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Sample records for incentives cellulosic ethanol

  1. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2...... yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending...

  2. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumait, Necy [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Cuzens, John [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Klann, Richard [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  3. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, Lee R.; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J.; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark S.; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles E.

    2017-06-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  4. Cellulosic ethanol is ready to go

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M. [SunOpta BioProcess Group, Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A corporate overview of the SunOpta organization was presented. The organization includes three divisions, notably organic food, industrial minerals, and a bioprocess group. It is a Canadian organization that has experienced over 60 per cent growth per year since 1999. The presentation provided a history of the bioprocess group from 1973 to 2003. The presentation also illustrated the biomass process from wood, straw or corn stover to cellulosic ethanol and acetone and butanol. Several images were presented. The production of xylitol from oat hulls and birch and from ryegrass straw to linerboard was also illustrated. Last, the presentation illustrated the biomass production of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin extraction as well as the ammonia pretreatment of cellulosics. The presentation also listed several current and future developments such as an expansion plan and implementation of cellulosic ethanol. Economic success was defined as requiring proximity to market; high percentage concentration to distillation; and co-located within existing infrastructure. figs.

  5. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol.

  6. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars to ...

  7. Experimental study on the liquefaction of cellulose in supercritical ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose is the major composition of solid waste for producing biofuel; cellulose liquefaction is helpful for realizing biomass supercritical liquefaction process. This paper is taking supercritical ethanol as the medium, liquefied cellulose with the intermittence installation of high press cauldron. Experiments have studied technical condition and the technology parameter of cellulose liquefaction in supercritical ethanol, and the pyrolysis mechanism was analysed based on the pyrolysis product. Results show that cellulose can be liquefied, can get good effect through appropriate technology condition. Under not catalyst, highest liquefaction rate of cellulose can reach 73.5%. The composition of the pyrolysis product was determined by GC-MS.

  8. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  9. Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Barnes, Justin R.; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States (US) and Brazil have been the two leading producers of fuel ethanol since the 1970s. National policies have supported the production and use of ethanol from corn and sugarcane. US support in particular has included exemption from federal gasoline excise taxes, whole or partial exemption from road use (sales) taxes in nine states, a federal production tax credit, and a federal blender's credit. In the last decade the subsidization of grain-based ethanol has been increasingly criticized as economically inefficient and of questionable social benefit. In addition, much greater production of ethanol from corn may conflict with food production needs. A promising development is the acceleration of the technical readiness of cellulosic alcohol fuels, which can be produced from the woody parts of trees and plants, perennial grasses, or residues. This technology is now being commercialized and has greater long-term potential than grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is projected to be much more cost-effective, environmentally beneficial, and have a greater energy output to input ratio than grain ethanol. The technology is being developed in North America, Brazil, Japan and Europe. In this paper, we will review the historical evolution of US federal and state energy policy support for and the currently attractive economics of the production and use of ethanol from biomass. The various energy and economic policies will be reviewed and assessed for their potential effects on cellulosic ethanol development relative to gasoline in the US. (author)

  10. Breaking into the Cellulosic Ethanol Market: Capacity and Storage Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Darby, Paul M.; Mark, Tyler B.; Salassi, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of breaking into the cellulosic ethanol market in south Louisiana via strategic feedstock choices and the leveraging of the area’s competitive advantages. A small plant strategy is devised whereby the first-mover problem might be solved, and several scenarios are tested using Net Present Value analysis.

  11. 75 FR 42745 - Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...). Through this notice, biofuels producers and other interested parties are invited to submit pre-auction..., ``Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels; Reverse Auction Procedures and Standards,'' (74 FR 52867...

  12. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  13. Biofuel Food Disasters and Cellulosic Ethanol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, David

    2009-01-01

    As shortages of fossil energy, especially oil and natural gas, become evident, the United States has moved to convert corn grain into ethanol with the goal to make the nation oil independent. Using more than 20% of all U.S. corn on 15 million acres in 2007 was providing the nation with less than 1% of U.S. oil consumption. Because the corn ethanol…

  14. Integrated bioethanol production to boost low-concentrated cellulosic ethanol without sacrificing ethanol yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youjie; Zhang, Meng; Roozeboom, Kraig; Wang, Donghai

    2018-02-01

    Four integrated designs were proposed to boost cellulosic ethanol titer and yield. Results indicated co-fermentation of corn flour with hydrolysate liquor from saccharified corn stover was the best integration scheme and able to boost ethanol titers from 19.9 to 123.2 g/L with biomass loading of 8% and from 36.8 to 130.2 g/L with biomass loadings of 16%, respectively, while meeting the minimal ethanol distillation requirement of 40 g/L and achieving high ethanol yields of above 90%. These results indicated integration of first and second generation ethanol production could significantly accelerate the commercialization of cellulosic biofuel production. Co-fermentation of starchy substrate with hydrolysate liquor from saccharified biomass is able to significantly enhance ethanol concentration to reduce energy cost for distillation without sacrificing ethanol yields. This novel method could be extended to any pretreatment of biomass from low to high pH pretreatment as demonstrated in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  16. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  17. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  18. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  19. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values).

  20. Cellulosic Ethanol Technology on Track to Being Competitive With Other Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been driving down the cost of cellulosic ethanol and overcoming the technical challenges that surround it-major milestones toward the Department of Energy (DOE) goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012.

  1. Integrated production of nano-fibrillated cellulose and cellulosic biofuel (ethanol) by enzymatic fractionation of wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Ronald Sabo; Xiaolin Luo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of integrating the production of nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), a potentially highly valuable biomaterial, with sugar/biofuel (ethanol) from wood fibers. Commercial cellulase enzymes were used to fractionate the less recalcitrant amorphous cellulose from a bleached Kraft eucalyptus pulp, resulting in a highly crystalline and...

  2. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyeun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Kim, Ho Myung; Kim, Su Bae [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. The 2nd year Research scope includes: 1) Optimization of pre-treatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and 2) Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis by recombinant enzymes. To optimize the pretreatment, we applied two processes: a wet process (wet milling + popping), and dry process (popping + dry milling). Out of these, the wet process presented the best glucose yield with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the unpretreated process yielded <20%. The recombinant cellulolytic enzymes showed very high specific activity, about 80-1000 times on CMC and 13-70 times on filter paper at pH 3.5 and 55 .deg. C

  3. Value Chain Structures that Define European Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Sterling Gregg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of cellulosic ethanol (CE has not yet reached the scale envisaged by the literature and industry. This study explores CE production in Europe to improve understanding of the motivations and barriers associated with this situation. To do this, we conduct a case study-based analysis of CE production plants across Europe from a global value chain (GVC perspective. We find that most CE production plants in the EU focus largely on intellectual property and are therefore only at the pilot or demonstration scale. Crescentino, the largest CE production facility in Europe, is also more interested in technology licensing than producing ethanol. Demonstration-scale plants tend to have a larger variety of feedstocks, whereas forestry-based plants have more diversity of outputs. As scale increases, the diversity of feedstocks and outputs diminishes, and firms struggle with feedstock provisioning, global petroleum markets and higher financial risks. We argue that, to increase CE production, policies should consider value chains, promote the wider bio-economy of products and focus on economies of scope. Whereas the EU and its member states have ethanol quotas and blending targets, a more effective policy would be to seek to reduce the risks involved in financing capital projects, secure feedstock provisioning and support a diversity of end products.

  4. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iye, Edward; Bilsborrow, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km 3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km 3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km 3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  5. Process and utility water requirements for cellulosic ethanol production processes via fermentation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing need of additional water resources for energy production is a growing concern for future economic development. In technology development for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks, a detailed assessment of the quantity and quality of water required, and the ...

  6. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  7. High-resolution techno-ecological modelling of a bioenergy landscape to identify climate mitigation opportunities in cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John L.; Evans, Samuel G.; Marx, Ernie; Easter, Mark; Adler, Paul R.; Dinh, Thai; Willson, Bryan; Paustian, Keith

    2018-02-01

    Although dedicated energy crops will probably be an important feedstock for future cellulosic bioenergy production, it is unknown how they can best be integrated into existing agricultural systems. Here we use the DayCent ecosystem model to simulate various scenarios for growing switchgrass in the heterogeneous landscape that surrounds a commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in southwestern Kansas, and quantify the associated fuel production costs and lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We show that the GHG footprint of ethanol production can be reduced by up to 22 g of CO2 equivalent per megajoule (CO2e MJ-1) through careful optimization of the soils cultivated and corresponding fertilizer application rates (the US Renewable Fuel Standard requires a 56 gCO2e MJ-1 lifecycle emissions reduction for `cellulosic' biofuels compared with conventional gasoline). This improved climate performance is realizable at modest additional costs, less than the current value of low-carbon fuel incentives. We also demonstrate that existing subsidized switchgrass plantings within this landscape probably achieve suboptimal GHG mitigation, as would landscape designs that strictly minimize the biomass collection radius or target certain marginal lands.

  8. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  9. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC: A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from agricultural and forestry residues, municipal waste, or herbaceous and woody crops. Instead of putting efforts on steps overcoming the natural resistance of plants to biological breakdown, our study proposes a unique pathway to improve the outcome of the process by co-producing high-value nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. In this study, glucose has been produced by commercial enzymes while the residual solids are converted into NFC via sonification. Here, we report the morphology of fibers changed through the process and yield of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step.

  10. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling

  11. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  12. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  13. Influence of the crystalline structure of cellulose on the production of ethanol from lignocellulose biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuga-Kogut, Małgorzata; Zgórska, Kazimiera; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the possibility of using lignocellulosic biomass for energy. Bioethanol is a promising substitute for conventional fossil fuels and can be produced from straw and wood biomass. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium pretreatment on the structure of cellulose and the acquisition of reducing sugars and bioethanol from cellulosic materials. Material used in the study was rye straw and microcrystalline cellulose subjected to ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium pretreatment. The morphology of cellulose fibres in rye straw and microcrystalline cellulose was imaged prior to and after ionic liquid pretreatment. Solutions of ionic liquid-treated and untreated cellulosic materials were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis in order to obtain reducing sugars, which constituted a substrate for alcoholic fermentation. An influence of the ionic liquid on the cellulose structure, accumulation of reducing sugars in the process of hydrolysis of this material, and an increase in ethanol amount after fermentation was observed. The ionic liquid did not affect cellulolytic enzymes negatively and did not inhibit yeast activity. The amount of reducing sugars and ethyl alcohol was higher in samples purified with 1-ethyl-3-methy-limidazolium acetate. A change in the supramolecular structure of cellulose induced by the ionic liquid was also observed.

  14. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.

  15. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, S. [Peterson Group, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Report identifies and documents plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017 as a guide for setting government policy and targeting government investment to areas with greatest potential impact.

  16. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Murthy, Ganti S

    2011-09-05

    While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was used as a model feedstock. Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein) respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing

  17. Co-production of ethanol and cellulose fiber from Southern Pine: A technical and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Iisa, K. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 Tenth Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0620 (United States); Lien, S.J.; Courchene, C.E.; DeMartini, N.A. [The Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 Tenth Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0620 (United States); Ragauskas, A.J. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 Tenth Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0620 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Hemicellulose can be extracted from loblolly pine by dilute acid hydrolysis, and the remaining wood mass can be delignified to produce cellulose fiber. This paper contains an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of co-producing ethanol and bleached cellulose fiber from loblolly pine, for a mill producing 1268 ton d{sup -1} of unbleached fiber. Ethanol is produced by extracting between 6% and 18% of the dry wood mass prior to pulping. The extracted wood mass, which contains about 70% carbohydrate (primarily sugars from hemicellulose) is conditioned and fermented to ethanol. Our analysis indicates that ethanol can be produced at a cost between $352 and $771 m{sup -3} ($1.33 and $2.92 per US gallon), depending upon process conditions and selectivity of hemicellulose removal. For comparison, the total production cost for ethanol produced by complete hydrolysis of the carbohydrates in loblolly pine is between $388 m{sup -3} when 75% of wood carbohydrates are recovered for ethanol production, and $314 m{sup -3} when 95% are recovered. Neither biofuel subsidies nor credits for co-products such as acetic acid and for sale or sequestration of CO{sub 2} were considered in this study. (author)

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from the Bio-ethanol Residuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanxing Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was to explore the conversion of low-cost bio-residuals into high value-added cellulose nanocrystals. Two enzymatic hydrolyzed residuals (i.e., HRMMW and HRSPW were collected from two different bio-ethanol producing processes—hydrolyzing medium-milled wood (MMW and hydrolyzing acid sulfite pretreated wood (SPW, respectively. The results showed that both residuals contained over 20 wt % glucan with a crystallinity of about 30%, confirming the existence of cellulose in a well-organized structure in two bio-residuals. The cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs were successfully extracted by first bleaching the hydrolyzed residuals to remove lignin and then hydrolyzing them with sulfuric acid. The resulting CNCs displayed the flow birefringence under two crossed polarizers. Compared with CNCs from microfibrillated cellulose (CNCMCC, HRMMW and its resulted CNC present the smallest particle size and aspect ratio. CNCMCC had the larger particle size, aspect ratio, and higher z-potential value, CNCSPW presented a similar morphology to CNCMCC, and had the largest aspect ratio. The CNCMCC enhanced its high crystallinity to 85.5%. However, CNCMMW and CNCSPW had a better thermal stability and higher activation energy as well as onset temperature and maximum decomposition temperature. As a result, the CNCs from bio-ethanol residuals are valued and promising cellulose nanoparticle resources.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from the Bio-ethanol Residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lanxing; Wang, Jinwu; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Wolcott, Michael P; Yu, Zhiming

    2017-02-23

    This study was to explore the conversion of low-cost bio-residuals into high value-added cellulose nanocrystals. Two enzymatic hydrolyzed residuals (i.e., HR MMW and HR SPW ) were collected from two different bio-ethanol producing processes-hydrolyzing medium-milled wood (MMW) and hydrolyzing acid sulfite pretreated wood (SPW), respectively. The results showed that both residuals contained over 20 wt % glucan with a crystallinity of about 30%, confirming the existence of cellulose in a well-organized structure in two bio-residuals. The cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were successfully extracted by first bleaching the hydrolyzed residuals to remove lignin and then hydrolyzing them with sulfuric acid. The resulting CNCs displayed the flow birefringence under two crossed polarizers. Compared with CNCs from microfibrillated cellulose (CNC MCC ), HR MMW and its resulted CNC present the smallest particle size and aspect ratio. CNC MCC had the larger particle size, aspect ratio, and higher z-potential value, CNC SPW presented a similar morphology to CNC MCC , and had the largest aspect ratio. The CNC MCC enhanced its high crystallinity to 85.5%. However, CNC MMW and CNC SPW had a better thermal stability and higher activation energy as well as onset temperature and maximum decomposition temperature. As a result, the CNCs from bio-ethanol residuals are valued and promising cellulose nanoparticle resources.

  20. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50. °C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50. °C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature...

  1. Bioconversion of paper sludge with low cellulosic content to ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the possibility of converting paper sludge into ethanol using xylose-fermenting yeast SHY07-1 in separate hydrolysis and fermentation. In the enzymatic hydrolysis step, sludge on 2% (w/v, expressed in terms of total carbohydrate mass) substrate consistency was incubated ...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  3. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  4. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Weatherwax, Sharlene [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7–9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  5. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials using cellulase-displaying genes integrated with yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Yanase, Shuhei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kaneko, Shohei; Noda, Hideo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We demonstrate direct ethanol fermentation from amorphous cellulose using cellulase-co-expressing yeast. Endoglucanases (EG), cellobiohydrolases (CBH) from Trichoderma reesei, and ?-glucosidases (BGL) from Aspergillus aculeatus were integrated into genomes of the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae MT8-1. BGL was displayed on the yeast cell surface and both EG and CBH were secreted or displayed on the cell surface. All enzymes were successfully expressed on the cell surf...

  6. Anaerobic digestion as final step of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2010-01-01

    In order to lower the costs for second generation bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass anaerobic digestion of the effluent from ethanol fermentation was implemented using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system in a pilot-scale biorefinery plant. Both thermophilic (538C......) and mesophilic (388C) operation of the UASB reactor was investigated. At an OLR of 3.5 kg- VS/(m3 day) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation (538C) while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions (388C). For loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3 day) the methane yields...

  7. Biochemical suitability of crop residues for cellulosic ethanol: disincentives to nitrogen fertilization in corn agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Morgan E; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Snapp, Sieglinde; McSwiney, Claire P; Baldock, Jeffrey A

    2011-03-01

    Concerns about energy security and climate change have increased biofuel demand, particularly ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks (e.g., food crop residues). A central challenge to cropping for cellulosic ethanol is the potential environmental damage from increased fertilizer use. Previous analyses have assumed that cropping for carbohydrate in residue will require the same amount of fertilizer as cropping for grain. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that increases in biomass in response to fertilization are not uniform across biochemical classes (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, lignin) or tissues (leaf and stem, grain, reproductive support). Although corn grain responds vigorously and nonlinearly, corn residue shows only modest increases in carbohydrate yields in response to high levels of fertilization (25% increase with 202 kg N ha(-1)). Lignin yields in the residue increased almost twice as much as carbohydrate yields in response to nitrogen, implying that residue feedstock quality declines as more fertilizer is applied. Fertilization also increases the decomposability of corn residue, implying that soil carbon sequestration becomes less efficient with increased fertilizer. Our results suggest that even when corn is grown for grain, benefits of fertilization decline rapidly after the ecosystem's N demands are met. Heavy application of fertilizer yields minimal grain benefits and almost no benefits in residue carbohydrates, while degrading the cellulosic ethanol feedstock quality and soil carbon sequestration capacity.

  8. Improved process for the production of cellulose sulfate using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Hongwen

    2013-06-05

    An improved process for production of cellulose sulfate (CS) was developed by using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution as sulfonating agent and Na2SO4 as water absorbent. The FTIR, SEM and TG analysis were used to characterize the CS prepared. The total degree of substitution and viscosity of the product solution (2%, w/v) were ranging from 0.28 to 0.77 and from 115 to 907 mPa s, respectively, by changing the process parameters such as the amount of Na2SO4, the reaction time, the temperature, the sulfuric acid/alcohol ratio and liquid/solid ratio. The results indicated that the product with DS (0.28-0.77) and η2% (115-907) mPa s could be produced by using this improved process and more cellulose sulfate could be produced when cellulose was sulfonated for 3-4 h at -2 °C in sulfuric acid/ethanol (1.4-1.6) solution with addition of 0.8 g Na2SO4. The (13)C NMR indicated that the sulfate group of CS produced using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution was at C6 position. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Value Chain Structures that Define European Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    petroleum markets and higher financial risks. We argue that, to increase CE production, policies should consider value chains, promote the wider bio-economy of products and focus on economies of scope. Whereas the EU and its member states have ethanol quotas and blending targets, a more effective policy...... production plants across Europe from a global value chain (GVC) perspective. We find that most CE production plants in the EU focus largely on intellectual property and are therefore only at the pilot or demonstration scale. Crescentino, the largest CE production facility in Europe, is also more interested...... would be to seek to reduce the risks involved in financing capital projects, secure feedstock provisioning and support a diversity of end products....

  10. The effects of ethanol on hydrolysis of cellulose and pretreated barley straw by some commercial cellulolytic enzyme products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of ethanol at levels ranging from 2.5% v/v to 15% v/v on the activities of two recently developed commercial cellulosic biomass hydrolytic enzyme products, Accellerase® 1500 and Accellerase® XY, was investigated. The substrates used for study of the effect of ethanol on Accellerase® 1500 ...

  11. Chemocatalytic Conversion of Cellulosic Biomass to Methyl Glycolate, Ethylene Glycol, and Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Aiqin; Pang, Jifeng; Zhao, Xiaochen; Xu, Jinming; Lei, Nian; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Mingyuan; Yin, Jianzhong; Zhang, Tao

    2017-04-10

    Production of chemicals and fuels from renewable cellulosic biomass is important for the creation of a sustainable society, and it critically relies on the development of new and efficient transformation routes starting from cellulose. Here, a chemocatalytic conversion route from cellulosic biomass to methyl glycolate (MG), ethylene glycol (EG), and ethanol (EtOH) is reported. By using a tungsten-based catalyst, cellulose is converted into MG with a yield as high as 57.7 C % in a one-pot reaction in methanol at 240 °C and 1 MPa O 2 , and the obtained MG can be easily separated by distillation. Afterwards, it can be nearly quantitatively converted to EG at 200 °C and to EtOH at 280 °C with a selectivity of 50 % through hydrogenation over a Cu/SiO 2 catalyst. By this approach, the fine chemical MG, the bulk chemical EG, and the fuel additive EtOH can all be efficiently produced from renewable cellulosic materials, thus providing a new pathway towards mitigating the dependence on fossil resources. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The commercial performance of cellulosic ethanol supply-chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nilay

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of fuel-grade ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass resources has the potential to increase biofuel production capacity whilst minimising the negative environmental impacts. These benefits will only be realised if lignocellulosic ethanol production can compete on price with conventional fossil fuels and if it can be produced commercially at scale. This paper focuses on lignocellulosic ethanol production in Europe. The hypothesis is that the eventual cost of production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process but by the performance of the entire supply-chain from feedstock production to consumption. To test this, a model for supply-chain cost comparison is developed, the components of representative ethanol supply-chains are described, the factors that are most important in determining the cost and profitability of ethanol production are identified, and a detailed sensitivity analysis is conducted. Results The most important cost determinants are the cost of feedstocks, primarily determined by location and existing markets, and the value obtained for ethanol, primarily determined by the oil price and policy incentives. Both of these factors are highly uncertain. The best performing chains (ethanol produced from softwood and sold as a low percentage blend with gasoline could ultimately be cost competitive with gasoline without requiring subsidy, but production from straw would generally be less competitive. Conclusion Supply-chain design will play a critical role in determining commercial viability. The importance of feedstock supply highlights the need for location-specific assessments of feedstock availability and price. Similarly, the role of subsidies and policy incentives in creating and sustaining the ethanol market highlights the importance of political engagement and the need to include political risks in investment appraisal. For the supply-chains described here, and with

  13. Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the

  14. Production of high concentrated cellulosic ethanol by acetone/water oxidized pretreated beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos G; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Lappas, Angelos A; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and inexpensive resource for biofuel production. Alongside its biotechnological conversion, pretreatment is essential to enable efficient enzymatic hydrolysis by making cellulose susceptible to cellulases. Wet oxidation of biomass, such as acetone/water oxidation, that employs hot acetone, water, and oxygen, has been found to be an attractive pretreatment method for removing lignin while producing less degradation products. The remaining enriched cellulose fraction has the potential to be utilized under high gravity enzymatic saccharification and fermentation processes for the cost-competing production of bioethanol. Beech wood residual biomass was pretreated following an acetone/water oxidation process aiming at the production of high concentration of cellulosic ethanol. The effect of pressure, reaction time, temperature, and acetone-to-water ratio on the final composition of the pretreated samples was studied for the efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock. The optimal conditions were acetone/water ratio 1:1, 40 atm initial pressure of 40 vol% O 2 gas, and 64 atm at reaction temperature of 175 °C for 2 h incubation. The pretreated beech wood underwent an optimization step studying the effect of enzyme loading and solids content on the enzymatic liquefaction/saccharification prior to fermentation. In a custom designed free-fall mixer at 50 °C for either 6 or 12 h of prehydrolysis using an enzyme loading of 9 mg/g dry matter at 20 wt% initial solids content, high ethanol concentration of 75.9 g/L was obtained. The optimization of the pretreatment process allowed the efficient utilization of beech wood residual biomass for the production of high concentrations of cellulosic ethanol, while obtaining lignin that can be upgraded towards high-added-value chemicals. The threshold of 4 wt% ethanol concentration that is required for the sustainable bioethanol production was surpassed almost twofold

  15. Monitoring of the cellulosic ethanol fermentation process by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ariane S S; Pereira, Sandra C; Ribeiro, Marcelo P A; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, efficient, and low-cost technologies for monitoring the fermentation process during second generation (2G) or cellulosic ethanol production are essential for the successful implementation of this process at the commercial scale. Here, the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS) regression was investigated as a tool for monitoring the production of 2G ethanol from lignocellulosic sugarcane residues including bagasse, straw, and tops. The spectral data was based on a set of 103 alcoholic fermentation samples. Models based on different pre-processing techniques were evaluated. The best root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values obtained in the external validation were around 3.02 g/L for ethanol and 6.60 g/L for glucose. The findings showed that the PLS-NIR methodology was efficient in accurately predicting the glucose and ethanol concentrations during the production of 2G ethanol, demonstrating potential for use in monitoring and control of large-scale industrial processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Next-generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and their contribution to a sustainable Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W. H.; Chimphango, A. F. A.; den Haan, R.; Görgens, J. F.; Chirwa, P. W. C.

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently heavily dependent on oil, especially in the transport sector. However, rising oil prices, concern about environmental impact and supply instability are among the factors that have led to greater interest in renewable fuel and green chemistry alternatives. Lignocellulose is the only foreseeable renewable feedstock for sustainable production of transport fuels. The main technological impediment to more widespread utilization of lignocellulose for production of fuels and chemicals in the past has been the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of its structure. Both biological and thermochemical second-generation conversion technologies are currently coming online for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol concomitantly with heat and electricity production. The latest advances in biological conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol with a focus on consolidated bioprocessing are highlighted. Furthermore, integration of cellulosic ethanol production into existing bio-based industries also using thermochemical processes to optimize energy balances is discussed. Biofuels have played a pivotal yet suboptimal role in supplementing Africa's energy requirements in the past. Capitalizing on sub-Saharan Africa's total biomass potential and using second-generation technologies merit a fresh look at the potential role of bioethanol production towards developing a sustainable Africa while addressing food security, human needs and local wealth creation. PMID:22482027

  17. Next-generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and their contribution to a sustainable Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W H; Chimphango, A F A; den Haan, R; Görgens, J F; Chirwa, P W C

    2011-04-06

    The world is currently heavily dependent on oil, especially in the transport sector. However, rising oil prices, concern about environmental impact and supply instability are among the factors that have led to greater interest in renewable fuel and green chemistry alternatives. Lignocellulose is the only foreseeable renewable feedstock for sustainable production of transport fuels. The main technological impediment to more widespread utilization of lignocellulose for production of fuels and chemicals in the past has been the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of its structure. Both biological and thermochemical second-generation conversion technologies are currently coming online for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol concomitantly with heat and electricity production. The latest advances in biological conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol with a focus on consolidated bioprocessing are highlighted. Furthermore, integration of cellulosic ethanol production into existing bio-based industries also using thermochemical processes to optimize energy balances is discussed. Biofuels have played a pivotal yet suboptimal role in supplementing Africa's energy requirements in the past. Capitalizing on sub-Saharan Africa's total biomass potential and using second-generation technologies merit a fresh look at the potential role of bioethanol production towards developing a sustainable Africa while addressing food security, human needs and local wealth creation.

  18. Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiongjun; Lynd, Lee; Bakker, André; LaRoche, Richard; Wyman, Charles

    2010-05-01

    The absence of a systematic scale-up approach for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to commodity products is a significant bottleneck to realizing the potential benefits offered by such conversion. Motivated by this, we undertook to develop a scale-up approach for conversion of waste paper sludge to ethanol. Physical properties of the system were measured and correlations were developed for their dependence upon cellulose conversion. Just-suspension of solid particles was identified as the scale up criterion based on experiments at lab scale. The impeller speed for just solids suspension at large scale was predicted using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The scale-up strategy was validated by analyzing mixing requirements such as solid-liquid mass transfer under the predicted level of agitation at large scale. The scale-up approach enhances the prediction of reactor performance and helps provide guidelines for the analysis and design of large scale bioreactors based on bench scale experimentation.

  19. Growing America's fuel: an analysis of corn and cellulosic ethanol feasibility in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somma, Dan; Lobkowicz, Hope; Deason, Jonathan P. [George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Recent excitement over ethanol in the United States has been unmatched by other alternative energy sources. To a certain extent, the mention of ethanol by President Bush in the past four State of the Union Addresses has politicized the debate and generated a high level of support for increased ethanol production in both Congress and the private sector. In December 2007, President Bush signed into law the Energy Independence and Security Act, which increased the renewable fuel standard that was mandated under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. ''Growing fuel'' has appealed to politicians, the American public, and powerful agricultural interests all for different reasons. Whether or not the large-scale ethanol production and distribution of ethanol is efficient is not easily understood. Corn-based ethanol is so heavily subsidized through federal tax credits and even state credits that its true cost is hard to determine (Gardner in J Agric Food Ind Organ 5:4, 2007). The high corrosiveness of ethanol and its tendency to absorb water damages existing fuel infrastructure and requires special equipment and supply chains for transportation (Rusco and Walls in Biofuels, petroleum refining and the shipping of motor fuels. Institute for Advanced Policy Research, Technical Paper TP-05008, 2008). Perhaps, most importantly, the agricultural availability for energy crops is intertwined closely with food crops; corn prices are influenced by the converging demands of ethanol, feed crops and human consumption. After examining the feasibility of recent goals for alternative fuels in the context of corn and cellulosic ethanol production, we are unable to validate that corn-based ethanol is worthy of continued pursuit as a viable, comprehensive alternative to gasoline. On the other hand, we find the argument for cellulosic production more compelling due to the ubiquitous availability of amounts and variety of feedstock, combined with a high

  20. Cellulosic ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae seeds cultured by pretreated corn stover material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of lignocellulose materials to replace the pure glucose for preparation of the fermenting yeast seeds could reduce the cost of ethanol fermentation, because a large quantity of glucose is saved in the large-scale seed fermentor series. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was cultured using the freshly pretreated corn stover material as the carbon source, and then the culture broth was used as the inoculation seeds after a series of seed transfer and inoculated into the ethanol production fermentor. The results show that the yeast cell growth and ethanol fermentation performance have essentially no difference when the yeast seeds were cultured by glucose, the corn stover hydrolysate liquid, and the pretreated corn stover solids as carbon sources, respectively. Approximately 22% of the yeast cell culture cost was saved, and the process flow sheet in industrial scale plants was simplified by using the pretreated corn stover for seed culture. The results provided a practical method for materials and operational cost reduction for cellulosic ethanol production.

  1. Production of cellulosic ethanol and hydrogen from solid-state enzymatic treated cornstalk: a two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chunmei; Zhang, Maolin; Fan, Yaoting; Xing, Yan; Hou, Houwei

    2009-04-08

    A two-stage process combining cellulosic ethanol and hydrogen production from solid-state enzymatic treated cornstalk was investigated in this study. A three-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD) with temperature (X(1)), compound enzyme dosage (X(2)) and time (X(3)) as the independent variables was applied to optimizing technological parameters of solid-state enzymatic hydrolysis of cornstalk for cellulosic ethanol and hydrogen production. Experimental results showed that X(1), X(2) and X(3) all had an individual significant influence on ethanol production, but were insignificant on the subsequent hydrogen production. In the first stage, the maximum ethanol yield from cornstalk by Pachysolen tannophilus As2.1585 was 234.1 mg/g-total volatile solid (TVS) at 47.9 degrees C of temperature, 0.054 g/g-cornstalk of compound enzyme dosage and 10.46 days of reaction time. In the second stage, 66.9 mL/g-TVS of hydrogen was produced from the effluent of the first stage by mixed culture. The energy recovery of 50.9% showed that combine ethanol-hydrogen production possessed high energy efficiency. The ethanol was attributed to the bioconversion of the generated soluble sugars from the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stalk and the hydrogen was mainly due to the biodegradation of hemicellulose and cellulose from residue of corn stalk after producing ethanol.

  2. Improvement of bacterial cellulose production by manipulating the metabolic pathways in which ethanol and sodium citrate involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Jiliang; He, Xin; Ping, Wenxiang; Lei, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, bacterial cellulose has played more and more important role as new biological material for food industry and medical and industrial products based on its unique properties. However, it is still a difficult task to improve the production of bacterial cellulose, especially a large number of byproducts are produced in the metabolic biosynthesis processes. To improve bacterial cellulose production, ethanol and sodium citrate are added into the medium during the fermentation, and the activities of key enzymes and concentration of extracellular metabolites are measured to assess the changes of the metabolic flux of the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP), the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP), and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). Our results indicate that ethanol functions as energy source for ATP generation at the early stage of the fermentation in the HMP pathway and the supplementation of ethanol significantly reduces glycerol generation (a major byproduct). While in the EMP pathway, sodium citrate plays a key role, and its supplementation results in the byproducts (mainly acetic acid and pyruvic acid) entering the gluconeogenesis pathway for cellulose synthesis. Furthermore, by adding ethanol and sodium citrate, the main byproduct citric acid in the TCA cycle is also reduced significantly. It is concluded that bacterial cellulose production can be improved by increasing energy metabolism and reducing the formation of metabolic byproducts through the metabolic regulations of the bypasses.

  3. Develop and Demonstrate the Cellulose to Ethanol Process: Executive Summary of the Final Technical Report, 17 September 1980 - 17 March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emert, George H.; Becker, Dana K.; Bevernitz, Kurt J.; Gracheck, Stephen J.; Kienholz, Eldon W.; Rivers, Dougals B.; Zoldak, Bernadette R.; Woodford, Lindley C.

    1982-01-01

    The Biomass Research Center at the University of Arkansas was contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute to 'Develop and Demonstrate the Cellulose to Ethanol Process.' The purpose of the contract was to accelerate site selection, site specific engineering, and research and development leading to the determination of the feasibility of economically operating a cellulose to ethanol commercial scale plant.

  4. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan [Logos Technologies, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  5. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  6. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol by Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cellulase, [beta]-glucosidase, and xylose isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1994-12-13

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATCC No. 2476, having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35 C to about 40 C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol. 2 figures.

  7. Final report (September, 1999--February, 2002) [Public outreach and information dissemination - cellulosic and corn-based ethanol outreach project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Jeremy; Werner, Carol

    2002-08-01

    EESI's ''Ethanol, Climate Protection, Oil Reduction'' (ECO) electr[on]ic newsletter reaches out to the environmental and agricultural communities, state/local government officials and other interested parties, and provides a forum for dialogue about ''the potential benefits of ethanol--and particularly the expanded opportunities provided by cellulosic ethanol--with a special focus on climate protection.'' Each issue features expert commentary, excerpts from recent studies about ethanol, a summary of current government activity on ethanol, and ''notable quotables.'' The newsletter is distributed primarily via email and is also posted on EESI's web site. EESI also conducts outreach on the benefits of ethanol and other biofuels by attending and speaking at conferences, meetings and workshops around the country. The 16 issues of the newsletter published through December 2001 are included as attachments.

  8. Utilization of Bagasse Cellulose for Ethanol Production through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Samsuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse is a solid residue from sugar cane process, which is not many use it for some product which have more added value. Bagasse, which is a lignosellulosic material, be able to be use for alternative energy resources like bioethanol or biogas. With renewable energy resources a crisis of energy in Republic of Indonesia could be solved, especially in oil and gas. This research has done the conversion of bagasse to bioethanol with xylanase enzyme. The result show that bagasse contains of 52,7% cellulose, 20% hemicelluloses, and 24,2% lignin. Xylanase enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to hydrolyse and fermentation in SSF process. Variation in this research use pH (4, 4,5, and 5, for increasing ethanol quantity, SSF process was done by added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and also pre-treatment with white rot fungi such as Lentinus edodes (L.edodes as long 4 weeks. The SSF process was done with 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour's incubation time for fermentation. Variation of pH 4, 4,5, and 5 can produce ethanol with concentrations 2,357 g/L, 2,451 g/L, 2,709 g/L. The added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and L. edodes can increase ethanol yield, The highest ethanol concentration with added chloride acid (HCl concentration 0.5% and 1% consecutively is 2,967 g/L, 3,249 g/L. The highest ethanol concentration with pre-treatment by L. edodes is 3,202 g/L.

  9. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials by consolidated biological processing using the wood rot fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Sakae; Ando, Hiromasa; Ariga, Osamu; Sakuma, Yoh

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, ethanol production from polysaccharides or wood chips was conducted in a single reactor under anaerobic conditions using the white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune NBRC 4928, which produces enzymes that degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The ethanol yields produced from glucose and xylose were 80.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. The absolute yields of ethanol per microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylan and arabinogalactan were 0.26g/g-MCC, 0.0419g/g-xylan and 0.0508g/g-arabinogalactan, respectively. By comparing the actual ethanol yields from polysaccharides with monosaccharide fermentation, it was shown that the rate of saccharification was slower than that in fermentation. S. commune NBRC 4928 is concluded to be suitable for CBP because it can produce ethanol from various types of sugar. From the autoclaved cedar chip, only little ethanol was produced by S. commune NBRC 4928 alone but ethanol production was enhanced by combined use of ethanol fermenting and lignin degrading fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  11. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials by Zymobacter palmae carrying Cellulomonas endoglucanase and Ruminococcus β-glucosidase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Hideshi

    2013-06-01

    In order to reduce the cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, we conferred the ability to ferment cellulosic materials directly on Zymobacter palmae by co-expressing foreign endoglucanase and β-glucosidase genes. Z. palmae is a novel ethanol-fermenting bacterium capable of utilizing a broad range of sugar substrates, but not cellulose. Therefore, the six genes encoding the cellulolytic enzymes (CenA, CenB, CenD, CbhA, CbhB, and Cex) from Cellulomonas fimi were introduced and expressed in Z. palmae. Of these cellulolytic enzyme genes cloned, CenA degraded carboxymethylcellulose and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) efficiently. The extracellular CenA catalyzed the hydrolysis of barley β-glucan and PASC to liberate soluble cello-oligosaccharides, indicating that CenA is the most suitable enzyme for cellulose degradation among those cellulolytic enzymes expressed in Z. palmae. Furthermore, the cenA gene and β-glucosidase gene (bgl) from Ruminococcus albus were co-expressed in Z. palmae. Of the total endoglucanase and β-glucosidase activities, 57.1 and 18.1 % were localized in the culture medium of the strain. The genetically engineered strain completely saccharified and fermented 20 g/l barley β-glucan to ethanol within 84 h, producing 79.5 % of the theoretical yield. Thus, the production and secretion of CenA and BGL enabled Z. palmae to efficiently ferment a water-soluble cellulosic polysaccharide to ethanol.

  12. Evaluation of mountain beetle-infested lodgepole pine for cellulosic ethanol production by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Luo; R. Gleisner; S. Tian; J. Negron; W. Zhu; E. Horn; X. J. Pan; J. Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The potentials of deteriorated mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees for cellulosic ethanol production were evaluated using the sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) process. The trees were harvested from two sites in the United States Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, Colorado....

  13. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cervisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; X.L. Luo; X.S. Yang; J.Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270 L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before...

  14. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion......The choice of a suitable pretreatment method and the adjustment of the pretreatment parameters for efficient conversion of biomass are crucial for a successful biorefinery concept. In this study, cocksfoot grass, a suitable lignocellulosic biomass with a potential for large-scale production...... into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...

  15. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16 g L(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58 g L(-1) h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Breaking the Biological barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    A robust fusion of the agricultural, industrial biotechnology, and energy industries can create a new strategic national capability for energy independence and climate protection. In his State of the Union Address (Bush 2006), President George W. Bush outlined the Advanced Energy Initiative, which seeks to reduce our national dependence on imported oil by accelerating the development of domestic, renewable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels. The president has set a national goal of developing cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources to substantially replace oil imports in the coming years. Fuels derived from cellulosic biomass - the fibrous, woody, and generally inedible portions of plant matter - offer one such alternative to conventional energy sources that can dramatically impact national economic growth, national energy security, and environmental goals. Cellulosic biomass is an attractive energy feedstock because it is an abundant, domestic, renewable source that can be converted to liquid transportation fuels. These fuels can be used readily by current-generation vehicles and distributed through the existing transportation-fuel infrastructure. The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7-9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme. The core barrier is cellulosic-biomass recalcitrance to processing to ethanol. Biomass is composed of nature

  17. Metabolic engineering of a haploid strain derived from a triploid industrial yeast for producing cellulosic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Kong, In Iok; Kim, Heejin; Maurer, Matthew J; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Peng, Dairong; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-01

    Many desired phenotypes for producing cellulosic biofuels are often observed in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, many industrial yeast strains are polyploid and have low spore viability, making it difficult to use these strains for metabolic engineering applications. We selected the polyploid industrial strain S. cerevisiae ATCC 4124 exhibiting rapid glucose fermentation capability, high ethanol productivity, strong heat and inhibitor tolerance in order to construct an optimal yeast strain for producing cellulosic ethanol. Here, we focused on developing a general approach and high-throughput screening method to isolate stable haploid segregants derived from a polyploid parent, such as triploid ATCC 4124 with a poor spore viability. Specifically, we deleted the HO genes, performed random sporulation, and screened the resulting segregants based on growth rate, mating type, and ploidy. Only one stable haploid derivative (4124-S60) was isolated, while 14 other segregants with a stable mating type were aneuploid. The 4124-S60 strain inherited only a subset of desirable traits present in the parent strain, same as other aneuploids, suggesting that glucose fermentation and specific ethanol productivity are likely to be genetically complex traits and/or they might depend on ploidy. Nonetheless, the 4124-60 strain did inherit the ability to tolerate fermentation inhibitors. When additional genetic perturbations known to improve xylose fermentation were introduced into the 4124-60 strain, the resulting engineered strain (IIK1) was able to ferment a Miscanthus hydrolysate better than a previously engineered laboratory strain (SR8), built by making the same genetic changes. However, the IIK1 strain showed higher glycerol and xylitol yields than the SR8 strain. In order to decrease glycerol and xylitol production, an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway was introduced into the IIK1 strain. By consuming 2.4g/L of acetate, the resulting strain (IIK1A

  18. Catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: TiO2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabasingh, S Anuradha; Lalith, D; Prabhu, M Arun; Yimam, Abubekker; Zewdu, Taye

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized TiO2 coupled nanocellulose (NC-TiO2) as catalyst. Aspergillus nidulans AJSU04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. NC-TiO2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. Complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, NC-TiO2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. A mathematical model was developed to describe the hydrolysis reaction. Ethanol production from enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse catalyzed with NC-TiO2 was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 20602. The glucose release rates and ethanol concentrations were determined. Ethanol produced was found to be strongly dependent on pretreatment given, hydrolysis and fermentation conditions. The study confirmed the promising accessibility of NC-TiO2, for enhanced glucose production rates and improved ethanol yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of sugarcane bagasse variability on sugar recovery for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Liliane Pires; Crespim, Elaine; de Oliveira, Nilton; de Campos, Rafael Carinha; Teodoro, Juliana Conceição; Galvão, Célia Maria Araújo; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2017-10-01

    In the context of cellulosic ethanol production, special attention must be given to the raw material, as it affects final product yield. As observed for sugarcane, bagasse variations may derive from several elements, for instance edaphoclimatic factors, seasonality, maturation stage and harvesting techniques. Therefore, in the present work, to investigate the impact of raw material characteristics on process performance, sugarcane bagasse from four harvests from October/2010 to October/2011 was pretreated by steam explosion and had its soluble and insoluble solids contents measured, following enzymatic hydrolysis to assess glucan conversion. As confirmed by ANOVA, glucose concentration was related to the solids content in the reactor, whereas glucan conversion was related to the enzymatic load. Variations in raw material composition were indeed observed to significantly interfere in the final sugar recovery, probably due to the increase in the impurities observed as a result of the type of harvest performed in 2011. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that may accompany land-use change (LUC) from increased biofuel feedstock production are a source of debate in the discussion of drawbacks and advantages of biofuels. Estimates of LUC GHG emissions focus mainly on corn ethanol and vary widely. Increasing the understanding of LUC GHG impacts associated with both corn and cellulosic ethanol will inform the on-going debate concerning their magnitudes and sources of variability. Results In our study, we estimate LUC GHG emissions for ethanol from four feedstocks: corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus. We use new computable general equilibrium (CGE) results for worldwide LUC. U.S. domestic carbon emission factors are from state-level modelling with a surrogate CENTURY model and U.S. Forest Service data. This paper investigates the effect of several key domestic lands carbon content modelling parameters on LUC GHG emissions. International carbon emission factors are from the Woods Hole Research Center. LUC GHG emissions are calculated from these LUCs and carbon content data with Argonne National Laboratory’s Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) model. Our results indicate that miscanthus and corn ethanol have the lowest (−10 g CO2e/MJ) and highest (7.6 g CO2e/MJ) LUC GHG emissions under base case modelling assumptions. The results for corn ethanol are lower than corresponding results from previous studies. Switchgrass ethanol base case results (2.8 g CO2e/MJ) were the most influenced by assumptions regarding converted forestlands and the fate of carbon in harvested wood products. They are greater than miscanthus LUC GHG emissions because switchgrass is a lower-yielding crop. Finally, LUC GHG emissions for corn stover are essentially negligible and insensitive to changes in model assumptions. Conclusions This research provides new insight into the influence of key carbon content modelling variables on LUC GHG emissions

  1. Ethanol Fuels Incentives Applied in the U.S.: Reviewed from California's Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Tom [California Energy Commision, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes measures employed by state governments and by the federal government to advance the production and use of ethanol fuel in the United States. The future of ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel poses a number of increasingly-important issues and decisions for California government, as the state becomes a larger consumer, and potentially a larger producer, of ethanol.

  2. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  3. Net-Immobilization of β-glucosidase on Nonwoven Fabrics to Lower the Cost of "Cellulosic Ethanol" and Increase Cellulose Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing; He, Bin; Zhao, Changwen; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Guan; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2016-03-24

    The main limitation preventing the use of enzymatic cellulosic ethanol in industrial production is its higher cost which is mainly due to the elevated price of β-glucosidase (BG). Herein, we report on a simple strategy for the in-situ encapsulation of BG for repeated cellulosic ethanol production. In this strategy, BG was net-immobilized into a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) net-cloth layer on a PP nonwoven fabric by way of the visible light-induced surface controlled/living graft cross-linking polymerization. The visible light and mild reaction conditions could ensure the activity retention of BG during immobilization, while the non-swelling uniform net-mesh formed by living cross-linking polymerization could prevent the leakage of BG effectively (at the immobilization rate of more than 98.6% and the leakage rate of only 0.4%). When the BG-loaded fabric was used in combination with free cellulase (CEL), the results of the catalytic reaction demonstrated that these BG-loaded fabrics could not only give a 40% increase in cellulose conversions but also be reused for more than fifteen batches without losing the activity. These BG-loaded fabrics with characteristics including easy separation, excellent operation stability, a low cost of the polymeric matrix and a simple fabrication process are particularly interesting for a future bio-fuel production strategy.

  4. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  5. Cost evaluation of cellulase enzyme for industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol production based on rigorous Aspen Plus modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cost reduction on cellulase enzyme usage has been the central effort in the commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. Therefore, establishing an accurate evaluation method on cellulase enzyme cost is crucially important to support the health development of the future biorefinery industry. Currently, the cellulase cost evaluation methods were complicated and various controversial or even conflict results were presented. To give a reliable evaluation on this important topic, a rigorous analysis based on the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulation in the commercial scale ethanol plant was proposed in this study. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) was used as the indicator to show the impacts of varying enzyme supply modes, enzyme prices, process parameters, as well as enzyme loading on the enzyme cost. The results reveal that the enzyme cost drives the cellulosic ethanol price below the minimum profit point when the enzyme is purchased from the current industrial enzyme market. An innovative production of cellulase enzyme such as on-site enzyme production should be explored and tested in the industrial scale to yield an economically sound enzyme supply for the future cellulosic ethanol production.

  6. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sowlati, Taraneh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO 2 . ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  7. Combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol organosolv pretreatments: effect on lignin structures, delignification yields and cellulose-to-glucose conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Patrick; Ricochon, Guillaume; Muniglia, Lionel; Brosse, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    Enzymatic pre-hydrolysis using the industrial enzymatic cocktail Cellulyve® was assessed as a first step in a pretreatment process of Miscanthus biomass involving an aqueous-ethanol organosolv treatment. (13)C and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and size exclusion chromatography were used to analyze the cellulose and lignin before and after treatment. It was demonstrated that despite a very low impact on the fibre structure (observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy) and composition (in terms of sugars and polyphenolics content), the enzymatic pre-treatment disrupted the lignocellulosic matrix to a considerable extend. This weakening permitted enhanced removal of lignin during organosolv pulping and increased hydrolysability of the residual cellulosic pulp for the production of monomeric glucose. Using this combined treatment, a delignification yield of 93% and an enzymatic cellulose-to-glucose conversion of 75% were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Liquid fuel resources and prospects for ligno-cellulosic ethanol: An Egyptian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia R. Tewfik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal presently represent about 90% of the world’s total commercial primary energy demand. Yet, they are depletable sources of energy. Growth in the production of easily accessible oil, the main source of high energy liquid transportation fuels, will not match the projected rate of demand growth, especially in developing countries. In the transport sector, today, the only alternative to non-sustainable fossil fuels is biofuels that are produced from biomass, a stored environmentally neutral solar energy. These fuels are compatible with current vehicles and blendable with conventional fuels. Moreover, they share the long-established distribution infrastructure with little, if any, modification of equipment. The main biofuels presently in commercial production are bioethanol and biodiesel. Industrial countries started production of the 1st generation bioethanol and biodiesel from food products (grains and edible oil since a few decades and these fuels are currently available at petrol stations. Second generation bioethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials is on the research, pilot and/or demonstration stage. This paper discusses the current situation regarding liquid fuels in Egypt which are experiencing imbalance between total production and demand for gasoline and diesel fuels. The quantified need for nonconventional sources is presented. Based on a thorough assessment of current and prospective generated agriculture residues as distributed over the political areas, mapping of the number and capacity of plants to be installed for production of bioethanol from available residues namely rice straw, sugar cane residues and cotton stalks has been developed. Annual capacities of 3000, 10,000 and 20,000 tons ethanol/year until year 2021 have been proposed. Capital and operating requirements and economic indicators have been estimated. It has been concluded that at current price of ethanol of about $0.6/kg, the

  9. Evaluation of environmental impacts of cellulosic ethanol using life cycle assessment with technological advances over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelzik, Paul F.; Zhang, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used in quantifying the environmental impacts of materials, processes, products, or systems across their entire lifespan from creation to disposal. To evaluate the environmental impact of advancing technology, Life Cycle Assessment with Technological Advances over Time (LCA-TAT) incorporates technology improvements within the traditional LCA framework. In this paper, the LCA-TAT is applied to quantify the environmental impacts of ethanol production using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock through the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process as it improves over time. The data for the SSCF process are taken from the Aspen Plus ® simulation developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). The Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool (EFRAT) is used to calculate the fugitive emissions and SimaPro 7.1 software is used to quantify the environmental impacts of processes. The impact indicators of the processes are calculated using the Eco-indicator 95 method; impact categories analyzed include ozone layer depletion, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, winter smog, pesticides, greenhouse effect, acidification, and eutrophication. Based on the LCA-TAT results, it is found that removal of the continuous ion exchange step within the pretreatment area increases the environmental impact of the process. The main contributor to the increase in the environmental impact of the process is the heavy metal indicator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to identify major inputs and outputs that affect environmental impacts of the overall process. Based on this analysis it is observed that an increase in waste production and acid use have the greatest effect on the environmental impacts of the SSCF process. Comparing economic analysis with projected technological advances performed by NREL, the improvement in environmental impact was not matched by a concomitant improvement in economic performance. In

  10. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8% and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system.

  11. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae without detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S; Luo, X L; Yang, X S; Zhu, J Y

    2010-11-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before fermentation. Detoxification of the pretreatment hydrolysate using overliming or XAD-4 resin before being combined with enzymatic hydrolysate improved ethanol productivity in the first 4h of fermentation and overall fermentation efficiency. However, detoxification did not improve final ethanol yield because of sugar losses. The Y5 strain showed excellent ethanol productivities of 2.0 and 0.8g/L/h averaged over a period of 4 and 24h, respectively, in the undetoxified run. The furan metabolization rates of the Y5 strain were significantly higher for the undetoxified run than those for the detoxidfied runs, suggesting it can tolerate even higher furan concentrations than those studied. Preliminary mass and energy balances were conducted. SPORL produced an excellent monomeric sugar recovery value of about 85% theoretical and a net energy output of 4.05GJ/ton wood with an ethanol energy production efficiency of 178% before distillation.

  12. Impacts of facility size and location decisions on ethanol production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matt; Michael Griffin, W.; Scott Matthews, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol has been identified as a promising alternative to fossil fuels to provide energy for the transportation sector. One of the obstacles cellulosic ethanol must overcome in order to contribute to transportation energy demand is the infrastructure required to produce and distribute the fuel. Given a nascent cellulosic ethanol industry, locating cellulosic ethanol refineries and creating the accompanying infrastructure is essentially a greenfield problem that may benefit greatly from quantitative analysis. This study models cellulosic ethanol infrastructure investment using a mixed integer program (MIP) that locates ethanol refineries and connects these refineries to the biomass supplies and ethanol demands in a way that minimizes the total cost. For the single- and multi-state regions examined in this study, larger facilities can decrease ethanol costs by $0.20-0.30 per gallon, and placing these facilities in locations that minimize feedstock and product transportation costs can decrease ethanol costs by up to $0.25 per gallon compared to uninformed placement that could result from influences such as local subsidies to encourage economic development. To best benefit society, policies should allow for incentives that encourage these low-cost production scenarios and avoid politically motivated siting of plants. - Research highlights: → Mixed-integer programming can be used to model ethanol infrastructure investment. → Large cellulosic ethanol facilities can decrease production cost by $0.20/gallon. → Optimized facility placement can save $0.25/gallon.

  13. Acid hydrolysis of sisal cellulose: studies aiming at nano fibers and bio ethanol preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Mauricio P. de; Lacerda, Talita M.; Zambon, Marcia D.; Frollini, Elisabete

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis of cellulose can result in nanofibers and also is an important stage in the bioethanol production process. In order to evaluate the influence of acid (sulfuric) concentration, temperature, and native cellulose (sisal) pretreatment on cellulose hydrolysis, the acid concentration was varied between 5% and 30% (v/v) in the temperature range from 60 to 100 deg C using native and alkali-treated (mercerized) sisal cellulose. The following techniques were used to evaluate the residual (non-hydrolysed) cellulose characteristics: viscometry, average degree of polymerization (DP), X-ray diffraction, crystallinity index, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The sugar cane liquor was analyzed in terms of sugar composition, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that increasing the concentration of sulfuric acid and temperature afforded residual cellulose with lower molecular weight and, up to specific acid concentrations, higher crystallinity indexes, when compared to the original cellulose values, and increased the glucose (the bioethanol precursor ) production of the liquor, which was favored for mercerized cellulose. (author)

  14. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming J; Lau, Ming W; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-11-01

    Empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a readily available cellulosic biomass from palm processing facilities, is investigated as a potential carbohydrate source for cellulosic ethanol production. This feedstock was pretreated using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and enzymatically hydrolyzed. The best tested AFEX conditions were at 135 °C, 45 min retention time, water to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio), and ammonia to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio). The particle size of the pretreated biomass was reduced post-AFEX. The optimized enzyme formulation consists of Accellerase (84 μL/g biomass), Multifect Xylanase (31 μL/g biomass), and Multifect Pectinase (24 μL/g biomass). This mixture achieved close to 90% of the total maximum yield within 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation on the water extract of this biomass affirms that nutrients solely from the pretreated EPFBF can support yeast growth for complete glucose fermentation. These results suggest that AFEX-treated EPFBF can be used for cellulosic biofuels production because biomass recalcitrance has been overcome without reducing the fermentability of the pretreated materials.

  15. Evaluating the possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Yang, X-Y; Xiong, L; Guo, H-J; Luo, J; Wang, B; Zhang, H-R; Lin, X-Q; Chen, X-D

    2015-05-01

    To reduce the cost of bacterial cellulose (BC) production, the possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater with high COD value (18 050 mg l(-1) ) for BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was evaluated. After 7 days of fermentation, the highest BC yield (1·34 g l(-1) ) was obtained. The carbon sources including sugars (glucose and xylose), organic acids (acetic acid and butyric acid) and alcohol compounds (ethanol and butanol) were utilized by G. xylinus simultaneously during fermentation. Although the COD decrease ratio (about 14·7%) was low, the highest BC yield on COD consumption (56·2%, g g(-1) ) was relatively high and the remaining wastewater could be used for further BC fermentation. Besides, the environment of ABE fermentation wastewater showed small influence on the BC structure by comparison with the BC products obtained in traditional HS medium using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Overall, ABE fermentation wastewater is one promising substrate for BC production. The possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was evaluated in this study. This is the first time that ABE fermentation wastewater was used as substrate for BC fermentation. The results provide detail information of metabolism of G. xylinus in ABE fermentation wastewater and the influence of wastewater environment on the structure of BC samples. Overall, this bioconversion could reduce the cost of BC production greatly. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-pretreated newspaper for cellulosic ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Geng, Anli; Chen, Ming Li; Gum, Ming Jun Marcus

    2010-10-01

    Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate of waste newspaper was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production in this study. Various nonionic and ionic surfactants were applied for waste newspaper pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility. The surfactant-pretreated newspaper was enzymatically digested in 0.05 M sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.8) with varying solid content, filter paper unit loading (FPU/g newspaper), and ratio of filter paper unit/beta-glucosidase unit (FPU/CBU). Newspaper pretreated with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) demonstrated the highest sugar yield. The addition of Tween-80 in the enzymatic hydrolysis process enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of newspaper pretreated with all of the surfactants. Enzymatic hydrolysis of SDS-pretreated newspaper with 15% solid content, 15 FPU/g newspaper, and FPU/CBU of 1:4 resulted in a newspaper hydrolysate conditioning 29.07 g/L glucose and 4.08 g/L xylose after 72 h of incubation at 50 degrees C. The fermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis, and their co-culture produced 14.29, 13.45, and 14.03 g/L of ethanol, respectively. Their corresponding ethanol yields were 0.43, 0.41, and 0.42 g/g.

  17. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  19. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  20. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    positive cultivar correlation with content of carbohydrates and plant height. Accessibility to cellulose can impede the sugar conversion rate, and convertibility of each botanical fraction might be more important to overall sugar conversion than the relative proportions of botanical fractions. Our results...

  1. Cellulosic-based ethanol and the contribution from agriculture and forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Perlack; Bryce J. Stokes; John Ferrell; Mary Bohman; Kenneth E. Skog; Dennis P. Dykstra; Patricia K. Lebow; Patrick D. Miles

    2008-01-01

    The cellulosic feedstocks (see chapter 2) needed to produce 20 billion gallons per year (BGY) of second-generation and other renewable fuels can come from a wide variety of cropland and forestland sources, including imports. The impact of producing these biofuels on U.S. agriculture and forestry will very much depend on the relative proportions of cropland- and...

  2. A New Proposal of Cellulosic Ethanol to Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Q. Albarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction. Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the evaluated processes were self-sufficient in energy demand, being able to sell the surplus electricity to the grid, and presented water intake inside the environmental limit for São Paulo State, Brazil. The processes that evaluated the use of the bagasse fine fraction presented higher economic results compared with the use of the entire bagasse. Even though, due to the high enzyme costs, the payback calculated for the biorefineries were higher than 8 years for all cases that considered second generation ethanol and the net present value for the investment was negative. The reduction on the enzyme load, in a way that the conversion rates could be maintained, is the limiting factor to make second generation ethanol competitive with the most immediate uses of bagasse: fuel for the cogeneration system to surplus electricity production.

  3. TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS: A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ETHANOL AND METHANOL OPTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future sources of renewable fuel energy will be needed to supplement or displace petroleum. Biomass can be converted to ethanol or methanol, either having good properties as motor fuel, but distinctly different production technology. Those technologies are compared in terms of ...

  4. Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Shuai; Q. Yang; Junyong Zhu; F.C. Lu; P.J. Weimer; J. Ralph; X.L. Pan

    2010-01-01

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180C for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium...

  5. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  6. Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1981-04-01

    Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

  7. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicari Kristin J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic (TE model, which calculates biofuel production costs using a process model and an economic model. The process model solves mass and energy balances for each unit, and the economic model estimates capital and operating costs from the process model based on economic assumptions. The process model inputs include experimental data on the feedstock composition and intermediate product yields for each unit. These experimental yield data are calculated from primary measurements. Uncertainty in these primary measurements is propagated to the calculated yields, to the process model, and ultimately to the economic model. Thus, outputs of the TE model have a minimum uncertainty associated with the uncertainty in the primary measurements. Results We calculate the uncertainty in the Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP estimate for lignocellulosic ethanol production via a biochemical conversion process: dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and co-fermentation of the resulting sugars to ethanol. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the TE model and identify the feedstock composition and conversion yields from three unit operations (xylose from pretreatment, glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanol from fermentation as the most important variables. The uncertainty in the pretreatment xylose yield arises from multiple measurements, whereas the glucose and ethanol yields from enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively, are dominated by a single measurement: the fraction of insoluble solids (fIS in the biomass slurries. Conclusions We calculate a $0.15/gal uncertainty in MESP from the TE model due to uncertainties in primary measurements. This result sets a lower bound on the error bars of

  8. Cellulase and alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films and their molecular-level effects upon contact with cellulose and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dilmer; Camilo, Fernanda Ferraz; Caseli, Luciano

    2014-02-25

    The key challenges for producing devices based on nanostructured films with control over the molecular architecture are to preserve the catalytic activity of the immobilized biomolecules and to provide a reliable method for determining the intermolecular interactions and the accommodation of molecules at very small scales. In this work, the enzymes cellulase and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were coimmobilized with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and their biological activities were assayed by accommodating the structure formed in contact with cellulose. For this purpose, the polysaccharide was dissolved in an ionic liquid, 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl), and dropped on the top of the hybrid cellulase-ADH-DPPC LB film. The interactions between cellulose and ethanol, which are the catalytic substrates of the enzymes as well as important elements in the production of second-generation fuels, were then investigated using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Investigation of the secondary structures of the enzymes was performed using PM-IRRAS, through which the presence of ethanol and cellulose was observed to highly affect the structures of ADH and cellulase, respectively. The detection of products formed from the catalyzed reactions as well as the changes of secondary structure of the enzymes immobilization could be carried out, which opens the possibility to produce a means for producing second-generation ethanol using nanoscale arrangements.

  9. Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass with Emphasis of Wheat Straw Utilization. Analysis of Strategies for Process Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Green and Blue Technologies Strategies in HORIZON 2020" has increased the attention of scientific society on global utilization of renewable energy sources. Agricultural residues can be a valuable source of energy because of drastically growing human needs for food. The goal of this review is to show the current state of art on utilization of wheat straw as a substrate for ethanol production. The specifics of wheat straw composition and the chemical and thermodynamic properties of its components pre-determined the application of unit operations and engineering strategies for hydrolysis of the substrate and further its fermentation. Modeling of this two processes is crucially important for optimal overall process development and scale up. The authors gave much attention on main hydrolisis products as a glucose and xylose (C6 and C5 sugars, respectivelly and on the specifics of their metabolization by ethanol producing microorganisms. The microbial physiology reacting on C6 and C5 sugars and mathematical aproaches describing these phenomena are discussing, as well.

  10. Surface display of a functional minicellulosome by intracellular complementation using a synthetic yeast consortium and its application to cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shen-Long; Goyal, Garima; Chen, Wilfred

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we report the surface assembly of a functional minicellulosome by using a synthetic yeast consortium. The basic design of the consortium consisted of four different engineered yeast strains capable of either displaying a trifunctional scaffoldin, Scaf-ctf (SC), carrying three divergent cohesin domains from Clostridium thermocellum (t), Clostridium cellulolyticum (c), and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (f), or secreting one of the three corresponding dockerin-tagged cellulases (endoglucanase [AT], exoglucanase [EC/CB], or β-glucosidase [BF]). The secreted cellulases were docked onto the displayed Scaf-ctf in a highly organized manner based on the specific interaction of the three cohesin-dockerin pairs employed, resulting in the assembly of a functional minicellulosome on the yeast surface. By exploiting the modular nature of each population to provide a unique building block for the minicellulosome structure, the overall cellulosome assembly, cellulose hydrolysis, and ethanol production were easily fine-tuned by adjusting the ratio of different populations in the consortium. The optimized consortium consisted of a SC:AT:CB:BF ratio of 7:2:4:2 and produced almost twice the level of ethanol (1.87 g/liter) as a consortium with an equal ratio of the different populations. The final ethanol yield of 0.475 g of ethanol/g of cellulose consumed also corresponded to 93% of the theoretical value. This result confirms the use of a synthetic biology approach for the synergistic saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol by using a yeast consortium displaying a functional minicellulosome.

  11. Evaluation of electricity generation from lignin residue and biogas in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    This study takes the first insight on the rigorous evaluation of electricity generation based on the experimentally measured higher heating value (HHV) of lignin residue, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) of wastewater. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1.26-1.85tons of dry lignin residue is generated from biorefining process and 0.19-0.27tons of biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of wastewater, equivalent to 4335-5981kWh and 1946-2795kWh of electricity by combustion of the generated lignin residue and biogas, respectively. The electricity generation not only sufficiently meets the electricity needs of process requirement, but also generates more than half of electricity surplus selling to the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

    2010-07-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed to significantly reduce mechanical energy consumption. Because the ultimate goal of biofuel production is net energy output, a concept of pretreatment energy efficiency (kg/MJ) based on the total sugar recovery (kg/kg wood) divided by the energy consumption in pretreatment (MJ/kg wood) is defined. It is then used to evaluate the performances of three of the most promising pretreatment technologies: steam explosion, organosolv, and sulfite pretreatment to overcome lignocelluloses recalcitrance (SPORL) for softwood pretreatment. The present study found that SPORL is the most efficient process and produced highest sugar yield. Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries. The effectiveness of moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment on the bioconversion efficiency of cellulose in the acid-steam-exploded corn stover was investigated in this study. Results showed that an increase of the alcoholic sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration from 0.05 to 4% led to a decrease in the lignin content in the post-treated samples from 32.8 to 10.7%, while the cellulose digestibility consequently increased. The cellulose conversion of the 4% alcoholic NaOH integrally treated corn stover reached up to 99.3% after 72 h, which was significantly higher than that of the acid steam exploded corn stover without post-treatment (57.3%). In addition to the decrease in lignin content, an expansion of cellulose I lattice induced by the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment played a significant role in promoting the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. More importantly, the lignin fraction (AL) released during the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment and the lignin-rich residue (EHR) remained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treated acid-steam-exploded corn stover were employed to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins. The plywoods prepared with the resins exhibit satisfactory performances. An alkaline ethanol system with an appropriate NaOH concentration could improve the removal of lignin and modification of the crystalline structure of cellulose in acid

  14. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  15. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review—Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, John [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States)

    2013-05-22

    The presentation provides an overview of the Biodiesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project (Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center). It summarizes the project history, timeline, budget, partners, objectives, goals, future plans and in closer detail reviews the used approaches and technical accomplishments. The main project goals were (1) developing strategies and tools that assist in the creation of economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy industries within ecologically-sensitive regions such as South Florida and, in particular, the greater Everglades, (2) using these bioenergy strategies and tools in evolving the existing agricultural, urban, and ecological sectors towards more sustainable structures and practices and (3) using bioenergy as a focal point in the larger effort to mitigate climate change and sea level rise, realities with particularly catastrophic consequences for South Florida. The project started on Oct 1, 2010 and ended on Feb 28, 2013. It yearly average budget was $369,770, with the Dept. of Energy annual cost share of $317,167. The main project partners were Hendry County, University of Florida - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Intelligentsia International, Inc., Edison State College and University of South Florida. Used approaches, main accomplishments and results in the categories of (1) technical research, (2) education and (3) business development are presented in detail. The project uniqueness is mainly related to the use of system approaches and integrating several systems analyses. Relevance of the project applicable to sustainability of bioenergy, food production, & restoration is explained, critical success factors are challenges are outlined and future work drafted. Finally, the main publications and presentations catalogue list is presented.

  16. Production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass by Clostridium thermocellum SS19 in submerged fermentation: screening of nutrients using Plackett-Burman design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balusu, Ramesh; Paduru, Rama Mohan R; Seenayya, G; Reddy, G

    2004-06-01

    Plackett-Burman design, a statistical methodology, was used to screen 23 nutrients belonging to three categories--carbon, nitrogen, and salt/mineral sources--for the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass by Clostridium thermocellum SS19 in anaerobic submerged fermentation. In this design, just n number of experiments is required for screening n-1 variables. The experimental data were subjected to statistical analysis for calculating the regression coefficients and t-values. Filter paper, Solka Floc, corn steep liquor (CSL), cysteine HCl, magnesium chloride, and ferrous sulfate showed relatively higher regression coefficients on ethanol production and growth. Among the 23 nutrients screened, based on their performance in terms of product-promoting ability, availability, and cost, filter paper, CSL, cysteine HCl, magnesium chloride, and ferrous sulfate were identified as the most effective and, therefore, selected for inclusion in further optimization studies. Copryright 2004 Humana Press Inc.

  17. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer B; Cai Hao; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    Globally, bioethanol is the largest volume biofuel used in the transportation sector, with corn-based ethanol production occurring mostly in the US and sugarcane-based ethanol production occurring mostly in Brazil. Advances in technology and the resulting improved productivity in corn and sugarcane farming and ethanol conversion, together with biofuel policies, have contributed to the significant expansion of ethanol production in the past 20 years. These improvements have increased the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of using bioethanol as opposed to using petroleum gasoline. This article presents results from our most recently updated simulations of energy use and GHG emissions that result from using bioethanol made from several feedstocks. The results were generated with the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model. In particular, based on a consistent and systematic model platform, we estimate life-cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions from using ethanol produced from five feedstocks: corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus. We quantitatively address the impacts of a few critical factors that affect life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol. Even when the highly debated land use change GHG emissions are included, changing from corn to sugarcane and then to cellulosic biomass helps to significantly increase the reductions in energy use and GHG emissions from using bioethanol. Relative to petroleum gasoline, ethanol from corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus can reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 19–48%, 40–62%, 90–103%, 77–97% and 101–115%, respectively. Similar trends have been found with regard to fossil energy benefits for the five bioethanol pathways. (letter)

  18. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cai, Hao; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2012-12-01

    Globally, bioethanol is the largest volume biofuel used in the transportation sector, with corn-based ethanol production occurring mostly in the US and sugarcane-based ethanol production occurring mostly in Brazil. Advances in technology and the resulting improved productivity in corn and sugarcane farming and ethanol conversion, together with biofuel policies, have contributed to the significant expansion of ethanol production in the past 20 years. These improvements have increased the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of using bioethanol as opposed to using petroleum gasoline. This article presents results from our most recently updated simulations of energy use and GHG emissions that result from using bioethanol made from several feedstocks. The results were generated with the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model. In particular, based on a consistent and systematic model platform, we estimate life-cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions from using ethanol produced from five feedstocks: corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus. We quantitatively address the impacts of a few critical factors that affect life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol. Even when the highly debated land use change GHG emissions are included, changing from corn to sugarcane and then to cellulosic biomass helps to significantly increase the reductions in energy use and GHG emissions from using bioethanol. Relative to petroleum gasoline, ethanol from corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus can reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 19-48%, 40-62%, 90-103%, 77-97% and 101-115%, respectively. Similar trends have been found with regard to fossil energy benefits for the five bioethanol pathways.

  19. A novel marine bacterium Isoptericola sp. JS-C42 with the ability to saccharifying the plant biomasses for the aid in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudhan Satheeja Santhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing demands for food products such as starch and sugar produces; there is a need to find the sources for saccharification for cellulosic bioethanol production. This study provides the first evidence of the lignocellulolytic and saccharifying ability of a marine bacterium namely Isoptericola sp. JS-C42, a Gram positive actinobacterium with the cocci cells embedded on mycelia isolated from the Arabian Sea, India. It exhibited highest filter paper unit effect, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and ligninase effect. The hydrolytic potential of the enzymes displayed the efficient saccharification capability of steam pretreated biomass. It was also found to degrade the paddy, sorghum, Acacia mangium and Ficus religiosa into simple reducing sugars by its efficient lignocellulose enzyme complex with limited consumption of sugars. Production of ethanol was also achieved with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overall, it offers a great potential for the cellulosic ethanol production in an economically reliable and eco-friendly point-of-care.

  20. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  1. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael Q.; Han, Jeongwoo; Haq, Zia; Tyner, Wallace E.; Wu, May; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2011-01-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam 3 in 1980 to over 40.1 hm 3 in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  2. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  3. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  4. Influence of spatially dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Kwon, Hoyoung [Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St. NW Washington DC 20006 USA; Mueller, Steffen [Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1309 South Halsted Street Chicago IL 60607 USA; Wander, Michelle M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 South Goodwin Avenue Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2016-03-03

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels’ attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the U.S. and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth-extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grasslands, and forests) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow). In most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. Results of SOC change were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions for the biofuels considered. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn, -0.7 for corn stover, -3.4–12.9 for switchgrass, and -20.1–-6.2 for Miscanthus; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending soil depth from 30 to 100cm affected spatially-explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however the influence on LUC GHG emissions estimates were less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -0.6–-7 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  5. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Marette, Stephan; Treguer, David

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  6. Managing Multiple Mandates: A System of Systems Model to Analyze Strategies for Producing Cellulosic Ethanol and Reducing Riverine Nitrate Loads in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housh, Mashor; Yaeger, Mary A; Cai, Ximing; McIsaac, Gregory F; Khanna, Madhu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Al-Qadi, Imad; Jain, Atul K

    2015-10-06

    Implementing public policies often involves navigating an array of choices that have economic and environmental consequences that are difficult to quantify due to the complexity of multiple system interactions. Implementing the mandate for cellulosic biofuel production in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and reducing hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico by reducing riverine nitrate-N loads represent two such cases that overlap in the Mississippi River Basin. To quantify the consequences of these interactions, a system of systems (SoS) model was developed that incorporates interdependencies among the various subsystems, including biofuel refineries, transportation, agriculture, water resources and crop/ethanol markets. The model allows examination of the impact of imposing riverine nitrate-N load limits on the biofuel production system as a whole, including land use change and infrastructure needs. The synergies of crop choice (first versus second generation biofuel crops), infrastructure development, and environmental impacts (streamflow and nitrate-N load) were analyzed to determine the complementarities and trade-offs between environmental protection and biofuel development objectives. For example, the results show that meeting the cellulosic biofuel target in the RFS using Miscanthus x giganteus reduces system profits by 8% and reduces nitrate-N loads by 12% compared to the scenario without a mandate. However, greater water consumption by Miscanthus is likely to reduce streamflow with potentially adverse environmental consequences that need to be considered in future decision making.

  7. High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R A; Wilson, David R; Roberts, Ian N; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-04-01

    A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g β-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the conflicting findings of Role of Cellulose-Crystallinity in Enzume Hydrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh Agarwal; Sally Ralph

    2014-01-01

    In the field of conversion of biomass to ethanol, an important area of research is the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Once cellulose is converted to glucose, it can be easily fermented to ethanol. As the cellulosic ethanol technology stands now, costly pretreatments and high dosages of cellulases are needed to achieve complete hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction...

  9. Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

    2013-02-01

    Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions: potential and temperature dependency at high solid processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr; Jørgensen, Henning; Felby, Claus

    2013-11-01

    Different versions of two commercial cellulases were tested for their recyclability of enzymatic activity at high dry matter processes (12% or 25% DM). Recyclability was assessed by measuring remaining enzyme activity in fermentation broth and the ability of enzymes to hydrolyse fresh, pretreated wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50°C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50°C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature to preserve enzymatic activity. Best results for enzyme recycling at 25% DM was 59% and 41% of original enzyme load for a Celluclast:Novozyme188 mixture and a modern cellulase preparation, respectively. However, issues with stability of enzymes and their strong adsorption to residual solids still pose a challenge for applicable methods in enzyme recycling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A case study of agricultural residue availability and cost for a cellulosic ethanol conversion facility in the Henan province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Erin [ORNL; Wu, Yun [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the availability and cost of corn stover and wheat straw for the area surrounding a demonstration biorefinery in the Henan Province of China was performed as a case study of potential cooperative analyses of bioenergy feedstocks between researchers and industry in the US and China. Though limited in scope, the purpose of this analysis is to provide insight into some of the issues and challenges of estimating feedstock availability in China and how this relates to analyses of feedstocks in the U.S. Completing this analysis also highlighted the importance of improving communication between U.S. researchers and Chinese collaborators. Understanding the units and terms used in the data provided by Tianguan proved to be a significant challenge. This was further complicated by language barriers between collaborators in the U.S. and China. The Tianguan demonstration biorefinery has a current capacity of 3k tons (1 million gallons) of cellulosic ethanol per year with plans to scale up to 10k tons (3.34 million gallons) per year. Using data provided by Tianguan staff in summer of 2011, the costs and availability of corn stover and wheat straw were estimated. Currently, there are sufficient volumes of wheat straw and corn stover that are considered 'waste' and would likely be available for bioenergy in the 20-km (12-mile) region surrounding the demonstration biorefinery at a low cost. However, as the industry grows, competition for feedstock will grow and prices are likely to rise as producers demand additional compensation to fully recover costs.

  12. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  13. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  14. 10 CFR 452.6 - Incentive award terms and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive award terms and limitations. 452.6 Section 452.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION PRODUCTION INCENTIVES FOR CELLULOSIC BIOFUELS § 452.6... auctions if the incentives sought will assist the addition of plant production capacity for the eligible...

  15. Ethanol production in China: Potential and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shi-Zhong; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Rising oil demand in China has resulted in surging oil imports and mounting environmental pollution. It is projected that by 2030 the demand for fossil fuel oil will be 250 million tons. Ethanol seems to be an attractive renewable alternative to fossil fuel. This study assesses China's ethanol supply potential by examining potential non-food crops as feedstock; emerging conversion technologies; and cost competitiveness. Results of this study show that sweet sorghum among all the non-food feedstocks has the greatest potential. It grows well on the available marginal lands and the ASSF technology when commercialized will shorten the fermentation time which will lower the costs. Other emerging technologies such as improved saccharification and fermentation; and cellulosic technologies will make China more competitive in ethanol production in the future. Based on the estimated available marginal lands for energy crop production and conversion yields of the potential feedstocks, the most likely and optimistic production levels are 19 and 50 million tons of ethanol by 2020. In order to achieve those levels, the roadmap for China is to: select the non-food feedstock most suitable to grow on the available marginal land; provide funding to support the high priority conversion technologies identified by the scientists; provide monetary incentives to new and poor farmers to grow the feedstocks to revitalize rural economy; less market regulation and gradual reduction of subsidies to producers for industry efficiency; and educate consumers on the impact of fossil fuel on the environment to reduce consumption. Since the share of ethanol in the overall fuel demand is small, the impact of ethanol on lowering pollution and enhancing fuel security will be minimal. (author)

  16. Irregular incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicchetti, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Public utility regulation lacks a formal proxy for the economic profits that can be earned in an effectively competitive market if a firm is efficient or innovative. After all, public utility regulation operated on cost-plus basis. If a utility is efficient or innovative and lowers its costs, its typical reward is to have its rates reduced. This is a perverse incentive to motivate a utility to produce at the most efficient level. In addition, since regulation operates on this cost-plus basis, a utility can increase its net income, all other things being equal, by overinvesting in (or open-quotes gold-platingclose quotes) its system, another perverse incentive. Recognizing these flaws of regulation, academicians, utility executives, regulators, and legislators have tried over the last several years to implement incentive regulation plans that correct such perverse incentives. However, under many of the earnings-sharing or price-regulation incentive plans, the rewards for efficient production are not tied directly to measures under a company's control. In fact, such plans could prove highly detrimental to ratepayers and competitors of the regulated company and its affiliates. An incentive regulation plan that ties an appropriate reward for efficient production to specific efficiency gains is a better proxy of an effectively competitive environment. What's more, it is superior to an incentive plan that rewards circumstances beyond the company's control or self-serving manipulation. This is particularly true if no earnings cap is associated with the reward for efficiency. Rewards for efficient production should be tied to specific actions. A suitable incentive plan does not preclude appropriately derived flexible prices for certain products or services where warranted

  17. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace....

  18. Integrated Process for Extraction of Wax as a Value-Added Co-Product and Improved Ethanol Production by Converting Both Starch and Cellulosic Components in Sorghum Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain sorghum is a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production due to its high starch content, which is equivalent to that of corn, and has been successfully used in several commercial corn ethanol plants in the United States. Some sorghum grain varieties contain significant levels of surface wax, which may interact with enzymes and make them less efficient toward starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, wax can be recovered as a valuable co-product and as such may help improve the overall process economics. Sorghum grains also contain lignocellulosic materials in the hulls, which can be converted to additional ethanol. An integrated process was developed, consisting of the following steps: 1. Extraction of wax with boiling ethanol, which is the final product of the proposed process; 2. Pretreatment of the dewaxed grains with dilute sulfuric acid; 3. Mashing and fermenting of the pretreated grains to produce ethanol. During the fermentation, commercial cellulase was also added to release fermentable sugars from the hulls, which then were converted to additional ethanol. The advantages of the developed process were illustrated with the following results: (1 Wax extracted (determined by weight loss: ~0.3 wt % of total mass. (2 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using raw grains: 86.1 g/L. (3 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed grains: 106.2 g/L (23.3% improvement. (4 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed and acid-treated grains (1 wt % H2SO4 plus cellulase (CTec2: 117.8 g/L (36.8% improvement.

  19. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries to...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace.......How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...

  20. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  1. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  2. Systems biology and pathway engineering enable Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize C-5 and C-6 sugars simultaneously for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional industrial workhorse for ethanol production. However, conventional ethanologenic yeast is superior in fermentation of hexose sugars (C-6) such as glucose but unable to utilize pentose sugars (C-5) such as xylose richly embedded in lignocellulosic biomass. In...

  3. Effect of cellulosic sugar degradation products (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were performed to identify chemicals present in wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) that enhance acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) productivity. These chemicals were identified as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Control experiment resulted in the production of 21.09-21.66 gL**-1 ABE with a ...

  4. Recent updates on lignocellulosic biomass derived ethanol - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic (or cellulosic biomass derived ethanol is the most promising near/long term fuel candidate. In addition, cellulosic biomass derived ethanol may serve a precursor to other fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from unsustainable sources and/or are proposed to be derived from cellulosic biomass. However, the processing cost for second generation ethanol is still high to make the process commercially profitable and replicable. In this review, recent trends in cellulosic biomass ethanol derived via biochemical route are reviewed with main focus on current research efforts that are being undertaken to realize high product yields/titers and bring the overall cost down.

  5. Structural differences of xylans affect their interaction with cellulose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Borne, van den H.; Vincken, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The affinity of xylan to cellulose is an important aspect of many industrial processes, e.g. production of cellulose, paper making and bio-ethanol production. However, little is known about the adsorption of structurally different xylans to cellulose. Therefore, the adsorption of various xylans to

  6. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda. A Research Roadmap Resulting from the Biomass to Biofuels Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-30

    A robust fusion of the agricultural, industrial biotechnology, and energy industries can create a new strategic national capability for energy independence and climate protection. In his State of the Union Address (*Bush 2006), President George W. Bush outlined the Advanced Energy Initiative, which seeks to reduce our national dependence on imported oil by accelerating the development of domestic,renewable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels. The president has set a national goal of developing cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources to substantially replace oil imports in the coming years.Fuels derived from cellulosic biomass—the fibrous, woody, and generally inedible portions of plant matter—offer one such alternative to conventional energy sources that can dramatically impact national economic growth, national energy security, and environmental goals. Cellulosic biomass is an attractive energy feedstock because it is an abundant, domestic, renewable source that can be converted to liquid transportation fuels.These fuels can be used readily by current-generation vehicles and distributed through the existing transportation-fuel infrastructure.

  7. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  8. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  9. Processing of cellulose for the advancement of biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brian James

    2011-12-01

    -like cellulose nanostructures suggested the presence of intra and interpolymer hydrogen bonding. Characterization of the hydrogen bonding network by Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) indicated the gel-like material formed by ethanol washes was the result of heterogeneous interpolymer hydrogen bond cross-links. The interactions leading to gel-like materials were evaluated using Hansen solubility parameters, which predicted mixtures of ethanol and water may be most effective for disrupting cellulose nanostructure. Fractal analysis by SANS indicated 40 % ethanol/water was most effective. Similar results were obtained when 40 % ethanol was used to disrupt the cellulose nanostructure in municipal office waste (MOW). Ethanol washes increased the degradability of MOW by at least 30 % relative to conventional water washing. This is significant because increased degradability of MOW could further the development of cellulosic biofuels by reducing the amount of enzyme required to digest the material.

  10. A techno-economic evaluation of the effects of centralized cellulosic ethanol and co-products refinery options with sugarcane mill clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Joaquim E.A.; Tao, Ling; Chum, Helena L.; Macedo, Isaias C.

    2010-01-01

    This work compares the calculated techno-economic performance for thermochemical and biochemical conversion of sugarcane residues, considering future conversion plants adjacent to sugarcane mills in Brazil. Process models developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory were adapted to reflect the Brazilian feedstock composition and used to estimate the cost and performance of these two conversion technologies. Models assumed that surplus bagasse from the mill would be used as the feedstock for conversion, while cane trash collected from the field would be used as supplementary fuel at the mill. The integration of the conversion technology to the mill enabled an additional ethanol production of 0.033 m 3 per tonne of cane for the biochemical process and 0.025 m 3 t -1 of cane plus 0.004 m 3 t -1 of cane of higher alcohols for the thermochemical process. For both cases, electricity is an important co-product for the biorefinery, but especially for biochemical conversion, with surpluses of about 50 kWh t -1 of cane. The economic performance of the two technologies is quite similar in terms of the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP), at 318 $ m -3 (United States 2007 dollars) for biochemical conversion and 329 $ m -3 for thermochemical conversion. (author)

  11. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.; Ibsen, K.; McAloon, A.; Yee, W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation. Although none of the scenarios identified could produce ethanol at lower cost than a straight grain ethanol plant, several were lower cost than a straight cellulosic ethanol plant.

  12. Analysis of a Modern Hybrid and an Ancient Sugarcane Implicates a Complex Interplay of Factors in Affecting Recalcitrance to Cellulosic Ethanol Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Guzzo de Carli Poelking

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence exists to support a role for lignin as an important element in biomass recalcitrance. However, several independent studies have also shown that factors apart from lignin are also relevant and overall, the relative importance of different recalcitrance traits remains in dispute. In this study we used two genetically distant sugarcane genotypes, and performed a correlational study with the variation in anatomical parameters, cell wall composition, and recalcitrance factors between these genotypes. In addition we also tracked alterations in these characteristics in internodes at different stages of development. Significant differences in the development of the culm between the genotypes were associated with clear differential distributions of lignin content and composition that were not correlated with saccharification and fermentation yield. Given the strong influence of the environment on lignin content and composition, we hypothesized that sampling within a single plant could allow us to more easily interpret recalcitrance and changes in lignin biosynthesis than analysing variations between different genotypes with extensive changes in plant morphology and culm anatomy. The syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio was higher in the oldest internode of the modern genotype, but S/G ratio was not correlated with enzymatic hydrolysis yield nor fermentation efficiency. Curiously we observed a strong positive correlation between ferulate ester level and cellulose conversion efficiency. Together, these data support the hypothesis that biomass enzymatic hydrolysis recalcitrance is governed by a quantitative heritage rather than a single trait.

  13. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one

  14. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  15. Cellulose is not just cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Felby, Claus; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2012-01-01

    Most secondary plant cell walls contain irregular regions known as dislocations or slip planes. Under industrial biorefining conditions dislocations have recently been shown to play a key role during the initial phase of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in plant cell walls. In this review we...... chart previous publications that have discussed the structure of dislocations and their susceptibility to hydrolysis. The supramolecular structure of cellulose in dislocations is still unknown. However, it has been shown that cellulose microfibrils continue through dislocations, i.e. dislocations...... are not regions where free cellulose ends are more abundant than in the bulk cell wall. In more severe cases cracks between fibrils form at dislocations and it is possible that the increased accessibility that these cracks give is the reason why hydrolysis of cellulose starts at these locations. If acid...

  16. Comparing the fermentation performance of Escherichia coli KO11, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST and Zymomonas mobilis AX101 for cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermentations using Escherichia coli KO11, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST, and Zymomonas mobilis AX101 are compared side-by-side on corn steep liquor (CSL media and the water extract and enzymatic hydrolysate from ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX-pretreated corn stover. Results The three ethanologens are able produce ethanol from a CSL-supplemented co-fermentation at a metabolic yield, final concentration and rate greater than 0.42 g/g consumed sugars, 40 g/L and 0.7 g/L/h (0-48 h, respectively. Xylose-only fermentation of the tested ethanologenic bacteria are five to eight times faster than 424A(LNH-ST in the CSL fermentation. All tested strains grow and co-ferment sugars at 15% w/v solids loading equivalent of ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX-pretreated corn stover water extract. However, both KO11 and 424A(LNH-ST exhibit higher growth robustness than AX101. In 18% w/w solids loading lignocellulosic hydrolysate from AFEX pretreatment, complete glucose fermentations can be achieved at a rate greater than 0.77 g/L/h. In contrast to results from fermentation in CSL, S. cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST consumed xylose at the greatest extent and rate in the hydrolysate compared to the bacteria tested. Conclusions Our results confirm that glucose fermentations among the tested strains are effective even at high solids loading (18% by weight. However, xylose consumption in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is the major bottleneck affecting overall yield, titer or rate of the process. In comparison, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST is the most relevant strains for industrial production for its ability to ferment both glucose and xylose from undetoxified and unsupplemented hydrolysate from AFEX-pretreated corn stover at high yield.

  17. Nitrogen Containing Organosilicon Bonded an Al2O3-Cellulose Acetate Hybrid Material: Preparation, Characterization and Use for Adsorption of Fe(III, Cu(II and Zn(II from Ethanol Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarin Angélica M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation and characterization of a cellulose acetate fiber coated with Al2O3, resulting in the organic-inorganic hybrid Cella/Al2O3. Furthermore, it was modified by attaching organofunctional groups, by reaction with the precursor reagents (RO3Si(CH23L (L = -NH2, NH(CH22NH2, NH(CH22NH(CH2 2NH2 and NC3H3N, resulting in Cella/Al2O3/Si(CH2 3NH2 (1, Cella/Al2O3/Si(CH2 3NH(CH22NH2 (2, Cella/Al2O3/Si(CH 23NH(CH22 NH(CH22NH2 (3 and Cella/Al2O3/Si(CH2 3NC3H3N (imidazole (4. The amount of attached organofunctional groups were (in mmol per gram of the material: 1 = 1.90, 2 = 1.89, 3 = 1.66 and 4 = 1.35. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol solutions of FeCl3, CuCl2 and ZnCl2 by Cella/Al2O3/Si(CH2 3L were obtained at 298 K. The results obtained in flow experiments showed a retention and recovery of ca. 100% of the metal ions by Cella/Al2O3/Si(CH2 3L packed in a column, for a solution containing either one or mixture of the ions.

  18. Ligno cellulosic-ethanol : a second opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zessen, van E.; Weismann, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; Reith, J.H.; Uil, den H.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now renewable energy sources are primarily used in the Netherlands for electricity production. At the end of the past decade the GAVE programme was launched to facilitate the introduction of climate neutral gaseous and liquid fuels. A comprehensive study by ADL evaluated a large number of

  19. Bio Diesel Cellulosic Ethanol Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, Edward A. [County of Hendry, FL (United States); Capece, John C. [County of Hendry, FL (United States); McAvoy, Eugene [County of Hendry, FL (United States); Hodges, Alan Wayne [County of Hendry, FL (United States); Shukla, Sanjay [County of Hendry, FL (United States); Ozores-Hamilton, Monica [County of Hendry, FL (United States); Gilbert, Rob [County of Hendry, FL (United States); Wright, Alan [County of Hendry, FL (United States); Baucum, L. [County of Hendry, FL (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The objective of the project is to create the Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center and initiate its research, development, and education programs. The mission is to develop engineering and economic assessment methods to evaluate the natural resources impacts of biomass farming and fuel conversion systems; provide sustainability assessments of specific biofuels productions proposals; develop biomass farming and fuel conversion systems that are compatible with south Florida ecosystem restoration priorities; create ecosystem services opportunities and structures to diversify farm income; monitor the range of research and development activities necessary to the creation of sutstainable biofuels production systems in south Florida, identify gaps in the regional research, and assist in the development and coordination of additional projects to fill out the required knowledge base; prepare the workforce of southwest Florida for employment in biofuels related professions; and assist businesses & governmental design and realize sustainable biofuels projects.

  20. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice....... The main insights stem from a trade-off between ‘good monetary incentives' and ‘good reputational incentives'. We show that the principal optimally designs contracts to create ambiguity about agents' abilities. This may make it optimal to contract on relative performance measures, even though the extant...... rationales for such schemes are absent. Linking the structure of contracts to organizational design, we show that it can be optimal for the principal to adopt an opaque organization where performance is not verifiable, despite the constraints that this imposes on contracts....

  1. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    against incentives • Gerald Ledford and Barry Gerhart in “Negative Effects of Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation : More Smoke Than Fire” argue...undermine intrinsic motivation making the incentive effect much more powerful than if it relies on extrinsic motivation alone Proposed Approach...with opportunities to innovate that can enhance intrinsic motivation • A notional approach for incentives that are tied to the achievement of cost

  2. Delegation and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Krähmer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between authority and incentives. It extends the standard principal--agent model by a project selection stage in which the principal can either delegate the choice of project to the agent or keep the authority. The agent's subsequent choice of effort depends both on monetary incentives and the selected project. We find that the consideration of effort incentives makes the principal less likely to delegate the authority over projects to the agent. In fact, if t...

  3. Cellulose Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenler, John; Nye, Leith; Tangen, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Production of liquid fuels such as ethanol from fibrous plant biomass could potentially be a significant sustainable component of the U.S. energy portfolio. Engineers and scientists are actively researching this area, and high school students can engage in this contemporary inquiry process by experimenting with different types of biomass, varying…

  4. Incentive drilling contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moomjian, C.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Incentive drilling contracts historically have been based on the footage and turnkey concepts. Because these concepts have not been used widely in the international and offshore arenas, this paper discusses other innovative approaches to incentive contracts. Case studies of recently completed or current international and offshore contracts are presented to describe incentive projects based on a performance bonus (Case 1), lump sum per well (Case 2), target time and cap for a specified hole section (Case 3), and per-well target time (Case 4). This paper concludes with a review and comparison of the case studies and a general discussion of factors that produce successful innovative incentive programs that enhance drilling efficiency

  5. Scale up of ethanol production using pulp mill wastewater sludge by cellulase and saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchada Sangasintu; Petchporn Chawakitchareon

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of pulp mill wastewater sludge as substrate in ethanol production. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was conducted by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5339 under optimum proportion of cellulase and pulp mill wastewater sludge. The ethanol production from cellulosic materials in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation needs cooperation between cellulase and yeast. The cellulase hydrolyzes cellulose to sugar while yeast utilizes sugar to produce ethanol. The pulp mill wastewater sludge has an average content of 73.3 % hemi cellulose, 67.1 % alpha cellulose, 4.7 % beta cellulose and 1.4 % gamma cellulose. The experimental results indicated that the volume of the ethanol tend to increase with time, providing the maximum ethanol yield of 0.69 g/g on the 7 th day, the last day of the experiment. The ethanol production was scaled up in 5 L fermentor under optimum proportion and increased the fermentation period. It was found that the ethanol production gave the maximum ethanol yield of 1.14 g/g on the 9 th day of the totally 13 days experimentation. These results showed that the cellulose from pulp mill wastewater sludge was as effective substrate for ethanol production and alternative energy for the future. (author)

  6. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  7. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  8. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  9. Cellulose Perversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H. Godinho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose micro/nano-fibers can be produced by electrospinning from liquid crystalline solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM and polarizing optical microscopy (POM measurements showed that cellulose-based electrospun fibers can curl and twist, due to the presence of an off-core line defect disclination, which was present when the fibers were prepared. This permits the mimicking of the shapes found in many systems in the living world, e.g., the tendrils of climbing plants, three to four orders of magnitude larger. In this work, we address the mechanism that is behind the spirals’ and helices’ appearance by recording the trajectories of the fibers toward diverse electrospinning targets. The intrinsic curvature of the system occurs via asymmetric contraction of an internal disclination line, which generates different shrinkages of the material along the fiber. The completely different instabilities observed for isotropic and anisotropic electrospun solutions at the exit of the needle seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the intrinsic curvature of the material is acquired during liquid crystalline sample processing inside the needle. The existence of perversions, which joins left and right helices, is also investigated by using suspended, as well as flat, targets. Possible routes of application inspired from the living world are addressed.

  10. Automated Yeast Transformation Protocol to Engineer S. cerevisiae Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production with Open Reading Frames that Express Proteins Binding to Xylose Isomerase Identified using Robotic Two-hybrid Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has focused on engineering the glucose-fermenting industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize pentose sugars. Since S. cerevisiae naturally metabolizes xylulose, one approach involves introducing xylose isomerase (XI...

  11. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Coculture fermentation of banana agro-waste to ethanol by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... biomass feed stocks into liquid fuels such as ethanol. In the current trend, ethanol produced from biomass is the most widely used biofuel when blended with gasoline. Conventional techniques to achieve bioconversion include acid or enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose followed by fermentation of the resulting ...

  13. Aligning ambition and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    2011-01-01

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice....... The main insights stem from a trade-off between ‘good monetary incentives’ and ‘good reputational incentives’. We show that the principal optimally designs contracts to create ambiguity about agents’ abilities. This may make it optimal to contract on relative performance measures, even though the extant...... rationales for such schemes are absent. Linking the structure of contracts to organizational design, we show that it can be optimal for the principal to adopt an opaque organization where performance is not verifiable, despite the constraints that this imposes on contracts....

  14. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  15. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report, September 1, 1979-May 15, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, H.D. Jr.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    Reseach progress is reported for the period September, 1979 to May, 1980. Studies on the mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms fermenting cellulose to various products (ethanol, acetate, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and methane) are summarized. (ACR)

  16. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic and process engineering of Clostridium cellulovorans for biofuel production from cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorui; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-11-01

    Production of cellulosic biofuels has drawn increasing attention. However, currently no microorganism can produce biofuels, particularly butanol, directly from cellulosic biomass efficiently. Here we engineered a cellulolytic bacterium, Clostridium cellulovorans, for n-butanol and ethanol production directly from cellulose by introducing an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2), which converts butyryl-CoA to n-butanol and acetyl-CoA to ethanol. The engineered strain was able to produce 1.42 g/L n-butanol and 1.60 g/L ethanol directly from cellulose. Moreover, the addition of methyl viologen as an artificial electron carrier shifted the metabolic flux from acid production to alcohol production, resulting in a high biofuel yield of 0.39 g/g from cellulose, comparable to ethanol yield from corn dextrose by yeast fermentation. This study is the first metabolic engineering of C. cellulovorans for n-butanol and ethanol production directly from cellulose with significant titers and yields, providing a promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) platform for biofuel production from cellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  19. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...

  20. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  1. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  2. Characterization of cellulose nanowhiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Nayra R.; Pinheiro, Ivanei F.; Morales, Ana R.; Ravagnani, Sergio P.; Mei, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer earth. The cellulose nanowhiskers can be extracted from the cellulose. These have attracted attention for its use in nanostructured materials for various applications, such as nanocomposites, because they have peculiar characteristics, among them, high aspect ratio, biodegradability and excellent mechanical properties. This work aims to characterize cellulose nanowhiskers from microcrystalline cellulose. Therefore, these materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to assess the degree of crystallinity, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to the morphology of nanowhiskers and thermal stability was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). (author)

  3. Acoustic Properties of Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Cellulose is the oldest material for thermal insulation in construction field. Thomas Jefferson was the first architect that used the cellulose in his project of the Monticello house (1800). But only after 1945 that the cellulose from newsprint was used across America and northern Europe. In the 70s with the energy crisis it Austria, Czech Republic, Switzerland and Germany began the production of cellulose derived from paper newspapers. It used for both winter and summer thermal insulation, while respecting the environment. In this paper are reported acoustic measurements carried out with the tube of Kundt, with the cellulose melted and with glue with different thicknesses.

  4. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  5. Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on cellulose synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on cellulose production by Acetobacter lovaniensis HBB5 was examined. In this study, glucose, fructose, sucrose and ethanol as carbon source and yeast extract, casein hydrolysate and ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source were used. Among the carbon sources, ...

  6. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    . In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings...

  7. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Cardoso, Vanessa M.; Mori, Manoel N.; Duarte, Celina L.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  8. Use of lignocellulosic biomass to produce ethanol. Aprovechamiento de la biomasa lignocelulosica para la produccion de etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Gasohol is an automobile fuel with 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline used in USA. A 20/80% mixture is also used in Brasil. Lignocellulosic biomass can be a source to produce ethanol. It is a mixture of cellulose (30%), Memicellulose (32%), lignine (17%) and other (13%). The fundamentals of the ethanol production process are presented. (Author)

  9. Respect as an Incentive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees' further effort, the duration of relationships, and the profits of employers. Furthermore, we study whether employers......' decisions to give symbolic rewards are driven by strategic considerations, by manipulating the bargaining power of employers and employees.  We find that employers make use of symbolic rewards and chiefly to express their satisfaction with the employee.  Indeed, symbolic rewards are more frequently used......, the opportunity of expressing respect does not improve efficiency compared with an environment in which it does not exist, possibly due to a crowding-out of extrinsic incentives by the availability of non-monetary incentives....

  10. Incentives and moral hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the unique contractual arrangement between a large Ethiopian sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. The only significant difference between the sugarcane production on the factory-operated sugarcane plantation and on the outgrower-operated plots is the remuneration...... system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of these two production schemes using a cross-sectional plot-level data set. As sugarcane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g., soil type, cane variety, etc.), we......-operated plots have-ceteris paribus-a statistically and economically significantly higher productivity than factory-operated plots, which can be explained by outgrowers having stronger incentives to put more effort into their work than the employees of the sugar factory....

  11. Risk management versus incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, E.; Lovas, K.; Osmundsen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Portfolio theory indicates that risk management should take place at the group level. Hedging at the project level or in the individual business areas may lead to suboptimal results. However, the efficiency of a profit centre depends on its management's being able to influence factors that are crucial to the unit's financial results. Price hedging could be one such factor. In the wider perspective, this constitutes part of the balancing between centralisation and decentralisation. This article covers important elements of risk management and incentive design. It goes on to discuss the balancing of overall risk management at the group level and incentive design in profit centres and corporate units. Throughout the article, the oil industry serves as a case. (author)

  12. Potential of giant reed (Arundo donax L. for second generation ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernanda Lemons e Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The fermentability of the pretreated biomass was performed successfully through the conception of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation resulting in approximately 75 L of ethanol per ton of cellulose.

  13. Industry Related Financial Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-29

    insurance is loss "realry" for middle managers. Does not participate in insurance mutual pacts. -CE 53HT Propoerty rnsurance nandied by off- snore captive [ E...incentives. Preparedness activities had the greatest impact on production interruption. Goodyear explained that sound , well rehearsed emergency plans and...response activities followed a pattern similar to preparedness activities. The experts determined that sound response procedures and proper response

  14. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  15. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  16. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  17. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  18. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose from triacetate of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Baudrit, Jose; Sibaja, Maria; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Rivera A, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    It was carried-out a study for the synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose starting from cellulose triacetate. X-rays diffraction was used in order to obtain the cellulose crystallinity degree, also infrared spectroscopy FTIR was used. (author)

  20. Cellulose-silica aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-05-20

    Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  2. Ethanol production from wet oxidized corn straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q.; Yin, Y.; Thygesen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    remained in the solid fraction and recovery of cellulose was 95.87% after pretreatment. After 24 h hydrolysis at 50°C using cellulase, the achieved conversion of cellulose to glucose was about 67.6%. After 142 h of SSF with substrate concentration of 8%, ethanol yield of 79.0% of the theoretical......In order to find out the appropriate process for ethanol production from corn straw, alkaline wet-oxidation pretreatment (195°C, 15 min, Na2CO3 2 g/L, O2 1200 kPa) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were adopted to produce ethanol. The results showed that 90% of cellulose...... was obtained. The estimated total ethanol production was 262.7 kg/t raw material by assuming the consumption of both C-6 and C-5. No obvious inhibition effect occurred during SSF. These offered experiment evidences for ethanol production from corn straw....

  3. Expanded ethanol production: Implications for agriculture, water demand, and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G.; He, Lixia; Jensen, Kimberly L.; English, Burton C.

    2010-01-01

    Feedstock production for large scale development of the U.S. ethanol industry and introduction of cellulose-to-ethanol technology will require extensive changes in land use and field management. Hence, this production will likely have significant impact on water demand and quality. This study compares two 'what if' scenarios for attaining a 227.1 hm 3 of ethanol by 2030 and 3.8 hm 3 of biodiesel by 2012. In the first scenario cellulose-to-ethanol technology is introduced in 2012, while in the second scenario the technology is delayed until 2015. Results show that the timing of introduction of cellulose-to-ethanol technology will affect the water use and water quality related input use in primarily in the eastern part of the nation. Results also suggest policy emphasis on reduced and no-till practices needs to be complementary to increased crop residue use. (author)

  4. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  5. Biogen to produce diagnostic tests, vaccines and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-11

    In addition to its work on pharmaceuticals and veterinary products, Europe's largest biotechnology company, Biogen, is reported to be working on the production of ethanol from biomass. The process, based on two strains of clostridia bacteria, can convert both the cellulose and hemicellulose of agricultural wastes to ethanol. Biogen is also studying the production of basic chemicals, such as acetic acid, acetone and butane from cellulosic biomass and is looking at various types of organisms to effect low cost chemical conversions.

  6. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Jones, Cecil L; Baker, Gary A; Xia, Shuqian; Olubajo, Olarongbe; Person, Vernecia N

    2009-01-01

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs) were found capable of dissolving more than 10wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904-910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432-2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137-140, 407-421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and non-volatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. approximately 70 degrees C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58-75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result

  7. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  8. Incentives for students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of certificates and deadlines on student performance. It exploits time lags in reforms of two similar degree programs at a business school, which create quasi-experimental settings. Students’ performance is found to increase if certificates are awarded to them early...... in their program. Deadlines to pass exams prevent them from submitting blank sheets to fail and resit exams. Both effects are stronger among average students compared to high-ability or low-ability students. These findings show that the policies that govern degree programs can create incentives for students...

  9. Smart Cellulose Fibers Coated with Carbon Nanotube Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisong Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between MWCNT networks and cellulose fiber was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The piezoresistivity of these fibers for strain sensing was investigated. The MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers exhibited a unique linear strain-dependent electrical resistance change up to 18% strain, with good reversibility and repeatability. In addition, the sensing behavior of these fibers to volatile molecules (including vapors of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran was investigated. The results revealed a rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for these chemical vapors. Besides, they showed good selectivity to different vapors. It is suggested that the intrinsic physical and chemical features of cellulose fiber, well-formed MWCNT networks and favorable MWCNT-cellulose interaction caused the unique and excellent sensing ability of the MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers, which have the potential to be used as smart materials.

  10. Voluntary Separation Incentive Anniversary Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    The overall audit objective was to determine whether the Voluntary Separation Incentive Trust Fund's FY 1994 financial statements were presented fairly in accordance with generally accepted accounting...

  11. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  12. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  13. Perspectives on fuel ethanol consumption and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Borges da Cunha, Kamyla [State University of Campinas - Unicamp (FEM and NIPE), P.O. Box 6122, 13081-970 Campinas (Brazil); Rosillo-Calle, Frank [ICCEPT, Imperial College London, Room 4.02 RSM Building, Prince Consort Road, Kensington Campus, London SW 7 2 BP (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Since the year 2000 or so there has been a rapid growth on fuel ethanol production and consumption, particularly in US and Brazil. Ethanol trade represented about 10% of world consumption in 2005, Brazil being the main exporter. The most important consumer markets - US and European Union (EU) - have trade regimes that constrained the comparative advantages of the most efficient producers, such as Brazil. This paper evaluates the fuel ethanol market up to 2030 together with the potential for international biotrade. Based on forecasts of gasoline consumption and on targets and mandates of fuel ethanol use, it is estimated that demand could reach 272 Gl in 2030, displacing 10% of the estimated demand of gasoline (Scenario 1), or even 566 Gl in the same year, displacing about 20% of the gasoline demand (Scenario 2). The analysis considers fuel ethanol consumption and production in US, EU-25, Japan, China, Brazil and the rest of the world (ROW-BR). Without significant production of ethanol from cellulosic materials in this period, displacing 10% of the gasoline demand in 2030, at reasonable cost, can only be accomplished by fostering fuel ethanol production in developing countries and enhancing ethanol trade. If the US and EU-25 reach their full production potential (based on conventional routes), the minimum amount that could be traded in 2030 would be about 34 Gl. Displacing 20% of the gasoline demand by 2030 will require the combined development of second-generation technologies and large-scale international trade in ethanol fuel. Without second-generation technologies, Scenario 2 could become a reality only with large-scale production of ethanol from sugarcane in developing countries, e.g., Brazil and ROW-BR could be able to export at least 14.5 Gl in 2010, 73.9 Gl in 2020 and 71.8 Gl in 2030. (author)

  14. Perspectives on fuel ethanol consumption and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Borges da Cunha, Kamyla; Rosillo-Calle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Since the year 2000 or so there has been a rapid growth on fuel ethanol production and consumption, particularly in US and Brazil. Ethanol trade represented about 10% of world consumption in 2005, Brazil being the main exporter. The most important consumer markets - US and European Union (EU) - have trade regimes that constrained the comparative advantages of the most efficient producers, such as Brazil. This paper evaluates the fuel ethanol market up to 2030 together with the potential for international biotrade. Based on forecasts of gasoline consumption and on targets and mandates of fuel ethanol use, it is estimated that demand could reach 272 Gl in 2030, displacing 10% of the estimated demand of gasoline (Scenario 1), or even 566 Gl in the same year, displacing about 20% of the gasoline demand (Scenario 2). The analysis considers fuel ethanol consumption and production in US, EU-25, Japan, China, Brazil and the rest of the world (ROW-BR). Without significant production of ethanol from cellulosic materials in this period, displacing 10% of the gasoline demand in 2030, at reasonable cost, can only be accomplished by fostering fuel ethanol production in developing countries and enhancing ethanol trade. If the US and EU-25 reach their full production potential (based on conventional routes), the minimum amount that could be traded in 2030 would be about 34 Gl. Displacing 20% of the gasoline demand by 2030 will require the combined development of second-generation technologies and large-scale international trade in ethanol fuel. Without second-generation technologies, Scenario 2 could become a reality only with large-scale production of ethanol from sugarcane in developing countries, e.g., Brazil and ROW-BR could be able to export at least 14.5 Gl in 2010, 73.9 Gl in 2020 and 71.8 Gl in 2030. (author)

  15. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  16. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  17. Financial incentives and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Incentives and moral hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard

    . As sugar-cane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g. soil type, cane variety, etc.), we estimate the production function by a nonparametric kernel regression method that takes into account both continuous and categorical explanatory variables......We investigate the unique contractual arrangement between a large Ethiopian sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. The only significant difference between the sugarcane production on the factory-operated sugarcane plantation and on the outgrower-operated plots is the remuneration...... system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of the factory-operated plantation with the outgrower-operated plots based on a new cross-sectional plot-level data set that includes all plots that are operated by the sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations...

  19. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  20. Getting to Yes or Bailing on No: The Site Selection Process of Ethanol Plants in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Leann M.; Noble, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of ethanol location rest on the assumption that ethanol producers are economic free agents--evaluating sites as if all counties are contenders for their business, weighing the availability of feedstocks along with their infrastructure needs, operating without ties to localities, and being subject to enticement from policy incentives.…

  1. Technology and economics of conversion of cellulose (wood) and corn starch to sugars, alcohol and yeast. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolnak, B.

    1978-08-01

    The present status of the technology and economics for the production of glucose, alcohol, and yeast from cellulose (wood), corn starch, and molasses is analyzed. The basic processes for producing glucose and the factors affecting the economics of its production are reviewed. The costs of producing ethanol and yeast from the glucose are derived. Market availability of glucose, ethanol, and yeast is surveyed. (JSR)

  2. Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain Pretreated by Dilute Phosphoric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Chamorro, José A.; Cara, Cristóbal; Romero, Inmaculada

    2018-01-01

    of both pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis together recovered 92% of total sugars in BSG, mainly solubilized in the prehydrolysate (63%). Escherichia coli SL100 fermented this mixed sugar solution containing hemicellulosic sugars and starchy glucose without previous detoxification with an ethanol yield...... of 0.40 g/g. Considering also the glucose released from the cellulosic structure and converted to ethanol by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process, an overall ethanol yield of 17.9 g of ethanol per 100 g of raw BSG was achieved. Thereby, the process configuration proposed...... in this work allowed 69% of the total sugars in the BSG to be converted to ethanol....

  3. Engineering microorganisms to increase ethanol production by metabolic redirection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Olson, Daniel G.; van Dijken, Johannes Pieter; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Argyros, Aaron; Barrett, Trisha; Caiazza, Nicky; Herring, Christopher D.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Agbogbo, Frank

    2017-10-31

    The present invention provides for the manipulation of carbon flux in a recombinant host cell to increase the formation of desirable products. The invention relates to cellulose-digesting organisms that have been genetically modified to allow the production of ethanol at a high yield by redirecting carbon flux at key steps of central metabolism.

  4. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  5. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  6. Evaluation of ethanol production from pito mash using Zymomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNS) method, while analysis of ethanol content was performed using gas chromatography. Pito mash recorded total starch content of 6.69%, reducing sugar content of 11.1 mg ml-1 and cellulose content of 0.41 mg g-1. Saccharification by malting ...

  7. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase the monomeric sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis and it has been observed that the addition of these surfactants contributed significantly in cellulosic conversion but no effect was shown on hemicellulosic hydrolysis. Fermentability of hydrolyzate was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol RedTM and it ...

  8. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  9. Cellulose fermentation by nitrogen-fixing anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canale-Parola, E.

    1992-12-13

    In anaerobic natural environments cellulose is degraded to methane, carbon dioxide and other products by the combined activities of many diverse microorganisms. We are simulating processes occurring in natural environments by constructing biologically-defined, stable, heterogeneous bacterial communities (consortia) that we use as in vitro systems for quantitative studies of cellulose degradation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation. These studies include the investigation of (i) metabolic interactions among members of cellulose-degrading microbial populations, and (ii) processes that regulate the activity or biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, we are studying the sensory mechanisms that, in natural environments, may enable motile cellulolytic bacteria to migrate toward cellulose. This part of our work includes biochemical characterization of the cellobiose chemoreceptor of cellulolytic bacteria. Finally, an important aspect of our research is the investigation of the mechanisms by which multienzyme complexes of anaerobic bacteria catalyze the depolymerization of crystalline cellulose and of other plant cell wall polysacchaddes. The research will provide fundamental information on the physiology and ecology of cellulose-fermenting, N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria, and on the intricate processes involved in C and N cycling in anaerobic environments. Furthermore, the information will be valuable for the development of practical applications, such as the conversion of plant biomass (e.g., agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) to automotive fuels such as ethanol.

  10. Incentives and Big E Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-11-01

    The kind of engagement industrial psychologists have shown can produce optimal performance relates more to a state of mind than to increasing participation in programs or motivating a workforce with financial incentives. In the context of quality improvement methodologies, the health promotion profession has yet to discover when, where and how large financial incentives should be and how they best fit in our processes. That is, there is no "standard work" for the use of extrinsic motivators. Yet, to argue against incentives given evidence to date has more to do with polemics than science.

  11. Product inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: are we running the reactions all wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme catalyzed deconstruction of cellulose to glucose is an important technology step in lignocellulose-to-ethanol processing as well as in the future biorefinery based production of novel products to replace fossil oil based chemistry. The main goals of the enzymatic biomass saccharification...... include high substrate conversion (maximal yields), maximal enzyme efficiency, maximal volumetric reactor productivity, minimal equipment investment, minimal size, and short reaction time. The classic batch type STR reactions used for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis prevent these goals to be fulfilled...

  12. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  13. Conversion of cellulosic fibers to mono-saccharides and lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    le Grand, F.

    1983-06-01

    A major obstacle to developing an economic conversion process for cellulosic materials is the tight interdispersal and bonding of lignin with the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions on the fibrous matrix. The process described in this paper has the following basic steps: mixing of acid catalyst with fibrous material; conversion of cellulose from the crystalline to an amorphous state; hydrolysis into simple sugars suitable for subsequent fermentation and distillation into fuel ethanol; recovery of by-products such as high-density syrup for animal feed and lignin for use as fuel for the process. A small laboratory-sized pilot plant is under construction and the process is subject to U.S. Patent Office applications Serial Nos. 295, 814 and 374, 949, assigned to the University of Florida at Gainesville. (Refs. 2).

  14. On the determination of crystallinity and cellulose content in plant fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Oddershede, Jette; Lilholt, Hans

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of cellulose crystallinity based on the sample crystallinity and the cellulose content in plant fibres was performed for samples of different origin. Strong acid hydrolysis was found superior to agricultural fibre analysis and comprehensive plant fibre analysis for a consistent...... determination of the cellulose content. Crystallinity determinations were based on X-ray powder diffraction methods using side-loaded samples in reflection (Bragg-Brentano) mode. Rietveld refinements based on the recently published crystal structure of cellulose I beta followed by integration of the crystalline...... and 60 - 70 g/ 100 g cellulose in wood based fibres. These findings are significant in relation to strong fibre composites and bio-ethanol production....

  15. MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF ABUNDANT BIOPOLYMERS: CELLULOSE AND CHITIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    Our research has dealt with seven major areas of investigation: i) characterization of cellulolytic members of microbial consortia, with special attention recently given to Clostridium phytofermentans, a bacterium that decomposes cellulose and produces uncommonly large amounts of ethanol, ii) investigations of the chitinase system of Cellulomonas uda; including the purification and characterization of ChiA, the major component of this enzyme system, iii) molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of the gene that encodes ChiA in C. uda, iv) biofilm formation by C. uda on nutritive surfaces, v) investigations of the effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, vi) studies of nitrogen metabolism in cellulolytic anaerobes, and vii) understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of Clostridium papyrosolvens. Also, progress toward completing the research of more recent projects is briefly summarized. Major accomplishments include: 1. Characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans, a cellulose-fermenting, ethanol-producing bacterium from forest soil. The characterization of a new cellulolytic species isolated from a cellulose-decomposing microbial consortium from forest soil was completed. This bacterium is remarkable for the high concentrations of ethanol produced during cellulose fermentation, typically more than twice the concentration produced by other species of cellulolytic clostridia. 2. Examination of the use of chitin as a source of carbon and nitrogen by cellulolytic microbes. We discovered that many cellulolytic anaerobes and facultative aerobes are able to use chitin as a source of both carbon and nitrogen. This major discovery expands our understanding of the biology of cellulose-fermenting bacteria and may lead to new applications for these microbes. 3. Comparative studies of the cellulase and chitinase systems of Cellulomonas uda. Results of these studies indicate

  16. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Smolin, Nikolai [ORNL; Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Bhandiwad, Ashwini [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  17. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  19. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  20. Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans requires less cellulases for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to products than mesophilic microbial biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mark S; Mohammed, Nazimuddin; Ingram, L O; Shanmugam, K T

    2009-05-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass depends on simultaneous saccharification of cellulose to glucose by fungal cellulases and fermentation of glucose to ethanol by microbial biocatalysts (SSF). The cost of cellulase enzymes represents a significant challenge for the commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable chemicals such as ethanol and monomers for plastics. The cellulase concentration for optimum SSF of crystalline cellulose with fungal enzymes and a moderate thermophile, Bacillus coagulans, was determined to be about 7.5 FPU g(-1) cellulose. This is about three times lower than the amount of cellulase required for SSF with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis, or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis whose growth and fermentation temperature optimum is significantly lower than that of the fungal cellulase activity. In addition, B. coagulans also converted about 80% of the theoretical yield of products from 40 g/L of crystalline cellulose in about 48 h of SSF with 10 FPU g(-1) cellulose while yeast, during the same period, only produced about 50% of the highest yield produced at end of 7 days of SSF. These results show that a match in the temperature optima for cellulase activity and fermentation is essential for decreasing the cost of cellulase in cellulosic ethanol production.

  1. The environmental benefits of cellulosic energy crops at a landscape scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; English, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops--particularly the cellulosic energy crops current under development. For this discussion, the term energy crop refers to a crop grown primarily to create feedstock for either making biofuels such as ethanol or burning in a heat or electricity generation facility. Cellulosic energy crops are designed to be used in cellulose-based ethanol conversion processes (as opposed to starch or sugar-based ethanol conversion processes). As more cellulose can be produced per hectare of land than can sugar or starch, the cellulose-based ethanol conversion process is a more efficient sue of land for ethanol production. Assessing the environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing cellulosic energy crops especially at the landscape or regional scale. However, to set the stage for this discussion, the authors begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  2. Incentives to promote family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  4. Utilization of agricultural wastes for production of ethanol. Progress report, October 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.

    1980-05-01

    The project proposes to develop methods to utilize agricultural wastes, especially cottonseed hulls and peanut shells to produce ethanol. Initial steps will involve development of methods to break down cellulose to a usable form of substrates for chemical or biological digestion. The process of ethanol production will consist of (a) preparatory step to separate fibrous (cellulose) and non-fibrous (non-cellulosic compounds). The non-cellulosic residues which may include grains, fats or other substrates for alcoholic fermentation. The fibrous residues will be first pre-treated to digest cellulose with acid, alkali, and sulfur dioxide gas or other solvents. (b) The altered cellulose will be digested by suitable micro-organisms and cellulose enzymes before alcoholic fermentation. The digester and fermentative unit will be specially designed to develop a prototype for pilot plant for a continuous process. The first phase of the project will be devoted toward screening of a suitable method for cellulose modification, separation of fibrous and non-fibrous residues, the micro-organism and enzyme preparations. Work is in progress on: the effects of various microorganisms on the degree of saccharification; the effects of higher concentrations of acids, alkali, and EDTA on efficiency of microbial degradation; and the effects of chemicals on enzymatic digestion.

  5. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  6. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  7. Do not trash the incentive! Monetary incentives and waste sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Montinari, N.; Piovesan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the pricing systems experienced during the 1999-2008 decade by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel

  8. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... by cellulases more than three times compared to the untreated control. During this wet oxidation, 51.7% of the hemicellulose and 58.3% of the lignin were solubilized, whereas 87.1% of the cellulose remained in the solids. After enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated fibers from the same treatment, the conversion...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  9. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, E.; Klinke, H.B.; Reczey, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degreesC, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50....../L) were present in the hemicellulose rich hydrolyzate at subinhibitory levels, thus no detoxification was needed prior to SSF of the whole slurry. Based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover 83% of the theoretical ethanol yield was obtained under optimized SSF conditions. This was achieved...... with a substrate concentration of 12% dry matter (DM) acidic WO corn stover at 30 FPU/g DM (43.5 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading. Even with 20 and 15 FPU/g DM (corresponding to 29 and 22 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading, ethanol yields of 76 and 73%, respectively, were obtained. After 120 h of SSF the highest...

  10. Acceleration of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cotton Waste Celluloses by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-competitive production of bio-ethanol and other biofuels is currently impeded, mostly by high cost and low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of feedstock biomass and especially plant celluloses. Despite substantial reduction in the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes in recent times...

  11. Pre-treatment of ligno-cellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.W.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Bakker, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting ligno-cellulosic biomass with 70% sulphuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulphuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective

  12. Lignocellulose pretreatment technologies affect the level of enzymatic cellulose oxidation by LPMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Cannella, David; de Campos Giordano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, and wheat straw are among the most available resources for production of cellulosic ethanol. For these biomasses we study the influence of pre-treatment methods on the chemical composition, as well as on the subsequent reactions of enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidation...

  13. Enzymatic Cellulose Hydrolysis: Enzyme Reusability and Visualization of beta-Glucosidase Immobilized in Calcium Alginate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Chien Tai; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    The high cellulase enzyme dosages required for hydrolysis of cellulose is a major cost challenge in lignocellulosic ethanol production. One method to decrease the enzyme dosage and increase biocatalytic productivity is to re-use beta-glucosidase (BG) via immobilization. In the present research...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Associated with Culm Cellulose Content in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful. We present results on the analysis of the stem cellulose content of 288 diverse wheat accessions and its genome-wide association study (GWAS. Cellulose concentration ranged from 35 to 52% (w/w. Cellulose content was normally distributed in the accessions around a mean and median of 45% (w/w. Genome-wide marker-trait association study using 21,073 SNPs helped identify nine SNPs that were associated (p < 1E-05 with cellulose content. Four strongly associated (p < 8.17E-05 SNP markers were linked to wheat unigenes, which included β-tubulin, Auxin-induced protein 5NG4, and a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function. These genes may be directly or indirectly involved in the formation of cellulose in wheat culms. GWAS results from this study have the potential for genetic manipulation of cellulose content in bread wheat and other small grain cereals to enhance culm strength and improve biofuel production.

  15. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  16. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  17. Offering Incentives from the Outside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2017-01-01

    Incentives offer a good deal of underexplored opportunities to help manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. This study has two primary objectives. First, it furthers the discussion of how external third parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available ...

  18. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  19. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges

  20. North America markets for alcohol and alcohol-derived motor fuels and need for tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigwood, B.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. fuel alcohol and ether industry has grown from its infancy in 1979 to approximately 2.9 billion gallons of production capacity in 1991. With the emphasis on clean air, the uncertainties in the Middle East, and fluctuating oil prices, IRI believes the demand for alcohol-derived motor fuels is poised to begin a second phase of expansion. Historically, the two primary alcohol-derived motor fuels sold in the U.S. have been methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol. There is also a limited but growing use of methanol as 85% blendstock for gasoline. Since 1978, fuel ethanol has provided the U.S. petroleum industry with an additional source of supply, octane, and profit. Its price was based on the price of wholesale gasoline plus available federal and state tax incentives. These incentives allowed ethanol, with production costs of $1.00 to $1.25 per gallon, to compete with gasoline at prices of 40 to 65 per gallon. Without the federal and state tax incentives, it would not be economically feasible to sell or manufacture fuel ethanol. On the other hand, the largest consumption of methanol has been as a feedstock for the production of MTBE, the world's fastest growing chemical over the past seven years. MTBE prices are based on the cost of raising the octane level of gasoline, and this commodity does not receive subsidies. Beginning in 1992, IRI predicts the price relationship between ethanol, MTBE, and gasoline will change as U.S. refiners and marketers are required to include oxygenated fuels (alcohol-derived) in their gasoline. In total, over 60 billion gallons of gasoline will need to be reformulated by the year 2000. The increased demand for oxygen will result in a 2.5-billion gallon deficit of MTBE and 1.2-billion gallon deficit of ethanol by the year 2000. 2 tabs

  1. Development of enhanced ethanol ablation as an alternative to surgery in treatment of superficial solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morhard, Robert; Nief, Corrine; Barrero Castedo, Carlos; Hu, Fangyao; Madonna, Megan; Mueller, Jenna L; Dewhirst, Mark W; Katz, David F; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2017-08-18

    While surgery is at the foundation of cancer treatment, its access is limited in low-income countries. Here, we describe development of a low-cost alternative therapy based on intratumoral ethanol injection suitable for resource-limited settings. Although ethanol-based tumor ablation is successful in treating hepatocellular carcinomas, the necessity for multiple treatments, injection of large fluid volumes, and decreased efficacy in treatment of non-capsulated tumors limit its applicability. To address these limitations, we investigated an enhanced ethanol ablation strategy to retain ethanol within the tumor through the addition of ethyl cellulose. This increases the viscosity of injected ethanol and forms an ethanol-based gel-phase upon exposure to the aqueous tumor environment. This technique was first optimized to maximize distribution volume, using tissue-simulating phantoms. Then, chemically-induced epithelial tumors in the hamster cheek pouch were treated. As controls, pure ethanol injections of either four times or one-fourth the tumor volume induced complete regression of 33% and 0% of tumors, respectively. In contrast, ethyl cellulose-ethanol injections of one-fourth the tumor volume induced complete regression in 100% of tumors. These results contribute to proof-of-concept for enhanced ethanol ablation as a novel and effective alternative to surgery for tumor treatment, with relevance to resource-limited settings.

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN THE OBTAINING OF ETHANOL FROM Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Replacing the use of gasoline with ethanol in vehicles reduces by 90% CO2 emissions, this justifies the interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy. Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet special emphasis is being given to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol for its productivity and resistance. The sorghum is grown in Rio Grande do Sul with a production of about 70,000 tons / year. Embrapa has a program to develop cultivars of sorghum from the time the Pro-Alcohol and currently 25 new varieties of sorghum are being evaluated. Several factors are relevant in the optimization of production such as increased productivity and reduced costs in the production of ethanol. This study aimed to survey recent data that will assess production parameters of ethanol from sorghum. Factors such as reducing the risk of bacterial contamination, the means conducive to fermentation processes or grain sorghum stalk through the use of pretreatment of the sample, have been of great importance because it is basically turning cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Superior genotypes of sweet sorghum for ethanol production are of utmost importance, as well as better ways to convert sugars into ethanol. Lignin, toxic against microorganisms, prevents the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. The conversion of lignocellulosic ethanol compounds based on the hydrolysis of cellulose producing simple sugars and fermenting those sugars into ethanol through microbiology.

  3. Variation in Incentive Effects across Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hanly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.

  4. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...

  5. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements. ...

  6. Preliminary study for optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of waste cellulosic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA GEORGESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulose is a generic term describing the main constituents in most plants, namely cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Cellulose is a glucose polysaccharide, hemicelluloses are polysaccharides with a backbone of different hexoses (glucose, mannose, galactose and pentoses (xylan, arabinose, and lignin is a complex network of different phenyl propane units. The cellulosic materials are potential sources of ethanol. Steps of this process are saccharification of cellulose to reduce sugars, under enzymes action and to reduce sugars fermentation by yeast to obtain ethanol.The aim of this study is to examine the influence of substrateconcentration, temperature and pH upon enzymatic saccharification ofwaste cellulosic materials, based on office paper, newspaper andcardboard, in ratio of 1:1:1 (w/w and reducing sugar accumulationdynamics in optimised conditions. The study has established optimalparameters: the ratio of enzyme:substrate as 0.5 EU/g substrate,temperature 48°C, pH 4.8 and addition of surfactant Tween 80 inproportion of 0.3 %, reported to the total volume of liquid. The reducing sugar yield was 35 mg reducing sugars/ g dry weight cellulosic waste.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose derivatives obtained from bacterial cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rafael L. de; Barud, Hernane; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Messaddeq, Younes

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of cellulose leads to production of derivatives with different properties from those observed for the original cellulose, for example, increased solubility in more traditional solvents. In this work we synthesized four derivatives of cellulose: microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, methylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose using bacterial cellulose as a source. These were characterized in terms of chemical and structural changes by examining the degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - NMR 13 C. The molecular weight and degree of polymerization were evaluated by viscometry. The characterization of the morphology of materials and thermal properties were performed with the techniques of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy images, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. (author)

  8. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  9. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  10. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  11. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  12. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  13. Production of Biofuels from Selected Cellulosic Waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jathwa Abdul Kareem Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study four types of cellulose-rich municipal solid wastes (residuals of orange, banana peel, corn residues, and saw dust were used as raw materials. These cellulosic substrates usually have a lot of lignin content which prevents the process of saccharification by microorganisms. Thus pretreatment methods of enzymatic, acid or base with enzymatic treatment and dilute acid followed by autoclaving were necessary to dignify these wastes and to obtain higher reducing sugar yields and hence higher ethanol production. Dilute HCl acid of 1% followed by autoclaving at 121℃ for 30 min proved to give good result where significant amounts of reducing sugars were obtained at the end of the saccharification process. Orange peel proved to give the highest glucose concentration of an average of 6000 mg/l on day 4 of the saccharification process. Fermentation was carried out for the hydrolyzed samples using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The amount of ethanol produced after fermentation was found to be the highest for orange peel having a value of 1300 mg/l after 96h of incubation. As science is proceeding, engineered microorganisms could help to produce sustainable fuels from cellulose-rich municipal solid wastes in the future.

  14. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production.

  16. Bioconversion of Sugarcane Biomass into Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods, Detoxification of Hydrolysates, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Canilha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses, and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB, and straw (SS could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production.

  17. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Panda Gut Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.; Leung, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) diet consists primarily of bamboo leaves, stems and shoots. However, the Giant Panda lacks genes for the enzymes needed to digest cellulose, the core component of bamboo. Thus, it is hypothesized that the cellulolytic digestion necessary for maintaining the Giant Panda diet is carried out by microbial symbionts in the panda gut microbiota. Fecal microbiota is used as surrogate index for gut microbiota since the Giant Panda is listed by the World Conservation Union as a Threatened Species. Two bacterial isolates with potential cellulolytic activity were isolated from Giant Panda fecal samples and cultured on selective media CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) agar and CMC-Congo Red agar using various methods of inoculation. After incubation, clearance zones around colonies were observed and used as qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene was completed and species identification was done based on the BLAST result of 16S rRNA sequence obtained using Sanger sequencing. Once the cellulase activity is confirmed, genomic DNA of the bacteria will be extracted and used for whole genome shotgun sequencing. Illumina next generation sequencing platform will be adopted as it yields high-throughput information, providing a better understanding of cellulose digestion and the molecular genetic pathways to renewable sources of biofuels. Researchers have identified multiple cellulose-digesting microbes in the Giant Panda gut, but few have applied such bacteria in converting cellulose into glucose to create biofuel. Cellulosic ethanol, a biofuel, is produced through the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomasses. This anaerobic process is aided by cellulose-digesting enzymes. Certain microbes, such as those present in the Giant Panda gut, can produce enzymes that cleave the glycosidic bonds of cellulose (C6H10O5) into glucose molecules (C6H12O6), which can then be fermented into ethanol

  18. A framework for model-based optimization of bioprocesses under uncertainty: Lignocellulosic ethanol production case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    .), hydrolysis (inhibition constant for xylose on conversion of cellulose and cellobiose, etc) and co-fermentation (ethanol yield on xylose, inhibition constant on microbial growth, etc.), are the most significant sources of uncertainties affecting the unit production cost of ethanol with a standard deviation...... metrics via uncertainty analysis. Finally, stochastic programming is applied to drive the process development efforts forward subject to these uncertainties. The framework is evaluated on four different process configurations for cellulosic ethanol production including Simultaneous Saccharification and Co...... of up to 0.13 USD/gal-ethanol. Further stochastic optimization demonstrated the options for further reduction of the production costs with different processing configurations, reaching a reduction of up to 28% in the production cost in the SHCF configuration compared to the base case operation. Further...

  19. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen...

  20. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  1. Xylose and cellulose fractionation from corncob with three different strategies and separate fermentation of them to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yefu; Dong, Boyu; Qin, Weijun; Xiao, Dongguang

    2010-09-01

    To the aim of efficient utilization of both of xylose and cellulose, a laboratory xylose/cellulose fractionation and separate fermentation (XCFSF) bioethanol process was performed. Three xylose/cellulose fractionation strategies: (A) dilute sulfur acid hydrolysis and detoxification, (B) lime pretreatment and xylanase hydrolysis, (C) bio-treatment with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and xylanase hydrolysis were applied to corn cobs. As a result, the maximum xylose yields obtained from A, B and C fractionation methods were 78.47%, 57.84% and 42.54%, respectively, and 96.81%, 92.14% and 80.34% of cellulose were preserved in the corresponding solid residues. The xylose dissolved in acid and enzymatic hydrolysates was fermented to ethanol by Candida shahatae and the cellulose remaining in solid residues was converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Finally, for A, B, C fractionation methods, 70.40%, 52.87%, 39.22% of hemicellulose and 89.77%, 84.30%, 71.90% of cellulose in corn cobs was converted to ethanol, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of incentives for fertility reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishik, S M

    1978-02-01

    Incentives, i.e., either monetary or other benefits, can be used to reward couples for limiting their fertility; disincentives, or penalties, can be imposed for excessive fertility. Examples of the use of incentives or disincentives by the governments of India, Singapore, and Hawaii are cited. Direct cash payments or tax exemptions (timed variously) are the most common incentive used. The effectiveness and the morality of incentive/disincentive programs are discussed. It is felt that incentives should only be used after a social consensus has been reached and after family planning services have been made available to all groups in the society.

  3. Incentives – Effectiveness and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hinderlich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the question if and how incentive schemes work evaluated by their impact on company performance (market capitalization and profit before tax. Based on a unique data set for German executive directors of DAX companies it can be proved that neither short (STI nor long term incentives (LTI plans necessarily support the company success. It rather depends on the efficiency of each plan, i. e. on its design. Special attention has to be paid on target setting. Short term focused objectives often miss their targets, whereas long term oriented objectives significantly support the company success. To solve the prisoner’s dilemma between employers and employees by a quasi-endless game, additional measures may be helpful, such as share ownership guidelines.

  4. Cellulosic fibril–rubber nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available removes amorphous regions and has been adopted by several researchers. Researchers at CERMAV-CNRS have separated cellulose from various sources like wheat straws and tunicin and have used as reinforcements in polymer matrices [1, 2]. Winter of Cellulose... Research Institute at ESF found that the addition of an ounce (28.35 g) of cellulose nanocrystal to a pound (0.45 kg) of plastic resulted in a 3000-fold increase in strength [3]. This chapter provides an outlook into nanoreinforcements like cellulosic...

  5. Designing industrial yeasts for the consolidated bioprocessing of starchy biomass to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Jooste, Tania; Basaglia, Marina; Rose, Shaunita H.; Saayman, Maryna; Görgens, Johann F.; Casella, Sergio; van Zyl, Willem H.

    2013-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which integrates enzyme production, saccharification and fermentation into a one step process, is a promising strategy for the effective ethanol production from cheap lignocellulosic and starchy materials. CBP requires a highly engineered microbial strain able to both hydrolyze biomass with enzymes produced on its own and convert the resulting simple sugars into high-titer ethanol. Recently, heterologous production of cellulose and starch-degrading enzymes ha...

  6. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other incentives without also providing a cost incentive (or constraint). (b) Except for award-fee... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive...

  7. Accounting Conservatism and Managerial Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Young K. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    There are two sources of agency costs under moral hazard: (1) distortions in incentive contracts and (2) implementation of suboptimal decisions. In the accounting literature, the relation between conservative accounting and agency costs of type (1) has received considerable attention (cf. Watts 2002). However, little appears to be known about the effects of accounting conservatism on agency costs of type (2) or trade-offs between agency costs of types (1) and (2). The purpose of this study is...

  8. College diversity and investment incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Thomas; Legros, Patrick; Newman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the aggregate economic effects of diversity policies such as affirmative action in college admission. If agents are constrained in the side payments they can make, the free market allocation displays excessive segregation relative to the first-best. Affirmative action policies can restore diversity within colleges but also affect incentives to invest in pre-college scholastic achievement. Affirmative action policies that are achievement-based can increase aggregate investme...

  9. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...... to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium, the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming either Cournot or Bertrand competition....

  10. Incentives for reporting disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks.

  11. Engineering cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum to co-ferment cellulose- and hemicellulose-derived sugars simultaneously: Cellulose-degrading bacteria co-ferment hemicellulose-derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Wei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BioSciences Center, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden CO 80401; Reyes, Luis H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BioSciences Center, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden CO 80401; Process and Product Design Group (GDPP), Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá D.C. Colombia; Michener, William E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden CO 80401; Maness, Pin-Ching [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BioSciences Center, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden CO 80401; Chou, Katherine J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BioSciences Center, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden CO 80401

    2018-03-14

    Cellulose and hemicellulose are the most abundant components in plant biomass. A preferred Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) system is one which can directly convert both cellulose and hemicellulose into target products without adding the costly hydrolytic enzyme cocktail. In this work, the thermophilic, cellulolytic, and anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313, was engineered to grow on xylose in addition to cellulose. Both xylA (encoding for xylose isomerase) and xylB (encoding for xylulokinase) genes from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus were introduced to enable xylose utilization while still retaining its inherent ability to grow on 6-carbon substrates. Targeted integration of xylAB into C. thermocellum genome realized simultaneous fermentation of xylose with glucose, with cellobiose (glucose dimer), and with cellulose, respectively, without carbon catabolite repression. We also showed that the respective H2 and ethanol production were twice as much when both xylose and cellulose were consumed simultaneously than when consuming cellulose alone. Moreover, the engineered xylose consumer can also utilize xylo-oligomers (with degree of polymerization of 2-7) in the presence of xylose. Isotopic tracer studies also revealed that the engineered xylose catabolism contributed to the production of ethanol from xylan which is a model hemicellulose in mixed sugar fermentation, demonstrating immense potential of this enhanced CBP strain in co-utilizing both cellulose and hemicellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  12. Production of Ethanol from Sugars and Lignocellulosic Biomass by Thermoanaerobacter J1 Isolated from a Hot Spring in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Jan Eric; Orlygsson, Johann

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have gained increased attention as candidates for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study investigated ethanol production by Thermoanaerobacter strain J1 from hydrolysates made from lignocellulosic biomass in batch cultures. The effect of increased initial glucose concentration and the partial pressure of hydrogen on end product formation were examined. The strain showed a broad substrate spectrum, and high ethanol yields were observed on glucose (1.70 mol/mol) and xylose (1.25 mol/mol). Ethanol yields were, however, dramatically lowered by adding thiosulfate or by cocultivating strain J1 with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen with acetate becoming the major end product. Ethanol production from 4.5 g/L of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (grass, hemp stem, wheat straw, newspaper, and cellulose) pretreated with acid or alkali and the enzymes Celluclast and Novozymes 188 was investigated. The highest ethanol yields were obtained on cellulose (7.5 mM·g−1) but the lowest on straw (0.8 mM·g−1). Chemical pretreatment increased ethanol yields substantially from lignocellulosic biomass but not from cellulose. The largest increase was on straw hydrolysates where ethanol production increased from 0.8 mM·g−1 to 3.3 mM·g−1 using alkali-pretreated biomass. The highest ethanol yields on lignocellulosic hydrolysates were observed with hemp hydrolysates pretreated with acid, 4.2 mM·g−1. PMID:23118498

  13. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  14. Valuing climate protection through willingness to pay for biomass ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Johnson, Nicholas H.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a multi-part, split-sample contingent valuation method (CVM) and fair share (FS) survey to better understand the public's valuation of mitigating global climate change through its willingness to pay for biomass or 'cellulosic' ethanol. In addition to a basic CVM question, a related scenario was developed that asked half of the survey respondents to state their fair share cost to lessen a potential food shortage in the next decade, also through the expanded use of cellulosic ethanol. Three alternative biomass feedstocks were assessed: farming residues, forestry residues and paper mill wastes, and municipal solid wastes. Overall a slightly larger proportion of respondents were WTP extra for cellulosic ethanol in the basic CVM scenario than in the FS scenario, though no significant differences were found in the WTP for the different feedstocks. Bid curve lognormal regression results for the two models were similar, supporting the idea that asking a FS rather than a conventional WTP question may be justifiable in some circumstances, such as in cases of a national emergency. (author)

  15. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsalve G, John F; Medina de Perez, Victoria Isabel; Ruiz colorado, Angela Adriana

    2006-01-01

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  16. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  17. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  18. Cellulose synthase complex organization and cellulose microfibril structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Kumar, Manoj

    2018-02-13

    Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al. 2012 Trends Plant Sci. 17 , 666-674 (doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.06.003); Kumar & Turner 2015 Phytochemistry 112 , 91-99 (doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.07.009); Schneider et al. 2016 Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 34 , 9-16 (doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.07.007)). In this review, we will focus on recent advances in cellulose biosynthesis in plants, with an emphasis on our current understanding of the structure of individual catalytic subunits together with the local membrane environment where cellulose synthesis occurs. We will attempt to relate this information to our current knowledge of the structure of the cellulose microfibril and propose a model in which variations in the structure of the CSC have important implications for the structure of the cellulose microfibril produced.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  20. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  1. Incentives for improvement of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Finlay, R.B.

    1988-12-01

    CANDU is a relatively young technology which has demonstrated many achievements as an electrical power generation system. These achievements include an unsurpassed safety record, high annual and lifetime capacity factors, low electricity cost and a broad range of other performance strengths which together indicate that the CANDU technology is fundamentally sound. Known capabilities not yet fully exploited, such as advanced fuel cycle options, indicate that CANDU technology will continue to pay strong dividends on research, development and design investment. This provides a strong incentive for the improvement of CANDU on a continuing basis

  2. Approaching zero cellulose loss in cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) production: recovery and characterization of cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and CNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R.S. Reiner; S.P. Verrill; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrated the potential of simultaneously recovering cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by strong sulfuric acid hydrolysis to minimize cellulose loss to near zero. A set of slightly milder acid hydrolysis conditions than that considered as “optimal” were used to significantly minimize the degradation of cellulose...

  3. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing ethanol production. The results showed that acid concentration and treatment time were more significant than solid content for optimization of xylose release and cellulose recovery. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid and 20% solid...... content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively....... Finally, 66.79% of theoretical ethanol yielded after fermentation....

  5. Are Delegation and Incentives Complementary Instruments ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied b...... thisframework it is shown that delegation and incentives are not necessarilycomplementary instruments; some decisions should be centralized whenincentives are introduced....

  6. Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options

  7. On incentives for assurance of petroleum supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Aven, Terje; Tomasgard, Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    Assurance of supply is a crucial objective for producers and consumers of oil and gas. A basic requirement to meet this objective is that producers and transmitters have sufficient economic incentives and capabilities to assure a desired degree of supply. The topic of this paper is to evaluate these incentives from a broad perspective. We examine economic trade-offs inherent in a delay of production, including reputational issues, as well as contract incentives for gas sellers, drilling companies, and oil service companies.

  8. Forage Quality and Composition Measurements as Predictors of Ethanol Yield from Maize (Zea mays L.) Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be u...

  9. Upper Midwestern U.S. consumers and ethanol: Knowledge, beliefs and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dana M.; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Solomen, Barry D.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses multivariate statistical methods to explore the beliefs of upper Midwestern U.S. residents about global climate change, and possible consumer responses to determine their willingness to pay more for cellulosic ethanol from multiple feedstocks. A mail survey was sent to residents of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to determine baseline knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on several aspects of these issues, with a focus on the emerging market for cellulosic ethanol. First, survey responses were compiled and principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data. This resulted in seven factors and a theoretical framework to help understand consumers' beliefs about climate change and possible energy policy responses. Second, these results were combined with insights from previous studies that were used as input for further research hypotheses and multivariate analyses. The factor scores from principal components analysis along with the some of the key control variables (i.e., gender, income, and rural/urban) served as independent variables in three revised multiple regression models of consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) their fair share of any additional cost of cellulosic ethanol, as reported in an earlier study. Four explanatory variables were found to be significant determinants of WTP in every model: environment, energy consumption, and climate change; concerns about climate change impacts; inability to stop climate change; and gasoline prices and consumption. These results suggest strong public support and consumer WTP for cellulosic ethanol production in the region.

  10. Forage crops as substrate for animal feed and ethanol production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate the effect of harvesting time on their composition, including the contents of cellulose, lignin, and crude protein, thus affecting the ethanol yield and quality of animal feed. Ruzi grass, harvested 45 days after being planted, was shown to be the most suitable substrate for animal feed due to its highest crude ...

  11. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO3 thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    have been used to develop varistors, sensors and actua- tors (Prudenziati 1994). The thick film gas sensors based ... sively studied gases in the thick film gas sensors. The detection of ethanol vapour based on thin film of SnO2. (Mishra et ... The organic vehicles such as butyl carbitol acetate (BCA) and ethyl cellulose were.

  12. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of corn stover for efficient ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol. Corn stover (supplied by a local farmer) used in this study contained 37.0±0.4% cellulose, 31.3±0.6% hemicelluloses, and 17.8±0.2% lignin. Generation of fermentable sugars from ...

  13. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  14. Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2010-09-01

    Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data

  15. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  16. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit incent...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  17. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  18. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

    2003-12-01

    Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these

  19. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  20. Evaluation of microcrystalline cellulose modifed from alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha cellulose was obtained from Costus afer and part of it was modified to microcrystalline cellulose (CAMCC). The physicochemical properties of the microcrystalline cellulose were determined and compared with those of commercial microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 101). The swelling capacity, hydration capacity, loss ...

  1. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  2. Biofuel excision and the viability of ethanol production in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; Farine, Damien; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The promotion and use of renewable energy sources are established priorities worldwide as a way to reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gases and promote energy security. Australia is committed to reach a target of 350 ML of biofuels per year by 2010, and incentives targeted to producers and consumers have been placed. These incentives include zero excise until 2011 for the ethanol produced in Australia and gradual increase of the taxation rates reaching the full excise of 0.125 AUD per litre by 2015. This paper analyses the viability of the second generation ethanol industry in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian regions for biomass production, by comparing the energy adjusted pump prices of petrol and the produced ethanol under different taxation rates and forecasted oil prices. Major findings suggest that under the current conditions of zero fuel excise and oil prices around 80US$ per barrel ethanol production is viable using biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD per ton. Moreover, the forecasted increase in oil prices have a higher impact on the price of petrol than the increased ethanol excise on the pump price of the biofuel. Thus, by 2016 feedstock with a plant gate cost of up to 190 AUD per ton might be used for ethanol production, representing a flow of 1.7 million tons of biomass per year potentially mitigating 1.2 million tons of CO 2 by replacing fossil fuels with ethanol. - Research highlights: →We assessed the potential for ethanol production in the Green Triangle. → Despite of increased ethanol taxation, higher oil prices promote ethanol production. → Currently, ethanol from biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD/ton is viable. →Forecasted oil prices suggest biomass of 190 AUD/ton might be used by 2016.

  3. Dynamics of incentives and value creation in (de-)centralised incentive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, N.

    2016-01-01

    When young and small organisations grow into medium-sized organisations they often implement monetary incentive systems with unclear consequences. Whilst implemented to increase employee (innovative) output and value creation, they have ambiguous effects and may even reduce value creation. Due to the different effects of monetary incentives, this paper distinguishes reciprocal and opportunistic employees’ different reactions to incentives. It analyses the effects of decentralised incentive sy...

  4. Surface Photochemistry: Benzophenone as a Probe for the Study of Modified Cellulose Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Vieira Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of benzophenone, a very well characterized probe, to study new hosts (i.e., modified celluloses grafted with alkyl chains bearing 12 carbon atoms by surface esterification. Laser-induced room temperature luminescence of air-equilibrated or argon-purged solid powdered samples of benzophenone adsorbed onto the two modified celluloses, which will be named C12-1500 and C12-1700, revealed the existence of a vibrationally structured phosphorescence emission of benzophenone in the case where ethanol was used for sample preparation, while a nonstructured emission of benzophenone exists when water was used instead of ethanol. The decay times of the benzophenone emission vary greatly with the solvent used for sample preparation and do not change with the alkylation degree in the range of 1500–1700 micromoles of alkyl chains per gram of cellulose. When water was used as a solvent for sample preparation, the shortest lifetime for the benzophenone emission was observed; this result is similar to the case of benzophenone adsorbed onto the “normal” microcrystalline cellulose surface, with this latter case previously reported by Vieira Ferreira et al. in 1995. This is due to the more efficient hydrogen abstraction reaction from the glycoside rings of cellulose when compared with hydrogen abstraction from the alkyl chains of the modified celluloses. Triplet-triplet transient absorption of benzophenone was obtained in both cases and is the predominant absorption immediately after laser pulse, while benzophenone ketyl radical formation occurs in a microsecond time scale both for normal and modified celluloses.

  5. Preliminary studies on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafting onto cellulose by pre-irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severich, Patrick; Dutra, Rodrigo da Costa; Kodama, Yasko

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose is considered a renewable biopolymer most abundant in nature. Better functional surfaces can be Obtained by modifying cellulose. On the other hand, poly vinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, is a synthetic nontoxic, water-soluble polymer frequently used in an extensive variety of applications including several pharmaceutical applications. Grafting 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, NVP, onto polymeric cellulose can be obtained by ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation grafting can be affected by several factors as environment, solvent, monomer concentration, temperature of graft reaction. Grafting by ionizing radiation can be performed by three methods, pre-irradiation, oxidation by peroxide and simultaneous irradiation. In this study, it was used pre-irradiation method of cellulose. Paper filter without ash, NVP without purification was used in this study. Paper samples were exposed to electron beam from Dynamitron Accelerator with radiation absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Influence of NVP concentration, temperature of reaction after irradiation on degree of grafting (DG) was studied. Also, cellulose radicals of grafted paper samples was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance using a Bruker X-band ESR at room temperature just after heating reaction. Small decrease of cellulose radicals was observed with increasing reaction temperature. It was observed DG small increase with increasing concentration of monomer in solution of water ethanol 50-50 v:v and rising temperature of reaction. Further tests using simultaneous method of grafting of NVP in cellulose paper, in water:ethanol 75:25 v:v solution, induced by gamma irradiation were performed. It was observed homopolymerization forming PVP with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  6. Preliminary studies on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafting onto cellulose by pre-irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severich, Patrick; Dutra, Rodrigo da Costa; Kodama, Yasko, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.br, E-mail: patrick.severich@ipen.br, E-mail: rodrigo.dutra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Cellulose is considered a renewable biopolymer most abundant in nature. Better functional surfaces can be Obtained by modifying cellulose. On the other hand, poly vinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, is a synthetic nontoxic, water-soluble polymer frequently used in an extensive variety of applications including several pharmaceutical applications. Grafting 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, NVP, onto polymeric cellulose can be obtained by ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation grafting can be affected by several factors as environment, solvent, monomer concentration, temperature of graft reaction. Grafting by ionizing radiation can be performed by three methods, pre-irradiation, oxidation by peroxide and simultaneous irradiation. In this study, it was used pre-irradiation method of cellulose. Paper filter without ash, NVP without purification was used in this study. Paper samples were exposed to electron beam from Dynamitron Accelerator with radiation absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Influence of NVP concentration, temperature of reaction after irradiation on degree of grafting (DG) was studied. Also, cellulose radicals of grafted paper samples was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance using a Bruker X-band ESR at room temperature just after heating reaction. Small decrease of cellulose radicals was observed with increasing reaction temperature. It was observed DG small increase with increasing concentration of monomer in solution of water ethanol 50-50 v:v and rising temperature of reaction. Further tests using simultaneous method of grafting of NVP in cellulose paper, in water:ethanol 75:25 v:v solution, induced by gamma irradiation were performed. It was observed homopolymerization forming PVP with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  7. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Finguerut, J.; Galvão, A.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Célia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  8. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  9. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cellulose conversion under heterogeneous catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhepe, Paresh L; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In view of current problems such as global warming, high oil prices, food crisis, stricter environmental laws, and other geopolitical scenarios surrounding the use of fossil feedstocks and edible resources, the efficient conversion of cellulose, a non-food biomass, into energy, fuels, and chemicals has received much attention. The application of heterogeneous catalysis could allow researchers to develop environmentally benign processes that lead to selective formation of value-added products from cellulose under relatively mild conditions. This Minireview gives insight into the importance of biomass utilization, the current status of cellulose conversion, and further transformation of the primary products obtained.

  11. Acceleration of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover and Sugar Cane Bagasse Celluloses by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-competitive production of bio-ethanol and other biofuels is currently impeded, mostly by high cost and low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of feedstock biomass and especially plant celluloses. Despite substantial reduction in the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes in recent times...

  12. Cellulose Depolymerization over Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, Abhijit; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2018-02-14

    Cellulosic biomass is the largest source of renewable organic carbon on our planet. Cellulose accounts for 40-50 wt % of this lignocellulose, and it is a feedstock for industrially important chemicals and fuels. The first step in cellulose conversion involves its depolymerization to glucose or to its hydrogenated product sorbitol. The hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose by homogeneous mineral acids was the subject of research for almost a century. However, homogeneous acids have significant drawbacks and are neither economical nor environmentally friendly. In 2006, our group reported for the first time the ability of heterogeneous catalysts to depolymerize cellulose through hydrolytic hydrogenation to produce sorbitol. Later, we reported the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose using carbon catalyst containing weakly acidic functional groups. Understanding the reaction between cellulose and heterogeneous catalyst is a challenge as the reaction occurs between a solid substrate and a solid catalyst. In this Account, we describe our efforts for the conversion of cellulose to sorbitol and glucose using heterogeneous catalysts. Sorbitol is produced by sequential hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellulose in one pot. We reported sorbitol synthesis from cellulose in the presence of supported metal catalysts and H 2 gas. The reducing environment of the reaction prevents byproduct formation, and harsh reaction conditions can be used to achieve sorbitol yield of up to 90%. Glucose is produced by acid catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, a more challenging reaction owing to the tendency of glucose to rapidly decompose in hot water. Sulfonated carbons were first reported as active catalysts for cellulose hydrolysis, but they were hydrothermally unstable under the reaction conditions. We found that carbon catalysts bearing weakly acidic functional groups such as hydroxyl and carboxylic acids are also active. Weakly acidic functional groups are hydrothermally stable, and a soluble

  13. Methane fermentation of cellulose and ligno-cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, J.S.; Villermaux, S.; Prost, C. (Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique, 54 - Nancy (France))

    1985-01-01

    Study of the methane fermentation of two simple substrates i.e. pure cellulose and oat straw. Experiments have been carried out in laboratory fermentors with several initial cellulose concentrations and different straw particle sizes. The results show the effect of adding nutrients and enriched seedings with pure cellulolytic or methanogenic bacteria. In each case, the rate limiting step is defined and the degradation kinetics of the two substrates are compared.

  14. Fuel ethanol production from wet oxidised corn stover by S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiang, zhang; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2012-01-01

    of 74.6% were obtained after pretreatment. 86.5% of cellulose was remained in the solid cake. After 24h hydrolysis at 50°C using cellulase (Cellubrix L), the achieved conversion of cellulose to glucose was 64.8%. Ethanol production was evaluated from dried solid cake and the hydrolysate was employed......In order to find out appropriate process for ethanol production from corn stover, wet oxidation (195°C, 15 minutes) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was carried out to produce ethanol. The results showed that the cellulose recovery of 92.9% and the hemicellulose recovery...... as liquid fraction. After 142 h of SSF with substrate concentration of 8% (W/V), ethanol yield of 73.1 % of the theoretical based on glucose in the raw material was obtained by S. cerevisiae(ordinary baker' yeast). The corresponding ethanol concentration and volumetric productivity were 17.2g/L and 0.121g...

  15. Cellulose microfibril structure: inspirations from plant diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase catalytic subunits that associate to form cellulose synthesis complexes. Variation in the organization of these complexes underlies the variation in cellulose microfibril structure among diverse organisms. However, little is known about how the catalytic subunits interact to form complexes with different morphologies. We are using an evolutionary approach to investigate the roles of different catalytic subunit isoforms in organisms that have rosette-type cellulose synthesis complexes.

  16. Bioconversion of plant biomass to ethanol. Annual report and revised research plan, January 1977--January 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, R.E.; Bellamy, W.D.; Su, T.M.

    1978-03-23

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate on a laboratory scale the technical feasibility of the direct microbial conversion of pretreated wood to ethanol. During the first year of this contract, we investigated the feasibility of biologically delignifying wood with C. pruinosum and directly fermenting the pretreated wood to ethanol with a mixed culture. Bench-top fermentations of a thermophilic bacillus growing on glucose and of a mixed culture of thermophilic sporocytophaga (US) and a thermophilic bacillus growing on microcrystalline and amorphous cellulose were evaluated for growth and ethanol production. In the mixed culture fermentation of amorphous and microcrystalline cellulose, the specific rate of substrate depletion was calculated to be 0.087 hr/sup -1/ and 0.0346 hr/sup -1/, respectively. However, defining the growth requirements of C. pruinosum and sporocytophaga (US) proved more difficult than originally anticipated. In order to achieve the program objectives within the contract period, a revised research plan was developed based upon chemical pretreatment and the direct fermentation of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. In place of the biological delignification pretreatment step, we have substituted a chemically supplemented steam pretreatment step to partially delignify wood and to enhance its accessibility to microbial utilization. Clostridium thermocellum, which ferments cellulose directly to ethanol and acetic acid, has replaced the mixed culture fermentation stage for ethanol production. Research on the production of ethanol from xylose by the thermophilic bacillus ZB-B2 is retained as one means of utilizing the hemicellulose fraction of hardwood. Work on the genetic improvement of the ethanol yields of both cultures by suppressing acetic acid production is also retained. The rationale, experimental approach, and economic considerations of this revised research plan are also presented.

  17. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, December 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.C.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1979-02-01

    The ongoing progress of a coordinated research program aimed at optimizing the biodegradation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and chemical feedstocks is summarized. Growth requirements and genetic manipulations of clostridium thermocellum for selection of high cellulose producers are reported. The enzymatic activity of the cellulase produced by these organisms was studied. The soluble sugars produced from hydrolysis were analyzed. Increasing the tolerance of C. thermocellum to ethanol during liquid fuel production, increasing the rate of product formation, and directing the catabolism to selectively achieve high ethanol concentrations with respect to other products were studied. Alternative substrates for C. thermocellum were evaluated. Studies on the utilization of xylose were performed. Single stage fermentation of cellulose using mixed cultures of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum were studied. The study of the production of chemical feedstocks focused on acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid.

  18. Preparation and characterization of aminobenzyl cellulose by two step synthesis from native cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro- and amino-benzyl cellulose were carried out. Cellulose derivatives were synthesized by etherification. Nitrobenzylation produced 80% yield by treating a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose, 4-dimethyl aminopyridine and 4-nitrobenzyl chloride at ...

  19. The Effects of Incentives on Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    States that reading incentives have not been critically examined as to their effectiveness in promoting positive attitudes toward reading, more frequent reading, or increased proficiency. Examines available evidence on the effect of reading incentives in school and library programs for students. Concludes there is no clear causal relationship…

  20. Behavioural economics: Cash incentives avert deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Juan Camilo

    2017-10-01

    There is tension in developing countries between financial incentives to clear forests and climate regulation benefits of preserving trees. Now research shows that paying private forest owners in Uganda reduced deforestation, adding to the debate on the use of monetary incentives in forest conservation.

  1. Incentives for Teachers: What Motivates, What Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concept of motivation and two central, theoretical disputes: how intrinsic and extrinsic rewards function and whether incentives must be focused to be effective. Reviews studies on merit pay and career ladder plans and considers the potential role of group-based collegial incentives in teacher motivation. Appended are 123 footnotes.…

  2. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a) The Agency will offer a borrower, who submits a prepayment request meeting the conditions of § 3560...

  3. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... information technology. We will summarize the comments that we receive and include them in the OTS request for... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by providing a common prudential foundation for incentive compensation arrangements across banking...

  4. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to authorize the Department to select more than sixteen high-need schools per local educational agency (LEA...

  5. Calcium carbonate growth in the presence of water soluble cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengju; Yang Xinguo; Tian Fei

    2009-01-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitation was performed in the presence of methyl cellulose (MC) and two kinds of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC FD-10000, HEC FD-30000). The results demonstrated that the final product morphology and structure of CaCO 3 crystals are highly sensitive to the concentration of the cellulose ethers aqueous solution. By precisely controlling their concentrations, all these three cellulose ethers solutions have the ability of protecting metastable vaterite from thermodynamically transforming into stable calcite. The intermediate products investigation showed to some extent the phase transformation of calcium carbonate in its growing process from metastable vaterite to calcite and indicated that the calcium carbonate crystal growth in HEC solutions occurs through dissolution and reprecipitation process. Calcium carbonate growth in both presence of HEC and ethanol or Mg 2+ was also examined. This work demonstrates the potential of water soluble cellulose ethers in controlling biominerals crystallization and growth. The results are revelatory for biomineralization and fabricating new organic-inorganic hybrids based on cellulose derivatives.

  6. Moving toward more ratemaking incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brew, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Adaptive, responsive and innovative management will be required for utilities to navigate successfully the challenges and uncertainties facing the electric industry in the 1990s. Regulatory schemes riddled with inconsistent and contradictory signals will impede the best-intentioned efforts of utility managers to develop and implement integrated resource plans. Effective reform in this area requires regulators to undertake a thorough review of incentives provided by the rate-setting process, an willingness to entertain alternative approaches and risks, and shifting the rewards of ratemaking to better utility earnings with management's performance and ratepayer interests. This article highlights a number of alternative rate-setting approaches that the New York Public Service Commission has adopted or considered in recent years. 16 refs.

  7. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  8. Customer response on price incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naesje, Paal C.; Andersen, Thale K.; Saele, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between end-users energy attitudes and their corresponding energy behaviour. It presents empirical findings from analyses of the effects of two-way communication between consumers and power companies. Two-way communication has made available high quality data on energy consumption. In the build-up to the analysis in this paper the a number of aspects thought to influence energy consumption has been looked at; including standard of housing, number and age of residents, as well as socio-economic factors, behaviour and preferences. Here we choose to focus specifically on attitudes and behaviour. These aspects are controlled for price incentives. The combination of very tight peak power balance in the Nordic power system and few investments in extension of power networks has turned the focus towards manual or automatic demand-response which requires hourly metering for documentation. The data are two-fold: Hourly recordings of meter-data of electric consumption of 10,894 customers (nearly half of these had installed technology for remote load control) in two different network areas and survey-data from a questionnaire distributed to consumers that resulted in nearly 550 answers. During the winter 2003/2004 these customers were offered different price incentives. The analyses showed a net reduction in electricity consumption of 1,0 kWh/h at the most in peak load hours. The paper is based on two connected studies, 'End-user flexibility by efficient use of ICT' and 'Improving end-user knowledge for managing energy loads end consumption' conducted in Norway by the SINTEF group

  9. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulous and xylose to ethanol by Schizosaccharoyces pombe, cellulase, .beta.-glucosidase, and xylose isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastick, Stanley M.; Mohagheghi, Ali; Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel

    1994-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATCC No. 2476, having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35.degree. C. to about 40.degree. C. until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  10. INFLUENCE OF CELLULOSE POLYMERIZATION DEGREE AND CRYSTALLINITY ON KINETICS OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jasiukaitytė-Grojzdek,; Matjaž Kunaver,; Ida Poljanšek

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose was treated in ethylene glycol with p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as a catalyst at different temperatures. At the highest treatment temperature (150 °C) liquefaction of wood pulp cellulose was achieved and was dependant on cellulose polymerization degree (DP). Furthermore, the rate of amorphous cellulose weight loss was found to increase with cellulose degree of polymerization, while the rate of crystalline cellulose weight loss was reciprocal to the size of the crystallites. ...

  11. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  12. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Enikõ; Klinke, Helene B; Réczey, Kati; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2004-12-05

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degrees C, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50 degrees C, the optimal temperature of enzymes, in order to obtain better mixing condition due to some liquefaction. In the second step more cellulases were added in combination with dried baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 30 degrees C. The phenols (0.4-0.5 g/L) and carboxylic acids (4.6-5.9 g/L) were present in the hemicellulose rich hydrolyzate at subinhibitory levels, thus no detoxification was needed prior to SSF of the whole slurry. Based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover 83% of the theoretical ethanol yield was obtained under optimized SSF conditions. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 12% dry matter (DM) acidic WO corn stover at 30 FPU/g DM (43.5 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading. Even with 20 and 15 FPU/g DM (corresponding to 29 and 22 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading, ethanol yields of 76 and 73%, respectively, were obtained. After 120 h of SSF the highest ethanol concentration of 52 g/L (6 vol.%) was achieved, which exceeds the technical and economical limit of the industrial-scale alcohol distillation. The SSF results showed that the cellulose in pretreated corn stover can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with up to 15% DM concentration. A further increase of substrate concentration reduced the ethanol yield significant as a result of insufficient mass transfer. It was also shown that the fermentation could be followed with an easy monitoring system based on the weight loss of the produced CO2.

  13. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol López de Dicastillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate, that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials.

  14. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Glucose: A Report on the NATICK Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF WASTE CELLULOSE I MUTATION PRETREATMENT I FERMENTATION SUBSTRATE + ENZYMES SACCHARIRCATION GLUCOSE + BY PRODUCTS YEAST FERM...somewhat lower than the growth optima . However ceflobiase is unstable at lo, pH. If pH is held at 5.0. and temperature reduced to 22 0 -25 0 C cellobiase...products are continuously removed or by simultaneous saccharification and yeast fermentation (SSF) to ethanol (62). Another means of using cellulase more

  15. Morphology of Cellulose and Cellulose Blend Thin FilmsMorphology of cellulose and cellulose blend thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rui

    Cellulose is the most abundant, renewable, biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer. Cellulose exhibits excellent chemical and mechanical stability, which makes it useful for applications such as construction, filtration, bio-scaffolding and packaging. It is useful to study amorphous cellulose as most reactions happen in the non-crystalline regions first and at the edge of crystalline regions. In this study, amorphous thin films of cotton linter cellulose with various thicknesses were spincoated on silicon wafers from cellulose solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide / ionic liquid mixtures. Optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicated that the morphology of as-cast films was sensitive to the film preparation conditions. A sample preparation protocol with low humidity system was developed to achieve featureless smooth films over multiple length scales from nanometers to tens of microns. X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high resolution sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy were utilized to confirm that there were no crystalline regions in the films. One- and three- layer models were used to analyze the X-ray reflectivity data to obtain information about roughness, density and interfacial roughness as a function of film thickness from 10-100nm. Stability tests of the thin films were conducted under harsh conditions including hot water, acid and alkali solutions. The stability of thin films of cellulose blended with the synthetic polymer, polyacrylonitrile, was also investigated. The blend thin films improved the etching resistance to alkali solutions and retained the stability in hot water and acid solutions compared to the pure cellulose films.

  16. Ionic liquid processing of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2012-02-21

    Utilization of natural polymers has attracted increasing attention because of the consumption and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources, such as coal and oil. The development of green processing of cellulose, the most abundant biorenewable material on Earth, is urgent from the viewpoints of both sustainability and environmental protection. The discovery of the dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs, salts which melt below 100 °C) provides new opportunities for the processing of this biopolymer, however, many fundamental and practical questions need to be answered in order to determine if this will ultimately be a green or sustainable strategy. In this critical review, the open fundamental questions regarding the interactions of cellulose with both the IL cations and anions in the dissolution process are discussed. Investigations have shown that the interactions between the anion and cellulose play an important role in the solvation of cellulose, however, opinions on the role of the cation are conflicting. Some researchers have concluded that the cations are hydrogen bonding to this biopolymer, while others suggest they are not. Our review of the available data has led us to urge the use of more chemical units of solubility, such as 'g cellulose per mole of IL' or 'mol IL per mol hydroxyl in cellulose' to provide more consistency in data reporting and more insight into the dissolution mechanism. This review will also assess the greenness and sustainability of IL processing of biomass, where it would seem that the choices of cation and anion are critical not only to the science of the dissolution, but to the ultimate 'greenness' of any process (142 references).

  17. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  18. Scaling relative incentive value: different adjustments to incentive downshift in pigeons and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Santiago; López Seal, María Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests that pigeons and rats show differences in their behavioral adjustments in spaced-trial, incentive-downshift situations. Also, Papini and Pellegrini [Papini, M.R., Pellegrini, S., 2006. Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior. Learn. Motiv. 37, 357-378] and Pellegrini and Papini [Pellegrini, S., Papini, M.R., 2007. Scaling relative incentive value in anticipatory behavior. Learn. Motiv. 38, 128-154] showed that changes in the rat's lever-pressing performance, runway running, and consumption of sucrose solutions after downshifts in incentive magnitude were a function of the ratio of postshift/preshift incentive magnitudes. Here, two experiments using a Pavlovian autoshaping procedure studied the adjustment of pigeons and rats to changes in incentive magnitude. In Experiment 1, pigeons received light-food pairings, whereas in Experiment 2, rats received lever-sucrose pairings. As a result, key-pecking and lever-pressing developed in each experiment, respectively. Preshift incentive magnitudes were downshifted so as to obtain postshift/preshift ratios of 0.125 and 0.25. Pigeons responded during the postshift phase according to the preshift incentive value and independently of the ratio value. However, rats showed ratio constancy, responding during the postshift in accordance with the postshift/preshift ratio, rather than with the absolute magnitudes of either the preshift or postshift incentives. These results support the comparative hypothesis that the mechanisms underlying ratio constancy during incentive downshifts are unique to mammals.

  19. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  20. Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic profiles after ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shihui

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing biocatalyst, which is a microorganism that expresses enzymes for both cellulose hydrolysis and its fermentation to produce fuels such as lignocellulosic ethanol. However, C. thermocellum is relatively sensitive to ethanol compared to ethanologenic microorganisms such as yeast and Zymomonas mobilis that are used in industrial fermentations but do not possess native enzymes for industrial cellulose hydrolysis. Results In this study, C. thermocellum was grown to mid-exponential phase and then treated with ethanol to a final concentration of 3.9 g/L to investigate its physiological and regulatory responses to ethanol stress. Samples were taken pre-shock and 2, 12, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-shock, and from untreated control fermentations for systems biology analyses. Cell growth was arrested by ethanol supplementation with intracellular accumulation of carbon sources such as cellobiose, and sugar phosphates, including fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. The largest response of C. thermocellum to ethanol shock treatment was in genes and proteins related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism, which is likely important for redirecting the cells physiology to overcome inhibition and allow growth to resume. Conclusion This study suggests possible avenues for metabolic engineering and provides comprehensive, integrated systems biology datasets that will be useful for future metabolic modeling and strain development endeavors.

  1. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the expe...

  2. Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, F.W.; Casebier, R.L.; Hamilton, J.K.; Sandberg, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared by subjecting dilute slurries of cellulose fibers to repeated high-pressure homogenizing action. A highly microfibrillated product will have a gel-like appearance at 2% concentration in water. Such gels have pseudoplastic viscosity properties and are very fluid when stirred at high shear rate. The relative viscosity of 2% MFC dispersions may be used as a measure of the degree of homogenization or microfibrillation of a given wood cellulose pulp. The water retention value of an MFC product can also be used as an indicator for degree of homogenization. Structurally, MFC appears to be a web of interconnected fibrils and microfibrils, the latter having diameters in the range 10-100 nm as observed in scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Chemical studies have revealed that MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC toward chemical reagents is greatly increased. Higher reactivity was demonstrated in dilute cupriethylenediamine solubility, triphenylmethylation, acetylation, periodate oxidation, and mineral acid and cellulase enzyme hydrolysis rates. 16 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 cellulose fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Miguel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 wild-type strain to hydrolyze cellulose and ferment the degradation products directly to ethanol and other metabolic byproducts makes it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. In this study, whole-genome microarrays were used to investigate the expression of C. thermocellum mRNA during growth on crystalline cellulose in controlled replicate batch fermentations. Results A time-series analysis of gene expression revealed changes in transcript levels of ~40% of genes (~1300 out of 3198 ORFs encoded in the genome during transition from early-exponential to late-stationary phase. K-means clustering of genes with statistically significant changes in transcript levels identified six distinct clusters of temporal expression. Broadly, genes involved in energy production, translation, glycolysis and amino acid, nucleotide and coenzyme metabolism displayed a decreasing trend in gene expression as cells entered stationary phase. In comparison, genes involved in cell structure and motility, chemotaxis, signal transduction and transcription showed an increasing trend in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering of cellulosome-related genes highlighted temporal changes in composition of this multi-enzyme complex during batch growth on crystalline cellulose, with increased expression of several genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in degradation of non-cellulosic substrates in stationary phase. Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that under low substrate availability, growth slows due to decreased metabolic potential and C. thermocellum alters its gene expression to (i modulate the composition of cellulosomes that are released into the environment with an increased proportion of enzymes than can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides other than cellulose, (ii enhance signal transduction and chemotaxis mechanisms perhaps to sense

  4. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Garima

    Fossil fuels have been the major source for liquid transportation fuels for ages. However, decline in oil reserves and environmental concerns have raised a lot of interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. One promising alternative is the conversion of plant biomass into ethanol. The primary biomass feed stocks currently being used for the ethanol industry have been food based biomass (corn and sugar cane). However, interest has recently shifted to replace these traditional feed-stocks with more abundant, non-food based cellulosic biomass such as agriculture wastes (corn stover) or crops (switch grass). The use of cellulosic biomass as feed stock for the production of ethanol via bio-chemical routes presents many technical challenges not faced with the use of corn or sugar-cane as feed-stock. Recently, a new process called consolidated Bio-processing (CBP) has been proposed. This process combines simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulose with fermentation of the resulting sugars into a single process step mediated by a single microorganism or microbial consortium. Although there is no natural microorganism that possesses all properties of lignocellulose utilization and ethanol production desired for CBP, some bacteria and fungi exhibit some of the essential traits. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most attractive host organism for the usage of this strategy due to its high ethanol productivity at close to theoretical yields (0.51g ethanol/g glucose consumed), high osmo- and ethanol- tolerance, natural robustness in industrial processes, and ease of genetic manipulation. Introduction of the cellulosome, found naturally in microorganisms, has shown new directions to deal with recalcitrant biomass. In this case enzymes work in synergy in order to hydrolyze biomass more effectively than in case of free enzymes. A microbial consortium has been successfully developed, which ensures the functional assembly of minicellulosome on the yeast surface

  5. Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of cellulose nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are new types of materials derived from celluloses and offer unique challenges and opportunities for Raman spectroscopic investigations. CNs can be classified into the categories of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs, also known as cellulose whisker) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs, also known as nanofibrillated cellulose or NFCs) which when...

  6. EHR Incentive Programs - Data and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of March 2013, more than 259,000 health care providers received payment for participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive...

  7. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral therapy. "Marijuana remains one of the most widely used ...

  8. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function economic development. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc.

  9. 2013 Cellulosic Biofuel Standard: Direct Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The direct final action is to revise the 2013 cellulosic biofuel standard. This action follows from EPA having granted API's and AFPM's petitions for reconsideration of the 2013 cellulosic biofuel standard published on August 15, 2013.

  10. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  11. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge. On the basis of recent advances in structural and molecular biology on bacterial cellulose synthases, we review emerging concepts of how the enzymes polymerize glucose molecules, how the nascent polymer is transported across the plasma membrane, and how bacterial cellulose biosynthesis is regulated during biofilm formation. Additionally, we review evolutionary commonalities and differences between cellulose synthases that modulate the nature of the cellulose product formed. PMID:26034894

  12. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  13. Cellulose nanocrystal properties and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi jonoobi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to provide an overview of recent research in the area of cellulose nonmaterials production from different sources. Due to their abundance, their renewability, high strength and stiffness, being eco-friendly, and low weight; numerous studies have been reported on the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources and their use in high performance applications. This work covers an introduction into the nano cellulose definition as well as used methods for isolation of nanomaterials (nanocrystals from various sources. The rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC can be isolated from sources like wood, plant fibers, agriculture and industrial bio residues, tunicates, and bacterial cellulose using acid hydrolysis process. Following this, the paper focused on characterization methods, materials properties and structure. The current review is a comprehensive literature regarding the nano cellulose isolation and demonstrates the potential of cellulose nanomaterials to be used in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  14. Development of nonflammable cellulosic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttinger, M.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a moldable cellulosic foam for use in Skylab instrument storage cushions is considered. Requirements include density of 10 lb cu ft or less, minimal friability with normal handling, and nonflammability in an atmosphere of 70 percent oxygen and 30 percent nitrogen at 6.2 psia. A study of halogenated foam components was made, including more highly chlorinated binders, halogen-containing additives, and halogenation of the cellulose. The immediate objective was to reduce the density of the foam through reduction in inorganic phosphate without sacrificing flame-retarding properties of the foams. The use of frothing techniques was investigated, with particular emphasis on a urea-formaldehyde foam. Halogen-containing flame retardants were deemphasized in favor of inorganic salts and the preparation of phosphate and sulphate esters of cellulose. Utilization of foam products for civilian applications was also considered.

  15. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common methods of cellulose pulp modification (activation) applied in the production process of cellulose derivatives is the treatment of the pulp with NaOH solutions leading to the formation of alkalicellulose. The product then undergoes a prolonged process of maturation by its storage under specific conditions. The goal of the process is lowering of the molecular weight of cellulose down to the level resulting from various technological requirements. The process is time-consuming and costly; besides, it requires usage of large-capacity technological vessels and produces considerable amounts of liquid waste. Therefore, many attempts have been made to limit or altogether eliminate the highly disadvantageous stage of cellulose treatment with lye. One of the alternatives proposed so far is the radiation treatment of the cellulose pulp. In the pulp exposed to an electron beam, the bonds between molecules of D-antihydroglucopiranoses loosen and the local crystalline lattice becomes destroyed. This facilitates the access of chemical reagents to the inner structure of the cellulose and, in consequence, eliminates the need for the prolonged maturation of alkalicellulose, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals by the whole process. Research aimed at the application of radiation treatment of cellulose pulp for the production of cellulose derivatives has been conducted by a number of scientific institutions including the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, and Pulp and Paper Research Institute. For the investigations and assessment of the molecular, hypermolecular, morphologic properties and the chemical reactivity, cellulose pulps used for chemical processing, namely Alicell, Borregaard and Ketchikan, as well as paper pulps made from pine and birch wood were selected. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with an energy of 10 MeV generated in a linear electron accelerator

  16. Incentives for Accuracy in Analyst Research

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Crifo; Hind Sami

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to analyze the dynamic relations between incentive contracts and analysts' effort in providing accurate research when both ethical and reputational concerns matter. First, we show that reputation picks up ability and thus serves as a sorting device: when analysts have a relatively low reputation for providing research quality (below a threshold level) banks find it more profitable to offer a mix of monetary and non monetary (ethic based) incentives and rely on the ...

  17. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between ?nudging,? which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The lit...

  18. Incentive Effects of Peer Pressure in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.

  19. Properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the cellulose material compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 as well as official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Coconut fruit fibre, microcrystalline cellulose, powder properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol. 3 (1) 2006: ...

  20. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.

    In chapter

  1. Physicochemical analysis of cellulose from microalgae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cellulose of microalgae for the vegetal cellulose, as seen in the simple technical extraction, the yield and the procurement of uncontaminated molecule with lignin. This substitution will contribute in protecting the environment. Keywords: Cellulose, Nannochloropsis gaditana, procedure extraction, structural characterization ...

  2. Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini; John Nairn; John Simonsen; Jeff Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. It summarizes cellulose nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties. Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. The...

  3. 21 CFR 172.870 - Hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxypropyl cellulose. 172.870 Section 172.870... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.870 Hydroxypropyl cellulose. The food additive hydroxypropyl cellulose may be safely used in food, except standardized foods that do not provide for such use, in...

  4. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  5. Bioengineering cellulose-hemicellulose networks in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obembe, O.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell walls are important in the industrial application of the cellulose (natural) fibres. We strive to modify these interactions (i) by interfering with cellulose biosynthesis and (ii) by direct interference of the

  6. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  7. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  8. The roles of xylan and lignin in oxalic acid pretreated corncob during separate enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Hyun Joo Kim; In-Gyu Choi; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    High yields of hemicellulosic and cellulosic sugars are critical in obtaining economical conversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. To optimize pretreatment conditions, we evaluated oxalic acid loading rates, treatment temperatures and times in a 23 full factorial design. Response-surface analysis revealed an optimal oxalic acid pretreatment...

  9. Thermoanaerobacter mathranii sp. nov., an ethanol-producing, extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium from a hot spring in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.; Nielsen, P.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    by transmission electron microscopy. Strain A3 used a number of carbohydrates as carbon sources, including xylan, but did not utilize microcrystalline cellulose. Fermentation end products were ethanol, acetate, lactate, CO2, and H-2. The temperature optimum for growth was between 70 and 75 degrees C, and growth...

  10. Ethanol production with simultaneous utilization of raw materials containing starch and lignocellulose-containing; Ethanolproduktion mit simultanem Einsatz von staerke- und lignocellulosehaltigen Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Sven; Buck, Michael; Senn, Thomas [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Gaerungstechnologie

    2010-07-01

    Ethanol production from cellulose-rich raw materials has again been the subject of much discussion during the past few years. Some new processes were developed during that time, all of which are more or less based on the acid hydrolysis process developed in the thirties of the past century. This technology is not suited for biogas plants because of the sulphuric acid involved. However, ethanol production combined with biogas production offers a chance in principle to make use of the cellulose and hemicellulose that are not converted in the ethanol process; these could be converted into biogas in the biogas plant. This would also ensure energetic utilization of pentoses from lignocellulose. The authors describe a process for utilization of cellulose-rich material which works without acid and requires very moderate hydrothermal process conditions (70 minutes at 150 degC). With straw, efficiencies up to 15 percent were achieved; with maize, efficiencies were up to 21.5 percent.

  11. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  12. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  13. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  14. Net-Immobilization of β-glucosidase on Nonwoven Fabrics to Lower the Cost of “Cellulosic Ethanol” and Increase Cellulose Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing; He, Bin; Zhao, Changwen; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Guan; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2016-03-01

    The main limitation preventing the use of enzymatic cellulosic ethanol in industrial production is its higher cost which is mainly due to the elevated price of β-glucosidase (BG). Herein, we report on a simple strategy for the in-situ encapsulation of BG for repeated cellulosic ethanol production. In this strategy, BG was net-immobilized into a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) net-cloth layer on a PP nonwoven fabric by way of the visible light-induced surface controlled/living graft cross-linking polymerization. The visible light and mild reaction conditions could ensure the activity retention of BG during immobilization, while the non-swelling uniform net-mesh formed by living cross-linking polymerization could prevent the leakage of BG effectively (at the immobilization rate of more than 98.6% and the leakage rate of only 0.4%). When the BG-loaded fabric was used in combination with free cellulase (CEL), the results of the catalytic reaction demonstrated that these BG-loaded fabrics could not only give a 40% increase in cellulose conversions but also be reused for more than fifteen batches without losing the activity. These BG-loaded fabrics with characteristics including easy separation, excellent operation stability, a low cost of the polymeric matrix and a simple fabrication process are particularly interesting for a future bio-fuel production strategy.

  15. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  16. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of microorganisms for cellulose-biofuel consolidated bioprocessings: metabolic engineers’ tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mazzoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose waste biomass is the most abundant and attractive substrate for "biorefinery strategies" that are aimed to produce high-value products (e.g. solvents, fuels, building blocks by economically and environmentally sustainable fermentation processes. However, cellulose is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation and its conversion by biotechnological strategies currently requires economically inefficient multistep industrial processes. The need for dedicated cellulase production continues to be a major constraint to cost-effective processing of cellulosic biomass.Research efforts have been aimed at developing recombinant microorganisms with suitable characteristics for single step biomass fermentation (consolidated bioprocessing, CBP. Two paradigms have been applied for such, so far unsuccessful, attempts: a “native cellulolytic strategies”, aimed at conferring high-value product properties to natural cellulolytic microorganisms; b “recombinant cellulolytic strategies”, aimed to confer cellulolytic ability to microorganisms exhibiting high product yields and titers.By starting from the description of natural enzyme systems for plant biomass degradation and natural metabolic pathways for some of the most valuable product (i.e. butanol, ethanol, and hydrogen biosynthesis, this review describes state-of-the-art bottlenecks and solutions for the development of recombinant microbial strains for cellulosic biofuel CBP by metabolic engineering. Complexed cellulases (i.e. cellulosomes benefit from stronger proximity effects and show enhanced synergy on insoluble substrates (i.e. crystalline cellulose with respect to free enzymes. For this reason, special attention was held on strategies involving cellulosome/designer cellulosome-bearing recombinant microorganisms.

  18. Fungal pretreatment: An alternative in second-generation ethanol from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Prieto, Alicia; López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The potential of a fungal pretreatment combined with a mild alkali treatment to replace or complement current physico-chemical methods for ethanol production from wheat straw has been investigated. Changes in substrate composition, secretion of ligninolytic enzymes, enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and ethanol yield after 7, 14 and 21 days of solid-state fermentation were evaluated. Most fungi degraded lignin with variable selectivity degrees, although only eight of them improved sugar recovery compared to untreated samples. Glucose yield after 21 days of pretreatment with Poria subvermispora and Irpex lacteus reached 69% and 66% of cellulose available in the wheat straw, respectively, with an ethanol yield of 62% in both cases. Conversions from glucose to ethanol reached around 90%, showing that no inhibitors were generated during this pretreatment. No close correlations were found between ligninolytic enzymes production and sugar yields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost estimate for the production of ethanol from spent sulphite liquors and wood residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q.

    1990-03-01

    A Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet model for estimating the production cost of 95 wt % ethanol from spent sulfite liquors (SSL) and from a wood hydrolysis front-end is described. The most economically attractive process is the fermentation of softwood SSL (SSSL) by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yielding a production cost estimate of $0.47/liter. The cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic waste (clarifier sludge) via acid hydrolysis is approximately $0.55/liter, still below the market price of ca $0.60/liter for industrial ethanol. Neither the fermentation of hardwood SSL nor the conversion of sawdust to ethanol, using current technology, are economically viable. However, these processes can become commercially viable if acetic acid-tolerant xylose-fermenting yeasts can be found. 17 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs

  20. Ethanol production from candidate energy crops: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, D; Kuniki, M; Sei, K; Soda, S; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    2008-05-01

    Fermentation modes and microorganisms related to two typical free-floating aquatic plants, water hyacinth and water lettuce, were investigated for their use in ethanol production. Except for arabinose, sugar contents in water lettuce resembled those in water hyacinth leaves. Water lettuce had slightly higher starch contents and lower contents of cellulose and hemicellulose. A traditional strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NBRC 2346, produced 14.4 and 14.9 g l(-1) ethanol, respectively, from water hyacinth and water lettuce. Moreover, a recombinant strain, Escherichia coli KO11, produced 16.9 and 16.2 g l(-1) ethanol in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode (SSF), which was more effective than the separated hydrolysis and fermentation mode (SHF). The ethanol yield per unit biomass was comparable to those reported for other agricultural biomasses: 0.14-0.17 g g-dry(-1) for water hyacinth and 0.15-0.16 g g-dry(-1) for water lettuce.

  1. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other...... stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction.......Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature...

  2. Bioconversion of plant biomass to ethanol. Final report, 15 December 1976-31 December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, R.E.; Su, T.M.; Brennan, M.J. Jr.; Frick, J.; Lynch, M.

    1979-07-01

    Two approaches to ethanol production via thermophilic mixed culture fermentation of pretreated wood were investigated. The initial studies of wood biodelignification by Chrysosporium pruinosum and subsequent mixed culture fermentation to ethanol using a cellulolytic strain of sporocytophaga and a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus proved to be premature for a development effort. Studies of the fermentation of SO/sub 2//steam-treated poplar by a mixed culture of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum were, however, technically and economically promising. Wood pretreatment to enhance microbial utilization, the microbiology and biochemistry of pure and mixed culture fermentation of cellulose by C. thermocellum and C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum, and techniques for improving ethanol tolerance and yield were investigated. Considerable progress in overcoming the technical barriers to efficient ethanol production from wood have been demonstrated; however, additional studies and development work are required before technical feasibility can be established.

  3. The BEST project - BioEthanol for the Sustainable Transportation - a contribution to the environment of the metropolis; O projeto BEST - BioEtanol para o Transporte Sustentavel - uma contribuicao ao meio ambiente das metropoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvia@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The BEST Project - Bio Ethanol for the Sustainable Transportation was an initiative of the European Union, coordinated by the Stockholm City Hall, at Sweden. This project gave incentives the use of ethanol, replacing the Diesel fuel, at the public transportation in Brazil and in the world. The used vehicles in the tests were monitored and evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency and environmental energy of the ethanol, and after the results, the BEST project and the European Union gave recommendations for the formulation of public politics of incentives to the use of technology.

  4. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  5. Advancing cellulose-based nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore H. Wegner; Philip E. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology has applications across most economic sectors and allows the development of new enabling science with broad commercial potential. Cellulose and lignocellulose have great potential as nanomaterials because they are abundant, renewable, have a nanofibrillar structure, can be made multifunctional, and self-assemble into well-defined architectures. To...

  6. Ignition inhibitors for cellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    By exposing samples to various irradiance levels from a calibrated thermal radiation source, the ignition responses of blackened alpha-cellulose and cotton cloth with and without fire-retardant additives were compared. Samples treated with retardant compounds which showed the most promise were then isothermally pyrolyzed in air for comparisons between the pyrolysis rates. Alpha-cellulose samples containing a mixture of boric acid, borax, and ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate could not be ignited by irradiances up to 4.0 cal cm -2 s-1 (16.7 W/cm 2 ). At higher irradiances the specimens ignited, but flaming lasted only until the flammable gases were depleted. Cotton cloth containing a polymeric retardant with the designation THPC + MM was found to be ignition-resistant to all irradiances below 7.0 cal cm -2 s -1 (29.3 W/cm 2 ). Comparison of the pyrolysis rates of the retardant-treated alpha-cellulose and the retardant-treated cotton showed that the retardant mechanism is qualitatively the same. Similar ignition-response measurements were also made with specimens exposed to ionizing radiation. It was observed that gamma radiation results in ignition retardance of cellulose, while irradiation by neutrons does not

  7. Polyvinyl alcohol–cellulose composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have made an attempt to prepare taste sensor material by using functionalized polymer without any lipid. PVA–cellulose composite has been modified to use as the sensor material. The research work covers polymer membrane preparation, morphology study and structural characterization of the membrane and study of ...

  8. WOOD CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE 179

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Science. 297: 803-806. Guthrie, J.T and Tune, P.D. (1991). The preparation, characterization and application of cellulose-. MMA graft copolymers. J. Polym. Sci. 29, 1301-. 1309. Hamiltion, J..K. and Mitachell, R.L. (1965). Encyclopaedia of polymer science and technology, vol. 3. (Biakales, N..M. edn). .John.

  9. Controlled grafting of cellulose diacetate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Petr; Janata, Miroslav; Látalová, Petra; Kříž, Jaroslav; Čadová, Eva; Toman, Luděk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 8 (2006), s. 2587-2595 ISSN 0032-3861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cellulose diacetate * functionalization * ATRP Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.773, year: 2006

  10. Environmental aspects of ethanol-based fuels from Brassica carinata. A case study of second generation ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M'a Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Gasol, Carles M.; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century is to meet the increasing demand for energy requirements by means of a more sustainable energy supply. In countries that are net fossil fuel importers, expectation about the benefit of using alternative fuels on reducing oil imports is the primary driving force behind efforts to promote its production and use. Spain is scarce in domestic energy sources and more than 50% of the energy used is fossil fuel based. The promotion of renewable energies use is one of the principal vectors in the Spanish energy policy. Selected herbaceous crops such as Brassica carinata are currently under study as potential energy sources. Its biomass can be considered as potential feedstock to ethanol conversion by an enzymatic process due to the characteristics of its composition, rich in cellulose and hemicellulose. This paper aims to analyse the environmental performance of two ethanol-based fuel applications (E10 and E85) in a passenger car (E10 fuel: a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume; E85 fuel: a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) as well as their comparison with conventional gasoline as transport fuel. Two types of functional units are applied in this study: ethanol production oriented and travelling distance oriented functional units in order to reflect the availability or not of ethanol supply. E85 seems to be the best alternative when ethanol production based functional unit is considered in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and E10 in terms of non-renewable energy resources use. Nevertheless, E85 offers the best environmental performance when travelling distance oriented functional unit is assumed in both impacts. In both functional unit perspectives, the use of ethanol-based fuels reduces the global warming and fossil fuels consumption. However, the contributions to other impact indicators (e.g. acidification, eutrophication and photochemical oxidants formation) were lower

  11. The Effect of Differential Incentives on Attrition Bias: Evidence from the PASS Wave 3 Incentive Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderer, Barbara; Müller, Gerrit; Kreuter, Frauke; Winter, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Respondent incentives are widely used to increase response rates, but their effect on nonresponse bias has not been researched as much. To contribute to the research, we analyze an incentive experiment embedded within the third wave of the German household panel survey "Panel Labor Market and Social Security" conducted by the German…

  12. A novel biochemical route for fuels and chemicals production from cellulosic biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Fan

    Full Text Available The conventional biochemical platform featuring enzymatic hydrolysis involves five key steps: pretreatment, cellulase production, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery. Sugars are produced as reactive intermediates for subsequent fermentation to fuels and chemicals. Herein, an alternative biochemical route is proposed. Pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase production is consolidated into one single step, referred to as consolidated aerobic processing, and sugar aldonates are produced as the reactive intermediates for biofuels production by fermentation. In this study, we demonstrate the viability of consolidation of the enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase production steps in the new route using Neurospora crassa as the model microorganism and the conversion of cellulose to ethanol as the model system. We intended to prove the two hypotheses: 1 cellulose can be directed to produce cellobionate by reducing β-glucosidase production and by enhancing cellobiose dehydrogenase production; and 2 both of the two hydrolysis products of cellobionate--glucose and gluconate--can be used as carbon sources for ethanol and other chemical production. Our results showed that knocking out multiple copies of β-glucosidase genes led to cellobionate production from cellulose, without jeopardizing the cellulose hydrolysis rate. Simulating cellobiose dehydrogenase over-expression by addition of exogenous cellobiose dehydrogenase led to more cellobionate production. Both of the two hydrolysis products of cellobionate: glucose and gluconate can be used by Escherichia coli KO 11 for efficient ethanol production. They were utilized simultaneously in glucose and gluconate co-fermentation. Gluconate was used even faster than glucose. The results support the viability of the two hypotheses that lay the foundation for the proposed new route.

  13. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  14. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  15. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  16. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  17. Converting Eucalyptus biomass into ethanol: Financial and sensitivity analysis in a co-current dilute acid process. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H.; Saloni, D.; Wright, J.; Abt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The technical and financial performance of high yield Eucalyptus biomass in a co-current dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis process was simulated using WinGEMS registered and Excel registered . Average ethanol yield per dry Mg of Eucalyptus biomass was approximately 347.6 L of ethanol (with average carbohydrate content in the biomass around 66.1%) at a cost of 0.49 L -1 of ethanol, cash cost of ∝0.46 L -1 and CAPEX of 1.03 L -1 of ethanol. The main cost drivers are: biomass, enzyme, tax, fuel (gasoline), depreciation and labor. Profitability of the process is very sensitive to biomass cost, carbohydrate content (%) in biomass and enzyme cost. Biomass delivered cost was simulated and financially evaluated in Part I; here in Part II the conversion of this raw material into cellulosic ethanol using the dilute acid process is evaluated. (author)

  18. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  19. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. High pressure HC1 conversion of cellulose to glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonoplis, Robert Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanch, Harvey W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilke, Charles R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1981-08-01

    The production of ethanol from glucose by means of fermentation represents a potential long-range alternative to oil for use as a transportation fuel. Today's rising oil prices and the dwindling world supply of oil have made other fuels, such as ethanol, attractive alternatives. It has been shown that automobiles can operate, with minor alterations, on a 10% ethanol-gasoline mixture popularly known as gasohol. Wood has long been known as a potential source of glucose. Glucose may be obtained from wood following acid hydrolysis. In this research, it was found that saturating wood particles with HCl gas under pressure was an effective pretreatment before subjecting the wood to dilute acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment is necessary because of the tight lattice structure of cellulose, which inhibits dilute acid hydrolysis. HCl gas makes the cellulose more susceptible to hydrolysis and the glucose yield is doubled when dilute acid hydrolysis is preceded by HCl saturation at high pressure. The saturation was most effectively performed in a fluidized bed reactor, with pure HCl gas fluidizing equal volumes of ground wood and inert particles. The fluidized bed effectively dissipated the large amount of heat released upon HCl absorption into the wood. Batch reaction times of one hour at 314.7 p.s.i.a. gave glucose yields of 80% and xylose yields of 95% after dilute acid hydrolysis. A non-catalytic gas-solid reaction model, with gas diffusing through the solid limiting the reaction rate, was found to describe the HCl-wood reaction in the fluidized bed. HCl was found to form a stable adduct with the lignin residue in the wood, in a ratio of 3.33 moles per mole of lignin monomer. This resulted in a loss of 0.1453 lb. of HCl per pound of wood. The adduct was broken upon the addition of water. A process design and economic evaluation for a plant to produce 214 tons per day of glucose from air-dried ground Populus tristi gave an estimated glucose cost of 15.14 cents per pound

  1. Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijiao Zeng; Zhaohui Tong; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; Lonnie Ingram

    2014-01-01

    The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation...

  2. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  3. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  4. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  5. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  6. Compatibility between cellulose and hydrophobic polymer provided by microfibrillated lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang; Obersriebnig, Michael; Veigel, Stefan; Liebner, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) was produced from wood subjected to partial lignin extraction using an ethanol/water mixture. After homogenization, the average fibril diameter of MFLC was in the same range as conventional microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Although MFLC exhibited higher wettability with water compared to MFC, AFM adhesion force measurements revealed high variability in surface polarity of MFLC compared to MFC. Specifically, domains of higher polarity than in MFC but also domains of lower polarity than in MFC were observed in MFLC. This tendency towards amphiphilic behavior of MFLC was used to provide enhanced compatibility with polycaprolactone and polystyrene matrices. With both polymers, a significantly more homogeneous distribution of fibrils was achieved using MFLC compared to MFC. In line with better dispersion of the fibrils, significantly more efficient mechanical reinforcement of polymers was obtained using MFLC compared to MFC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas A.F.

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  8. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  9. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  10. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  11. Generic host state incentive report. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Even the most carefully designed and operated low-level radioactive waste management facility will present potential risks and costs to nearby residents. Individuals who live near these facilities may receive some benefits, but they also bear the brunt of any adverse impacts. It is with this in mind that various siting techniques have been developed. Before any ''extra'' compensation or incentive can be discussed, however, it must first be clearly demonstrated that these facilities protect public health and the environment. This report addresses five distinct areas as follows: mitigation measure to prevent or reduce the impact of the facility; incentives and compensation techniques that might make a facility more acceptable; the use of agreement building in order to develop an arrangement between the host community and a facility proponent; the importance of economics resulting from a typical regional low-level radioactive waste facility; and the role of state government in promoting and legitimizing the use of incentives. 6 tabs

  12. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Xylose isomerase improves growth and ethanol production rates from biomass sugars for both Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen P; Gowtham, Yogender Kumar; Henson, J Michael; Harcum, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    The demand for biofuel ethanol made from clean, renewable nonfood sources is growing. Cellulosic biomass, such as switch grass (Panicum virgatum L.), is an alternative feedstock for ethanol production; however, cellulosic feedstock hydrolysates contain high levels of xylose, which needs to be converted to ethanol to meet economic feasibility. In this study, the effects of xylose isomerase on cell growth and ethanol production from biomass sugars representative of switch grass were investigated using low cell density cultures. The lager yeast species Saccharomyces pastorianus was grown with immobilized xylose isomerase in the fermentation step to determine the impact of the glucose and xylose concentrations on the ethanol production rates. Ethanol production rates were improved due to xylose isomerase; however, the positive effect was not due solely to the conversion of xylose to xylulose. Xylose isomerase also has glucose isomerase activity, so to better understand the impact of the xylose isomerase on S. pastorianus, growth and ethanol production were examined in cultures provided fructose as the sole carbon. It was observed that growth and ethanol production rates were higher for the fructose cultures with xylose isomerase even in the absence of xylose. To determine whether the positive effects of xylose isomerase extended to other yeast species, a side-by-side comparison of S. pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was conducted. These comparisons demonstrated that the xylose isomerase increased ethanol productivity for both the yeast species by increasing the glucose consumption rate. These results suggest that xylose isomerase can contribute to improved ethanol productivity, even without significant xylose conversion. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  14. Investigation and characterization of oxidized cellulose and cellulose nanofiber films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han

    Over the last two decades, a large amount of research has focused on natural cellulose fibers, since they are "green" and renewable raw materials. Recently, nanomaterials science has attracted wide attention due to the large surface area and unique properties of nanoparticles. Cellulose certainly is becoming an important material in nanomaterials science, with the increasing demand of environmentally friendly materials. In this work, a novel method of preparing cellulose nanofibers (CNF) is being presented. This method contains up to three oxidation steps: periodate, chlorite and TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl) oxidation. The first two oxidation steps are investigated in the first part of this work. Cellulose pulp was oxidized to various extents by a two step-oxidation with sodium periodate, followed by sodium chlorite. The oxidized products can be separated into three different fractions. The mass ratio and charge content of each fraction were determined. The morphology, size distribution and crystallinity index of each fraction were measured by AFM, DLS and XRD, respectively. In the second part of this work, CNF were prepared and modified under various conditions, including (1) the introduction of various amounts of aldehyde groups onto CNF by periodate oxidation; (2) the carboxyl groups in sodium form on CNF were converted to acid form by treated with an acid type ion-exchange resin; (3) CNF were cross-linked in two different ways by employing adipic dihydrazide (ADH) as cross-linker and water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylaminopropyl)] carbodiimide (EDC) as carboxyl-activating agent. Films were fabricated with these modified CNF suspensions by vacuum filtration. The optical, mechanical and thermo-stability properties of these films were investigated by UV-visible spectrometry, tensile test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) and water contact angle (WCA) of these films were also studied.

  15. Application of Box-Behnken Design in Optimization of Glucose Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriani Aga Pasma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB is a lignocellulosic waste from palm oil mills. It contains mainly cellulose from which glucose can be derived to serve as raw materials for valuable chemicals such as succinic acid. A three-level Box-Behnken design combined with the canonical and ridge analysis was employed to optimize the process parameters for glucose production from OPEFB cellulose using enzymatic hydrolysis. Organosolv pretreatment was used to extract cellulose from OPEFB using ethanol and water as the solvents. The extracted cellulose was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Hydrolysis parameters including amount of enzyme, amount of cellulose, and reaction time were investigated. The experimental results were fitted with a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis and found that more than 97% of the variations could be predicted by the models. Using the ridge analysis, the optimal conditions reaction time found for the production of glucose was 76 hours and 30 min, whereas the optimum amount of enzyme and cellulose was 0.5 mL and 0.9 g, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the corresponding response value predicted for glucose concentration was 169.34 g/L, which was confirmed by validation experiments.

  16. Molecular characterization of cellulose-degrading Bacillus pumilus from the soil of tea garden, Darjeeling hills, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Sarkar, Kanishendranath; Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Srivastava, Sunita

    2014-05-01

    Bio-fuel produced from ethanol is economically and environmentally advantageous in context of changing global climate. A large number of microorganisms are capable of cellulase production but most of them cannot be utilized commercially due to their low activity. In the present study, an effiecient cellulose degrading strain of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after thorough screening for the production of extracellular cellulases. Out of a total of 144 microbes isolated from soils of Darjeeling hills of India, nineteen were found to be cellulose degrader under in vitro conditions as observed by clearing zone on CMC - agar plates. Isolate #35 had high cellulolytic activity as observed by a clearing zone of 26.83 mm diameter formed on CMC - agar plate. The isolate was characterized and identified as Bacillus pumilus. The isolate was submitted to National Agriculturally Important Microbial Culture Collection (NAIMCC), NBAIM, Mau with Accession number NAIMCC-B-01415. Transposon (Tn5) mutants of wild type isolate Bacillus pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 were generated and screened for the absence of cellulose degradation. Of 365 B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 mutants obtained, only two were unable to degrade cellulose under in vitro conditions. Inverse PCR studies with B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 :: TL5, a cellulose degradation mutant of B. pumilus NAIMCC -B-01415 revealed presence of Cys B (Cystein protein regulatory) gene involved in cellulose degradation. The participation of Cys B gene in cellulase degradation is reported here.

  17. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  18. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails for cellulose conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Diallo, Oumou; Whitmore, Allante

    2011-10-01

    The use of aquatic plant cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails was studied using a Dionex accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) varying acid concentration (0.1-1%), treatment temperature (140-180 °C), and residence time (5-10 min). The highest total glucose yield for both the pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis stages (97.1% of the cellulose) was reached at a temperature of 180 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5%, and a time of 5 min. Cattails pretreated with 0.5% sulfuric acid are digestible with similar results at enzyme loadings above 15 FPU/g glucan. Glucose from cattails cellulose can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with an approximately 90% of the theoretical yield. The results in this study indicate that cattails are a promising source of feedstock for advanced renewable fuel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of fixed versus variable biofuels incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, Wallace E.; Taheripour, Farzad; Perkis, David

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated several variants of a variable biofuel subsidy and compared them with the fixed subsidy and Renewable Fuel Standard using two different modeling approaches. First we used a partial equilibrium model encompassing crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, and ethanol by-products. Second, we used a stochastic simulation model of a prototypical ethanol plant. From the partial equilibrium analysis, it appears the variable subsidy provides a safety net for ethanol producers when oil prices are low; yet, it does not put undue pressure on corn prices when oil prices are high. At high oil prices, the level of ethanol production is driven by market forces. From the plant level stochastic analysis, essentially the same conclusions are reached. As with the fixed subsidy, the variable subsidy can increase the net present value (NPV) sufficiently to encourage investment, but with lower risk for the producer, lower probability of a loss from the investment, and often lower expected cost to government. Finally, in the US, the ethanol industry is up against a blending limit called the blend wall. If the blending wall remains in place and no way around it is found, it does not matter much what other policy options are used.

  20. Monetary value of the environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from biomass feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiima, Jamil M.; Powers, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    This research is aimed at monetizing the life cycle environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and forest residue. The results of this study reveal current average external costs for the production of 1 l of ethanol ranged from $0.07 for forest residue to $0.57 for ethanol production from corn. Among the various feedstocks, the external costs of PM 10 , NO X , and PM 2.5 are among the greatest contributors to these costs. The combustion of fossil fuels in upstream fertilizer and energy production processes is the primary source of these emissions and their costs, especially for corn ethanol. The combined costs of emissions associated with the production and use of nitrogen fertilizer also contribute substantially to the net external costs. For cellulosic ethanol production, the combustion of waste lignin to generate heat and power helps to keep the external costs lower than corn ethanol. Credits both for the biogenic carbon combustion and displacement of grid electricity by exporting excess electricity substantially negate many of the emissions and external costs. External costs associated with greenhouse gas emissions were not significant. However, adding estimates of indirect GHG emissions from land use changes would nearly double corn ethanol cost estimates.

  1. Exergy and CO2 Analyses as Key Tools for the Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of bioethanol as an alternative to conventional fuels is analyzed with the aim of examining the efficiency of bioethanol production by first (sugar-based and second (cellulose-based generation processes. Energy integration is of paramount importance for a complete recovery of the processes’ exergy potential. Based upon literature data and our own findings, exergy analysis is shown to be an important tool in analyzing integrated ethanol production from an efficiency and cost perspective.

  2. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  3. Potentiality of Yeasts in the Direct Conversion of Starchy Materials to Ethanol and Its Relevance in the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L. V. A.; Reddy, O. V. S.; Basappa, S. C.

    In recent years, the use of renewable and abundantly available starchy and cellulosic materials for industrial production of ethanol is gaining importance, in view of the fact, that ethanol is one of the most prospective future motor fuels, that can be expected to replace fossil fuels, which are fast depleting in the world scenario. Although, the starch and the starchy substrates could be converted successfully to ethanol on industrial scales by the use of commercial amylolytic enzymes and yeast fermentation, the cost of production is rather very high. This is mainly due to the non-enzymatic and enzymatic conversion (gelatinization, liquefaction and saccharification) of starch to sugars, which costs around 20 % of the cost of production of ethanol from starch. In this context, the use of amylolytic yeasts, that can directly convert starch to ethanol by a single step, are potentially suited to reduce the cost of production of ethanol from starch. Research advances made in this direction have shown encouraging results, both in terms of identifying the potentially suited yeasts for the purpose and also their economic ethanol yields. This chapter focuses on the types of starch and starchy substrates and their digestion to fermentable sugars, optimization of fermentation conditions to ethanol from starch, factors that affect starch fermentation, potential amylolytic yeasts which can directly convert starch to ethanol, genetic improvement of these yeasts for better conversion efficiency and their future economic prospects in the new millennium.

  4. Cellulose binding domain assisted immobilization of lipase (GSlip-CBD) onto cellulosic nanogel: characterization and application in organic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Zhang, Shaowei; Wu, Gaobing; Wu, Cheng Chao; Chen, JunPeng; Baskaran, R; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-12-01

    A cbd gene was cloned into the C-terminal region of a lip gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The native lipase (43.5 kDa) and CBD-Lip fusion protein (60.2 kDa) were purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE. A highly stable cellulosic nanogel was prepared by controlled hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose onto which the CBD-lip fusion protein was immobilized through bio-affinity based binding. The nanogel-bound lipase showed optimum activity at 55 °C, and it remains stable and active at pH 10-10.5. Furthermore, the immobilized lipase showed an over two-fold increase of relative activity in the presence of DMSO, isopropanol, isoamyl alcohol and n-butanol, but a mild activity decrease at a low concentration of methanol and ethanol. The immobilized biocatalyst retained ~50% activity after eight repetitive hydrolytic cycles. Enzyme kinetic studies of the immobilized lipase showed a 1.24 fold increase in Vmax and 5.25 fold increase in kcat towards p-NPP hydrolysis. Additionally, the nanogel bound lipase was tested to synthesize a biodiesel ester, ethyl oleate in DMSO. Kinetic analysis showed the km 100.5 ± 4.3 mmol and Vmax 0.19 ± 0.015 mmolmin(-1) at varied oleic acid concentration. Also, the values of km and Vmax at varying concentration of ethanol were observed to be 95.9 ± 13.9 mmol and 0.22 ± 0.013 mmolmin(-1) respectively. The maximum yield of ethyl oleate 111.2 ± 1.24 mM was obtained under optimized reaction conditions in organic medium. These results suggest that this immobilized biocatalyst can be used as an efficient tool for the biotransformation reactions on an industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  6. Conductance phenomena in microcrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M.

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the conduction phenomena in compacted tablets of cellulose with varying relative humidity (RH) with techniques such as Low Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy (LFDS) and Transient Current (TC) at room temperature. Two exponential decaying regions in the transient current measurements indicate two ionic species contributing to the conduction mechanism. A high power-law exponent of 9 for the conductance with moisture content has been found. The mobility initially decreases with RH up to monolayer coverage, and further water vapor increases the mobility, indicating a blocking of available positions for the charge carrier ions. When the amount of water molecules present in the tablet increases one order of magnitude, the number of charge carriers increases 5-6 orders of magnitude, suggesting a transition from a power-law increase to a linear effective medium theory for the conduction. The charge carrier dependence on RH suggests that a percolating network of water molecules adsorbed to 6-OH units on the cellulose chain span through the sample. The conductivity mechanisms in cellulose are still not clear.

  7. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, September 1-November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.I.; Cooney, C.L.; Demain, A.L.; Gomez, R.F.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1978-11-01

    Studies on the accumulation of glucose during the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum are discussed. Production of ethanol and its relationship to growth rate in C. thermocellum is reported. Different biomasses were tested for ethanol yields. These included exploded poplar, sugar cane, bagasse, corn cobs, sweet gum, rice straw, and wheat straw. Thermophilic bacteria were tested to determine relationship of temperature to yield of ethanol. A preliminary report on isolating plaque forming emits derived from C. thermocellum is presented as well as the utilization of carbohydrates in nutrition. A cellulose enzyme is being purified from C. thermocellum. The production of chemical feedstocks by fermentation is reported. Acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid, produced by C. propionicum, C. acetobutylicum, and C. thermoaceticum, are discussed. (DC)

  8. Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

  9. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol in a semicontinuous solids-fed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiliang; South, Colin; Lyford, Kimberly; Munsie, Jeffery; van Walsum, Peter; Lynd, Lee R

    2003-12-01

    Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol was investigated with the objective of operating under conditions approaching those expected of an industrial process. Major components of the bleached Kraft sludge studied were glucan (62 wt.%, dry basis), xylan (11.5%), and minerals (17%). Complete recovery of glucose during compositional analysis required two acid hydrolysis treatments rather than one. To avoid the difficulty of mixing unreacted paper sludge, a semicontinuous solids-fed laboratory bioreactor system was developed. The system featured feeding at 12-h intervals, a residence time of 4 days, and cellulase loading of 15 to 20 FPU/g cellulose. Sludge was converted to ethanol using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) featuring a beta-glucosidase-supplemented commercial cellulase preparation and glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiea. SSF was carried out for a period of 4 months in a first-generation system, resulting in an average ethanol concentration of 35 g/L. However, steady state was not achieved and operational difficulties were encountered. These difficulties were avoided in a retrofitted design that was operated for two 1-month runs, achieving steady state with good material balance closure. Run 1 with the retrofitted reactor produced 50 g/L ethanol at a cellulose conversion of 74%. Run 2 produced 42 g/L ethanol at a conversion of 92%. For run 2, the ethanol yield was 0.466 g ethanol/g glucose equivalent fermented and >94% of the xylan fed to the reactor was solubilized to a mixture of xylan oligomers and xylose.

  10. Essays on incentives in regulation and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The thesis contains three essays on incentives in regulation and innovation. The first essay analyzes a problem of optimal regulatory design. Key feature of the problem is that there exists asymmetric information between the regulator and the industry concerning the costs of producing complementary

  11. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  12. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  13. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  14. BSN completion barriers, challenges, incentives, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Marie T; Friesen, Mary Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Swengros, Diane; Shanks, Laura A; Waiter, Pamela A; Sheridan, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore RN perceptions regarding barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion and identify recommendations to increase RN BSN completion. The Institute of Medicine's 2011 The Future of Nursing report recommended the proportion of RNs with a BSN increase to 80% by 2020. This qualitative study included 41 RNs who participated in 1 of 6 focus groups based on their BSN completion status. Primary themes were sacrifices, barriers/challenges, incentives/supports, value, how to begin, and pressure. Primary BSN completion barriers/challenges were work-life balance and economic issues. Incentives/supports identified were financial compensation, assistance from employer and academic institution, and encouragement from family. Institutional strategies recommended for increasing BSN completion rates were improved access to education and financial support facilitated by collaboration between hospitals and academic institutions. Exploring RN barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion can lead to implementation of institutional strategies, such as tuition reimbursement and academic collaboration.

  15. Incentives for Innovation in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, John

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of bureaucratic structure and the incentive systems of the public schools reveals access points for enhancing the school's ability to adopt and implement innovative education. Research and development coordinated to those points can provide a greater diversity of educational possibilities, assuming such diversity to be a positive…

  16. 75 FR 8854 - Teacher Incentive Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... outside of the PBCS (such as salaries of a school's master, mentor or lead teacher) could conceivably be... instead on a single salary schedule that pays all teachers and principals the same based on experience and... Teacher Incentive Fund Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of...

  17. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  18. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ...

  19. Examining the Incentives in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2008-01-01

    In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…

  20. Monetary incentives: usually neither necessary nor sufficient?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortmann, Andreas; Hertwig, R.

    -, č. 307 (2006), s. 1-17 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : experimental practices * monetary incentives * rhetorical tactics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp307.pdf

  1. Incentives, behavioral biases, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    While economists believe that monetary incentives provide the most powerful motivation for individuals to undertake an activity, major schools in psychology and sociology emphasize the motives coming from within the individual and from the personal and cultural differences among individuals. This

  2. Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Financial incentives are inadequate for most companies. market far less lucrative than for other diseases, which results in chronic underinvestment; reduced investment in TB drug R&D,. Pfizer withdrawal from TB R&D; AstraZeneca abandon TB R&D & close site; Novartis pull out; 4/22 Big Pharma producing antibacterials ...

  3. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1977-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artificial test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiography by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (Auth.)

  4. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  5. Celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cell walls examined by atomic force microscopy: effect of dehydration on cellulose microfibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, J C; Burritt, D J; Ducker, W A; Melton, L D

    2000-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cell walls in situ. Cellulose microfibrils could clearly be distinguished in topographic images of the cell wall. The microfibrils of the hydrated walls appeared smaller, more uniformly distributed, and less enmeshed than those of dried peels. In material that was kept hydrated at all times and imaged under water, the microfibril diameter was mainly in the range 6-25 nm. The cellulose microfibril diameters were highly dependent on the water content of the specimen. As the water content was decreased, by mixing ethanol with the bathing solution, the microfibril diameters increased. Upon complete dehydration of the specimen we observed a significant increase in microfibril diameter. The procedure used to dehydrate the parenchyma cells also influenced the size of cellulose microfibrils with freeze-dried material having larger diameters than air-dried material.

  6. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  7. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    on Ni-based catalysts during SR of ethanol were investigated in a flow reactor. Four different supports for Ni were tested and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 showed the highest activity, but also suffered from severe carbon deposition at 600 °C or below. Operation at 600 °C or above were needed for full conversion......Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...... of ethanol over the most active catalysts at the applied conditions. At these temperatures the offgas composition was close to the thermodynamical equilibrium. Operation at high temperatures, 700 °C and 750 °C, gave the lowest carbon deposition corresponding to 30–60 ppm of the carbon in the feed ending...

  8. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackek, S.

    1991-01-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed

  9. Cellulose accessibility limits the effectiveness of minimum cellulase loading on the efficient hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddler Jack N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A range of lignocellulosic feedstocks (including agricultural, softwood and hardwood substrates were pretreated with either sulfur dioxide-catalyzed steam or an ethanol organosolv procedure to try to establish a reliable assessment of the factors governing the minimum protein loading that could be used to achieve efficient hydrolysis. A statistical design approach was first used to define what might constitute the minimum protein loading (cellulases and β-glucosidase that could be used to achieve efficient saccharification (defined as at least 70% glucan conversion of the pretreated substrates after 72 hours of hydrolysis. The likely substrate factors that limit cellulose availability/accessibility were assessed, and then compared with the optimized minimum amounts of protein used to obtain effective hydrolysis. The optimized minimum protein loadings to achieve efficient hydrolysis of seven pretreated substrates ranged between 18 and 63 mg protein per gram of glucan. Within the similarly pretreated group of lignocellulosic feedstocks, the agricultural residues (corn stover and corn fiber required significantly lower protein loadings to achieve efficient hydrolysis than did the pretreated woody biomass (poplar, douglas fir and lodgepole pine. Regardless of the substantial differences in the source, structure and chemical composition of the feedstocks, and the difference in the pretreatment technology used, the protein loading required to achieve efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates was strongly dependent on the accessibility of the cellulosic component of each of the substrates. We found that cellulose-rich substrates with highly accessible cellulose, as assessed by the Simons' stain method, required a lower protein loading per gram of glucan to obtain efficient hydrolysis compared with substrates containing less accessible cellulose. These results suggest that the rate-limiting step during hydrolysis is not the catalytic

  10. Neutron reflectometry and QCM-D study of the interaction of cellulases with films of amorphous cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Liu, Zelin; Murton, Jaclyn K; Jablin, Michael; Dubey, Manish; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Halbert, Candice; Browning, James; Ankner, John; Akgun, Bulent; Wang, Chao; Esker, Alan R; Sale, Kenneth L; Simmons, Blake A; Kent, Michael S

    2011-06-13

    Improving the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the key technological hurdles to reduce the cost of producing ethanol and other transportation fuels from lignocellulosic material. A better understanding of how soluble enzymes interact with insoluble cellulose will aid in the design of more efficient enzyme systems. We report a study involving neutron reflectometry (NR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) of the interaction of a fungal enzyme extract ( T. viride ) and an endoglucanse from A. niger with amorphous cellulose films. The use of amorphous cellulose is motivated by that the fact that several biomass pretreatments currently under investigation disrupt the native crystalline structure of cellulose and increase the amorphous content. NR reveals the profile of water through the film at nanometer resolution and is highly sensitive to interfacial roughness, whereas QCM-D provides changes in mass and film stiffness. NR can be performed using either H(2)O- or D(2)O-based aqueous reservoirs. NR measurement of swelling of a cellulose film in D(2)O and in H(2)O revealed that D/H exchange on the cellulose chains must be taken into account when a D(2)O-based reservoir is used. The results also show that cellulose films swell slightly more in D(2)O than in H(2)O. Regarding enzymatic digestion, at 20 °C in H(2)O buffer the T. viride cocktail rapidly digested the entire film, initially roughening the surface, followed by penetration and activity throughout the bulk of the film. In contrast, over the same time period, the endoglucanase was active mainly at the surface of the film and did not increase the surface roughness.

  11. Neutron Reflectometry and QCM-D Study of the Interaction of Cellulases with Films of Amorphous Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang; Liu, Zelin; Murton, Jaclyn K; Jablin, Michael S; Dubey, Manish; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Halbert, Candice E; Browning, James F; Ankner, John; Akgun, Bulent; Wang, Chao; Esker, Alan R; Sale, Kenneth L; Simmons, Blake A; Kent, Michael S

    2011-06-13

    Improving the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the key technological hurdles to reduce the cost of producing ethanol and other transportation fuels from lignocellulosic material. A better understanding of how soluble enzymes interact with insoluble cellulose will aid in the design of more efficient enzyme systems. We report a study involving neutron reflectometry (NR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) of the interaction of a fungal enzyme extract (T. viride) and an endoglucanse from A. niger with amorphous cellulose films. The use of amorphous cellulose is motivated by that the fact that several biomass pretreatments currently under investigation disrupt the native crystalline structure of cellulose and increase the amorphous content. NR reveals the profile of water through the film at nanometer resolution and is highly sensitive to interfacial roughness, whereas QCM-D provides changes in mass and film stiffness. NR can be performed using either H₂O- or D₂O-based aqueous reservoirs. NR measurement of swelling of a cellulose film in D₂O and in H₂O revealed that D/H exchange on the cellulose chains must be taken into account when a D₂O-based reservoir is used. The results also show that cellulose films swell slightly more in D₂O than in H₂O. Regarding enzymatic digestion, at 20 °C in H₂O buffer the T. viride cocktail rapidly digested the entire film, initially roughening the surface, followed by penetration and activity throughout the bulk of the film. In contrast, over the same time period, the endoglucanase was active mainly at the surface of the film and did not increase the surface roughness.

  12. Grid Computing BOINC Redesign Mindmap with incentive system (gamification)

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchen, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Grid Computing BOINC Redesign Mindmap with incentive system (gamification) this is a PDF viewable of https://figshare.com/articles/Grid_Computing_BOINC_Redesign_Mindmap_with_incentive_system_gamification_/1265350

  13. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pretreating wheat straw by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production at high solid loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingwen; Ma, Lunjie; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Yongmei; Hu, Yaodong

    2017-08-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation at high solid loadings. Results indicated solid loading could reach 20% with 77.4% cellulose-glucose conversion and glucose concentration of 164.9g/L in hydrolysate, it even was promoted to 25% with only 3.4% decrease on cellulose-glucose conversion as the pretreated-wheat straw was dewatered by air-drying. 72.9% cellulose-glucose conversion still was achieved as the minimized enzyme input of 20mg protein/g cellulose was employed for hydrolysis at 20% solid loading. In the corresponding conditions, 100g wheat straw can yield 11.2g ethanol with concentration of 71.2g/L by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Thus, PHP-pretreatment benefitted the glucose or ethanol yield at high solid loadings with lower enzyme input. Additionally, decreases on the maximal cellulase adsorption and the direct-orange/direct-blue indicated drying the PHP-pretreated substrates negatively affected the hydrolysis due to the shrinkage of cellulase-size-accommodable pores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

    2008-09-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates.

  16. Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovits, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie

    2012-07-01

    Cellulose can be utilized as carbon source for the production of novel platform molecules as well as fuel motifs. Promising transformation strategies cover the hydrolytic hydrogenation or hydrogenolysis of cellulose to sugar alcohols, the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose followed by dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural or levulinic acid and the further hydrogenation of levulinic acid to {gamma}-valerolactone. Main challenges result from the high degree of functionalization of cellulosic feedstocks. In line, processes are carried out in liquid phase utilizing rather polar solvents and aiming for a tailored defunctionalisation of these oxygen rich compounds. Consequently, such transformations require novel strategies concerning the development of suitable catalysts and appropriate process concepts. (orig.)

  17. Liquid crystalline solutions of cellulose in phosphoric acid for preparing cellulose yarns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerstoel, H.

    2006-01-01

    The presen thesis describes a new process for manufacturing high tenacity and high modulus cellulose yarns. A new direct solvent for cellulose has been discovered, leading to liquid crystalline solutions. This new solvent, superphosphoric acid, rapidly dissolves cellulose. These liquid crystalline

  18. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Ola

    2013-05-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration and microfiltration separation characteristics, but recently, there have been attempts to widen their pool of applications in nanofiltration processes. In this work, a novel method for preparing high performance composite RC membranes was developed. These membranes reveal molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of less than 250 daltons, which possibly put them ahead of all commercial RC membranes and in competition with high performance nanofiltration membranes. The membranes were prepared by acidic hydrolysis of dip-coated trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) films. TMSC, with a degree of silylation (DS) of 2.8, was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by reaction with hexamethyldisilazane under the homogeneous conditions of LiCl/DMAC solvent system. Effects of parameters, such as coating solution concentration and drying rates, were investigated. It was concluded that higher TMSC concentrations as well as higher solvent evaporation rates favor better MWCOs, mainly due to increase in the selective layer thickness. Successful cross-linking of prepared membranes with glyoxal solutions, in the presence of boric acid as a catalyst, resulted in MWCOs less than 250 daltons. The suitability of this crosslinking reaction for large scale productions was already proven in the manufacturing of durable-press fabrics. For us, the inexpensive raw materials as well as the low reaction times and temperatures were of interest. Moreover, the non-toxic nature of glyoxal is a key advantage in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The membranes prepared in this work are strong candidates for separation of small organic solutes from organic solvents streams in pharmaceutical industries. Their hydrophilicity, compared to typical nanofiltration membranes, offer

  19. Improved ethanol production by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a mutated cellobiose transporter during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-03-10

    Although simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulosic biomass can offer efficient hydrolysis of cellulose through alleviating feed-back inhibition of cellulases by glucose, supplementation of β-glucosidase is necessary because most fermenting microorganisms cannot utilize cellobiose. Previously, we observed that SSF of cellulose by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) and an intracellular β-glucosidase (GH1-1) without β-glucosidase could not be performed as efficiently as the traditional SSF with extracellular β-glucosidase. However, we improved the ethanol production from SSF of cellulose by employing a further engineered S. cerevisiae expressing a mutant cellobiose transporter [CDT-1 (F213L) exhibiting higher V MAX than CDT-1] and GH1-1 in this study. Furthermore, limitation of cellobiose formation by reducing the amounts of cellulases mixture in SSF could lead the further engineered strain to produce ethanol considerably better than the parental strain with β-glucosidase. Probably, better production of ethanol by the further engineered strain seemed to be due to a higher affinity to cellobiose, which might be attributed to not only 2-times lower Monod constant (K S ) for cellobiose than K S of the parental strain for glucose but also 5-times lower K S than Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ) of the extracellular β-glucosidase for glucose. Our results suggest that modification of the cellobiose transporter in the engineered yeast to transport lower level of cellobiose enables a more efficient SSF for producing ethanol from cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social and cultural drivers of incentive effectiveness in infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, T.M.; Volker, L.

    2013-01-01

    Formal incentives systems aim to encourage improved performance by offering a reward for the achievement of project-specific goals. Despite argued benefits of incentive systems on project delivery outcomes, there remains debate over how incentive systems can be designed to encourage the formation of

  1. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  2. Cellulose-Hemicellulose Interactions at Elevated Temperatures Increase Cellulose Recalcitrance to Biological Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kumar, Rajeev [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; ; Smith, Micholas Dean [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Petridis, Loukas [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Ong, Rebecca G. [Michigan Technological University; Cai, Charles M. [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Balan, Venkatesh [University of Houston; Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State University; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Smith, Jeremy C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Wyman, Charles E. [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-01-23

    It has been previously shown that cellulose-lignin droplets' strong interactions, resulting from lignin coalescence and redisposition on cellulose surface during thermochemical pretreatments, increase cellulose recalcitrance to biological conversion, especially at commercially viable low enzyme loadings. However, information on the impact of cellulose-hemicellulose interactions on cellulose recalcitrance following relevant pretreatment conditions are scarce. Here, to investigate the effects of plausible hemicellulose precipitation and re-association with cellulose on cellulose conversion, different pretreatments were applied to pure Avicel(R) PH101 cellulose alone and Avicel mixed with model hemicellulose compounds followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of resulting solids at both low and high enzyme loadings. Solids produced by pretreatment of Avicel mixed with hemicelluloses (AMH) were found to contain about 2 to 14.6% of exogenous, precipitated hemicelluloses and showed a remarkably much lower digestibility (up to 60%) than their respective controls. However, the exogenous hemicellulosic residues that associated with Avicel following high temperature pretreatments resulted in greater losses in cellulose conversion than those formed at low temperatures, suggesting that temperature plays a strong role in the strength of cellulose-hemicellulose association. Molecular dynamics simulations of hemicellulosic xylan and cellulose were found to further support this temperature effect as the xylan-cellulose interactions were found to substantially increase at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, exogenous, precipitated hemicelluloses in pretreated AMH solids resulted in a larger drop in cellulose conversion than the delignified lignocellulosic biomass containing comparably much higher natural hemicellulose amounts. Increased cellulase loadings or supplementation of cellulase with xylanases enhanced cellulose conversion for most pretreated AMH solids; however, this approach

  3. Catalytic Mechanism of Cellulose Degradation by a Cellobiohydrolase, CelS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saharay, Moumita [ORNL; Guo, Hong [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The hydrolysis of cellulose is the bottleneck in cellulosic ethanol production. The cellobiohydrolase CelS from Clostridium thermocellum catalyzes the hydrolysis of cello-oligosaccharides via inversion of the anomeric carbon. Here, to examine key features of the CelS-catalyzed reaction, QM/MM (SCCDFTB/MM) simulations are performed. The calculated free energy profile for the reaction possesses a 19 kcal/mol barrier. The results confirm the role of active site residue Glu87 as the general acid catalyst in the cleavage reaction and show that Asp255 may act as the general base. A feasible position in the reactant state of the water molecule responsible for nucleophilic attack is identified. Sugar ring distortion as the reaction progresses is quantified. The results provide a computational approach that may complement the experimental design of more efficient enzymes for biofuel production.

  4. Catalytic mechanism of cellulose degradation by a cellobiohydrolase, CelS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Saharay

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of cellulose is the bottleneck in cellulosic ethanol production. The cellobiohydrolase CelS from Clostridium thermocellum catalyzes the hydrolysis of cello-oligosaccharides via inversion of the anomeric carbon. Here, to examine key features of the CelS-catalyzed reaction, QM/MM (SCCDFTB/MM simulations are performed. The calculated free energy profile for the reaction possesses a 19 kcal/mol barrier. The results confirm the role of active site residue Glu87 as the general acid catalyst in the cleavage reaction and show that Asp255 may act as the general base. A feasible position in the reactant state of the water molecule responsible for nucleophilic attack is identified. Sugar ring distortion as the reaction progresses is quantified. The results provide a computational approach that may complement the experimental design of more efficient enzymes for biofuel production.

  5. Value-added biotransformation of cellulosic sugars by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stephan; Dong, Jia; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-04-07

    The substantial research efforts into lignocellulosic biofuels have generated an abundance of valuable knowledge and technologies for metabolic engineering. In particular, these investments have led to a vast growth in proficiency of engineering the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consuming lignocellulosic sugars, enabling the simultaneous assimilation of multiple carbon sources, and producing a large variety of value-added products by introduction of heterologous metabolic pathways. While microbial conversion of cellulosic sugars into large-volume low-value biofuels is not currently economically feasible, there may still be opportunities to produce other value-added chemicals as regulation of cellulosic sugar metabolism is quite different from glucose metabolism. This review summarizes these recent advances with an emphasis on employing engineered yeast for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars into a variety of non-ethanol value-added products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation of Cellulose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guo-hua; Zhang, Le; Shentu, Nan-ying

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the Terahertz's application prospect, corn, wheat husk and reed were used to detect their Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy, and be compared with that of cellulose powder. The experimental results show that all of their absorption peaks exist at 1.75, 1.62, 1.1, and 0.7 THz. Absorption intensity of cellulose powder, corn, wheat husk and reed were compared in some frequencies points. It finds that corn, wheat husk and reed have higher absorption intensity than cellulose powder in early frequency domain. However, absorption intensity of cellulose powder is the strongest at 1.62 THz. Cellulose content in corn, wheat husk and reed were detected by using the method of chemical analysis. The peaks of absorption coefficient are related to their cellulose content at this frequency. It shows that plant cellulose occur lattice vibration in the frequency. Deformation, bending, flexing, and other changes appear to their functional keys. Quantum chemical calculation was carried out by using density functional theory to cellulose and the structure diagram of cellulose molecular formula was obtained. It also finds some absorption peaks exist at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.75 THz. Characterization of cellulose clusters mainly includes CH2, OH, CH, and so on. Glucose hydroxyl radical on the ring is active in the cellulose chain. Where hydroxyl related chemical reaction can occur, Hydroxyl can also be integrated into the intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bond. Terahertz wave can promote hydrogen bond vibration. This kind of vibration is weak in the intermolecular interaction. The vibration and rotating happen in dipole transition. The crystal lattice rotates and is absorptive in low frequency, and large molecular skeleton vibrates. All of them can show different intensity and position of the absorption peak in the terahertz band. Corn and cellulose were analyzed by infrared spectrum. The reverse and vibration mode of cellulose was discussed. The absorption peak is

  7. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  8. Photoresponsive cellulose fibers by surface modification with multifunctional cellulose derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoray, Olga; Wondraczek, Holger; Heikkilä, Elina; Fardim, Pedro; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-10-13

    Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp fibers were modified by adsorption of novel bio-based multifunctional cellulose derivatives in order to generate light responsive surfaces. The cellulose derivatives used were decorated with both cationic groups (degree of substitution, DS of 0.34) and photoactive groups (DS of 0.11 and 0.37). The adsorption was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). The adsorption isotherms followed the Freundlich model and it turned out that the main driving force for the adsorption was electrostatic interaction. Moreover, strong indications for hydrophobic interactions between the fibers and the derivatives and the derivatives themselves were found. ToF-SIMS imaging revealed an even distribution of the derivatives on the fiber surfaces. The modified fibers underwent fast photocrosslinking under UV-irradiation as demonstrated by light absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Thus, our results proved that the modified fibers exhibited light-responsive properties and can potentially be used for the manufacture of smart bio-based materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by wet explosion using three different oxidizing agents (H2O2, O-2, and air). The effect of the pretreatment was evaluated based on glucose and xylose liberated during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that pretreatment with the use of O-2 as oxidizing agent was ...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  10. Ethanol from lignocellulosic wastes with utilization of recombinant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzen, R; Fowler, D E

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the advanced technology that has been developed by BioEnergy International of Gainesville, Florida, utilizing novel recombinant strains of bacteria developed by Lonnie Ingram of the University of Florida. The first commercial applications of these unique fermenting organisms convert 5-carbon sugars, as well as 6-carbon sugars, and oligomers of cellulose (e.g., cellobiose and cellotriose) directly to ethanol. The proposed systems that will be utilized for conversion of agricultural wastes, mixed waste papers, and pulp and paper mill waste in forthcoming commercial installations are now under design. This involves the extensive experience of Raphael Katzen Associates International, Inc. in acid hydrolysis, enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis, large-scale fermentation engineering, and distillation/dehydration. Specific examples of this advanced technology will be presented in different applications, namely: 1. Conversion of the hemicellulose content of sugar cane bagasse to 5-carbon sugars by mild-acid prehydrolysis, followed by fermentation of the 5-carbon sugar extract with recombinant Escherichia coli in a commercial installation soon to be under construction in Brazil. This unique process utilizes the surplus hemicellulose fraction of bagasse not required for steam and power generation to produce ethanol, additional to that from the original can juice, which has been converted by conventional sucrose fermentation to ethanol. The process also recovers and converts to ethanol the majority of sucrose normally lost with the bagasse fibers. Resultant beer is enriched in an innovative process to eliminate the need for incremental rectification capacity. 2. Application of this technology to mixed waste paper in Florida, with a moderate loading of newsprint (85% mechanical wood fiber), will involve a mild-acid prehydrolysis, the partial extraction of the 5-carbon sugars produced from hemicellulose as a feedstock for propagation of the recombinant

  11. Adaptive evolution of nontransgenic Escherichia coli KC01 for improved ethanol tolerance and homoethanol fermentation from xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongze; Manow, Ryan; Finan, Christopher; Wang, Jinhua; Garza, Erin; Zhou, Shengde

    2011-09-01

    Due to its excellent capability to ferment five-carbon sugars, Escherichia coli has been considered one of the platform organisms to be engineered for production of cellulosic ethanol. Nevertheless, genetically engineered ethanologenic E. coli lacks the essential trait of alcohol tolerance. Development of ethanol tolerance is required for cost-effective ethanol fermentation. In this study, we improved alcohol tolerance of a nontransgenic E. coli KC01 (ldhA pflB ackA frdBC pdhR::pflBp6-aceEF-lpd) through adaptive evolution. During ~350 generations of adaptive evolution, a gradually increased concentration of ethanol was used as a selection pressure to enrich ethanol-tolerant mutants. The evolved mutant, E. coli SZ470, was able to grow anaerobically at 40 g l(-1) ethanol, a twofold improvement over parent KC01. When compared with KC01 for small-scale (500 ml) xylose (50 g l(-1)) fermentation, SZ470 achieved 67% higher cell mass, 48% faster volumetric ethanol productivity, and 50% shorter time to complete fermentation with ethanol titer of 23.5 g l(-1) and yield of 94%. These results demonstrate that an industry-oriented nontransgenic E. coli strain could be developed through incremental improvements of desired traits by a combination of molecular biology and traditional microbiology techniques.

  12. Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight.

  13. The oro-ileal transit of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, T; Fukuda, S; Shimoyama, T; Takahashi, I; Umeda, T; Danjo, K; Saito, D; Chinda, D; Sakamoto, J; Nakaji, S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of cellulose and the interindividual variations on the transit time in the small intestine remain unclear, but no previous study has to date taken these factors into sufficient consideration. We assessed the oro-ileal transit time and the recovery percentage of cellulose in the terminal ileum looking at interindividual variations. Seven healthy males received 100 mL of a dietary fiber-free basal diet with 5 g cellulose and 5 g of polyethylene glycol 4000. The ileal contents were aspirated every 30 min via an experimental tube placed in the terminal ileum to assess the oro-ileal transit time and the recovery percentage of cellulose. The mean percentage (with standard deviation) of the amounts of cellulose collected in the terminal ileum was 98.4%+/- 16.5% (ranging from 67.4% to 114.5%) with a coefficient variation of 16.8%. The average times (in hours) taken for 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of cellulose to reach the terminal ileum were 5.5 +/- 1.1, 6.7 +/- 0.7, 8.5 +/- 1.3, and 8.8 +/- 1.2, respectively, with large interindividual variations. In conclusion, the averaged recovery percentage of cellulose in the terminal ileum was approximately 100%, in accordance with the present generally accepted definition of dietary fiber. However, there were large interindividual variations in the oro-ileal transit time and the percentage of cellulose recovered.

  14. Book review: "cellulose science and technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose Science and Technology” by Jean-Luc Wertz, Olivier Bédué and Jean P. Mercier is a fairly comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to many areas of cellulose science. Their summary of a vast and often controversial literature is reasonably comprehensive. It requires little background to re...

  15. Some Physical Characteristics of Microcrystalline Cellulose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. This study aimed at evaluating the physical characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose (CP-MCC), obtained from the raw cotton of Cochlospermum planchonii. Methods: CP-MCC was obtained from the ...

  16. Characterization of cellulose nanofibrillation by micro grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the morphological development of cellulose fibers during fibrillation using micro grinder is very essential to develop effective strategies for process improvement and to reduce energy consumption. We demonstrated some simple measures for characterizing cellulose fibers fibrillated at different fibrillation times through the grinder. The...

  17. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  18. Interfacial properties of green leaf cellulosic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, A.; Gieteling, J.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Cellulosic pulp from sugar beet leaves was fractionated and assessed on its interfacial properties. After pressing leaves to express the juice, the press cake was washed at alkaline pH (pH 9) to remove residual protein, dried, milled and air classified. The obtained cellulosic particles mainly

  19. Cellulose, een eindeloze bron van mogelijkheden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Yilmaz, G.

    2011-01-01

    Vanwege de grote diversiteit van potentiële cellulose bronnen en de grote verschillen in kwalitatieve eigenschappen en samenstelling van deze cellulose types is het van belang in kaart te brengen voor welke toepassingen de verschillende grondstoffen het meest geschikt zijn. Voor het opstellen van

  20. Diffraction from nonperiodic models of cellulose crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powder and fiber diffraction patterns were calculated for model cellulose crystallites with chains 20 glucose units long. Model sizes ranged from four chains to 169 chains, based on cellulose I' coordinates, and were subjected to various combinations of energy minimization and molecular dynamics (M...