapter to identify actions, and the four viewpoints described there to determine whether an action concerns energy. Once identified, the actions are described and then quantified by an estimate of the 1976 cost of accomplishing them. Then incentives, investments, liabilities, regulations, and other factors are analyzed in detail for nuclear energy, hydroelectric power, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Incentives of all energy sources are then discussed with respect to solar energy policy. (MCW)

  3. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  4. Do Monetary Incentives Increase Fitness Center Utilization? It Depends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stephanie A; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Ross, Kaile M; Masters, Kevin S

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of an employer-based monetary incentive program on membership termination and usage at a fitness center. Retrospective nested case-control study examining the relationship between participation in an incentive program, visits to the fitness center, and membership termination at 1 year. University-based fitness center. Members (N = 1122) of a university-based fitness center. Members were offered either a US$25 incentive for each month they visited the fitness center at least 10 times or no incentive. Data were extracted from the membership database and included membership termination at 1 year (yes, no), length of membership (days), participation in the incentive program (yes, no), and visits to the fitness center per month. Cox proportional hazards model. Members in the incentive program visited the fitness center on average more times per month (5.3 vs 4.3; P fitness center may be initially associated with a greater fitness center utilization but may not be associated with a reduced risk of membership termination.

  5. Strategic use of incentive mechanisms as a regulatory policy tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. (Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield (United States)); South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-12-01

    In many quarters, traditional cost-plus regulation has come to be perceived as a failure. This perception is, in part, the result of a conjunction of events, changing philosophy, and measurable performance problems in the electric utility industry. Risk, competition and prudence issues will dominate the regulatory agenda in the 1990s. The experience being gained through application of alternative regulation in the telecommunications industry will have a significant impact on the willingness of regulators to experiment with new incentive approaches in the electric and natural gas industries. If the goals of a program are well specified, and if the incentive mechanism is designed in the appropriate fashion, incentives can play a major role in least-cost planning programs and in more accommodating regulatory environments. Significant attention has been given to alternative incentive programs in the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is not to review the extensive literature on incentives, but rather to provide a nuts and bolts, common-sense analysis of the strategic value of incentive mechanisms as a regulatory policy. 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Ethics in human subjects research: do incentives matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ruth W; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2004-12-01

    There is considerable confusion regarding the ethical appropriateness of using incentives in research with human subjects. Previous work on determining whether incentives are unethical considers them as a form of undue influence or coercive offer. We understand the ethical issue of undue influence as an issue, not of coercion, but of corruption of judgment. By doing so we find that, for the most part, the use of incentives to recruit and retain research subjects is innocuous. But there are some instances where it is not. Specifically, incentives become problematic when conjoined with the following factors, singly or in combination with one another: where the subject is in a dependency relationship with the researcher, where the risks are particularly high, where the research is degrading, where the participant will only consent if the incentive is relatively large because the participant's aversion to the study is strong, and where the aversion is a principled one. The factors we have identified and the kinds of judgments they require differ substantially from those considered crucial in most previous discussions of the ethics of employing incentives in research with human subjects.

  7. Environmental water incentive policy and return flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.

    2010-04-01

    With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.

  8. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  9. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  10. How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.

    2011-01-01

    This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),

  11. Does a monetary incentive improve the response to a postal questionnaire in a randomised controlled trial? The MINT incentive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mt-Isa Shahrul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sending a monetary incentive with postal questionnaires has been found to improve the proportion of responders, in research in non-healthcare settings. However, there is little research on use of incentives to improve follow-up rates in clinical trials, and existing studies are inconclusive. We conducted a randomised trial among participants in the Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial (MINT to investigate the effects on the proportion of questionnaires returned and overall non-response of sending a £5 gift voucher with a follow-up questionnaire. Methods Participants in MINT were randomised to receive either: (a a £5 gift voucher (incentive group or (b no gift voucher (no incentive group, with their 4 month or 8 month follow-up questionnaire. We recorded, for each group, the number of questionnaires returned, the number returned without any chasing from the study office, the overall number of non-responders (after all chasing efforts by the study office, and the costs of following up each group. Results 2144 participants were randomised, 1070 to the incentive group and 1074 to the no incentive group. The proportion of questionnaires returned (RR 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16 and the proportion returned without chasing (RR 1.14 (95% CI 1.05, 1.24 were higher in the incentive group, and the overall non-response rate was lower (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.53, 0.87. Adjustment for injury severity and hospital of recruitment to MINT made no difference to these results, and there were no differences in results between the 4-month and 8-month follow up questionnaires. Analysis of costs suggested a cost of £67.29 per additional questionnaire returned. Conclusion Monetary incentives may be an effective way to increase the proportion of postal questionnaires returned and minimise loss to follow-up in clinical trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN61305297

  12. The effects of financial incentives for case finding for depression in patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease: interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Kate; Russell, Amy M; Alderson, Sarah L; West, Robert; House, Allan; Westerman, Karen; Foy, Robbie

    2014-08-20

    To evaluate the effects of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) incentivised case finding for depression on diagnosis and treatment in targeted and non-targeted long-term conditions. Interrupted time series analysis. General practices in Leeds, UK. 65 (58%) of 112 general practices shared data on 37,229 patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease targeted by case finding incentives, and 101,008 patients with four other long-term conditions not targeted (hypertension, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma). Incentivised case finding for depression using two standard screening questions. Clinical codes indicating new depression-related diagnoses and new prescriptions of antidepressants. We extracted routinely recorded data from February 2002 through April 2012. The number of new diagnoses and prescriptions for those on registers was modelled with a binomial regression, which provided the strength of associations between time periods and their rates. New diagnoses of depression increased from 21 to 94/100,000 per month in targeted patients between the periods 2002-2004 and 2007-2011 (OR 2.09; 1.92 to 2.27). The rate increased from 27 to 77/100,000 per month in non-targeted patients (OR 1.53; 1.46 to 1.62). The slopes in prescribing for both groups flattened to zero immediately after QOF was introduced but before incentivised case finding (p<0.01 for both). Antidepressant prescribing in targeted patients returned to the pre-QOF secular upward trend (Wald test for equivalence of slope, z=0.73, p=0.47); the slope was less steep for non-targeted patients (z=-4.14, p<0.01). Incentivised case finding increased new depression-related diagnoses. The establishment of QOF disrupted rising trends in new prescriptions of antidepressants, which resumed following the introduction of incentivised case finding. Prescribing trends are of concern given that they may include people with mild-to-moderate depression unlikely to respond to such treatment

  13. 77 FR 12257 - Proposed Priorities, Requirements, Definitions, And Selection Criteria; Teacher Incentive Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ..., Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millennium. As NRC... financial incentives to encourage effective teachers of hard-to-staff subjects to accept teaching positions... teachers pedagogical methods for teaching STEM skills and content at the appropriate grade level, by...

  14. Accomplishments and economic evaluations of the Forestry Incentives Program: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah A. Gaddis; Barry D. New; Fredrick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt; Robert J. Moulton

    1995-01-01

    The Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) is a federal financial cost-share program that is intended to increase the nation's timber supply by increasing tree planting and timber stand improvement on nonindustrial private forest lands. Timber harvest reductions on public lands in the West, environmental constraints on private lands throughout the U.S., and increased...

  15. Mentoring, Educational Services, and Incentives to Learn: What Do We Know about Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the effectiveness of services and incentives offered to disadvantaged youths both in the US and abroad. We focus our analysis on three types of interventions: mentoring, educational services, and financial rewards. The objective of this article is threefold. First, we explain alternative theoretical points of…

  16. The Best Laid Plans: Pay for Performance Incentive Programs for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Peter; Goldring, Ellen; Canney, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In an era of heightened accountability and limited fiscal resources, school districts have sought novel ways to increase the effectiveness of their principals in an effort to increase student proficiency. To address these needs, some districts have turned to pay-for-performance programs, aligning leadership goals with financial incentives to…

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Rural Incentive Packages for Graduating Medical Students in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffell, Eric; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Theppanya, Khampasong; Tulenko, Kate

    2016-10-29

    The dearth of health workers in rural settings in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) and other developing countries limits healthcare access and outcomes. In evaluating non-wage financial incentive packages as a potential policy option to attract health workers to rural settings, understanding the expected costs and effects of the various programs ex ante can assist policy-makers in selecting the optimal incentive package. We use discrete choice experiments (DCEs), costing analyses and recent empirical results linking health worker density and health outcomes to estimate the future location decisions of physicians and determine the cost-effectiveness of 15 voluntary incentives packages for new physicians in Lao PDR. Our data sources include a DCE survey completed by medical students (n = 329) in May 2011 and secondary cost, economic and health data. Mixed logit regressions provide the basis for estimating how each incentive package influences rural versus urban location choice over time. We estimate the expected rural density of physicians and the cost-effectiveness of 15 separate incentive packages from a societal perspective. In order to generate the cost-effectiveness ratios we relied on the rural uptake probabilities inferred from the DCEs, the costing data and prior World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that relate health outcomes to health worker density. Relative to no program, the optimal voluntary incentive package would increase rural physician density by 15% by 2016 and 65% by 2041. After incorporating anticipated health effects, seven (three) of the 15 incentive packages have anticipated average cost-effectiveness ratio less than the WHO threshold (three times gross domestic product [GDP] per capita) over a 5-year (30 year) period. The optimal package's incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is $1454/QALY (quality-adjusted life year) over 5 years and $2380/QALY over 30 years. Capital intensive components, such as housing or facility improvement

  18. Paying the price for an incentive: an exploratory study of smokers' reasons for failing to complete an incentive based smoking cessation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Caroline; Radley, Andrew; Williams, Brian

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, one Scottish region launched a smoking cessation programme offering a weekly financial incentive of £12.50 over a 12-week period. However, a significant proportion of registered participants dropped out of the programme, some even failing to collect the financial reward they were owed. We explore reasons for disengagement and failure to re-engage within this group. Individuals (n = 14) were interviewed in depth. Transcripts from recorded interviews formed the dataset and were analysed using the "Framework" method. Incentives appeared to introduce a potential change/reversal in the felt contractual relationship between service provider and client: the client was now the provider and being paid to quit. This led to an increased sense of obligation towards the service, and enhanced feelings of failure, guilt and shame post-relapse, and reluctance to continue engagement or re-engagement. Other service factors promoting disengagement included issues of practical delivery through location, timing, administrative burden and incentive preference. The future design of incentive-based schemes should be cognisant of the potential impact on the client-professional relationship. Increasing the value of the incentive may overcome clients' antipathy towards bureaucracy and monitoring, but may simultaneously exacerbate the sense of failure and resultant stigma associated with relapse. It may be more cost-effective to reduce barriers/costs such as inconvenience, lack of privacy, timing and embarrassment of association of attendance at the pharmacy with methadone use. Alternatively, risks may be managed by reframing weekly rewards as three separate month-long stages, increasing a sense of achievement that a particular stage has been achieved before any relapse. The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd 2012

  19. Panel presentation: Should some type of incentive regulation replace traditional methods for LDC's?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, O.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems with existing fixed-rate price regulation and how a deregulation of both the pipeline and gas utility companies are needed to enhance competition. The paper suggests alternative methods to traditional regulation which include a financial incentive package which allows or encourages utilities to make investments in more efficient energy management, to improve load factors to balance the energy demands between industrial and residential users, and reward purchases of gas supplies that out-perform an agreed upon level of rates of a cost index. Other incentive programs are proposed by the author with a relative detailed discussion on each topic

  20. Tax incentives as the tool for stimulating hard to recover oil reserves development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I. V.; Borzenkova, D. N.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    The share of hard-to-recover oil reserves, principally from unconventional hydrocarbon sources, has significantly increased in the world petroleum market. Russian policy of subsurface management is directed to stimulate the development, survey and involvement into production of hard-to-recover oil reserves by tax-financial and economic-organizational tools among which tax incentives is the most effective one. The article highlights different categories of hard-to-recover oil reserves as a basis for generating tax incentives. Also the aspects of tax influence on petroleum business (involved in production of had to recover reserves) in Tomsk region are revealed, both positive and negative.

  1. Engendering Organizational Commitment through “Non­‐financial” Rewards and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Sluhan, Anne

    In this paper, we present findings from the analysis of a qualitative case study exploring how a novel approach to a reward and incentive scheme was used engender organizational commitment in employees in a Danish Professional Service Firm (PSF) in the financial service sector. The firm’s efforts...... to align the reward and incentive scheme with employees’ values appeared to have a positive influence on employee turnover as well as other key performance measures. The findings from the paper have theoretical and practical implications in terms of how individual and organizational values can be aligned...

  2. Engendering organizational commitment through “non­‐financial” rewards and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Sluhan, Anne

    In this paper, we present findings from the analysis of a qualitative case study exploring how a novel approach to a reward and incentive scheme was used engender organizational commitment in employees in a Danish Professional Service Firm (PSF) in the financial service sector. The firm’s efforts...... to align the reward and incentive scheme with employees’ values appeared to have a positive influence on employee turnover as well as other key performance measures. The findings from the paper have theoretical and practical implications in terms of how individual and organizational values can be aligned...

  3. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  4. The response of maize production in Kenya to economic incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onono, P.A.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development policy in Kenya has emphasised the use of incentives towards increased production and therefore self-sufficiency in maize which is a basic staple for most households. The channels used to provide incentives to maize farmers over the years include setting higher producer prices; subsidisation of inputs; provision of agricultural credit, research and extension services; construction and maintenance of roads, development of irrigation and water systems; legislative, institutional and macroeconomic reforms. Despite these efforts outputof maize has remained below domestic requirements in most years and the country continues to rely on imports to meet the deficits. Studies have assessed the responsiveness of maize to output price and reported inelastic responses and have recommended policies targeting non-price incentives to complement prices for the required increased production of maize. The studies, however, did not analyse the influence of the non-price incentives on the production of the crop. The findings of those studies are therefore deficient in explaining the relative importance of different non-price incentives and how they complement prices in influencing maize production in Kenya. This study investigated the response of maize production to both price and non-price incentives. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative importance of non-price factors in influencing production of the crops as well as complementarity between price and non-price incentives. The findings show that maize production responds positively to its output price, development expenditures in agriculture, maize sales to marketing boards, growth in per capita GDP, liberalisation and governance reforms. However, maize production responds negatively to fertiliser price and unfavourable weather conditions. The response of maize output to its price is lower with rising inflation and grain market liberalisation.

  5. What incentives influence employers to engage in workplace health interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Camilla; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Kwak, Lydia; Bergström, Gunnar; Hellman, Therese

    2016-08-23

    To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: "law and provisions", "consequences for the workplace", "knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions", "characteristics of the intervention", "communication and collaboration with the provider". The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.

  6. What incentives influence employers to engage in workplace health interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martinsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Method Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Results Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: “law and provisions”, “consequences for the workplace”, “knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions”, “characteristics of the intervention”, “communication and collaboration with the provider”. The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. Conclusions This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.

  7. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  8. Creating New Economic Incentives for Repurposing Generic Drugs for Unsolved Diseases Using Social Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    Repurposing research improves patient lives by taking drugs approved for one disease and clinically testing them to create a treatment for a different disease. Repurposing drugs that are generic, inexpensive, and widely available and that can be taken in their current dosage and formulation in the new indication provide a quick, affordable, and effective way to create "new" treatments. However, generic drug repurposing often provides no profit potential, and so there is no economic incentive for industry to pursue this, and philanthropy and government funds are often insufficient. One way to create new economic incentive for the repurposing of generic drugs is through social finance. This perspective describes how social finance can create a new economic incentive by using a social impact bond, or similar financial structure, to repay for-profit investors who fund the repurposing research from the proceeds of healthcare cost reductions generated when these affordable, effective, and widely available repurposed therapies improve healthcare outcomes.

  9. Material incentives and enablers in the management of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Volmink, Jimmy

    2012-01-18

    Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis, is frequently less than ideal, and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives (given as cash, vouchers and tokens), have been used to improve adherence. To assess the effects of material incentives in people undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for tuberculosis. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications; to 22 June 2011. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for tuberculosis, or on treatment for latent or active disease. At least two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. The effects of interventions are compared using risk ratios (RR), and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 11 eligible studies. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). One additional trial recruited malnourished men receiving active treatment for tuberculosis in Timor-Leste.Material incentives may increase the return rate for reading of tuberculin skin test results compared to normal care (two trials, 1371 participants: RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.29, low quality evidence).Similarly, incentives probably improve clinic re-attendance for initiation or continuation of antituberculosis prophylaxis (three trials, 595 participants: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence), and may improve subsequent completion of prophylaxis in some settings (three trials, 869 participants: RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 4

  10. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of electricity and natural gas network operators. 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator Electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2014. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and ERDF is made according to these indicators. An annex contains the definitions and detailed results for all the indicators during the whole period of analysis

  11. Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist who play a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinion could have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment game where intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found that intermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effect of monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentives for intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest, investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentive schemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra of incentivization of social and public conventional policy.

  12. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengpu; Holroyd, Eleanor; Cheng, Yu; Lau, Joseph Tak Fai

    2013-05-30

    In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation. Participatory observations were conducted at two blood donation stations and four blood collecting vehicles in Changsha city, China. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 staff and 58 blood donors at the aforementioned venues from May to October 2008 in Changsha. Thematic analysis revealed the operation of four primary type incentives: policy-driven, symbolic, information feedback and role models, which constituted the system of institutional incentives. The current blood reimbursement system was not the primary motivation for blood donation; instead this system was a subtheme of future assurance for emergency blood needs. It was evident that symbolic incentives stressed the meaning and value of blood donation. Furthermore, post-donation information services and the inherent mechanisms of communication, enhanced by some public role models, served to draw the public to donate blood. At the institutional level, blood donation was not only informed by altruism, but also carried a system of benefit and reward for the donors and their family members. We would recommend that such arrangements, if accommodated effectively into China's health promotion strategies, would increase the likelihood of blood donation.

  13. EXPORT INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: A STUDY ABOUT BRAZILIAN SME’S FROM SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality of the Brazilian economy during the last decade has influenced many companies to get new markets to expand to other parameters of competition. The export incentive programs created by the government, is an example of this, and he has performed positively, strengthening the relationship of resources and capacity to develop sales strategies and relationships with the external market. With the use of financial incentive programs for export, companies can enjoy the competitiveness and advantages related to cost of goods or services, and thus help them achieve a satisfactory goal with the export activity. Careful to promote exports, the Brazilian government creates lines of financial incentives that can meet the needs of Brazilian companies. These floor plane are known as advances on exchange contracts (ACC, Advances on foreign exchange delivered (ACE, Program for Export – (Proex among others. Santa Catarina has been active in the export process of the country, accounting for significant numbers for the trade balance. The target of this study is to understand the reactions of the business of Santa Catarina in the use of financial incentives for export. The research method adopted, as to the purposes of research, the research was exploratory and the means of investigation was a qualitative field research through interviews. The results showed that the reasons these companies entering in the international market, have been opening new markets, new business opportunities and increase the export volume. Financial incentives are most commonly used by companies to Advance on Export Contracts (ACC and Advances on Foreign Exchange Delivered (ACE.

  14. Quality-Aware Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowd Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile crowd sensing (MCS is a novel sensing paradigm which can sense human-centered daily activities and the surrounding environment. The impact of mobility and selfishness of participants on the data reliability cannot be ignored in most mobile crowd sensing systems. To address this issue, we present a universal system model based on the reverse auction framework and formulate the problem as the Multiple Quality Multiple User Selection (MQMUS problem. The quality-aware incentive mechanism (QAIM is proposed to meet the quality requirement of data reliability. We demonstrate that the proposed incentive mechanism achieves the properties of computational efficiency, individual rationality, and truthfulness. And meanwhile, we evaluate the performance and validate the theoretical properties of our incentive mechanism through extensive simulation experiments.

  15. Federal tax incentives affecting coal and nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of federal corporate income tax incentives on coal and nuclear power developments. It estimates (1) the magnitudes of tax incentives in relationship to utility costs, (2) the relative magnitude of benefits going to coal and nuclear facilities, and (3) the influence which the time paths of tax payments and after-tax net income have upon possible incentives for premature construction and excess capacity. Utility planners currently believe that nuclear power enjoys an after-tax competitive advantage over coal plants. Investigation of investment-related credits, deductions, and exclusions in the Internal Revenue Code shows that nuclear power enjoys a more favorable tax subsidy because of its greater capital intensity. In the absence of tax subsidies, no utility would prefer nuclear power to coal generation. Tax changes now under consideration could increase the tax benefits to both without disturbing the differential advantage held by nuclear power. 43 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  16. Contract-Based Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowdsourcing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile crowdsourcing networks (MCNs are a promising method of data collecting and processing by leveraging the mobile devices’ sensing and computing capabilities. However, because of the selfish characteristics of the service provider (SP and mobile users (MUs, crowdsourcing participants only aim to maximize their own benefits. This paper investigates the incentive mechanism between the above two parties to create mutual benefits. By modeling MCNs as a labor market, a contract-based crowdsourcing model with moral hazard is proposed under the asymmetric information scenario. In order to incentivize the potential MUs to participate in crowdsourcing tasks, the optimization problem is formulated to maximize the SP’s utility by jointly examining the crowdsourcing participants’ risk preferences. The impact of crowdsourcing participants’ attitudes of risks on the incentive mechanism has been studied analytically and experimentally. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for the crowdsourcing incentive.

  17. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept...... consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...

  18. Human capital and risk aversion in relational incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a self-enforced relational incentive contract between a risk neutral principal and a risk averse agent where the agent's human capital is essential in ex post realization of values. I analyse the effect of outside options on the optimal bonus level, showing how the presence of ex post outside options may impede desirable degrees of performance pay. The effect of risk aversion and incentive responsiveness is analysed by allowing for linear contracts. I show that the first order effect of these parameters are the same as in verifiable contracts, but second order effects show that the optimal bonus level's sensitivity to risk aversion and incentive responsiveness increases with the discount factor. The analysis has interesting implications on firm boundaries and specificity choices. (author)

  19. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2011-01-01

    theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled......Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...

  20. Designing incentive market mechanisms for improving restructured power system reliabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    In a restructured power system, the monopoly generation utility is replaced by different electricity producers. There exists extreme price volatility caused by random failures by generation or/and transmission systems. In these cases, producers' profits can be much higher than those in the normal...... state. The reliability management of producers usually cannot be directly controlled by the system operators in a restructured power system. Producers may have no motivation to improve their reliabilities, which can result in serious system unreliability issues in the new environment. Incentive market...... mechanisms for improving the restructured power system reliabilities have been designed in this paper. In the proposed incentive mechanisms, penalty will be implemented on a producer if the failures of its generator(s) result in the variation of electricity prices. Incentive market mechanisms can motivate...

  1. The Impact of Tax Incentives on Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the impact of tax incentives on research and development and compare its effectiveness to direct government support of research and development. The analysis is based on regression analysis, which compares effect of tax incentives for research and development and direct government support (as percentage of GDP in 28 countries of OECD in 2013 on innovative effectiveness of these countries measured by number of registered triadic patent families per billion GDP in the same year. Results suggest that tax incentives are more effective form of research and development support than direct government funding. Research also revealed interesting case of Switzerland’s research and development performance backed by almost none government support, which should be subject to future study.

  2. An incentive-based architecture for social recommendations

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharjee, Rajat

    2009-01-01

    We present an incentive-based architecture for providing recommendations in a social network. We maintain a distinct reputation system for each individual and we rely on users to identify appropriate correlations and rate the items using a system-provided recommendation language. The key idea is to design an incentive structure and a ranking system such that any inaccuracy in the recommendations implies the existence of a profitable arbitrage opportunity, hence making the system resistant to malicious spam and presentation bias. We also show that, under mild assumptions, our architecture provides users with incentive to minimize the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the ratings and the actual item qualities, quickly driving the system to an equilibrium state with accurate recommendations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  3. The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langbroek, Joram H.M.; Franklin, Joel P.; Susilo, Yusak O.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles (EVs), packages of policy incentives are provided in many countries. However, it is still unclear how effective different policy incentives are. Also, it is questionable that they have the same impact on different groups of people. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effect of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption, as well as the influence of socio-psychological determinants are investigated, using constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The probability of stated EV-adoption increases if policy incentives are offered in the choice experiment, which is expected because of the decrease of the generalized cost of EV-use. The high stated valuation of free parking or access to bus lanes makes those incentives an efficient alternative to expensive subsidies. EV-adoption probability increases for people that are further in the process of behavioural change. However, the responsiveness to subsidies decreases for people in more advanced stages-of-change. People that believe EVs to be effective in decreasing the negative externalities of the current transport system and people whose travel patterns can cope with the use of EVs also have a higher probability to choose the EV. - Highlights: •Policy incentives have a positive influence on electric vehicle adoption. •Being in advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption increases likelihood to adopt EVs. •People in more advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption are less price-sensitive. •People with a high self-efficacy and response efficacy are more likely to adopt EVs.

  4. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...... to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...

  5. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    APR EZT:: F I AN 73S e OsL:-: UNCLASSI?:-- Q4~.’~- .A.., 6, *~*i i~~*~~*.- U ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH UNKNOWN COST...AD-A161 885 ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH i/1 UNKNOWN COST FUNCTIONALSCU) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DECISION AND CONTROL LAB T...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7.. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION CoriaeLcenef~pda~ Joint Services Electronics Program Laboratory, Univ. of Illinois N/A

  6. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...... and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed...

  7. Are Debt Repayment Incentives Undermined by Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behavior of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely debt repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. A set of conditional estimates suggest that the main findings generalize to the majority of developing countries...

  8. Are Debt Repayment Incentives Undermined by Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behaviour of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. Only countries that tend to vote predominantly with the US in the UN General Assembly are not significantly discouraged from...... servicing their debt by inflows of foreign aid....

  9. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  10. Do incentives improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes in the Republic of Moldova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A; Domente, L; Soltan, V; Bivol, S; Severin, L; Plesca, V; Van den Bergh, R; Kumar, A M V; de Colombani, P

    2014-10-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) health facilities in the Republic of Moldova, where various incentives were provided to TB patients to improve treatment outcomes. To compare treatment outcomes among new drug-susceptible TB patients registered for treatment before (2008) and after (2011) introduction of incentives. Retrospective cohort study using data from the national electronic patient database and incentive registers. Of 2378 patients registered in 2011, 1895 (80%) received incentives (cash, food vouchers, travel reimbursement). Compared to 2008 (no incentives, n = 2492), the patients registered with incentives in 2011 had higher treatment success (88% vs. 79%, P Moldova.

  11. Energy efficiency investments in the context of split incentives among French households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector offers considerable potential for reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly through energy-efficient renovations. The objective of this study is twofold. First, I aim to provide initial empirical evidence of the extent to which split incentives between landlords and tenants may lead to underinvestment. Second, I investigate the influence of tax credits and energy burdens on energy efficiency expenditures. Given the complexity of studying the decision to invest in energy-saving renovations, I use a bivariate Tobit model to compare decisions about energy-efficient works and repair works, even when the renovation expenditures seem quite similar. The analysis shows that tenants are doubly penalized: they have high energy expenditures due to energy-inefficient building characteristics, and because they are poorer than homeowners, they are unable to invest in energy-saving systems. The results also confirm that tax credits are ineffective in the split incentives context. In terms of public policy, the government should focus on low-income tenants, and mandatory measures such as minimum standards seem appropriate. Financial support from a third-party financer also might be a solution. - Highlights: • I provide empirical evidence of underinvestment due to split incentives. • I investigate the influence of tax credit and energy burden on EE expenditures. • Results show that tax credits are ineffective in a context of split incentives. • Mandatory measures such as minimum standards seem to be appropriate. • Financial support from a third party financer can be also a solution.

  12. Adoption of residential solar power under uncertainty: Implications for renewable energy incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauner, Christoph; Crago, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Many incentives at the state and federal level exist for household adoption of renewable energy like solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. Despite generous financial incentives the adoption rate is low. We use the option value framework, which takes into account the benefit of delaying investment in response to uncertainty, to examine the decision by households to invest in solar PV. Using a simulation model, we determine optimal adoption times, critical values of discounted benefits, and adoption rates over time for solar PV investments using data from Massachusetts. We find that the option value multiplier is 1.6, which implies that the discounted value of benefits from solar PV needs to exceed installation cost by 60% for investment to occur. Without any policies, median adoption time is eight years longer under the option value decision rule compared to the net present value decision rule where households equate discounted benefits to installation cost. Rebates and other financial incentives decrease adoption time, but their effect is attenuated if households apply the option value decision rule to solar PV investments. Results suggest that policies that reduce the uncertainty in returns from solar PV investments would be most effective at incentivizing adoption. - Highlights: • We examine household adoption of solar PV using the option value framework. • Uncertainty in benefits and costs leads to delay in investment timing. • Discounted benefits from solar PV have to exceed investment cost by 60% to trigger investment. • Policy incentives that reduce uncertainty in returns from solar PV are most effective.

  13. The cessation in pregnancy incentives trial (CPIT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David M; Bauld, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; de Caestecker, Linda; Radley, Andrew; McConnachie, Alex; Boyd, Kathleen; Briggs, Andrew; Grant, Liz; Cameron, Alan; Macaskill, Susan; Sinclair, Lesley; Friel, Brenda; Coleman, Tim

    2012-07-20

    Seventy percent of women in Scotland have at least one baby, making pregnancy an opportunity to help most young women quit smoking before their own health is irreparably compromised. By quitting during pregnancy their infants will be protected from miscarriage and still birth as well as low birth weight, asthma, attention deficit disorder and adult cardiovascular disease. In the UK, the NICE guidelines: 'How to stop smoking in pregnancy and following childbirth' (June 2010) highlighted that little evidence exists in the literature to confirm the efficacy of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers to quit. Its first research recommendation was to determine: Within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help pregnant women who smoke to quit? This study is a phase II exploratory individually randomized controlled trial comparing standard care for pregnant smokers with standard care plus the additional offer of financial voucher incentives to engage with specialist cessation services and/or to quit smoking during pregnancy.Participants (n = 600) will be pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking who, when contacted by specialist cessation services, agree to having their details passed to the NHS Smokefree Pregnancy Study Helpline to discuss the trial. The NHS Smokefree Pregnancy Study Helpline will be responsible for telephone consent and follow-up in late pregnancy. The primary outcome will be self reported smoking in late pregnancy verified by cotinine measurement. An economic evaluation will refine cost data collection and assess potential cost-effectiveness while qualitative research interviews with clients and health professionals will assess the level of acceptance of this form of incentive payment. The research questions are: What is the likely therapeutic efficacy? Are incentives potentially cost-effective? Is individual randomization an efficient trial design without introducing outcome bias? Can

  14. The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappin David M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seventy percent of women in Scotland have at least one baby, making pregnancy an opportunity to help most young women quit smoking before their own health is irreparably compromised. By quitting during pregnancy their infants will be protected from miscarriage and still birth as well as low birth weight, asthma, attention deficit disorder and adult cardiovascular disease. In the UK, the NICE guidelines: ‘How to stop smoking in pregnancy and following childbirth’ (June 2010 highlighted that little evidence exists in the literature to confirm the efficacy of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers to quit. Its first research recommendation was to determine: Within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help pregnant women who smoke to quit? Design and methods This study is a phase II exploratory individually randomized controlled trial comparing standard care for pregnant smokers with standard care plus the additional offer of financial voucher incentives to engage with specialist cessation services and/or to quit smoking during pregnancy. Participants (n = 600 will be pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking who, when contacted by specialist cessation services, agree to having their details passed to the NHS Smokefree Pregnancy Study Helpline to discuss the trial. The NHS Smokefree Pregnancy Study Helpline will be responsible for telephone consent and follow-up in late pregnancy. The primary outcome will be self reported smoking in late pregnancy verified by cotinine measurement. An economic evaluation will refine cost data collection and assess potential cost-effectiveness while qualitative research interviews with clients and health professionals will assess the level of acceptance of this form of incentive payment. The research questions are: What is the likely therapeutic efficacy? Are incentives potentially cost-effective? Is individual randomization an

  15. Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Services in Jakarta (Indonesia). Since 2001 Indonesia has been ... Sewer networks serve only a small proportion of the population, solid waste collection is inconsistent and waste disposal sites are inadequate. Cholera and malaria are ...

  16. Influence of dimensional incentives on voters' turnout in 2014 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... The use of incentives and material gains in elections has become a culture in Nigeria and voters had .... country's aggregate level of life satisfaction is able to account for the variance in vote shares in ... than they value their preferred political contender. Although social exchange theory proposes that social.

  17. Whistleblowing Incentives – A Way to Fight Bribery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Teichmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption continues to dominate the business world in Easter Europe. Multinational corporations are legally obliged to prevent their employees from paying bribes. However, not all employees are willing to stick to the rules. Hence, additional control mechanisms seem to be needed. This article discusses whether whistleblowing incentives could help to combat bribery in multinational corporations.

  18. Anti-bribery control and incentives as agency theory approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Teichmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an agency theory approach towards bribery in multinational corporations. In particular, it is advocated that incentives could help to align the interests of principals and agents and reduce information asymmetries. This could help to increase anti-bribery compliance and hence support the fight against corruption in Eastern Europe.

  19. Anti-bribery control and incentives as agency theory approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Teichmann

    2017-01-01

    This article takes an agency theory approach towards bribery in multinational corporations. In particular, it is advocated that incentives could help to align the interests of principals and agents and reduce information asymmetries. This could help to increase anti-bribery compliance and hence support the fight against corruption in Eastern Europe.

  20. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…