WorldWideScience

Sample records for incentive plan reduced

  1. Incentives to promote family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options

  3. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  4. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization plan....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA must prepare and submit to HUD a preliminary tax incentives utilization plan for achieving the State...

  5. The perils of altering incentive plans: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a retail chain that introduced a sales incentive plan that rewarded for exceeding a sales target and subsequently cut the incentive intensity in addition to increasing the target. Utilizing monthly panel data for 54 months for all 53 units of the chain the paper shows that the introduction of the sales incentive plan increased sales and profitability, while the changes in the plan lead to a marked drop in sales and profitability. Thus, modifying the incentive plan proved co...

  6. Incentive-Compatible Robust Line Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessas, Apostolos; Kontogiannis, Spyros; Zaroliagis, Christos

    The problem of robust line planning requests for a set of origin-destination paths (lines) along with their frequencies in an underlying railway network infrastructure, which are robust to fluctuations of real-time parameters of the solution. In this work, we investigate a variant of robust line planning stemming from recent regulations in the railway sector that introduce competition and free railway markets, and set up a new application scenario: there is a (potentially large) number of line operators that have their lines fixed and operate as competing entities issuing frequency requests, while the management of the infrastructure itself remains the responsibility of a single entity, the network operator. The line operators are typically unwilling to reveal their true incentives, while the network operator strives to ensure a fair (or socially optimal) usage of the infrastructure, e.g., by maximizing the (unknown to him) aggregate incentives of the line operators.

  7. Drug plan design incentives among Medicare prescription drug plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskamp, Haiden A; Keating, Nancy L; Dalton, Jesse B; Chernew, Michael E; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2014-07-01

    Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans (MA-PDs) and standalone prescription drug plans (PDPs) face different incentives for plan design resulting from the scope of covered benefits (only outpatient drugs for PDPs versus all drug and nondrug services for Medicare Advantage [MA]/MA-PDs). The objective is to begin to explore how MA-PDs and PDPs may be responding to their different incentives related to benefit design. We compared 2012 PDP and MA-PD average formulary coverage, prior authorization (PA) or step therapy use, and copayment requirements for drugs in 6 classes used commonly among Medicare beneficiaries. We primarily used 2012 Prescription Drug Plan Formulary and Pharmacy Network Files and MA enrollment data. 2011 Truven Health MarketScan claims were used to estimate drug prices and to compute drug market share. Average coverage and PA/step rates, and average copayment requirements, were weighted by plan enrollment and drug market share. MA-PDs are generally more likely to cover and less likely to require PA/step for brand name drugs with generic alternatives than PDPs, and MA-PDs often have lower copayment requirements for these drugs. For brands without generics, we generally found no differences in average rates of coverage or PA/step, but MA-PDs were more likely to cover all brands without generics in a class. We found modest, confirmatory evidence suggesting that PDPs and MA-PDs respond to different incentives for plan design. Future research is needed to understand the factors that influence Medicare drug plan design decisions.

  8. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plan based on the sale of credit life insurance if payments to the employee or officer in any one year... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE...

  9. Setting the right incentives for global planning and operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Henk; Ozen, Ulas; Slikker, Marco

    We study incentive issues seen in a firm performing global planning and manufacturing, and local demand management. The stochastic demands in local markets are best observed by the regional business units, and the firm relies on the business units’ forecasts for planning of global manufacturing

  10. Reducing the Impact of R.I.F.--An Incentive Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carl

    A northern Illinois school district (School District 300), forced by budget cuts to curtail its teaching staff, used incentives and the decisionmaking methods of William Ouchi's Theory Z to reduce layoffs. The superintendent and the teachers' union leadership established a Transfer Council of six administrators and nine teachers to plan staff…

  11. The best-laid incentive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Hiram Phillips couldn't have been in better spirits. The CFO and chief administrative officer of Rainbarrel Products, a diversified consumer-durables manufacturer, Phillips felt he'd single-handedly turned the company's performance around. He'd only been at Rainbarrel a year, but the company's numbers had, according to his measures, already improved by leaps and bounds. Now the day had come for Hiram to share the positive results of his new performance management system with his colleagues. The corporate executive council was meeting, and even CEO Keith Randall was applauding the CFO's work: "Hiram's going to give us some very good news about cost reductions and operating efficiencies, all due to the changes he's designed and implemented this year." Everything looked positively rosy--until some questionable information began to trickle in from other meeting participants. It came to light, for instance, that R&D had developed a breakthrough product that was not being brought to market as quickly as it should have been--thanks to Hiram's inflexible budgeting process. Then, too, an employee survey showed that workers were demoralized. And customers were complaining about Rainbarrel's service. The general message? The new performance metrics and incentives had indeed been affecting overall performance--but not for the better. Should Rainbarrel revisit its approach to performance management? Commentators Stephen Kaufman, a senior lecturer at Harvard Business School; compensation consultant Steven Gross; retired U.S. Navy vice admiral and management consultant Diego Hernandez; and Barry Leskin, a consultant and former chief learning officer for Chevron Texaco, offer their advice in this fictional case study.

  12. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  13. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  14. Organizational Concealment: An Incentive of Reducing the Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tajika, Tomoya

    2017-01-01

    We studyworkers’ incentives of reporting problems within an OLG organization consisting of a subordinate and a manager. The subordinate is responsible for reporting a problem, and the manager is responsible for solving the reported problem. The subordinate has an incentive to conceal a detected problem since if he reports it but the manager is too lazy to solve the problem, the responsibility is transferred to the subordinate since he becomes a manager in the next period. We show that conceal...

  15. Irregular incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicchetti, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Public utility regulation lacks a formal proxy for the economic profits that can be earned in an effectively competitive market if a firm is efficient or innovative. After all, public utility regulation operated on cost-plus basis. If a utility is efficient or innovative and lowers its costs, its typical reward is to have its rates reduced. This is a perverse incentive to motivate a utility to produce at the most efficient level. In addition, since regulation operates on this cost-plus basis, a utility can increase its net income, all other things being equal, by overinvesting in (or open-quotes gold-platingclose quotes) its system, another perverse incentive. Recognizing these flaws of regulation, academicians, utility executives, regulators, and legislators have tried over the last several years to implement incentive regulation plans that correct such perverse incentives. However, under many of the earnings-sharing or price-regulation incentive plans, the rewards for efficient production are not tied directly to measures under a company's control. In fact, such plans could prove highly detrimental to ratepayers and competitors of the regulated company and its affiliates. An incentive regulation plan that ties an appropriate reward for efficient production to specific efficiency gains is a better proxy of an effectively competitive environment. What's more, it is superior to an incentive plan that rewards circumstances beyond the company's control or self-serving manipulation. This is particularly true if no earnings cap is associated with the reward for efficiency. Rewards for efficient production should be tied to specific actions. A suitable incentive plan does not preclude appropriately derived flexible prices for certain products or services where warranted

  16. Stock-based Compensation Plans and Employee Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zabojnik

    2014-01-01

    Standard principal-agent theory predicts that large firms should not use employee stock options and other stock-based compensation to provide incentives to non-executive employees. Yet, business practitioners appear to believe that stock-based compensation improves incentives, and mounting empirical evidence points to the same conclusion. This paper provides an explanation for why stock-based incentives can be effective. In the model of this paper, employee stock options complement individual...

  17. Do motivational incentives reduce the inhibition deficit in ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Michelle A; Pennington, Bruce F; Willcutt, Erik W

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test three competing theories of ADHD: the inhibition theory, the motivational theory, and a dual deficit theory. Previous studies have produced conflicting findings about the effects of incentives on executive processes in ADHD. In the present study of 25 children with ADHD and 30 typically developing controls, motivation was manipulated within the Stop Task. Stop signal reaction time was examined, as well as reaction time, its variability, and the number of errors in the primary choice reaction time task. Overall, the pattern of results supported the inhibition theory over the motivational or dual deficit hypotheses, as main effects of group were found for most key variables (ADHD group was worse), whereas the group by reward interaction predicted by the motivational and dual deficit accounts was not found. Hence, as predicted by the inhibition theory, children with ADHD performed worse than controls irrespective of incentives.

  18. Planning, zoning and financial incentives for ecoroofs in Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liptan, T. [City of Portland, OR (United States). Bureau of Environmental Services

    2003-07-01

    Approximately 35 to 90 per cent of the surface area of various city neighbourhoods is composed of rooftops and pavement. The City of Portland has suffered from several infrastructure and environmental problems as a result of these rooftops and pavement. In response, the City created a program to address storm water related problems and to provide other environmental benefits. This program promotes the use of Ecoroofs or vegetated roofs. City officials are investigating three specific concerns regarding Ecoroofs: (1) the extent to which Ecoroofs can manage precipitation and water quality, (2) the design, construction and maintenance issues to be addressed in order to ensure Ecoroofs are viable, and (3) the policies and economic concerns that must be addressed to determine the appropriate incentives and potential regulations for Ecoroofs. The overall city program was described in this presentation. The incentives and assistance provided by the city were reviewed, and the practical lessons learned were discussed. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. Can an incentive-based intervention increase physical activity and reduce sitting among adults? the ACHIEVE (Active Choices IncEntiVE) feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Hunter, Ruth F; Maple, Jaimie-Lee; Moodie, Marj; Salmon, Jo; Ong, Kok-Leong; Stephens, Lena D; Jackson, Michelle; Crawford, David

    2017-03-21

    Despite recent interest in the potential of incentivisation as a strategy for motivating healthier behaviors, little remains known about the effectiveness of incentives in promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior, and improving associated health outcomes. This pre-post-test design study investigated the feasibility, appeal and effects of providing non-financial incentives for promoting increased physical activity, reduced sedentary time, and reduced body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure among inactive middle-aged adults. Inactive men (n = 36) and women (n = 46) aged 40-65 years were recruited via a not-for-profit insurance fund and participated in a 4 month pre-post design intervention. Baseline and post-intervention data were collected on self-reported physical activity and sitting time (IPAQ-Long), BMI and blood pressure. Participants were encouraged to increase physical activity to 150 mins/week and reduce sedentary behavior by 150 mins/week in progressive increments. Incentives included clothing, recipe books, store gift vouchers, and a chance to win one of four Apple iPad Mini devices. The incentive component of the intervention was supported by an initial motivational interview and text messaging to encourage participants and provide strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors. Only two participants withdrew during the program, demonstrating the feasibility of recruiting and retaining inactive middle-aged participants. While two-thirds of the sample qualified for the easiest physical activity incentive (by demonstrating 100 mins physical activity/week or 100 mins reduced sitting time/week), only one third qualified for the most challenging incentive. Goals to reduce sitting appeared more challenging, with 43% of participants qualifying for the first incentive, but only 20% for the last incentive. More men than women qualified for most incentives. Mean leisure-time physical activity increased by 252

  20. 24 CFR 248.145 - Criteria for approval of a plan of action involving incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Due diligence has been given to ensuring that the package of incentives set forth in the plan of... section, for the remaining useful life of the project; (3) Throughout the remaining useful life of the...) Implementation. Any agreement to maintain the low income affordability restrictions for the remaining useful life...

  1. Hot or Not: Response Inhibition Reduces the Hedonic Value and Motivational Incentive of Sexual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrey, Anne E.; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1). Sexually appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously encountered as No-go (inhibited) than as Go (non-inhibited) items. We then discovered that inhibition reduces the motivational incentive of sexual appealing stimuli (Experiment 2). Prior Go/No-go status affected the number of key-presses by heterosexual males to view erotic-female (sexually appealing) but not erotic-male or scrambled-control (non-appealing) images. These findings may provide a foundation for developing inhibition-based interventions to reduce the hedonic value and motivational incentive of stimuli associated with disorders of self-control. PMID:23272002

  2. Hot or not: Response inhibition reduces the hedonic value and motivational incentive of sexual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Ferrey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally-relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1. Sexually-appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously encountered as No-go (inhibited than as Go (non-inhibited items. We then discovered that inhibition reduces the motivational incentive of sexual appealing stimuli (Experiment 2. Prior Go/No-go status affected the number of key-presses by heterosexual males to view erotic-female (sexually-appealing but not erotic-male or scrambled-control (non-appealing images. These findings may provide an important foundation for developing inhibition-based interventions to reduce the hedonic value and motivational incentive of stimuli associated with disorders of self-control.

  3. Planning, starting, and operating an educational incentives project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, O D; Sun, T H

    1972-01-01

    The article presents a summary of activities in an educational savings project in Taiwan. The project rewards couples who limit their family size. The reward is in the form of funds which enable the couples to send their children to secondary schools or universities. According to a 1970 survey in Taiwan the ideal number of children remained at 4. Consistent with traditional Chinese values, Taiwanese expect their children to take care of them in their old-age. They also place a strong emphasis on education and when surveyed 40% cited education costs as a reason for saving money. A rural township, Changua county, was selected for the pilot project. The project offers to couples with 0, 1, or 2 children an annual deposit in a savings account for each year that they do not exceed 2 living children. If a couple has a third child the value of the savings account is reduced by 50%. If they have a fourth child the account is cancelled and all funds are returned to the bank. In this particular study it was decided to include couples who already had 3 children. The account can be closed by a 1 time withdrawal from 10-14 years after enrollment. After 10 years it is worth US $267.50. After 14 years its value is US $384.60. 961 married women less than 30 years old with 3 or fewer children were contacted to join the project. Village leaders and administrators were invited to a meeting to gain their support before registration took place. After mailing and meetings, 727 or 69% of those eligible joined the project. By September 1973 the investigators hoped to be able to measure the effect of the program on family size ideals, number of additional children wanted, and practice of contraception. By September 1975 they hope to begin to measure the program effect on fertility.

  4. Michigan's fee-for-value physician incentive program reduces spending and improves quality in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemak, Christy Harris; Nahra, Tammie A; Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie D; Paustian, Michael L; Share, David; Hirth, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    As policy makers and others seek to reduce health care cost growth while improving health care quality, one approach gaining momentum is fee-for-value reimbursement. This payment strategy maintains the traditional fee-for-service arrangement but includes quality and spending incentives. We examined Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program, which uses a fee-for-value approach focused on primary care physicians. We analyzed the program's impact on quality and spending from 2008 to 2011 for over three million beneficiaries in over 11,000 physician practices. Participation in the incentive program was associated with approximately 1.1 percent lower total spending for adults (5.1 percent lower for children) and the same or improved performance on eleven of fourteen quality measures over time. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the potential effectiveness of models that align payment with cost and quality performance, and they demonstrate that it is possible to transform reimbursement within a fee-for-service framework to encourage and incentivize physicians to provide high-quality care, while also reducing costs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Financial Incentives to Increase Advance Care Planning Among Medicaid Beneficiaries: Lessons Learned From Two Pragmatic Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnato, Amber E; Moore, Robert; Moore, Charity G; Kohatsu, Neal D; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2017-07-01

    Medicaid populations have low rates of advance care planning (ACP). Potential policy interventions include financial incentives. To test the effectiveness of patient plus provider financial incentive compared with provider financial incentive alone for increasing ACP discussions among Medicaid patients. Between April 2014 and July 2015, we conducted two sequential assessor-blinded pragmatic randomized trials in a health plan that pays primary care providers (PCPs) $100 to discuss ACP: 1) a parallel cluster trial (provider-delivered patient incentive) and 2) an individual-level trial (mail-delivered patient incentive). Control and intervention arms included encouragement to complete ACP, instructions for using an online ACP tool, and (in the intervention arm) $50 for completing the online ACP tool and a small probability of $1000 (i.e., lottery) for discussing ACP with their PCP. The primary outcome was provider-reported ACP discussion within three months. In the provider-delivered patient incentive study, 38 PCPs were randomized to the intervention (n = 18) or control (n = 20) and given 10 patient packets each to distribute. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, there were 27 of 180 ACP discussions (15%) in the intervention group and 5 of 200 (2.5%) in the control group (P = .0391). In the mail-delivered patient incentive study, there were 5 of 187 ACP discussions (2.7%) in the intervention group and 5 of 189 (2.6%) in the control group (P = .99). ACP rates were low despite an existing provider financial incentive. Adding a provider-delivered patient financial incentive, but not a mail-delivered patient incentive, modestly increased ACP discussions. PCP encouragement combined with a patient incentive may be more powerful than either encouragement or incentive alone. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Economic Incentives to Reduce Electricity Consumption: A field Experiment in Matsuyama, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Mizobuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of economic incentives in promoting electricity-conservation behavior among Japanese households. Fifty-three Japanese households participated in a field experiment and were offered monetary rewards depending on their rate of reduction in electricity consumption. To avoid bias in sample selection, which is typically present in previous studies, we adopted a request-based approach for recruiting participants. Results showed that only 34% of the participants succeeded in reducing their electricity consumption, and the average reduction rate was –4.8%. Econometric analysis confirmed that monetary rewards had a positive influence on the electricity conservation behavior, especially of family members who typically stay at home on weekdays. Responses to the questionnaires administered before and after the experiment suggest that participants may have underestimated the marginal costs of the electricity conservation behavior. The efficacy of economic incentives, established in our study, offers a potential measure for encouraging electricity-conservation behavior among Japanese households.

  7. Mandatory high-risk pooling: an approach to reducing incentives for cream skimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Barneveld, E M; van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P

    1996-01-01

    Risk-adjusted capitation payments (RACPs) to competing health insurers are an essential element of market-oriented health care reforms in The Netherlands. Crude RACPs are inadequate, especially because they encourage insurers to select against people expected to be unprofitable--a practice called cream skimming. However, implementing improved RACPs does not appear to be straightforward. This paper analyzes an approach that, given a system of crude RACPs, reduces insurers' incentives for cream skimming in the market for individual health insurance, while preserving incentives for efficiency and cost containment. Under the proposed system of Mandatory High-Risk Pooling (MHRP), each insurer would be allowed to periodically predetermine a small fraction of its members whose costs would be (partially) pooled. The pool would be financed with mandatory, flat-rate contributions. The results suggest that MHRP is a promising supplement to RACPs.

  8. Implementing a comprehensive relative-value-based incentive plan in an academic family medicine department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, J S; Ramalingam, S; Rosenthal, T C; Fox, C H

    2000-12-01

    The authors describe the implementation and first three years (1997-1999) of a department-wide incentive plan of the Department of Family Medicine at the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. By using a consensus approach, a representative elected committee designed a clinical relative value unit (explained in detail) that could be translated to equally value and reward faculty efforts in patient care, education, and research and which allowed the department to avoid the imposition of a model that could have undervalued scholarship and teaching. By 1999, the plan's goal of eight patient-care-equivalent points per four-hour session had been exceeded for pure clinical care. Clearly, only a small financial incentive was necessary (in 1999, an incentive pool of 4% of providers' gross salary) to motivate the faculty to be more productive and to self-report their efforts. Long-term productivity for pure clinical care rose from 9.8 points per session in 1997 to 10.4 in 1999. Of the mean total of 3,980 points for the year 1999, the contribution from teaching was 1,146, or 29%, compared with 25% in 1997. For scholarship, the number of points was 775, or 20%, in 1999, compared with 11% in 1997. The authors describe modifications to the original plan (e.g., integration of quality measures) that the department's experience has fostered. Problems encountered included the lack of accurate and timely billing information from the associated teaching hospitals, the inherent problems of self-reported information, difficulties of gaining buy-in from the faculty, and inherent risks of a pay-for-performance approach. But the authors conclude that the plan is fulfilling its goal of effectively and fairly quantifying all areas of faculty effort, and is also helping the department to more effectively demonstrate clinical productivity in negotiations with teaching hospitals.

  9. 5 CFR 575.107 - Agency recruitment incentive plan and approval levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of employees who are prohibited from receiving recruitment incentives; (3) Required documentation for... approve each determination to pay a recruitment incentive to a newly appointed employee, unless there is... the recruitment incentive determination before the agency may pay the incentive to the employee. (2...

  10. The productivity effects of profit sharing, employee ownership, stock option and team incentive plans: Evidence from korean panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Takao; Lee, Ju Ho; Ryu, Jang-soo

    2010-01-01

    We report the first results for Korean firms on the incidence, diffusion, scope and effects of diverse employee financial participation schemes, such as Profit Sharing Plans (PSPs), Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Stock Option Plans (SOPs) and Team Incentive Plans (TIPs). In do doing, we assemble important new panel data by merging data from a survey of all Korean firms listed on Korean Stock Exchange which enjoys an unusually high response rate of 60 percent with accounting data from...

  11. Carrots and sticks: impact of an incentive/disincentive employee flexible credit benefit plan on health status and medical costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A D; Karel, T; Zuidema, R

    1999-01-01

    Employee wellness programs aim to assist in controlling employer costs by improving the health status and fitness of employees, potentially increasing productivity, decreasing absenteeism, and reducing medical claims. Most such programs offer no disincentive for nonparticipation. We evaluated an incentive/disincentive program initiated by a large teaching hospital in western Michigan. The HealthPlus Health Quotient program is an incentive/disincentive approach to health promotion. The employer's contribution to the cafeteria plan benefit package is adjusted based on results of an annual appraisal of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, tobacco use, body fat, physical fitness, motor vehicle safety, nutrition, and alcohol consumption. The adjustment (health quotient [HQ]) can range from -$25 to +$25 per pay period. We examined whether appraised health improved between 1993 and 1996 and whether the HQ predicted medical claims. Mean HQ increased slightly (+$0.47 per pay period in 1993 to +$0.89 per pay period in 1996). Individuals with HQs of less than -$10 per pay period incurred approximately twice the medical claims of the other groups (test for linear trend, p = .003). After adjustment, medical claims of employees in the worst category (HQ benefits. Most employees are impacted minimally, but savings are accruing to the employer from reductions in medical claims paid and in days lost to illness and disability.

  12. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. Results A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. Conclusion For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. PMID:25037703

  13. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  15. Lipopolysaccharide reduces incentive motivation while boosting preference for high reward in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Hunt, Sarah C; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the development of various psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, the neurobehavioral mechanism involved in this relationship remains elusive. This gap in knowledge may best be filled by evaluating elementary neurobehavioral units affected by inflammation rather than behavioral changes in conventional animal tests of depression. To this end, the current study used a concurrent choice paradigm to evaluate inflammation-induced motivational changes. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=27) were food restricted to between 85 and 90% of their free-feeding weight and were trained to perform a concurrent choice task where they nose-poked for grain rewards on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule (low effort/low reward) and chocolate-flavored rewards on a FR-10 schedule (high effort/high reward). A counterbalanced-within subjects design was used. A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.33 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce peripheral inflammation. Twenty-four hours after LPS administration, mice showed a reduction in the total number of nose pokes. A proportionally greater reduction in nose pokes was observed for grain, resulting in an increase in percent chocolate pellets earned. These behavioral changes cannot be explained by reduced appetite as feeding before the test led to a similar increase in percent chocolate pellets earned but without any decrease in responding. These results indicate that inflammation modulates incentive motivation by affecting willingness to exert effort for reward and not by reducing sensitivity to reward.

  16. Tax incentives for research and development and their use in tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Olena; Spengel, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of various aspects of R&D tax incentives. It explains the economic justification behind the state support of research and development and summarizes its main types. In addition, it gives an overview of the existing R&D tax incentives in Europe and provides a thorough review of the empirical literature on the outcomes of fiscal incentives. Furthermore, the Devereux and Griffith model is used to determine the effective tax burden of multinational fir...

  17. Reducing Food Insecurity and Improving Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Farmers' Market Incentive Program Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie-Roskos, Mateja; Durward, Carrie; Jeweks, Melanie; LeBlanc, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a farmers' market incentive pilot program had an impact on food security and fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake of participants. Participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program were eligible to receive a dollar-per-dollar match up to $10/wk in farmers' market incentives. The researchers used a pretest-posttest design to measure F&V intake and food security status of 54 adult participants before and after receiving farmers' market incentives. The 6-item Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire and US Household Food Security Survey Module were used to measure F&V intake and food security, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare scores of F&V intake. After receiving incentives, fewer individuals reported experiencing food insecurity-related behaviors. A significantly increased intake (P market incentive program was positively related to greater food security and intake of select vegetables among participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multifaceted intervention including education, rounding checklist implementation, cost feedback, and financial incentives reduces inpatient laboratory costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Peter M; Kukhareva, Polina V; Horton, Devin; Edholm, Karli; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate laboratory testing is a contributor to waste in healthcare. To evaluate the impact of a multifaceted laboratory reduction intervention on laboratory costs. A retrospective, controlled, interrupted time series (ITS) study. University of Utah Health Care, a 500-bed academic medical center in Salt Lake City, Utah. All patients 18 years or older admitted to the hospital to a service other than obstetrics, rehabilitation, or psychiatry. Multifaceted quality-improvement initiative in a hospitalist service including education, process change, cost feedback, and financial incentive. Primary outcomes of lab cost per day and per visit. Secondary outcomes of number of basic metabolic panel (BMP), comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), complete blood count (CBC), and prothrombin time/international normalized ratio tests per day; length of stay (LOS); and 30-day readmissions. A total of 6310 hospitalist patient visits (intervention group) were compared to 25,586 nonhospitalist visits (control group). Among the intervention group, the unadjusted mean cost per day was reduced from $138 before the intervention to $123 after the intervention (P analysis showed significant reductions in cost per day, cost per visit, and the number of BMP, CMP, and CBC tests per day (P = 0.034, 0.02, <0.001, 0.004, and <0.001). LOS was unchanged and 30-day readmissions decreased in the intervention group. A multifaceted approach to laboratory reduction demonstrated a significant reduction in laboratory cost per day and per visit, as well as common tests per day at a major academic medical center. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:348-354. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  19. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  20. The incentive amplifying effects of nicotine are reduced by selective and non-selective dopamine antagonists in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmatier, Matthew I; Kellicut, Marissa R; Brianna Sheppard, A; Brown, Russell W; Robinson, Donita L

    2014-11-01

    Nicotine is a psychomotor stimulant with 'reinforcement enhancing' effects--the actions of nicotine in the brain increase responding for non-nicotine rewards. We hypothesized that this latter effect of nicotine depends on increased incentive properties of anticipatory cues; consistent with this hypothesis, multiple laboratories have reported that nicotine increases sign tracking, i.e. approach to a conditioned stimulus (CS), in Pavlovian conditioned-approach tasks. Incentive motivation and sign tracking are mediated by mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission and nicotine facilitates mesolimbic DA release. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incentive-promoting effects of nicotine would be impaired by DA antagonists. To test this hypothesis, separate groups of rats were injected with nicotine (0.4mg/kg base) or saline prior to Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which a CS (30s illumination of a light or presentation of a lever) was immediately followed by a sweet reward delivered in an adjacent location. Both saline and nicotine pretreated rats exhibited similar levels of conditioned approach to the reward location (goal tracking), but nicotine pretreatment significantly increased approach to the CS (sign tracking), regardless of type (lever or light). The DAD1 antagonist SCH-23390 and the DAD2/3 antagonist eticlopride reduced conditioned approach in all rats, but specifically reduced goal tracking in the saline pretreated rats and sign tracking in the nicotine pretreated rats. The non-selective DA antagonist flupenthixol reduced sign-tracking in nicotine rats at all doses tested; however, only the highest dose of flupenthixol reduced goal tracking in both nicotine and saline groups. The reductions in conditioned approach behavior, especially those by SCH-23390, were dissociated from simple motor suppressant effects of the antagonists. These experiments are the first to investigate the effects of dopaminergic drugs on the facilitation of sign-tracking engendered by

  1. 5 CFR 576.102 - Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment implementation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... eliminated, identified by organizational unit, geographic location, occupational series, grade level and any... offered incentives identified by organizational unit, geographic location, occupational series, grade level and any other factors, such as skills, knowledge, or retirement eligibility (as discussed in...

  2. Using Economic Incentives to Reduce Electricity Consumption: A field Experiment in Matsuyama, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Mizobuchi; Kenji Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of economic incentives in promoting electricity-conservation behavior among Japanese households. Fifty-three Japanese households participated in a field experiment and were offered monetary rewards depending on their rate of reduction in electricity consumption. To avoid bias in sample selection, which is typically present in previous studies, we adopted a request-based approach for recruiting participants. Results showed that only 34% of the participants...

  3. When Do Financial Incentives Reduce Intrinsic Motivation? Comparing Behaviors Studied in Psychological and Economic Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or “crowd out” intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. Method: We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. Results: In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. Conclusion: The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PMID:24001245

  4. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The Best Laid Plans: Pay for Performance Incentive Programs for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Peter; Goldring, Ellen; Canney, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In an era of heightened accountability and limited fiscal resources, school districts have sought novel ways to increase the effectiveness of their principals in an effort to increase student proficiency. To address these needs, some districts have turned to pay-for-performance programs, aligning leadership goals with financial incentives to…

  6. Predicting adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for commercial incentives: an application of an extended theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen

    2013-02-01

    This study adopts a global theoretical framework to predict adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for incentives offered by commercial Websites. The study postulates and tests the validity of a model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), including antecedent factors of attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). A survey was conducted among 1,042 respondents. Results from SEM analyses show that the hypothesized model fits the empirical data well. The model accounts for 61.9 percent of the variance in adolescents' intention to disclose and 43.7 percent of the variance in self-reported disclosure. Perceived social pressure exerted by significant others (subjective norm) is the most important TPB factor in predicting intention to disclose personal information in exchange for incentives. This finding suggests that in discussions of adolescents' information privacy, the importance of social factors outweighs the individually oriented TPB factors of attitude and PBC. Moreover, privacy concern and trust propensity are significant predictors of respondents' attitudes toward online disclosure in exchange for commercial incentives, whereas the frequency of Internet use significantly affects their level of PBC.

  7. A Theory of Tax Avoidance - Managerial Incentives for Tax Planning in a Multi-Task Principal-Agent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ewert, Ralf; Niemann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We derive determinants of tax avoidance by means of a multi-task principal-agent model. We extend prevailing models by integrating both corporate and individual income taxation as well as by including tax planning effort in the agent’s action portfolio. Our model shows novel and apparently paradoxical results regarding the impact of increased tax rates on efforts, risks, and incentive schemes. First, the principal’s after-tax profit can increase with a higher corporate tax rate. Second, t...

  8. Legal and financial methods for reducing low emission sources: Options for incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samitowski, W. [Office of Economic and Legal Advisors POLINVEST Ltd., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    There are two types of the so-called low emission sources in Cracow: over 1,000 local boiler houses and several thousand solid fuel-fired stoves. The accomplishment of each of 5 sub-projects offered under the American-Polish program entails solving the technical, financial, legal and public relations-related problems. The elimination of the low emission source requires, therefore, a joint effort of the following pairs: (a) local authorities, (b) investors, (c) owners and users of low emission sources, and (d) inhabitants involved in particular projects. The results of the studies developed by POLINVEST indicate that the accomplishment of the projects for the elimination of low emission sources will require financial incentives. Bearing in mind the today`s resources available from the community budget, this process may last as long as a dozen or so years. The task of the authorities of Cracow City is making a long-range operational strategy enabling reduction of low emission sources in Cracow.

  9. How Have Political Incentives for Local Officials Reduced Environmental Pollution in Resource-Depleted Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese resource-exhausted cities face more severe environmental pollution problems than other cities. In addressing these problems, the way local officials (usually senior party and government leaders operate is very important, as their focus on political achievements may complicate how they manage environmental pollution in these cities. On the one hand, the traditional Gross Domestic Product-based quest for political achievement may lead top leaders to de-emphasize environmental pollution. On the other hand, changes made in 2003 to the way the performance of Chinese officials is evaluated have encouraged some local senior party and government leaders to pay more attention to environmental problems. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between political incentives and environmental pollution by applying the 2004–2014 panel data from 37 resource-exhausted cities. The findings reveal that firstly, among the factors which impact the environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities, investment in fixed assets, foreign direct investment, industrial structure, per-capita education expenditure, and population density do not have a significant impact, thus indicating that local openness levels, the degree of industrial upgrading, and local investment in fixed assets are not the key variables in environmental pollution control. Secondly, the extent to which officials vie for political achievement affects environmental pollution in resource-exhausted cities. This depends upon whether the officials are municipal party secretaries or mayors; the former play a greater dynamic role in environmental pollution and have stronger robustness than the latter. The conclusion verifies both the existing authority structure of China and its effectiveness in the control of environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities. That is to say, in contrast to the principles of the party committees, the mayors are in a subordinate position and often fail to

  10. Evaluating input- and stock-based tax incentives to reduce and reallocate phosphor application across farm types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hasler, Berit; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    addresses all P sources at the farm, including the soil P content, whereas a mineral-fertilizer P tax addresses only the fertilizer input. Taking the temporal and spatial dynamics of a catchment area into account, this paper focuses on how the two economic instruments can be used to improve the interactions......A non-linear agricultural optimisation model for a water catchment area is constructed and used to analyse the effect on agricultural soil-P accumulation from implementation of two tax systems. Regulation of P in the agricultural sector is central to reduce the risk of damaging aquatic eco......-system. The two systems considered are: a P surplus tax, which depend on soil P stock, and a tax on mineral-fertilizer P. Analysis shows, that the two tax systems creates different incentives for the utilisation of P between farm types as they address the application of P in different ways. A P surplus tax...

  11. Competitive investments in cost reducing process improvement : The role of managerial incentives and spillover learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard J.c.

    2015-01-01

    We study the rivalry between two firms and consider the effect of spillovers when the firms' operations and technology managers are given bonuses for cost reduction. We model a game in which the firm owners independently offer their manager a bonus to stimulate cost reducing process improvement

  12. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states ''Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction

  13. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  14. A national quality incentive scheme to reduce antibiotic overuse in hospitals: evaluation of perceptions and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, J; Ashiru-Oredope, D; Budd, E; Howard, P; Walker, A S; Hopkins, S; Llewelyn, M J

    2018-02-28

    In 2016/2017, a financially linked antibiotic prescribing quality improvement initiative Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (AMR-CQUIN) was introduced across acute hospitals in England. This aimed for >1% reductions in DDDs/1000 admissions of total antibiotics, piperacillin/tazobactam and carbapenems compared with 2013/2014 and improved review of empirical antibiotic prescriptions. To assess perceptions of staff leading antimicrobial stewardship activity regarding the AMR-CQUIN, the investments made by hospitals to achieve it and how these related to achieving reductions in antibiotic use. We invited antimicrobial stewardship leads at acute hospitals across England to complete a web-based survey. Antibiotic prescribing data were downloaded from the PHE Antimicrobial Resistance Local Indicators resource. Responses were received from 116/155 (75%) acute hospitals. Owing to yearly increases in antibiotic use, most trusts needed to make >5% reductions in antibiotic consumption to achieve the AMR-CQUIN goal of 1% reduction. Additional funding was made available at 23/113 (20%) trusts and, in 18 (78%), this was trend for increased antibiotic use reversed in 2016/2017. In 2014/2015, year-on-year changes were +3.7% (IQR -0.8%, +8.4%), +9.4% (+0.2%, +19.5%) and +5.8% (-6.2%, +18.2%) for total antibiotics, piperacillin/tazobactam and carbapenems, respectively, and +0.1% (-5.4%, +4.0%), -4.8% (-16.9%, +3.2%) and -8.0% (-20.2%, +4.0%) in 2016/2017. Hospitals where staff believed they could reduce antibiotic use were more likely to do so (P < 0.001). Introducing the AMR-CQUIN was associated with a reduction in antibiotic use. For individual hospitals, achieving the AMR-CQUIN was associated with favourable perceptions of staff and not availability of funding.

  15. Incentive Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ledyard, John O.

    1987-01-01

    Incentive compatibility is described and discussed. A summary of the current state of understanding is provided. Key words are: incentive compatibility, game theory, implementation, mechanism, Bayes, Nash, and revelation.

  16. [Family planning can reduce maternal mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1987-01-01

    Although the maternal mortality rate receives no newspaper headlines, the number of mothers dying throughout the world is equivalent to a full jumbo jet crashing every 5 hours. Population surveys carried out between 1981-83 by Family Health International indicated maternal mortality rates of 1.9/1000 live births in Menoufia, Egypt, and 7.2/1000 in Bali, Indonesia. 20-25% of all deaths in women aged 15-49 were directly related to pregnancy and delivery, compared to 1% in western countries where there is better prenatal care, medical assistance in almost all deliveries, and elimination of most high risk pregnancies through voluntary fertility control. Maternal mortality could be controlled by teaching traditional midwives to identify high risk patients at the beginning of their pregnancies and to refer them to appropriate health services. Maternal survival would also be improved if all women were in good health at the beginning of pregnancy. Families should be taught to seek medical care for the mother in cases of prolonged labor; many women arrive at hospitals beyond hope of recovery after hours or days of futile labor. Health policy makers should set new priorities. Sri Lanka, for example, has a lower per capita income than Pakistan, but also a lower maternal mortality rate because of better use of family planning services, more emphasis on prenatal care, and a tradition of care and attention on the part of the public health services.

  17. Financial incentive approaches for reducing peak electricity demand, experience from pilot trials with a UK energy provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Peter; Coke, Alexia; Leach, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Whilst tariff-based approaches to load-shifting are common in the residential sector, incentive-based approaches are rare. This is so, even though providing customers incentives to shape their power consumption patterns has substantial potential. This paper presents findings from an exploratory UK pilot study that trials financial payments and detailed energy feedback to incentivise load-shifting of residential electricity consumption. An intervention study was implemented measuring actual energy use by individual households as well as conducting surveys and interviews. From the trials it was found that the approaches resulted in reductions in peak time energy use. Evidence from the study found that the incentives-based approaches were able to overcome some of the barriers to response experienced in Time-of-Use studies, though less good on others. Interestingly, the height of the barriers varied by the electricity-using practice and the incentivising approach applied. The height of the barriers also varied by participant. The study concludes by identifying that broad participation in demand response is likely to require a suite of incentivising approaches that appeal to different people, a key policy finding of interest to international agencies, government, public and private sector entities. - Highlights: • Novel study of financial incentive approaches for shifting residential energy. • First academic paper comprehensively identifying barriers to time of use tariffs. • First study reporting barriers to financial incentive approaches for demand response. • Incentive study design can be applied by government and energy companies.

  18. Action plan to reduce perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    The government of India has set a goal of reducing perinatal mortality from its current rate of 48/1000 to 30-35/1000 by the year 2000. Perinatal deaths result from maternal malnutrition, inadequate prenatal care, complications of delivery, and infections in the postpartum period. Since reductions in perinatal mortality require attention to social, economic, and behavioral factors, as well as improvements in the health care delivery system, a comprehensive strategy is required. Social measures, such as raising the age at marriage to 18 years for females, improving the nutritional status of adolescent girls, reducing the strenuousness of work during pregnancy, improving female literacy, raising women's status in the society and thus in the family, and poverty alleviation programs, would all help eliminate the extent of complications of pregnancy. Measures required to enhance infant survival include improved prenatal care, prenatal tetanus toxoid immunization, use of sterile disposable cord care kits, the provision of mucus extractors and resuscitation materials to birth attendants, the creation of neonatal care units in health facilities, and more efficient referral of high-risk newborns and mothers. Since 90% of births in rural India take place at home priority must be given to training traditional birth attendants in the identification of high risk factors during pregnancy, delivery, and the newborn period.

  19. Public Opinion Regarding Financial Incentives to Engage in Advance Care Planning and Complete Advance Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Catherine L; Chen, Lucy; Olorunnisola, Michael; Delman, Aaron; Nguyen, Christina A; Cooney, Elizabeth; Gabler, Nicole B; Halpern, Scott D

    2017-09-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently instituted physician reimbursements for advance care planning (ACP) discussions with patients. To measure public support for similar programs. Cross-sectional online and in-person surveys. English-speaking adults recruited at public parks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from July to August 2013 and online through survey sampling international Web-based recruitment platform in July 2015. Participants indicated support for 6 programs designed to increase advance directive (AD) completion or ACP discussion using 5-point Likert scales. Participants also indicated how much money (US$0-US$1000) was appropriate to incentivize such behaviors, compared to smoking cessation or colonoscopy screening. We recruited 883 participants: 503 online and 380 in-person. The status quo of no systematic approach to motivate AD completion was supported by 67.0% of participants (63.9%-70.1%). The most popular programs were paying patients to complete ADs (58.0%; 54.5%-61.2%) and requiring patients to complete ADs or declination forms for health insurance (54.1%; 50.8%-57.4%). Participants more commonly supported paying patients to complete ADs than paying physicians whose patients complete ADs (22.6%; 19.8%-25.4%) or paying physicians who document ACP discussions (19.1%; 16.5%-21.7%; both P < .001). Participants supported smaller payments for AD completion and ACP than for obtaining screening colonoscopies or stopping smoking. Americans view payments for AD completion or ACP more skeptically than for other health behaviors and prefer that such payments go to patients rather than physicians. The current CMS policy of reimbursing physicians for ACP conversations with patients was the least preferred of the programs evaluated.

  20. Mergers, managerial incentives, and efficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the effects of synergies from horizontal mergers in a Cournot oligopoly where principals provide their agents with incentives to cut marginal costs prior to choosing output. We stress that synergies come at a cost which possibly leads to a countervailing incentive effect: The merged firm's principal may be induced to stifle managerial incentives in order to reduce her agency costs. Whenever this incentive effect dominates the well-known direct synergy effect, synergies actually red...

  1. Participatory development of incentives to coexist with jaguars and pumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Ronit; Jacobson, Susan K

    2018-01-22

    Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative, structured, group communication process based on a Delphi technique as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, nongovernmental organizations, and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion. The final product integrated 862 ideas into 6 types of incentives: organization of communities, mechanisms for improved dialogue, citizen technical assistance, green labeling for community products, payment for the ecosystem service of biodiversity, and an assessment of financial alternatives. We used quantitative and qualitative techniques to indicate support for decisions about the design of incentives, which reduced researcher subjectivity. The diverse incentives developed and the cooperation from multiple stakeholders resulted in an incentive plan that integrated issues of governance, equity, and social norms. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Effects of compensation methods and physician group structure on physicians' perceived incentives to alter services to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James D; Hadley, Jack; Landon, Bruce E

    2006-08-01

    To examine how health plan payment, group ownership, compensation methods, and other practice management tools affect physician perceptions of whether their overall financial incentives tilt toward increasing or decreasing services to patients. Nationally representative data on physicians are from the 2000-2001 Community Tracking Study Physician Survey (N=12,406). Ordered and multinomial logistic regression were used to explore how physician, group, and market characteristics are associated with physician reports of whether overall financial incentives are to increase services, decrease services, or neither. Seven percent of physicians report financial incentives are to reduce services to patients, whereas 23 percent report incentives to increase services. Reported incentives to reduce services were associated with reports of lower ability to provide quality care. Group revenue in the form of capitation was associated with incentives to reduce services whereas practice ownership and variable compensation and bonuses for employee physicians were mostly associated with incentives to increase services to patients. Full ownership of groups, productivity incentives, and perceived competitive markets for patients were associated with incentives to both increase and reduce services. Practice ownership and the ways physicians are compensated affect their perceived incentives to increase or decrease services to patients. In the latter case, this adversely affects perceived quality of care and satisfaction, although incentives to increase services may also have adverse implications for quality, cost, and insurance coverage.

  3. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...

  4. Reduction of the renewable energy incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the state deficit the French government plans to reduce the financial incentives in all sectors and particularly in the sector of renewable energies. The photovoltaic sector is the most hit with a tax credit rate dropping from 50% (in 2009) to 22.5% (in 2011). For the other renewable energy sectors the tax credit rate will be reduced by 10% in 2011. The French government wants the cost of the tax credit on the renewable energies to drop from 2.8*10 9 euros in 2009 to 2.0*10 9 euros in 2011. (A.C.)

  5. Policy recommendations on tacing and reducing program mismatch and perverse incentives present in earmarking sin tax to tobacco growing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiline Joy Aloria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Recognizing that the Philippine 1991 tobacco tax sharing law favoured the development of tobacco, the Sin Tax Law, a separate law on restructuring cigarette tax, expanded the use of such to also cover shifting farmers to viable alternative livelihood. Aside from health-driven supply reduction objectives, this is crucial as evidence shows that tobacco production is continuously declining starting decades ago, requiring to actively shift farmers. Methods Data on tobacco excise tax earmarking and utilization, farmers´ production and shifting behaviours, labor improvement and poverty alleviation indicators, and LGU capacity were analysed to determine potential program mismatches and perverse incentives. Supporting qualitative data were used to identify policy and structural gaps to address these. Results Financing livelihood projects becomes the least priority (only 6% average share i funds, as a result of LGU´s final allocation being determined by their share in total tobacco leaf production, which actually put pressure on their farmers to increase production volume. Meanwhile, infrastructure continue to get bulk of sin tax earmarking and are linked to its political benefits. Last, the provision of cooperative and agro-industrial projects in selected areas were shifting behaviour is heavy can still be improved. Conclusions As the two tobacco tax sharing laws fund both programs to develop tobacco and to shift tobacco farmers to other livelihood, a schizophrenic management exists. Key structural and policy ingredients have to be present to reverse this. First is the need to establish institutional support to manage alternative livelihood funds, in order to balance the powers of National Tobacco Administration over tobacco growing areas. Allocation should not be based on production volume but rather on a systemic or comprehensive welfare assessment of shifted farmers. As livelihood programs are most commonly coursed through civil society

  6. Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Levy, Douglas E; Macias-Navarro, Lorena; Rimm, Eric B; Thorndike, Anne N

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the effectiveness of financial incentives and traffic-light labels to reduce purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in a community supermarket. In this randomized controlled trial, after a 2-month baseline period (February-March 2014), in-store traffic-light labels were posted to indicate healthy (green), less healthy (yellow) or unhealthy (red) beverages. During the subsequent five months (April-August 2014), participants in the intervention arm were eligible to earn a $US 25 in-store gift card each month they refrained from purchasing red-labelled beverages. Urban supermarket in Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income Latino community. Participants were customers of this supermarket who had at least one child living at home. A total of 148 customers (n 77 in the intervention group and n 71 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. Outcomes were monthly in-store purchases tracked using a store loyalty card and self-reported consumption of red-labelled beverages. Compared with control participants, the proportion of intervention participants who purchased any red-labelled beverages decreased by 9 % more per month (P=0·002). More intervention than control participants reduced their consumption of red-labelled beverages (-23 % v. -2 % for consuming ≥1 red beverage/week, P=0·01). Overall, financial incentives paired with in-store traffic-light labels modestly reduced purchase and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by customers of a community supermarket.

  7. Reducing dose calculation time for accurate iterative IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Lauterbach, Marc; Tong, Shidong; Wu Qiuwen; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-01-01

    A time-consuming component of IMRT optimization is the dose computation required in each iteration for the evaluation of the objective function. Accurate superposition/convolution (SC) and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations are currently considered too time-consuming for iterative IMRT dose calculation. Thus, fast, but less accurate algorithms such as pencil beam (PB) algorithms are typically used in most current IMRT systems. This paper describes two hybrid methods that utilize the speed of fast PB algorithms yet achieve the accuracy of optimizing based upon SC algorithms via the application of dose correction matrices. In one method, the ratio method, an infrequently computed voxel-by-voxel dose ratio matrix (R=D SC /D PB ) is applied for each beam to the dose distributions calculated with the PB method during the optimization. That is, D PB xR is used for the dose calculation during the optimization. The optimization proceeds until both the IMRT beam intensities and the dose correction ratio matrix converge. In the second method, the correction method, a periodically computed voxel-by-voxel correction matrix for each beam, defined to be the difference between the SC and PB dose computations, is used to correct PB dose distributions. To validate the methods, IMRT treatment plans developed with the hybrid methods are compared with those obtained when the SC algorithm is used for all optimization iterations and with those obtained when PB-based optimization is followed by SC-based optimization. In the 12 patient cases studied, no clinically significant differences exist in the final treatment plans developed with each of the dose computation methodologies. However, the number of time-consuming SC iterations is reduced from 6-32 for pure SC optimization to four or less for the ratio matrix method and five or less for the correction method. Because the PB algorithm is faster at computing dose, this reduces the inverse planning optimization time for our implementation

  8. Policy Incentives for Reducing Nitrate Leaching in Agricultural Lands: A Case Study of Irrigation and Drainage Dorudzan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhzeinoddin, A.; Esmaeili, A.; Zibaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural activities increasingly use water, fertilizers and pesticides, which may generate negative impacts on environment. Nowadays, nitrogen leaching from agricultural lands is a widespread global problem. Therefore, alternative land management practices such as nutrient management (rate, method and time of application), tillage operations (conservation and no-tillage), and irrigation management are routinely used to reduce non-point source pollution and improve water quality. In fact, a number of studies have illustrated the positive effects of best management practices on water and nutrient losses. The objective of this paper is to develop a bio-economic model and introducing the policy instrument for reducing nitrate from irrigation and drainage Dorudzan. We aim to identify ‘‘win–win’’ opportunities for improving farm profitability and reducing nitrate leaching.

  9. Event planning the ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fundraising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This bestselling all–in–one guide to the event planning business is back and better than ever, fully updated and revised to reflect the very latest trends and best practices in the industry. This handy, comprehensive guide includes forms, checklists, and tips for managing events, as well as examples and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful events. Judy Allen (Toronto, ON, Canada) is founder and President of Judy Allen Productions, a full–service event planning production company.

  10. Study protocol: incentives for increased access to comprehensive family planning for urban youth using a benefits card in Uganda. A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwasiima, Afra; Nuwamanya, Elly; Navvuga, Patricia; Babigumira, Janet U; Asiimwe, Francis T; Lubinga, Solomon J; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2017-10-27

    The use of contraception is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and has the potential to prevent about 30% of maternal and 10% of child deaths in developing countries. Voucher-based initiatives for family planning are an effective and viable means of increasing contraceptive use. In this paper, we present a protocol for a pilot study of a novel incentive, a family planning benefits card (FPBC) program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda while leveraging private sector funding. The study employs both impact and health economic evaluation methods to assess the effect of the FPBC program. We propose a quasi-experimental study design with two separate pre- and post-samples to measure program effectiveness. The main outcome of the impact evaluation is the percentage change in the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. We will also conduct model-based incremental cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses. The main outcomes of the economic evaluation are the cost per enrolled youth and cost per pregnancy averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. We will also pilot a corporate social responsibility model of sponsorship for the FPBC program in partnership with local corporations. Budget impact analysis will examine the potential affordability of scaling up the FPBC program and the fiscal implications of this scale up to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) budgets of partner corporations, the government, and the individual taxpayer. In this study, we propose an impact and economic evaluation to establish the proof concept of using a FPBC program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda. The results of this study will present stakeholders in Uganda and internationally with a potentially viable option for corporate-sponsored access to family planning in urban poor communities. MUREC1/7 No. 10

  11. Reduced Clostridium difficile Tests and Laboratory-Identified Events With a Computerized Clinical Decision Support Tool and Financial Incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gregory R; German Mesner, Ian; Cox, Heather L; Mathers, Amy J; Lyman, Jason A; Sifri, Costi D; Enfield, Kyle B

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesized that a computerized clinical decision support tool for Clostridium difficile testing would reduce unnecessary inpatient tests, resulting in fewer laboratory-identified events. Census-adjusted interrupted time-series analyses demonstrated significant reductions of 41% fewer tests and 31% fewer hospital-onset C. difficile infection laboratory-identified events following this intervention.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:737-740.

  12. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Melisa; Meyer, Bryn; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: → This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. → Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. → Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. → Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. → Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  14. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  15. Designing Incentives for Public School Teachers: Evidence from a Texas Incentive Pay Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Matthew G.; Taylor, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Pay-for-performance is a popular public education reform, but there is little evidence about the characteristics of a well-designed incentive pay plan for teachers. Some of the literature suggests that effective incentive plans must offer relatively large awards to induce behavioral changes. On the other hand, the experimental economics literature…

  16. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  17. Aligning ambition and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    2011-01-01

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  18. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  19. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  20. Effectiveness of employer financial incentives in reducing time to report worker injury: an interrupted time series study of two Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tyler J; Gray, Shannon; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Collie, Alex

    2018-01-05

    Early intervention following occupational injury can improve health outcomes and reduce the duration and cost of workers' compensation claims. Financial early reporting incentives (ERIs) for employers may shorten the time between injury and access to compensation benefits and services. We examined ERI effect on time spent in the claim lodgement process in two Australian states: South Australia (SA), which introduced them in January 2009, and Tasmania (TAS), which introduced them in July 2010. Using administrative records of 1.47 million claims lodged between July 2006 and June 2012, we conducted an interrupted time series study of ERI impact on monthly median days in the claim lodgement process. Time periods included claim reporting, insurer decision, and total time. The 18-month gap in implementation between the states allowed for a multiple baseline design. In SA, we analysed periods within claim reporting: worker and employer reporting times (similar data were not available in TAS). To account for external threats to validity, we examined impact in reference to a comparator of other Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions. Total time in the process did not immediately change, though trend significantly decreased in both jurisdictions (SA: -0.36 days per month, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.09; TAS: 0.35, -0.50 to -0.20). Claim reporting time also decreased in both (SA: -1.6 days, -2.4 to -0.8; TAS: -5.4, -7.4 to -3.3). In TAS, there was a significant increase in insurer decision time (4.6, 3.9 to 5.4) and a similar but non-significant pattern in SA. In SA, worker reporting time significantly decreased (-4.7, -5.8 to -3.5), but employer reporting time did not (-0.3, -0.8 to 0.2). The results suggest that ERIs reduced claim lodgement time and, in the long-term, reduced total time in the claim lodgement process. However, only worker reporting time significantly decreased in SA, indicating that ERIs may not have shortened the process through the intended target of

  1. Marketing to Nurses through an Incentive Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeanne Phillips; Williams, Trudy

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Incentive Career Mobility Plan, a program for improving employee morale and retention by rewarding self-improvement. Discusses its use by nurse administrators for marketing their institutions to current and potential employees. (JOW)

  2. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...... unattended. A description of the problem together with a mathematical model is presented. The objective is to maximize the quality of service by scheduling as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving...... the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution which in each step is transformed to an actual schedule by use of a greedy heuristic. Local search is performed on the abstract representation using advanced neighborhoods which modify large parts...

  3. Behavioural economics: Cash incentives avert deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Juan Camilo

    2017-10-01

    There is tension in developing countries between financial incentives to clear forests and climate regulation benefits of preserving trees. Now research shows that paying private forest owners in Uganda reduced deforestation, adding to the debate on the use of monetary incentives in forest conservation.

  4. Incentive delegation and collusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    In an infinitely repeated duopoly the implications of strategic incentive delegation are shown. Whether incentive delegation makes consumers or producers better-off depends on the nature of competition. WeThe presence or absence of incentive delegation may affect the interests of the consumers and

  5. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  6. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...

  7. Incentives – Effectiveness and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hinderlich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the question if and how incentive schemes work evaluated by their impact on company performance (market capitalization and profit before tax. Based on a unique data set for German executive directors of DAX companies it can be proved that neither short (STI nor long term incentives (LTI plans necessarily support the company success. It rather depends on the efficiency of each plan, i. e. on its design. Special attention has to be paid on target setting. Short term focused objectives often miss their targets, whereas long term oriented objectives significantly support the company success. To solve the prisoner’s dilemma between employers and employees by a quasi-endless game, additional measures may be helpful, such as share ownership guidelines.

  8. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  9. Governance of Land Use Planning to Reduce Fire Risk to Homes Mediterranean France and California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D. Kocher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire is a natural part of forested Mediterranean systems. As humans continue to live and build housing in these areas, wildfire is a constant threat to homes and lives. The goal of this paper is to describe aspects of land-use planning that are used to reduce wildfire risk in institutionally divergent regions; southern France and California. By reviewing relevant legislation and planning documents and conducting in person interviews with fire and planning professionals, we identify the institutions which participate in land use planning to reduce fire risk and the key laws and regulations that guide planning decisions. Our results indicate that France has a more centralized system for planning for fire, with national level entities heavily involved in local land use planning. California, on the other hand sees almost no federal oversite, and, while state law requires local plans to include wildfire risk, most fine grain decisions are left to local planners and decision makers. In both regions, however, we see a reliance on technical support provided from outside local jurisdictions. Increased coordination between local, regional, and national governments could improve land use planning in both locations.

  10. Forward treatment planning techniques to reduce the normalization effect in Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao-Wen; Lo, Wei-Lun; Kuo, Chun-Yuan; Su, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Wang, Yu-Jen; Pan, David Hung-Chi

    2017-11-01

    In Gamma Knife forward treatment planning, normalization effect may be observed when multiple shots are used for treating large lesions. This effect can reduce the proportion of coverage of high-value isodose lines within targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of forward treatment planning techniques using the Leksell Gamma Knife for the normalization effect reduction. We adjusted the shot positions and weightings to optimize the dose distribution and reduce the overlap of high-value isodose lines from each shot, thereby mitigating the normalization effect during treatment planning. The new collimation system, Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion, which contains eight movable sectors, provides an additional means to reduce the normalization effect by using composite shots. We propose different techniques in forward treatment planning that can reduce the normalization effect. Reducing the normalization effect increases the coverage proportion of higher isodose lines within targets, making the high-dose region within targets more uniform and increasing the mean dose to targets. Because of the increase in the mean dose to the target after reducing the normalization effect, we can set the prescribed marginal dose at a higher isodose level and reduce the maximum dose, thereby lowering the risk of complications. © 2017 Shuang Ho Hospital-Taipei Medical University. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. 78 FR 49359 - Pay Under the General Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    .... Agencies may, in their agency retention incentive plans, require documentation of private-sector job offers... Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... to improve oversight of recruitment and retention incentive determinations; add succession planning...

  12. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  13. The Promise of Tailoring Incentives for Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Williams, Geoffrey C; Resnicow, Kenneth; An, Lawrence C; Rothberg, Amy; Volpp, Kevin G; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    To describe how tailoring financial incentives for healthy behaviors to employees' goals, values, and aspirations might improve the efficacy of incentives. We integrate insights from self-determination theory (SDT) with principles from behavioral economics in the design of financial incentives by linking how incentives could help meet an employee's life goals, values, or aspirations. Tailored financial incentives could be more effective than standard incentives in promoting autonomous motivation necessary to initiate healthy behaviors and sustain them after incentives are removed. Previous efforts to improve the design of financial incentives have tested different incentive designs that vary the size, schedule, timing, and target of incentives. Our strategy for tailoring incentives builds on strong evidence that difficult behavior changes are more successful when integrated with important life goals and values. We outline necessary research to examine the effectiveness of this approach among at-risk employees. Instead of offering simple financial rewards for engaging in healthy behaviors, existing programs could leverage incentives to promote employees' autonomous motivation for sustained health improvements. Effective application of these concepts could lead to programs more effective at improving health, potentially at lower cost. Our approach for the first time integrates key insights from SDT, behavioral economics, and tailoring to turn an extrinsic reward for behavior change into an internalized, self-sustaining motivator for long-term engagement in risk-reducing behaviors.

  14. A new smoothing procedure to reduce delivery segments for static MLC-based IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuepeng; Xia Ping

    2004-01-01

    In the application of pixel-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using the step-and-shoot delivery method, one major difficulty is the prolonged delivery time. In this study, we present an integrated IMRT planning system that involves a simple smoothing method to reduce the complexity of the beam profiles. The system consists of three main steps: (a) an inverse planning process based on a least-square dose-based cost function; (b) smoothing of the intensity maps; (c) reoptimization of the segment weights. Step (a) obtains the best plan with the lowest cost value using a simulated annealing optimization algorithm with discrete intensity levels. Step (b) takes the intensity maps obtained from (a) and reduces the complexity of the maps by smoothing the adjacent beamlet intensities. During this process each beamlet is assigned a structure index based on anatomical information. A smoothing update is applied to average adjacent beamlets with the same index. To control the quality of the plan, a predefined clinical protocol is used as an acceptance criterion. The smoothing updates that violate the criterion are rejected. After the smoothing process, the segment weights are reoptimized in step (c) to further improve the plan quality. Three clinical cases were studied using this system: a medulloblastoma, a prostate cancer, and an oropharyngeal carcinoma. While the final plans demonstrate a degradation of the original plan quality, they still meet the plan acceptance criterion. On the other hand, the segment numbers or delivery times are reduced by 40%, 20%, and 20% for the three cases, respectively

  15. Strategic planning to reduce conflicts for offshore wind development in Taiwan: A social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyun-Long; Liu, Hsiang-Hsi; Chuang, Ching-Ta

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to improve the current inefficiency and ineffectiveness of communications among stakeholders when planning and constructing offshore wind farms (OWFs). An analysis using a social marketing approach with segmentation techniques is used to identify the target market based on stakeholders' perceptions. The empirical results identify three stakeholder segments: (1) impact-attend group; (2) comprehensive group; and (3) benefit-attend group. The results suggest that communication should be implemented to alter stakeholders' attitudes toward the construction of OWFs. Furthermore, based on the results of segmentation, target markets are identified to plan the communication strategies for reducing the conflicts among stakeholders of OWF construction. The results also indicated that in the planning phase of construction for OWFs, effective stakeholder participation and policy communication can enhance the perception of benefits to reduce conflict with local communities and ocean users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...: (919) 541-0824; e-mail address: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed Transport... (i.e., section V.D.4.a (75 FR 45307-9)) that discusses in detail the proposed Transport Rule trading...-9201-6] RIN 2060-AP50 Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

  17. Understanding Reduced-Fat Milk Consumption among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…

  18. A Proposed Incentive System for Jefferson County Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Ingwerson, Donald W.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines a teacher incentive plan developed for the Jefferson County (Kentucky) Public Schools and scheduled for pilot testing during the 1987-88 school year. The program is modeled after airline frequent flyer programs and is designed to encourage cooperative action and individual incentive among teachers. (MD)

  19. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  20. An empirical examination of negotiated goals and performance-to-goal following the introduction of an incentive bonus plan with participative goal setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.W.; Dekker, H.C.; Sedatole, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research documents performance improvements following the implementation of pay-for-performance (PFP) bonus plans. However, bonus plans typically pay for performance relative to a goal, and the manager whose performance is to be evaluated often participates in setting the goal. In these

  1. Monetary incentives: usually neither necessary nor sufficient?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortmann, Andreas; Hertwig, R.

    -, č. 307 (2006), s. 1-17 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : experimental practices * monetary incentives * rhetorical tactics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp307.pdf

  2. Treatment Planning for Pulsed Reduced Dose-Rate Radiotherapy in Helical Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yi; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Howard, Steven P.; Welsh, James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy (PRDR) is a valuable method of reirradiation because of its potential to reduce late normal tissue toxicity while still yielding significant tumoricidal effect. A typical method using a conventional linear accelerator (linac) is to deliver a series of 20-cGy pulses separated by 3-min intervals to give an effective dose-rate of just under 7 cGy/min. Such a strategy is fraught with difficulties when attempted on a helical tomotherapy unit. We investigated various means to overcome this limitation. Methods and Materials: Phantom and patient cases were studied. Plans were generated with varying combinations of field width (FW), pitch, and modulation factor (MF) to administer 200 cGy per fraction to the planning target in eight subfractions, thereby mimicking the technique used on conventional linacs. Plans were compared using dose-volume histograms, homogeneity indices, conformation numbers, and treatment time. Plan delivery quality assurance was performed to assess deliverability. Results: It was observed that for helical tomotherapy, intrinsic limitations in leaf open time in the multileaf collimator deteriorate plan quality and deliverability substantially when attempting to deliver very low doses such as 20-40 cGy. The various permutations evaluated revealed that the combination of small FW (1.0 cm), small MF (1.3-1.5), and large pitch (∼0.86), along with the half-gantry-angle-blocked scheme, can generate clinically acceptable plans with acceptable delivery accuracy (±3%). Conclusion: Pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy can be accurately delivered using helical tomotherapy for tumor reirradiation when the appropriate combination of FW, MF, and pitch is used.

  3. Incentives for reporting disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanan Laxminarayan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. METHODS: We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. FINDINGS: We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. INTERPRETATION: These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks.

  4. Employee Use of a Wireless Physical Activity Tracker Within Two Incentive Designs at One Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltemes, Kevin J.; Heck, Debi; Osmick, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity provides numerous health benefits, including reducing risk factors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Many employers offer incentives to employees to motivate engagement in wellness program activities. Two incentive designs to reward employees for achieving step goals were evaluated. This study used a retrospective design and the study population consisted of benefit-eligible employees at American Specialty Health ages 18 to 65 years who completed a health assessment and biometric screening during 2011 (N=396) or 2012 (N=500). A total of 320 employees participated in both years. During 2011, the incentive goal was 500,000 steps per quarter. By comparison, a 3-tier step goal plan was implemented in 2012 (ie, 400,000; 650,000; or 900,000 steps/quarter). The prevalence of participants in the step program was 64.7% in 2011 and 72.8% in 2012. The percentage of employees who reached at least 1 quarterly incentive increased from 36.3% in 2011 to 51.4% in 2012. Average steps/day was higher in 2012 (mean [M]=3573, standard deviation [SD]=3010) compared to the same employees in 2011 (M=2817, SD=2654) (Pemployees in physical activity. A multitier incentive design offers participants choices for goal setting and may help shape behavior toward what may be perceived as a difficult goal to achieve. (Population Health Management 2016;19:88–94) PMID:26087300

  5. Employee Use of a Wireless Physical Activity Tracker Within Two Incentive Designs at One Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Heltemes, Kevin J; Heck, Debi; Osmick, Mary Jane

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity provides numerous health benefits, including reducing risk factors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Many employers offer incentives to employees to motivate engagement in wellness program activities. Two incentive designs to reward employees for achieving step goals were evaluated. This study used a retrospective design and the study population consisted of benefit-eligible employees at American Specialty Health ages 18 to 65 years who completed a health assessment and biometric screening during 2011 (N=396) or 2012 (N=500). A total of 320 employees participated in both years. During 2011, the incentive goal was 500,000 steps per quarter. By comparison, a 3-tier step goal plan was implemented in 2012 (ie, 400,000; 650,000; or 900,000 steps/quarter). The prevalence of participants in the step program was 64.7% in 2011 and 72.8% in 2012. The percentage of employees who reached at least 1 quarterly incentive increased from 36.3% in 2011 to 51.4% in 2012. Average steps/day was higher in 2012 (mean [M]=3573, standard deviation [SD]=3010) compared to the same employees in 2011 (M=2817, SD=2654) (Pemployees in physical activity. A multitier incentive design offers participants choices for goal setting and may help shape behavior toward what may be perceived as a difficult goal to achieve. (Population Health Management 2016;19:88-94).

  6. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  7. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  8. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area

  9. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...... to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming...

  10. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  11. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Maria; Leech, Michelle; Coffey, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC) shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU) required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct Aperture optimization

  12. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Mary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct

  13. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Maria; Leech, Michelle; Coffey, Mary [Division of Radiation Therapy, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-16

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC) shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU) required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct Aperture optimization

  14. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  15. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  16. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  17. Reducing DNACPR complaints to zero: designing and implementing a treatment escalation plan using quality improvement methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermon, Elizabeth; Munglani, Laura; Oram, Sarah; William, Linda; Abel, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)decisions have traditionally formed the basis of ceiling of care discussions. However, poor quality discussions can lead to high patient and relative dissatisfaction, generating hospital complaints. Treatment escalation plans (TEPs) aim to highlight the wider remit of treatment options with a focus on effective communication. We aimed to improve TEP discussions and documentation at Weston General Hospital by introducing a standardised form. We aimed to develop a TEP document to reduce resuscitation-related complaints by improving communication and documentation. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected over 2 years and used to develop plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles using quality improvement methodology. Main barriers to improvement included time constraints and clinician's resistance. Analysis of patient liaison services data showed a progressive reduction in complaints regarding resuscitation, with no complaints having been received for the final six months of the project. Through use of a standardised form including treatment prompts, the quality of discussions and plans improved. Qualitative feedback demonstrated increased patient and relative satisfaction. In addition, junior doctors report the plans are helpful when making out-of-hours decisions. Development of a user-friendly form to document patient-guided TEPs helped junior doctors to lead advanced care planning discussions. The use of PDSA cycles demonstrated improvement in the quality of forms, which in turn improved communication, documentation and satisfaction. Future developments could include involvement of specialist teams to ensure TEP forms remain relevant to all clinical areas. In addition, with widespread use of the TEP forms, the traditional tick-box DNAR could be replaced to focus on patient-led care planning.

  18. Incentive schemes in development of socio-economic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, V. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Myshlyaev, L. P.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of incentive schemes when developing socio-economic systems. The article analyzes the existing incentive schemes. It is established that the traditional incentive mechanisms do not fully take into account the specifics of the creation of each socio-economic system and, as a rule, are difficult to implement. The incentive schemes based on the full-scale simulation approach, which allow the most complete information from the existing projects of creation of socio-economic systems to be extracted, are proposed. The statement of the problem is given, the method and algorithm of the full-scale simulation study of the efficiency of incentive functions is developed. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that the use of quadratic and piecewise linear functions of incentive allows the time and costs for creating social and economic systems to be reduced by 10%-15%.

  19. Reducing variability of workforce as a tool to improve plan reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Yicheng, S.; Zygmunt, K. J.

    Variability of flow is recognized as the greatest obstacle to production management. Since the work flow and labour flow are two dominators of work performance, it is important to manage them simultaneously. The objective of this paper is to examine whether by reducing the variance of a labour flow......, a plan reliability can be improved, therefore, three different construction labour data sets have been examined by utilizing Monte Carlo Simulation, to analyze the probability to finish simulated projects within a certain time. The research findings revealed that reducing variance in the workforce flow...... does not necessarily shorten the project length, nevertheless it increases probability to finish the tasks within a critical path duration. Additionally, it was concluded, that reducing the variance of crew allocation can improve the productivity....

  20. Reducing Variability of Workforce as a Tool to Improve Plan Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yicheng; Zygmunt, Katarzyna Julia; Wandahl, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Variability of flow is recognized as one of the greatest obstacles to production management. Since the work flow and labour flow are two dominators of work performance, it is important to manage them simultaneously. The objective of this paper is to examine if an increased plan reliability could...... of the workforce flow does not necessarily shorten the project length, nevertheless it increases probability to finish the tasks within a critical path duration. Additionally, it was concluded, that reducing the variance of crew allocation can improve the productivity....... be reached by reducing the variance of a labour flow. Therefore, three different construction labour data sets have been examined by utilizing Monte Carlo Simulation, to analyze the probability to finish simulated projects within a certain time. The research findings revealed that reducing variance...

  1. A family planning clinic partner violence intervention to reduce risk associated with reproductive coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy of a family planning clinic-based intervention to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion. Study Design Four free-standing urban family planning clinics in Northern California were randomized to intervention (trained family planning counselors) or standard-of-care. English-and Spanish-speaking females ages 16-29 years (N=906) completed audio computer-assisted surveys prior to a clinic visit and 12 to 24 weeks later (75% retention rate). Analyses included assessment of intervention effects on recent IPV, awareness of IPV services, and reproductive coercion. Results Among women reporting past 3-month IPV at baseline, there was a 71% reduction in the odds of pregnancy coercion among participants in intervention clinics compared to participants from the control clinics that provided standard of care. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to report ending a relationship because the relationship was unhealthy or unsafe regardless of IPV status (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 – 2.63). Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that this intervention may reduce risk for reproductive coercion from abusive male partners among family planning clients and support such women to leave unsafe relationships. PMID:21310291

  2. Tax Incentives : Using Tax Incentives to Attract Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Morisset, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The increasing mobility of international firms and the gradual elimination of barriers to global capital flows have stimulated competition among governments to attract foreign direct investment, often through tax incentives. This note reviews the debate about the effectiveness of tax incentives, examining two much-contested questions: can tax incentives attract foreign investment? And what...

  3. Incentives for partitioning, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    The incentives for separating and eliminating various elements from radioactive waste prior to final geologic disposal were investigated. Exposure pathways to humans were defined, and potential radiation doses to an individual living within the region of influence of the underground storage site were calculated. The assumed radionuclide source was 1/5 of the accumulated high-level waste from the US nuclear power economy through the year 2000. The repository containing the waste was assumed to be located in a reference salt site geology. The study required numerous assumptions concerning the transport of radioactivity from the geologic storage site to man. The assumptions used maximized the estimated potential radiation doses, particularly in the case of the intrusion water well scenario, where hydrologic flow field dispersion effects were ignored. Thus, incentives for removing elements from the waste tended to be maximized. Incentives were also maximized by assuming that elements removed from the waste could be eliminated from the earth without risk. The results of the study indicate that for reasonable disposal conditions, incentives for partitioning any elements from the waste in order to minimize the risk to humans are marginal at best

  4. Incentives and moral hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard

    2017-01-01

    system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of these two production schemes using a cross-sectional plot-level data set. As sugarcane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g., soil type, cane variety, etc.), we...

  5. Incentives for Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  6. Dynamic Incentives in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruckes, Martin; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to this inertial tendency is either to increase the financial incentives to encourage searching or to accept no searching. The former response increases search efforts and total profits; the latter response has the opposite results. Inertia can be removed by restructuring the firm in period 2, but this may create...

  7. Cities at risk: status of Italian planning system in reducing seismic and hydrogeological risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Di Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy and its urban systems are under high seismic and hydrogeological risks. The awareness about the role of human activities in the genesis of disasters is achieved in the scientific debate, as well as the role of urban and regional planning in reducing risks. The paper reviews the state of Italian major cities referred to hydrogeological and seismic risk by: 1 extrapolating data and maps about seismic hazard and landslide risk concerning cities with more than 50.000 inhabitants and metropolitan contexts, and 2 outlining how risk reduction is framed in Italian planning system (at national and regional levels. The analyses of available data and the review of the normative framework highlight the existing gaps in addressing risk reduction: nevertheless a wide knowledge about natural risks afflicting Italian territory and an articulated regulatory framework, the available data about risks are not exhaustive, and risk reduction policies and multidisciplinary pro-active approaches are only partially fostered and applied.

  8. User-centric incentive design for participatory mobile phone sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lu, Haoyang

    2014-05-01

    Mobile phone sensing is a critical underpinning of pervasive mobile computing, and is one of the key factors for improving people's quality of life in modern society via collective utilization of the on-board sensing capabilities of people's smartphones. The increasing demands for sensing services and ambient awareness in mobile environments highlight the necessity of active participation of individual mobile users in sensing tasks. User incentives for such participation have been continuously offered from an application-centric perspective, i.e., as payments from the sensing server, to compensate users' sensing costs. These payments, however, are manipulated to maximize the benefits of the sensing server, ignoring the runtime flexibility and benefits of participating users. This paper presents a novel framework of user-centric incentive design, and develops a universal sensing platform which translates heterogenous sensing tasks to a generic sensing plan specifying the task-independent requirements of sensing performance. We use this sensing plan as input to reduce three categories of sensing costs, which together cover the possible sources hindering users' participation in sensing.

  9. Does a local financial incentive scheme reduce inequalities in the delivery of clinical care in a socially deprived community? A longitudinal data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidewell, Liz; West, Robert; Hackett, Julia E C; Carder, Paul; Doran, Tim; Foy, Robbie

    2015-05-14

    osteoporosis risk). For one indicator the deprivation-achievement gap reduced over time (repeat prednisolone prescription (OR 1.01; 1.01,1.01). Larger practices and those serving more affluent areas earned more income per patient than smaller practices and those serving more deprived areas (t = -3.99; p =0.0001). Any gaps in achievement between practices were modest but mostly sustained or widened over the duration of the scheme. Given that financial rewards may not reflect the amount of work undertaken by practices serving more deprived patients, future pay-for-performance schemes also need to address fairness of rewards in relation to workload.

  10. Incentives Between Firms (and Within)

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Gibbons

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the significant progress in Üagency theoryÝ (i.e., the economic theory of incentives) during the 1990s, with an eye toward applications to supply transactions. I emphasize six recent models, in three pairs: (1) new foundations for the theory of incentive contracts, (2) new directions in incentive theory, and (3) new applications to supply transactions. By reviewing these six models, I hope to establish three things. First, the theory of incentive contracts needed and receiv...

  11. Reducing the sensitivity of IMPT treatment plans to setup errors and range uncertainties via probabilistic treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Bortfeld, Thomas; Martin, Benjamin C.; Soukup, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Treatment plans optimized for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) may be very sensitive to setup errors and range uncertainties. If these errors are not accounted for during treatment planning, the dose distribution realized in the patient may by strongly degraded compared to the planned dose distribution. The authors implemented the probabilistic approach to incorporate uncertainties directly into the optimization of an intensity modulated treatment plan. Following this approach, the dose distribution depends on a set of random variables which parameterize the uncertainty, as does the objective function used to optimize the treatment plan. The authors optimize the expected value of the objective function. They investigate IMPT treatment planning regarding range uncertainties and setup errors. They demonstrate that incorporating these uncertainties into the optimization yields qualitatively different treatment plans compared to conventional plans which do not account for uncertainty. The sensitivity of an IMPT plan depends on the dose contributions of individual beam directions. Roughly speaking, steep dose gradients in beam direction make treatment plans sensitive to range errors. Steep lateral dose gradients make plans sensitive to setup errors. More robust treatment plans are obtained by redistributing dose among different beam directions. This can be achieved by the probabilistic approach. In contrast, the safety margin approach as widely applied in photon therapy fails in IMPT and is neither suitable for handling range variations nor setup errors.

  12. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  13. The impact of facility audits, evaluation reports and incentives on motivation and supply management among family planning service providers: an interventional study in two districts in Maputo Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermandere, Heleen; Galle, Anna; Griffin, Sally; de Melo, Málica; Machaieie, Lino; Van Braeckel, Dirk; Degomme, Olivier

    2017-05-02

    only a monthly audit. During this study, more stock-outs occurred for family planning methods with lower demand, but the number of stock-outs per family planning method in the intervention groups was only significantly lower, compared with the control group, for female condoms. While a rise in motivation was not measurable, stock management was enhanced possibly as a result of the monthly audits. This activity was primarily for data collection, but was described as motivating and supportive, indicating the importance of feedback on health workers' accomplishments. More research is needed to quantify the additional impact of the interventions (distribution of evaluation reports and material incentives) on staff motivation and supply management. Special attention should be paid to supply management of less frequently used contraceptive methods.

  14. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy......Tax distortions cause a trade-off between efficiency and equity. However, taxes not only affect incentives; they also provide implicit insurance, and this may critically affect the efficiency–equity relationship. For a standard labour supply problem it is shown that the insurance effect mutes...

  15. Generic host state incentive report. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Even the most carefully designed and operated low-level radioactive waste management facility will present potential risks and costs to nearby residents. Individuals who live near these facilities may receive some benefits, but they also bear the brunt of any adverse impacts. It is with this in mind that various siting techniques have been developed. Before any ''extra'' compensation or incentive can be discussed, however, it must first be clearly demonstrated that these facilities protect public health and the environment. This report addresses five distinct areas as follows: mitigation measure to prevent or reduce the impact of the facility; incentives and compensation techniques that might make a facility more acceptable; the use of agreement building in order to develop an arrangement between the host community and a facility proponent; the importance of economics resulting from a typical regional low-level radioactive waste facility; and the role of state government in promoting and legitimizing the use of incentives. 6 tabs

  16. Incentives for energy efficiency in the EU emission trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Group for Sustainability and Technology; Betz, Regina [New South Wales Univ. (Australia). Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets

    2008-07-01

    This paper explores the incentives for energy efficiency induced by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for installations in the energy and industry sectors. Our analysis of the National Allocation Plans for 27 EU Member States for phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-2012) suggests that the price and cost effects for improvements in carbon and energy efficiency in the energy and industry sectors will be stronger than in phase 1 (2005-2007), but only because the European Commission has substantially reduced the number of allowances to be allocated by the Member States. To the extent that companies from these sectors (notably power producers) pass through the extra costs for carbon, higher prices for allowances translate into stronger incentives for demand- side energy efficiency. With the cuts in allocation to energy and industry sectors these will be forced to greater reductions, thus the non-ET sectors like household, tertiary and transport will have to reduce less, which is more in line with the cost-efficient share of emission reductions. The findings also imply that domestic efficiency improvements in the energy and industry sectors may remain limited since companies can make substantial use of credits from the Kyoto mechanisms. The analysis of the rules for existing installations, new projects and closures suggests that incentives for energy efficiency are higher in phase 2 than in phase 1 because of the increased application of benchmarking to new and existing installations and because a lower share of allowances will be allocated for free. Nevertheless, there is still ample scope to further improve the EU ETS so that the full potential for energy efficiency can be realized. (orig.)

  17. Team incentives in relational contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    Incentive schemes for teams are compared. I ask: under which conditions are relational incentive contracts based on joint performance evaluation, relative performance evaluation and independent performance evaluation self-enforceable. The framework of Che and Yoo (2001) on team incentives is combined with the framework of Baker, Gibbons and Murphy (2002) on relational contracts. In a repeated game between one principal and two agents, I find that incentives based on relative or independent performance are expected to dominate when the productivity of effort is high, while joint performance evaluation dominates when productivity is low. Incentives based on independent performance are more probable if the agents own critical assets. (author)

  18. Reducing our Carbon Footprint - an initial action plan for Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-14

    In the Energy White Paper, Our Energy Future - Creating a low carbon economy, the UK Government accepted the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution's (RCEP) recommendations on how the UK should address the threat of climate change. These recommendations included the early development of a concerted, coordinated and integrated strategy across all Government Departments that would put the UK economy on an early path to reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by at least 60% by 2050. Responding to this challenge, the Carbon Trust and Invest NI sponsored a project to develop an action plan that will set Northern Ireland on the path to realising the deep reductions in carbon emissions needed to reach this target. During the project, the prospects for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions (or carbon emissions) in five key sectors of the economy were examined. The main conclusion of this work was that it was possible to realise a 60% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050, provided early action is taken to set Northern Ireland on the path to a low carbon economy. The project also prepared an initial action plan to help initiate change. This consists of: Immediate actions, including encouraging the uptake of energy efficiency measures, revising building regulations and changing public procurement procedures. Developing options for the future, by supporting the exploitation of renewable resources, modifying the regulatory scheme to support combined heat and power (CHP) and encouraging additional investment in low carbon technologies. Cross-cutting actions, including developing planning procedures that take account of sustainability, marketing campaigns to capture hearts and minds, developing a skills base in low carbon technologies and exploring more radical ways of cutting carbon emissions. (UK)

  19. Putting the puzzle together: Reducing vulnerability through people-focused planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, D.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting and integrating vulnerable persons into emergency management has emerged as an increasing priority in emergency management in Canada. Events such as the 2003 European heat wave and Hurricane Katrina have shown that disasters almost always have the harshest affects on the frail elderly, people with disabilities, the disadvantaged and the least able. While it is neither possible-nor the role of emergency management-to eliminate or reduce many factors that make people vulnerable to hazards, it is important that emergency managers work closely with communities to not only identify risks and vulnerabilities, but also to build on the resources and capacities that enable people to effectively prepare for, respond to and recover from threats of all types. To this end, emergency management must take into account the level of capacities and resources that a community has to prepare for emergencies and disasters, in addition to people's vulnerabilities to extreme events. To be successful, people must be viewed not as a part of the problem to be solved or managed during an emergency, but rather a part of the solution to building more resilient and disaster-resistant societies. This requires 'people-focused' planning methodologies that move beyond planning for to planning with all segments of society, including the most vulnerable and marginalised groups that are more readily overlooked. This not only begins to ensure that emergency planning and response capacities can effectively address the diverse needs of all people, but is also an important step to empowering the most vulnerable to prepare themselves for emergencies and other critical events. (authors)

  20. Risk management versus incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, E.; Lovas, K.; Osmundsen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Portfolio theory indicates that risk management should take place at the group level. Hedging at the project level or in the individual business areas may lead to suboptimal results. However, the efficiency of a profit centre depends on its management's being able to influence factors that are crucial to the unit's financial results. Price hedging could be one such factor. In the wider perspective, this constitutes part of the balancing between centralisation and decentralisation. This article covers important elements of risk management and incentive design. It goes on to discuss the balancing of overall risk management at the group level and incentive design in profit centres and corporate units. Throughout the article, the oil industry serves as a case. (author)

  1. Opposing incentives for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.; Wien, Charlotte; Larsen, Asger Væring

    , and gives a bonus for publications done through inter-institutionary collaboration. Credits given to universities are fractionalized between the participating universities. So far credits are not assigned to the individual authors but only to their institutions. However, it turns out that research...... collaboration is associated with a higher number of citations than single authorship which may present the author with two opposing incentives for research collaboration....

  2. Incentives and Prosocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

    2005-01-01

    We develop a theory of prosocial behavior that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. Rewards or punishments (whether material or image-related) create doubt about the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ?overjustification effect? can induce a partial or even net crowding out of prosocial behavior by extrinsic incentives. We also identify the settings that are conducive to multiple social norms and, mor...

  3. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  4. Ontario's energy action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    In the fall of 2002, the government of Ontario announced an action plan designed to ensure stable electricity prices while additional electricity generating capacity is built. The action plan included a strategy for encouraging major private sector investments in wind, solar and other renewable energy sources. The strategies for new renewable energy projects include: property tax incentives, business income tax incentives, and sales tax rebates. Initiatives to increase supply include: Toronto's Portland 550 megawatt, natural gas-fired generating station, Niagara Falls' Beck Tunnel Project, and Windsor's 580 megawatt natural gas-fired generating station. The government is promoting energy conservation by reducing its electricity consumption by 10 per cent, and setting a target where 20 per cent of electricity consumed in the province must be from renewable energy sources. The use of interval meters by Ontario residents is being encouraged. A provincial sales tax rebate is being offered to customers buying select energy efficient appliances. In its commitment to environmental protection, the Ontario government is phasing out coal, offering rebates for solar energy systems, implementing measures to reduce acid rain, and investing $3.25 billion over ten years to renew and expand public transit. In Chatham, Ontario, a plant producing ethanol from corn was built, and others are planned for other parts of the province. Tax incentives are also offered for alternative fuel users. 1 ref., 1 tab

  5. Predicting incentives to change among adolescents with substance abuse disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Carolyn; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2004-05-01

    While interest in understanding the incentives to change among individuals with substance abuse disorders is growing, little is known about incentives among adolescents with substance abuse disorders who are participating in formal services. The present research assesses the degree and nature of motivation and treatment readiness among adolescents admitted to substance abuse services, and whether such factors vary across significant subgroups of youth based on their social, legal, or clinical profiles. Data are based on interviews with 249 youth between 12 and 18 years of age who have been admitted to either inpatient, residential, or outpatient substance abuse treatment. Measures are adapted from an instrument developed to assess multiple domains of motivation to change (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, treatment readiness). Results suggest that the incentive to change among adolescents with substance-abusing behavior is modest at best, regardless of dimension. Nonetheless, ethnicity, type of substance use, and psychopathology significantly predict incentives to change, though the predictors depend on which dimension is considered. The most robust predictor of incentives is the severity of negative consequences associated with youth's substance use--the greater the severity, the greater the incentives. Findings underscore the need to examine the utility and dimensionality of incentive for treatment planning, while at the same time, they identify factors that treatment planners can consider as they seek ways to enhance incentives and help adolescents with substance use disorders attain positive outcomes.

  6. 41 CFR 302-14.100 - How should we administer our home marketing incentive payment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reduce your overall relocation costs. You must not make a home marketing incentive payment that exceeds... our home marketing incentive payment program? 302-14.100 Section 302-14.100 Public Contracts and... 14-HOME MARKETING INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Agency Responsibilities § 302-14.100 How should we administer...

  7. Incentives for cogeneration in Italy: Logic and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomassetti, G.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of legal and financial incentives made possible through Italian legislation on cogeneration plants for on-site power generation, this paper reviews the planning criteria that went into the formulation of the incentives and the response obtained from small, medium and large industrial firms. The discussion takes into account the following aspects: the optimal timing of retrofits, national energy conservation and environmental policy objectives, energy surcharges, benefits to consumers as compared with those for energy producers, benefits from incentives as a function of cogeneration plant size, and the technical complexity of application requirements for prospective applicants

  8. Privatized Returns and Socialized Risks: CEO Incentives, Securitization Accounting and the Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizi, M.; Parbonetti, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of CEO’s equity and risk incentives in boosting securitization in the financial industry and in motivating executives to reduce the perceived risk while betting on it. Using a sample of US financial institutions over the period 2003-2009 we document that CEOs with high equity incentives have systematically engaged in securitization transactions to a larger extent than CEOs with low incentives. We also show that CEOs with high equity and risk-related incentives ...

  9. Financial Incentives to Enable Clean Energy Deployment: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Financial incentives have been widely implemented by governments around the world to support scaled up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices. As of 2015, at least 48 countries have adopted financial incentives to support renewable energy and energy efficiency deployment. Broader clean energy strategies and plans provide a crucial foundation for financial incentives that often complement regulatory policies such as renewable energy targets, standards, and other mandates. This policy brief provides a primer on key financial incentive design elements, lessons from different country experiences, and curated support resources for more detailed and country-specific financial incentive design information.

  10. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  11. 38 CFR 36.4319 - Servicer loss-mitigation options and incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... options or alternatives to foreclosure completed: repayment plans, special forbearance agreements, loan modifications, compromise sales, and deeds-in-lieu of foreclosure. Only one incentive payment will be made with.... (b) The amount of the incentive payment is as follows: Tier ranking One Two Three Four Repayment Plan...

  12. Teacher Pension Incentives, Retirement Behavior, and Potential for Reform in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the Arkansas teacher pension plan and empirically gauge the behavioral response to incentives embedded in that plan and to possible reforms. The pattern of pension wealth accrual creates sharp incentives to work until eligible for early or normal retirement, often in one's early fifties, and to separate shortly thereafter. We…

  13. Optimal path planning for single and multiple aircraft using a reduced order formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Shannon S.

    High-flying unmanned reconnaissance and surveillance systems are now being used extensively in the United States military. Current development programs are producing demonstrations of next-generation unmanned flight systems that are designed to perform combat missions. Their use in first-strike combat operations will dictate operations in densely cluttered environments that include unknown obstacles and threats, and will require the use of terrain for masking. The demand for autonomy of operations in such environments dictates the need for advanced trajectory optimization capabilities. In addition, the ability to coordinate the movements of more than one aircraft in the same area is an emerging challenge. This thesis examines using an analytical reduced order formulation for trajectory generation for minimum time and terrain masking cases. First, pseudo-3D constant velocity equations of motion are used for path planning for a single vehicle. In addition, the inclusion of winds, moving targets and moving threats is considered. Then, this formulation is increased to using 3D equations of motion, both with a constant velocity and with a simplified varying velocity model. Next, the constant velocity equations of motion are expanded to include the simultaneous path planning of an unspecified number of vehicles, for both aircraft avoidance situations and formation flight cases.

  14. Non-statutory barriers and incentives to stakeholder participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-statutory barriers and incentives to stakeholder participation in reducing water pollution: A South African case study. ... were found to be the major impediments preventing staff at government agencies and parastatals from motivating other ...

  15. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide—U.S. Geological Survey subduction zone science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Bekins, Barbara; Brocher, Thomas M.; Brock, John C.; Brothers, Daniel; Chaytor, Jason D.; Frankel, Arthur; Geist, Eric L.; Haney, Matt; Hickman, Stephen H.; Leith, William S.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Schulz, William H.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Wallace, Kristi; Watt, Janet; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-06-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information and tools to build resilience in communities exposed to subduction zone earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions. Improving the application of USGS science to successfully reduce risk from these events relies on whole community efforts, with continuing partnerships among scientists and stakeholders, including researchers from universities, other government labs and private industry, land-use planners, engineers, policy-makers, emergency managers and responders, business owners, insurance providers, the media, and the general public.Motivated by recent technological advances and increased awareness of our growing vulnerability to subduction-zone hazards, the USGS is uniquely positioned to take a major step forward in the science it conducts and products it provides, building on its tradition of using long-term monitoring and research to develop effective products for hazard mitigation. This science plan provides a blueprint both for prioritizing USGS science activities and for delineating USGS interests and potential participation in subduction zone science supported by its partners.The activities in this plan address many USGS stakeholder needs:High-fidelity tools and user-tailored information that facilitate increasingly more targeted, neighborhood-scale decisions to mitigate risks more cost-effectively and ensure post-event operability. Such tools may include maps, tables, and simulated earthquake ground-motion records conveying shaking intensity and frequency. These facilitate the prioritization of retrofitting of vulnerable infrastructure;Information to guide local land-use and response planning to minimize development in likely hazardous zones (for example, databases, maps, and scenario documents to guide evacuation route planning in communities near volcanoes, along coastlines vulnerable to tsunamis, and built on landslide-prone terrain);New tools

  16. Tax incentives in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Brodzka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Emerging economies have introduced tax incentives for various reasons. In some countries in transition, such instruments may be seen as a counterweight to the investment disincentives inherent in the general tax system. In other countries, the incentives are intended to offset other disadvantages that investors may face, such as a lack of infrastructure, complicated and antiquated laws, bureaucratic complexities and weak administration. The article brings closer the issue of tax incentives of...

  17. Alternate financial incentives in multi-tiered formulary systems to improve accountability for outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Richard S; Taira, Deborah A; Noh, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Drug manufacturer rebates paid to health plans and pharmacy benefit management companies have come under increased public scrutiny. Over the past several years, numerous articles have appeared in the literature encouraging a shift to a more quality-based decision-making process for health plan drug formularies. To propose a new basis for formulary placement decisions that would include consideration of health-plan-specific measures (clinical outcomes, total cost, adherence, and appropriateness of care) and align incentives for health plans, physicians, pharmacists, and pharmaceutical companies to promote high-quality care. The proposed approach builds on key components of the Pharmacy's Framework for Drug Therapy Management in the 21st Century and the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy's Format for Formulary Submission, including a focus on patient outcomes and evidence-based decision making. The proposed approach would lessen the influence of drug manufacturer rebates on formulary placement by shifting the focus to appropriateness of care, clinical outcomes, patient adherence, and total cost of care. Pharmaceutical manufacturers would benefit from the focus on adherence to drug therapy and total cost of care. Health plans and pharmacy benefit management companies would gain in that they may be able to reduce efforts in drug utilization review as pharmaceutical manufacturers are given incentives to market their drugs more appropriately. Physicians and pharmacists would benefit because the rebate money would be used to provide quality-based financial incentives related to adherence and appropriate use of drugs. The implementation of this approach would be difficult and require cooperation from employers, pharmacists, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, and pharmacy benefit management companies. Aspects of this approach could be incorporated into existing pharmacy benefit management processes to encourage the delivery of high-quality health care.

  18. A PRACTICAL STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF THE INCENTIVE SUBSIDY TO BUS NETWORK IN KUMAMOTO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Fujimi, Toshio; Hirano, Toshihiko

    Recently, the number of passenger of public bus services in Japan tends to decrease due to the motorization. This condition leads to a severe management situation, including in Kumamoto City. Since 1984, the deficit of bus companies operation in provision of bus services in Kumamoto has been covered by Kumamoto City Government on the basis of lines subsidy, and the city allocated a number of subsidy of about 200 million yen in 2007. Currently, The Kumamoto city government plans to reduce the amount of subsidy to bus companies by introducing the giving of incentive to bus companies in order to trim bus company deficit. This study aims to construct the mathematical model of the incentive reward and apply the model to realignment of buses lines networks in Kumamoto Metropolitan Area.

  19. Incentives and barriers for wind power expansion and system integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg; Meyer, Niels I

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark expansion of on-shore, near-shore and off-shore wind power is planned to increase the wind power share to 50% of electricity consumption by 2020. In this situation a continuation of past policies will not suffice, and a dual-track incentive system that both establishes incentives...... for investing in wind power and integration infrastructure with integration between the electricity, heating and transportation sectors, is required. The current Danish taxation system discourages electricity use and works against this integration. Likewise, the current day-ahead electricity spot market...... is not appropriate for a high-wind future as wind reduces price levels, but integration across sectors can partly assist in increasing demand and prices. The European Emission Trading System does not suffice in providing a level playing field for wind power and thus needs a revision. Another barrier for on...

  20. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  1. Hybrid IMRT plans-concurrently treating conventional and IMRT beams for improved breast irradiation and reduced planning time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Charles S.; Urie, Marcia M.; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique as a class solution for treatment of the intact breast. Methods and materials: The following five plan techniques were compared for 10 breast patients using dose-volume histogram analysis: conventional wedged-field tangents (Tangents), forward-planned field-within-a-field tangents (FIF), IMRT-only tangents (IMRT tangents), conventional open plus IMRT tangents (4-field hybrid), and conventional open plus IMRT tangents with 2 anterior oblique IMRT beams (6-field hybrid). Results: The 4-field hybrid and FIF achieved dose distributions better than Tangents and IMRT tangents. The volume of tissue outside the planning target volume receiving ≥110% of prescribed dose was largest for IMRT tangents (average 158 cc) and least for 6-field hybrid (average 1 cc); the FIF and 4-field hybrid were comparable (average 15 cc). Heart volume ≥30 Gy averaged 13 cc for all techniques, except Tangents, for which it was 32 cc. Average total lung volume ≥20 Gy was 7% for all. Contralateral breast doses were < 3% for all. Planning time for hybrid techniques was significantly less than for conventional FIF technique. Conclusions: The 4-field hybrid technique is a viable class solution. The 6-field hybrid technique creates the most conformal dose distribution at the expense of more normal tissue receiving low dose

  2. Reducing radiation exposures at nuclear power plants using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is an innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities and to improve ALARA job planning. ADEPT combines visualization and simulation of the radioactive environment at a nuclear station to estimate worker dose. It allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. (author)

  3. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  4. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-01-01

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 2030, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of$24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  5. Decision-support framework for quantifying the most economical incentive/disincentive dollar amounts for critical highway pavement rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    One innovative way of reducing construction duration is to reward contractors with an early completion incentive : bonus and levy fines for delays. Although use of Incentive/Disincentive (I/D) is increasingly common, State : Transportation Agencies (...

  6. The RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] Program: Progress and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al fuels, was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm 3 was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40% average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission 99 Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U 3 Si-Al with 19.75% enrichment and U 3 Si 2 -Al with 45% enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR Program

  7. A Population Approach to Transportation Planning: Reducing Exposure to Motor-Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning and public health have important historical roots. To address common challenges, including road traffic fatalities, integration of theories and methods from both disciplines is required. This paper presents an overview of Geoffrey Rose's strategy of preventive medicine applied to road traffic fatalities. One of the basic principles of Rose's strategy is that a large number of people exposed to a small risk can generate more cases than a small number exposed to a high risk. Thus, interventions should address the large number of people exposed to the fundamental causes of diseases. Exposure to moving vehicles could be considered a fundamental cause of road traffic deaths and injuries. A global reduction in the amount of kilometers driven would result in a reduction of the likelihood of collisions for all road users. Public health and transportation research must critically appraise their practice and engage in informed dialogue with the objective of improving mobility and productivity while simultaneously reducing the public health burden of road deaths and injuries.

  8. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  9. Infrastructure investment and incentives with supranational funding

    OpenAIRE

    Socorro, M. Pilar; De Rus, Ginés

    2011-01-01

    Public infrastructure investment is usually co-financed by supranational organizations. The selection of projects is supposed to be decided using the information provided by conventional cost-benefit analysis. Nevertheless, we show that the type of institutional design regarding the financing mechanism affects the incentives of national governments to reduce costs and increase revenues, affecting project selection, the infrastructure capacity, the choice of technology, and the type of contrac...

  10. Training, Job Security and Incentive Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Katsimi

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal level of firm-specific training by taking into account the positive effect of training on the expected duration of workers’ current employment. In the framework of an efficiency wage model, a short expected job tenure represents a disamenity that reduces the penalty from shirking. As this disamenity increases, workers have an incentive to continue providing a positive level of effort only if they are compensated by a higher wage. We endogenize the employment...

  11. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  12. Incentives in Agency Relationships: To Be Monetary or Non-Monetary?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Crifo; Marc-Arthur Diaye

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Principal-Agent model with both monetary and non-monetary incentives. We show that the latter are always more efficient, that is Pareto-dominate, monetary incentives. Indeed, we not only show that all what monetary incentives can do, non-monetary incentives can do it as well, we go further and show the possibility for non-monetary incentives to increase intrinsic motivation, thereby compensating the fact that higher rewards, rather than being encouraging can reduce...

  13. Using financial incentives to improve value in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, David; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bozic, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    A variety of reforms to traditional approaches to provider payment and benefit design are being implemented in the United States. There is increasing interest in applying these financial incentives to orthopaedics, although it is unclear whether and to what extent they have been implemented and whether they increase quality or reduce costs. We reviewed and discussed physician- and patient-oriented financial incentives being implemented in orthopaedics, key challenges, and prerequisites to payment reform and value-driven payment policy in orthopaedics. We searched the MEDLINE database using as search terms various provider payment and consumer incentive models. We retrieved a total of 169 articles; none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. For incentive models known to the authors to be in use in orthopaedics but for which no peer-reviewed literature was found, we searched Google for further information. Provider financial incentives reviewed include payments for reporting, performance, and patient safety and episode payment. Patient incentives include tiered networks, value-based benefit design, reference pricing, and value-based purchasing. Reform of financial incentives for orthopaedic surgery is challenged by (1) lack of a payment/incentive model that has demonstrated reductions in cost trends and (2) the complex interrelation of current pay schemes in today's fragmented environment. Prerequisites to reform include (1) a reliable and complete data infrastructure; (2) new business structures to support cost sharing; and (3) a retooling of patient expectations. There is insufficient literature reporting the effects of various financial incentive models under implementation in orthopaedics to know whether they increase quality or reduce costs. National concerns about cost will continue to drive experimentation, and all anticipated innovations will require improved collaboration and data collection and reporting.

  14. Informed push distribution of contraceptives in Senegal reduces stockouts and improves quality of family planning services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daff, Bocar Mamadou; Seck, Cheikh; Belkhayat, Hassan; Sutton, Perri

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use in Senegal is among the lowest in the world and has barely increased over the past 5 years, from 10% of married women in 2005 to 12% in 2011. Contraceptive stockouts in public facilities, where 85% of women access family planning services, are common. In 2011, we conducted a supply chain study of 33 public-sector facilities in Pikine and Guediawaye districts of the Dakar region to understand the magnitude and root causes of stockouts. The study included stock audits, surveys with 156 consumers, and interviews with facility staff, managers, and other stakeholders. At the facility level, stockouts of injectables and implants occurred, on average, 43% and 83% of the year, respectively. At least 60% of stockouts occurred despite stock availability at the national level. Data from interviews revealed that the current “pull-based” distribution system was complex and inefficient. In order to reduce stockout rates to the commercial-sector standard of 2% or less, the Government of Senegal and the Senegal Urban Reproductive Health Initiative developed the informed push distribution model (IPM) and pilot-tested it in Pikine district between February 2012 and July 2012. IPM brings the source of supply (a delivery truck loaded with supplies) closer to the source of demand (clients in health facilities) and streamlines the steps in between. With a professional logistician managing stock and deliveries, the health facilities no longer need to place and pick up orders. Stockouts of contraceptive pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were completely eliminated at the 14 public health facilities in Pikine over the 6-month pilot phase. The government expanded IPM to all 140 public facilities in the Dakar region, and 6 months later stockout rates throughout the region dropped to less than 2%. National coverage of the IPM is expected by July 2015. PMID:25276582

  15. Informed push distribution of contraceptives in Senegal reduces stockouts and improves quality of family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daff, Bocar Mamadou; Seck, Cheikh; Belkhayat, Hassan; Sutton, Perri

    2014-05-01

    Contraceptive use in Senegal is among the lowest in the world and has barely increased over the past 5 years, from 10% of married women in 2005 to 12% in 2011. Contraceptive stockouts in public facilities, where 85% of women access family planning services, are common. In 2011, we conducted a supply chain study of 33 public-sector facilities in Pikine and Guediawaye districts of the Dakar region to understand the magnitude and root causes of stockouts. The study included stock audits, surveys with 156 consumers, and interviews with facility staff, managers, and other stakeholders. At the facility level, stockouts of injectables and implants occurred, on average, 43% and 83% of the year, respectively. At least 60% of stockouts occurred despite stock availability at the national level. Data from interviews revealed that the current "pull-based" distribution system was complex and inefficient. In order to reduce stockout rates to the commercial-sector standard of 2% or less, the Government of Senegal and the Senegal Urban Reproductive Health Initiative developed the informed push distribution model (IPM) and pilot-tested it in Pikine district between February 2012 and July 2012. IPM brings the source of supply (a delivery truck loaded with supplies) closer to the source of demand (clients in health facilities) and streamlines the steps in between. With a professional logistician managing stock and deliveries, the health facilities no longer need to place and pick up orders. Stockouts of contraceptive pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were completely eliminated at the 14 public health facilities in Pikine over the 6-month pilot phase. The government expanded IPM to all 140 public facilities in the Dakar region, and 6 months later stockout rates throughout the region dropped to less than 2%. National coverage of the IPM is expected by July 2015.

  16. A performance incentive contract that pays off for all parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummrich, C.R.; Johnston, R.E.; Crist, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Western Business Unit Bakersfield drilling department of Chevron, U.S.A. Production Company developed a drilling performance incentive contract that was implemented during 1994 in the Lost Hills field of California. The performance incentive contract (PIC) financially rewarded all of the drilling contractor's rig employees for outperforming pre-established drilling performance goals. The key elements of the performance incentive program are: (1) Goals that rigger incentives are based on cost categories that are controllable by the drilling team; (2) Goals were established using a database of past years performance; (3) Goals that are not achieved negatively impact the incentive earned in an effort to deter repeated errors; (4) Accidents that occur on the job negatively impact the incentive earned; (5) Administration of the program is not time consuming. The results of using an incentive contract in the Lost Hills drilling program are: (1) Time and cost of operations are reduced; (2) The results are measurable and repeatable; (3) A team environment develops in which ideas are shared and acted upon by crew members and supervisory personnel

  17. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  18. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  19. Applying Personality Type Theory to Develop Individualized Wellness Plans for Reducing Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with activities people prefer for getting adequate exercise, losing weight, managing stress, quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, and taking medications as prescribed. Methods: The data source for this study was the 2016 National Consumer Survey of the Medication Experience and Pharmacists’ Roles. Data were collected via an on-line, self-administered survey conducted from March 14-30, 2016. Data were obtained from 10,500 adults residing in the United States. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and how respondents believed they could best reach their personal goals. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Practical significance was set at five or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Findings showed that (1 there are key differences between individuals that impact their behavior and (2 these differences can be easily and accurately identified using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire. The findings supported the notion that individuals are more likely to experience success in changing health-risk behaviors if they engage in activities that are consistent with (i how they are energized, (ii the kind of information they naturally notice, (iii how they prefer to make decisions, and (iv their preferences to live in a more structured way or in a more spontaneous way. Conclusions: Personality type characteristics can be used to develop and implement successful change strategies and intervention tools, such as individualized wellness plans (IWPTM that help promote intention stability, create implementation intention, resist situational pressure, reduce the impact of past habits on future performances, and improve change maintenance. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of

  20. How do patients and providers react to different incentives in the Chinese multiple health security systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-03-05

    China has achieved universal health insurance coverage. This study examined how patients and hospitals react to the different designs of the plans and to monitoring of patients by the local authority in the Chinese multiple health security schemes. The sample for analysis consisted of 1006 orthopedic inpatients who were admitted between January and December 2011 at a tertiary teaching hospital located in Beijing. We conducted general linear regression analyses to investigate whether medical expenditure and length of stay differed according to the different incentives. Patients under plans with lower copayment rates consumed significantly more medication compared with those under plans with higher copayment rates. Under plans with an annual ceiling for insurance coverage, patients spent significantly more in the second half of the year than in the first half of the year. The length of stay was shorter among patients when there were government monitoring and a penalty to the hospital service provider. Our results indicate that the different designs and monitoring of the health security systems in China cause opportunistic behavior by patients and providers. Reformation is necessary to reduce those incentives, and improve equity and efficiency in healthcare use.

  1. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,

  2. Empirical studies of regulatory restructuring and incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural

  3. U.S. Army Incentive Program: Incentives That Motivate Recruiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Starkey, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    .... Sixty recruiters and staff personnel at the brigade, battalion and company echelons were randomly selected and interviewed on how the various national and local incentives motivate recruiters to meet...

  4. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  5. Efficacy of virtual block objects in reducing the lung dose in helical tomotherapy planning for cervical oesophageal cancer: a planning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Shimizu, Hidetoshi; Aoyama, Takahiro; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Natsuo; Makita, Chiyoko; Koide, Yutaro; Kato, Daiki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Kodaira, Takeshi

    2018-04-04

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is useful for cervical oesophageal carcinoma (CEC); however, increasing low-dose exposure to the lung may lead to radiation pneumonitis. Nevertheless, an irradiation technique that avoids the lungs has never been examined due to the high difficulty of dose optimization. In this study, we examined the efficacy of helical tomotherapy that can restrict beamlets passing virtual blocks during dose optimization computing (block plan) in reducing the lung dose. Fifteen patients with CEC were analysed. The primary/nodal lesion and prophylactic nodal region with adequate margins were defined as the planning target volume (PTV)-60 Gy and PTV-48 Gy, respectively. Nineteen plans per patient were made and compared (total: 285 plans), including non-block and block plans with several shapes and sizes. The most appropriate block model was semi-circular, 8 cm outside of the tracheal bifurcation, with a significantly lower lung dose compared to that of non-block plans; the mean lung volumes receiving 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and the mean lung dose were 31.3% vs. 48.0% (p block and non-block plans were comparable in terms of the homogeneity and conformity indexes of PTV-60 Gy: 0.05 vs. 0.04 (p = 0.100) and 0.82 vs. 0.85 (p = 0.616), respectively. The maximum dose of the spinal cord planning risk volume increased slightly (49.4 Gy vs. 47.9 Gy, p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the mean doses to the heart and the thyroid gland. Prolongation of the delivery time was less than 1 min (5.6 min vs. 4.9 min, p = 0.010). The block plan for CEC could significantly reduce the lung dose, with acceptable increment in the spinal dose and a slightly prolonged delivery time.

  6. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  7. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  8. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  9. Methods for Reducing Normal Tissue Complication Probabilities in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Dose Reduction or Planning Target Volume Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Vineberg, Karen; Lee, Jae; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Brock, Kristy K., E-mail: kbrock@med.umich.edu

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Strategies to reduce the toxicities of head and neck radiation (ie, dysphagia [difficulty swallowing] and xerostomia [dry mouth]) are currently underway. However, the predicted benefit of dose and planning target volume (PTV) reduction strategies is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for swallowing and salivary structures in standard plans (70 Gy [P70]), dose-reduced plans (60 Gy [P60]), and plans eliminating the PTV margin. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) plans were analyzed. Standard organ-sparing volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (P70) were created and then modified by eliminating the PTVs and treating the clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) only (C70) or maintaining the PTV but reducing the dose to 60 Gy (P60). NTCP dose models for the pharyngeal constrictors, glottis/supraglottic larynx, parotid glands (PGs), and submandibular glands (SMGs) were analyzed. The minimal clinically important benefit was defined as a mean change in NTCP of >5%. The P70 NTCP thresholds and overlap percentages of the organs at risk with the PTVs (56-59 Gy, vPTV{sub 56}) were evaluated to identify the predictors for NTCP improvement. Results: With the P60 plans, only the ipsilateral PG (iPG) benefited (23.9% vs 16.2%; P<.01). With the C70 plans, only the iPG (23.9% vs 17.5%; P<.01) and contralateral SMG (cSMG) (NTCP 32.1% vs 22.9%; P<.01) benefited. An iPG NTCP threshold of 20% and 30% predicted NTCP benefits for the P60 and C70 plans, respectively (P<.001). A cSMG NTCP threshold of 30% predicted for an NTCP benefit with the C70 plans (P<.001). Furthermore, for the iPG, a vPTV{sub 56} >13% predicted benefit with P60 (P<.001) and C70 (P=.002). For the cSMG, a vPTV{sub 56} >22% predicted benefit with C70 (P<.01). Conclusions: PTV elimination and dose-reduction lowered the NTCP of the iPG, and PTV elimination lowered the NTCP of the cSMG. NTCP thresholds and the

  10. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  11. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education…

  12. Teacher Pension Incentives, Retirement Behavior, and Potential for Reform in Arkansas. Conference Paper 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the Arkansas Teacher Retirement System (ATRS) pension plan and an empirical investigation of the behavioral response to that plan, as well as to a possible reform plan. We begin by describing the plan parameters and discussing the incentives these parameters create. We then estimate the effect of pension…

  13. ADEPT - an innovative tool to reduce worker exposure using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.; Trifanov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is Kinectrics' innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities. ADEPT is a PC-based software that provides 3D virtual reality job simulations for radioactive environments around the CANDU reactor components, namely, the horizontal feeder cabinet, the vertical feeder cabinet and the reactor face. ADEPT allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. A worker dose estimation is based on a predetermined radiation field around reactor components and a user-defined job description. Radiation fields are based on the Outage Activity Transport Monitoring (OATM) data. (author)

  14. ADEPT - an innovative tool to reduce worker exposure using virtual job planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Trifanov, A. [SoftBeam Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is Kinectrics' innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities. ADEPT is a PC-based software that provides 3D virtual reality job simulations for radioactive environments around the CANDU reactor components, namely, the horizontal feeder cabinet, the vertical feeder cabinet and the reactor face. ADEPT allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. A worker dose estimation is based on a predetermined radiation field around reactor components and a user-defined job description. Radiation fields are based on the Outage Activity Transport Monitoring (OATM) data. (author)

  15. Impaired planning in Parkinson's disease is reflected by reduced brain activation and connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo, J.P.; Gerrits, N.J.H.M.; Vriend, C.; Berendse, H.W.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; van der Werf, Y.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) often entails impairments of executive functions, such as planning. Although widely held that these impairments arise from dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, not all executive functions are affected early on, and the underlying neural dynamics are not fully

  16. 76 FR 31884 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Plans Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... agencies have been posted on the White House Web site at: http://www.slideshare.net/whitehouse/hud-combined... effective and less burdensome in achieving HUD's mission to create strong, sustainable, inclusive... House Web site at: http://www.slideshare.net/whitehouse/hud-combined . The appendix to HUD's plan...

  17. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...... level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive....

  18. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, Hanne M. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  19. Regional State Committees Can Help Provide a Regional Perspective to Planning and Siting Decisions, Reducing the Need for Federal Preemption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basheda, Gregory

    2006-03-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 gave FERC the authority to preempt state and local transmission siting authorities under certain conditions, creating the potential for federal/state disputes. Such disputes are less likely to occur where there are open, regional planning processes. Multi-state advisory bodies known as regional state committees, working with RTOs, can provide a forum to evaluate transmission needs from a regional perspective, reducing the need for FERC involvement. (author)

  20. Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-05-31

    This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.

  1. Adherence to the USDA Food Guide, DASH Eating Plan, and Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces risk of colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L Beth; Subar, Amy F; Peters, Ulrike; Weissfeld, Joel L; Bresalier, Robert S; Risch, Adam; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hayes, Richard B

    2007-11-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include quantitative recommendations for 2 eating patterns, the USDA Food Guide and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan, to promote optimal health and reduce disease risk. A Mediterranean dietary pattern has also been promoted for health benefits. Our objective was to determine whether adherence to the USDA Food Guide recommendations, the DASH Eating Plan, or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of distal colorectal adenoma. In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, men and women aged 55-74 y were screened for colorectal cancer by sigmoidoscopy at 10 centers in the U.S. After adjusting for potential confounders, men who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had a 26% reduced risk of colorectal adenoma compared with men who least complied with the recommendations (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. dietary pattern. Women who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had an 18% reduced risk for colorectal adenoma, but subgroup analyses revealed protective associations only for current smokers (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. or= 5 vs. dietary recommendations or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenoma, especially in men.

  2. National action plan to reduce smoking during pregnancy: the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, Tracy; Melvin, Cathy; Marx, Joseph; Maibach, Edward; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2004-04-01

    Although there has been remarkable progress and momentum toward achieving smoke-free pregnancies in the United States since 1990, concerted action is needed to close the remaining gaps in treatment and prevention so that we can reach the Healthy People 2010 goal for pregnant smokers: a prevalence of 1% or less. This need for action led to the formation of the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit, a collaboration among more than 50 organizations and agencies, public and private, that have joined forces to help pregnant smokers quit by providing proven clinical and community-based interventions to every pregnant smoker. This article summarizes the action plan developed by the partnership, the strategies it outlines, and some of the actions taken by partners over the past year to put the plan into action. Action is planned and progress is being made in five strategic areas: offering help through the health care system; using the media effectively; harnessing community and worksite resources; promoting policies known to increase smoking cessation efforts and successes; and expanding national research, surveillance, and evaluation efforts.

  3. The Impact of Employer Attitude to Green Commuting Plans on Reducing Car Driving: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing car trips and promoting green commuting modes are generally considered important solutions to reduce the increase of energy consumption and transportation CO2 emissions. One potential solution for alleviating transportation CO2 emissions has been to identify a role for the employer through green commuter programs. This paper offers an approach to assess the effects of employer attitudes towards green commuting plans on commuter mode choice and the intermediary role car ownership plays in the mode choice decision process. A mixed method which extends the traditional discrete choice model by incorporating latent variables and mediating variables with a structure equation model was used to better understand the commuter mode choice behaviour. The empirical data were selected from Washington-Baltimore Regional Household Travel Survey in 2007-2008, including all the trips from home to workplace during the morning hours. The model parameters were estimated using the simultaneous estimation approach and the integrated model turns out to be superior to the traditional multinomial logit (MNL model accounting for the impact of employer attitudes towards green commuting. The direct and indirect effects of socio-demographic attributes and employer attitudes towards green commuting were estimated. Through the structural equation modelling with mediating variable, this approach confirmed the intermediary nature of car ownership in the choice process. The results found in this paper provide helpful information for transportation and planning policymakers to test the transportation and planning policies effects and encourage green commuting reducing transportation CO2 emissions.

  4. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax su...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  5. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  6. Incentive-Based Primary Care: Cost and Utilization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Marcus J; Kadlec, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In its fee-for-service funding model for primary care, British Columbia, Canada, introduced incentive payments to general practitioners as pay for performance for providing enhanced, guidelines-based care to patients with chronic conditions. Evaluation of the program was conducted at the health care system level. To examine the impact of the incentive payments on annual health care costs and hospital utilization patterns in British Columbia. The study used Ministry of Health administrative data for Fiscal Year 2010-2011 for patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or hypertension. In each disease group, cost and utilization were compared across patients who did, and did not, receive incentive-based care. Health care costs (eg, primary care, hospital) and utilization measures (eg, hospital days, readmissions). After controlling for patients' age, sex, service needs level, and continuity of care (defined as attachment to a general practice), the incentives reduced the net annual health care costs, in Canadian dollars, for patients with hypertension (by approximately Can$308 per patient), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by Can$496), and congestive heart failure (by Can$96), but not diabetes (incentives cost about Can$148 more per patient). The incentives were also associated with fewer hospital days, fewer admissions and readmissions, and shorter lengths of hospital stays for all 4 groups. Although the available literature on pay for performance shows mixed results, we showed that the funding model used in British Columbia using incentive payments for primary care might reduce health care costs and hospital utilization.

  7. Local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the context of national action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Municipalities can play a number of important roles to complement national actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions: (i) by facilitating comprehensive, city-wide building retrofit activities; (ii) by facilitating the development and/or expansion of community integrated energy systems involving district heating, district cooling, and cogeneration of electricity; and (iii) by promoting urban intensification to reduce the need to use the private automobile. Innovative institutional and financial mechanism are needed to overcome some of the persistent barriers to more efficient energy use in buildings and a number of concepts, which are currently being considered by the City of Toronto as part of its programme to reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% from the 1988 level by 2005, are discussed here. These concepts involve using public securitization funds to leverage private sector funds for energy efficiency retrofits and a number of measures to reduce financing and retrofit transaction costs. Even where surplus electricity generating capacity exists at the regional scale, reduced electricity demand can still result in avoided utility system costs if transmission bottlenecks and future transmission and transformer upgrade costs are reduced. Finally, given the need to replace or modify many of the existing commercial chillers due to the phase out of CFC's, a window of opportunity exists during the next few years to provide alternative, chlorocarbon-free district cooling systems based on absorption chillers using waste heat from electricity generation, with significant (30-65%) CO 2 emission savings. (au)

  8. A Study on the Self-Adaption Incentive Performance Salary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanming; Wang, Yang

    In project managing, the performance salary management mode is often used to motivate project managers and other similar staff to improve performance or reduce the cost. But the engineering activities who own a lot of internal and external uncertain factors can not be known by the principle. It is difficult for to develop a suitable incentive target to project managers etch. This paper thinks that the manager self master the maximum of information on engineering activities. So this paper sets up an incentive model: the project managers themselves report performance objectives; owner gives the managers reward or punishment combined with their reported performance and actual performance. The model to ensure that the project manager is only accurate self reported its results to get the maximum profit. At the same time, it cans incentive managers to improve performance or reduce the cost. This paper focuses on setting up the model, analyzing the model parameters. And cite an example analyze them.

  9. Incentive regulation of electricity distribution networks: Lessons of experience from Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent experience of the UK electricity distribution sector under incentive regulation. The UK has a significant and transparent history in implementing incentive regulation in the period since 1990. We demonstrate the successes of this period in reducing costs, prices, and energy losses while maintaining quality of service. We also draw out the lessons for other countries in implementing distribution sector reform. We conclude by discussing the place of incentive regulation of networks within the wider reform context, the required legislative framework, the need for appropriate unbundling, the importance of quality of service incentives, the regulatory information requirements, and the role of sector rationalisation. (author)

  10. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; Bauld, Linda; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat; Dombrowski, Stephan; MacLennan, Graeme; Rothnie, Kieran; Stewart, Fiona; Farrar, Shelley; Yi, Deokhee; Hislop, Jenni; Ludbrook, Anne; Campbell, Marion; Moran, Victoria Hall; Sniehotta, Falko; Tappin, David

    2014-01-01

    , but may be detrimental to other health care areas. Financial incentives are controversial and generated emotive and oppositional responses. The planning, design and delivery of future incentive interventions should evaluate unexpected consequences to inform the evidence for effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and future implementation.

  11. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Thomson

    service delivery, but may be detrimental to other health care areas. Financial incentives are controversial and generated emotive and oppositional responses. The planning, design and delivery of future incentive interventions should evaluate unexpected consequences to inform the evidence for effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and future implementation.

  12. Feedback and Incentives:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedba...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work....

  13. Feedback and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay schemes and relative performance feedback policies on employee effort. We explore three feedback rules: no feedback on relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback. ...... behind, and front runners do not slack off. But in both pay schemes relative performance feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work; we refer to this as a "negative quality peer effect"....

  14. Research plan to reduce health disparities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La salud de los habitantes de los Estados Unidos de América (EE.UU. ha mejorado en las últimas décadas, pero, a pesar de ello, sigue habiendo diferencias notables entre la carga de enfermedad y la mortalidad de la mayoría de la población del país y de minorías tales como los afroamericanos, los hispanos, los indios norteamericanos, los indígenas de Alaska, los asiáticos o los oriundos de las islas del Pacífico. Estas minorías raciales y étnicas, que en la actualidad representan cerca del 28% de la población de los EE.UU., tienen menor esperanza de vida y presentan mayores tasas de enfermedad cardiovascular, cáncer, mortalidad infantil, malformaciones congénitas, asma, diabetes, accidentes vasculares cerebrales, enfermedades de transmisión sexual y enfermedades mentales. Entre los organismos gubernamentales de los EE.UU. que están trabajando para reducir estas disparidades de salud se encuentran los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (National Institutes of Health: NIH. Basándose en sus propios esfuerzos anteriores, los NIH han publicado recientemente un borrador de un plan quinquenal denominado "Plan estratégico de investigación del NIH para reducir y eliminar las disparidades de salud". El documento describe las tres áreas principales en las que los NIH centrarán sus esfuerzos para reducir dichas disparidades: investigación, infraestructura de investigación, e información pública y expansión de los servicios a la comunidad.

  15. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges

  16. Offering Incentives from the Outside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2017-01-01

    Incentives offer a good deal of underexplored opportunities to help manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. This study has two primary objectives. First, it furthers the discussion of how external third parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available ...

  17. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  18. A plan of reactor physics experiments for reduced-moderation water reactors with MOX fuel in TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shoichiro; Akie, Hiroshi; Suzaki, Takenori; Okubo, Tutomu; Usui, Shuji; Shirakawa, Toshihisa; Iwamura, Takamiti; Kugo, Teruhiko; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki

    2000-06-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is one of the next generation water-cooled reactors which aim at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up, long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. For verification of the feasibility, negative void reactivity coefficient and conversion ratio more than 1.0 must be confirmed. Critical Experiments performed so far in Eualope and Japan were reviewed, and no useful data are available for RMWR development. Critical experiments using TCA (Tank Type Critical Assembly) in JAERI are planned. MOX fuel rods should be prepared for the experiments and some modifications of the equipment are needed for use of MOX fuel rods. This report describes the preliminary plan of physics experiments. The number of MOX fuel rods used in the experiments are obtained by calculations and the modification of the equipment for the experiments are shown. (author)

  19. Planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements at the gear speed reducer on the basis of the parameter technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Letić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of the computer methods at project managing in the part of the planning of designing and installation of mechanical elements with the fit (assembly block of the gear speed reducer is significant and at present irreplaceable engineering task if it has been realized by the modern parameter technology. There are multifunction uses of this organized group of activities, beginning from the quick changeability of elements still in the phase of designing and constructing, thanks to the characteristics of their associativity, still to the wide basis of standard elements that are incorporated in the very program package. Meanwhile, these activities are not simple, so their realization has to be planned from the stand - point of time, resource and cost of realization. For the very designing and constructing was used AutoCAD Mechanical, and for the design managing Microsoft Project.

  20. Variation in Incentive Effects across Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hanly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.

  1. Planning for the closure of uncontrolled landfills in Turkey to reduce environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergene Şentürk, Didar; Alp, Emre

    2016-11-01

    Landfilling is the most preferred solid waste disposal method in Turkey owing to both economic and technical reasons. However, beside the sanitary landfills there are also hundreds of uncontrolled waste sites located throughout Turkey, which are often left either abandoned or burning. Because there is a lack of legislative guidelines governing the closure and rehabilitation of these dumpsites, the municipalities that are responsible for waste management do not initiate the proactive strategies required for the closure of these sites. In this study, a method based on a multi-criteria analysis is conducted for different dumpsites in Turkey to evaluate the level of negative impacts on the environment. This method is based on the use of environmental indices for a quantitative assessment of the landfills, such as environmental interaction between the source and the receptors, environmental values of the receptors, and operational conditions. It was possible to assess the robustness of the proposed methodology since the pre- and post-groundwater quality monitoring data was available from the study sites that were closed and rehabilitated in 2014. The results of this study show that the method based on a multi-criteria analysis is an effective tool while in the preliminary planning stages of closure and rehabilitation activities of uncontrolled waste landfills. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Cogeneration plants: SNAM (Italy) initiatives and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipparelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    First, an overall picture is presented of the extension of the use of cogeneration by the Italian brick industry. The particular suitability and usefulness of this form of energy to the brick industry are pointed out. Then a look is given at the legal and financial incentives which have been built into the National Energy Plan to encourage on-site production by Italian industries. Finally, a review is made of initiatives made by SNAM (the Italian National Methane Distribution Society) to develop a favourable tariff structure for on-site power producers using methane as their energy source, as well as, of the Society's efforts to set up a cogeneration equipment consulting service which would provide advice on cogeneration plant design, operation and maintenance

  3. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  4. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Okada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards and negative incentives (punishments with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1 second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2 a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3 a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4 a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  5. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  6. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the

  7. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  8. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  9. Anti-bribery control and incentives as agency theory approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Teichmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an agency theory approach towards bribery in multinational corporations. In particular, it is advocated that incentives could help to align the interests of principals and agents and reduce information asymmetries. This could help to increase anti-bribery compliance and hence support the fight against corruption in Eastern Europe.

  10. Anti-bribery control and incentives as agency theory approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Teichmann

    2017-01-01

    This article takes an agency theory approach towards bribery in multinational corporations. In particular, it is advocated that incentives could help to align the interests of principals and agents and reduce information asymmetries. This could help to increase anti-bribery compliance and hence support the fight against corruption in Eastern Europe.

  11. Entrepreneurship and Financial Incentives of Return, Risk, and Skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Peter; Hartog, Joop; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    . The focus on earnings forgone may help to solve the lack of robust empirical support for the effect of financial incentives on the decision to become an entrepreneur. We find, consistent with standard theory, that a higher mean, lower variance, and higher skew in the relevant wage distribution reduce...

  12. The effective use of property tax incentives for economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Daphne A. Kenyon; Adam H. Langley; Bethany P. Paquin

    2013-01-01

    To make property-tax incentives for business more effective, do not approve every incentive request, target use of incentives, avoid incentive wars, cooperate with surrounding localities, and conduct regular evaluations.

  13. Planning for Economic Growth with Reduced CO2 Emissions in Provincial China: The Case of Jiangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2, has put increasing pressure on the atmosphere's ability to absorb them. China is the fastest growing major economy in the world, and is following a process of rapid industrialization. This process, however, contributes dramatically to global warming through major CO2 emissions. The widespread provision of electricity through coal-fired power plants is just one contributor, but industrial structures, transportation systems, and the construction of large superblock residential towers also play major roles. The large cities and industrialized provinces of China emit the most CO2, a fact that requires serious attention. However, stemming this trend elsewhere in China would provide a greater opportunity for success in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the country. Consequently, the question this paper addresses is what policies can be adopted to reduce CO2 emissions in provinces in China where development is still in its early stages, while maintaining economic growth. Jiangxi is a province that has historically been a major agricultural area. In recent years, however, because of the economic development policies of the Chinese central government, the province's rich mineral deposits, favorable location, and convenient transportation system are attracting more investments and projects for development (Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi, 2010. Jiangxi, then, provides an excellent case study because the province, although developing quickly, might still produce less CO2 if proper growth policies and actions are implemented. According to the results of this research, CO2 emissions would indeed decline in Jiangxi if the province would adopt new technology for electricity generation and increase the GDP role of the service sector. KEYWORDS: Provincial Chinese development, economic growth and global warming, CO2 emissions in China, Chinese

  14. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ing, E.T.C. [Law Office of Edwin T.C. Ing, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  15. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  16. Blood donor incentives: A step forward or backward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasemi Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic increase in blood usage and critical seasonal blood shortages are faced by various countries. Countries which previously reached 100% voluntary nonremunerated donation have been led to offer different kinds of incentives to recruit blood donors and meet their blood demands. In some cases, these incentives are considered monetary and are in complete contrast with International standards like World Health Organization (WHO. It seems that attitudes toward sole dependency on nonremunerated voluntary blood donation have been changed in recent years and experts in some developed countries are reevaluating partial reliance on paid donation. On the other hand, besides the effects of such incentives on blood safety, several economic and psychological studies have shown that incentives have discouraging effects on pro-social behaviors like blood donation and will reduce the number of blood donors in long term. With regard to the results of such studies, it seems that implementing incentive-based blood donor recruitment programs to meet blood requirements by some countries is becoming a challenge for blood banks.

  17. Insufficient incentives for investment in electricity generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhoff, K. [Cambridge University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Economics; De Vries, L. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management

    2004-12-01

    In theory, competitive electricity markets provide incentives for efficient investment in generation capacity. We show that if consumers and investors are risk averse, investment is efficient only if investors in generation capacity can sign long-term contracts with consumers. Otherwise the uncovered price risk increases financing costs, reduces equilibrium investment levels, distorts technology choice towards less capital-intensive generation and reduces consumer utility. We observe insufficient levels of long-term contracts in existing markets, possibly because retail companies are not credible counter-parties if their final customers can switch easily between them. With a consumer franchise, retailers can sign long-term contracts, but this solution comes at the expense of retail competition. Alternative capacity mechanisms to stimulate investment are discussed. (author)

  18. Nudge or not: can incentives change health behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M

    2012-01-01

    The approach of "nudging" people toward healthier behaviours is currently in vogue, and user financial incentives (UFIs) are one possible nudge tool. Interesting debates arise as to the criteria UFIs must meet to qualify as a nudge. The more pressing issue, however, is to determine how UFIs can be structured and implemented to motivate and sustain health behaviour change. To date, Canadian public health strategies to promote physical activity and balanced nutrition focus mainly on information provision, with some product regulation measures and indirect financial incentives. Governments cannot afford direct UFI programs to incent all 60% of overweight and obese Canadians to reduce their body mass, but governments could consider UFIs targeted to specific risk groups where a shorter-term intervention could have long-term payoffs.

  19. Financial incentives for DSM [demand-side management]: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent efforts to provide incentives for electric utilities in the USA to undertake demand-side management (DSM) programs are reviewed. The major need for incentives is seen as the overcoming of disincentives inherent in traditional regulation that affect utilities' interest in, and motivation for, DSM programs. These disincentives include the failure to recover all program costs, loss of revenues, and loss of financial opportunity. In addition, utilities seldom perceive DSM as a low-risk proposition; principal areas of concern include regulatory risk, competitive risk, and balance sheet risk. In view of these disincentives and risks, any DSM program therefore should provide for full and timely recovery of all program costs; adjust for DSM-induced revenue losses; and counterbalance risk and loss of financial opportunity by providing a bonus above cost. Three utility-specific incentive proposals are presented for the case of utilities in New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. Each of these programs meets the goal of overcoming the disincentives that surround utility DSM programs. The most significant differences across the mechanisms are found in the bonus component. Mechanisms that reduce the utility's uncertainty about the receipt of a bonus by providing it in a lump sum will likely prove more powerful motivators than those that spread the bonus out over a period of years. Use of preapproved per-unit or per-customer impact measurements reduces uncertainty and thus increases the apparent value of the bonus. Annual review of program plans and assumed impacts, supported by continuing evaluation activities, minimizes the risk that the utilities will gamble with the system or receive excessive awards. 6 refs

  20. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove the other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  1. Residential dual energy programs: Tariffs and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of efficiently pricing electricity has been of concern to economists and policy makers for some time. A natural solution to variable demand is tariffs to smooth demand and reduce the need for excessive reserve margins. An alternative approach is dual energy programs whereby electric space heating systems are equipped with a secondary system (usually oil) which is used during periods of peak demand. Comments are presented on two previous papers (Bergeron and Bernard, 1991; Sollows et al., 1991) published in Energy Studies Review, applying them to Hydro Quebec tariff structure and dual energy programs. The role of tariffs in demand-side management needs to be considered more fully. Hydro-Quebec's bi-energy tariff structure could be modified by using positive incentives to make use of bi-energy attractive below -12 C to give the following benefits. The modified tariff would be easier for consumers to understand, corrects the misallocation problem due to differential pricing in the current tariff, transfers the risk related to price fluctuations of the alternative energy source from the consumer to the utility, and corrects the potential avoidance problem due to the negative incentive of the current tariff. 21 refs

  2. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  3. Accounting Conservatism and Managerial Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Young K. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    There are two sources of agency costs under moral hazard: (1) distortions in incentive contracts and (2) implementation of suboptimal decisions. In the accounting literature, the relation between conservative accounting and agency costs of type (1) has received considerable attention (cf. Watts 2002). However, little appears to be known about the effects of accounting conservatism on agency costs of type (2) or trade-offs between agency costs of types (1) and (2). The purpose of this study is...

  4. An Incentive Theory of Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alessio J. G.; Merkl, Christian; Snower, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the labour market matching process by distinguishing its two component stages: the contact stage, in which job searchers make contact with employers and the selection stage, in which they decide whether to match. We construct a theoretical model explaining two-sided selection through microeconomic incentives. Firms face adjustment costs in responding to heterogeneous variations in the characteristics of workers and jobs. Matches and separations are described through firms'...

  5. Health care consumerism: incentives, behavior change and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Sander; Havlin, Linda; Connolly, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Employers affected by the recession's 2009 peak must press for cost containment in 2010, especially in health care benefits. Encouraging employee consumerism--through consumer-directed health plans and other strategies--can be enhanced by incentives, but federal efforts at health care reform add some element of uncertainty to the consumer-directed solution. This article provides some lessons to guide the course of action for employers considering implementing a consumerist approach to improve employee health and control the cost trend.

  6. 41 CFR 302-14.103 - What factors should we consider in determining the amount of a home marketing incentive payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intended to reduce your relocation costs. The amount of each home marketing incentive payment you make... consider in determining the amount of a home marketing incentive payment? 302-14.103 Section 302-14.103... TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 14-HOME MARKETING INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Agency Responsibilities § 302-14.103 What factors...

  7. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (re...

  8. Improving the cost effectiveness of financial incentives in managing travel demand management (TDM) : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades, financial incentives : have become common in efforts to reduce : demand on roadways by motivating commuters to : use alternative modes of transportation. Despite : common use, limited effort has been made to : understand ...

  9. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  10. Incentives for improvement of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Finlay, R.B.

    1988-12-01

    CANDU is a relatively young technology which has demonstrated many achievements as an electrical power generation system. These achievements include an unsurpassed safety record, high annual and lifetime capacity factors, low electricity cost and a broad range of other performance strengths which together indicate that the CANDU technology is fundamentally sound. Known capabilities not yet fully exploited, such as advanced fuel cycle options, indicate that CANDU technology will continue to pay strong dividends on research, development and design investment. This provides a strong incentive for the improvement of CANDU on a continuing basis

  11. Market incentives and pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wesley

    2008-07-01

    I study the impact of the Orphan Drug Act (ODA), which established tax incentives for rare disease drug development. I examine the flow of new clinical drug trials for a large set of rare diseases. Among more prevalent rare diseases, the ODA led to a significant and sustained increase in new trials. The impact for less prevalent rare diseases was limited to an increase in the stock of drugs. Tax credits can stimulate R & D; yet because they leave revenue margins unaffected, tax credits appear to have a more limited impact on private innovation in markets with smaller revenue potential.

  12. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  13. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On incentives for assurance of petroleum supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Aven, Terje; Tomasgard, Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    Assurance of supply is a crucial objective for producers and consumers of oil and gas. A basic requirement to meet this objective is that producers and transmitters have sufficient economic incentives and capabilities to assure a desired degree of supply. The topic of this paper is to evaluate these incentives from a broad perspective. We examine economic trade-offs inherent in a delay of production, including reputational issues, as well as contract incentives for gas sellers, drilling companies, and oil service companies.

  15. Incentives and cooperation in firms: Field evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Johannes; Herbertz, Claus; Sliwka, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the impact of incentive scheme structure on the degree of cooperation in firms using a unique and representative data set. Combining employee survey data with detailed firm level information on the relative importance of individual, team, and company performance for compensation, we find a significant positive relation between the intensity of team incentives and several survey measures of cooperation. Moreover, higher powered team incentives are associated with low...

  16. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit incent...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  17. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopytova A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most comprehensive coverage to the employee’s needs and organizes them in the way accessible both for specialists of labor economics and human resource management and for ordinary workers.

  18. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  19. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  20. Understanding the Collaborative Planning Process in Homeless Services: Networking, Advocacy, and Local Government Support May Reduce Service Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpe, Meghan; Mosley, Jennifer E; Smith, Bikki Tran

    2018-06-07

    The Continuum of Care (CoC) process-a nationwide system of regional collaborative planning networks addressing homelessness-is the chief administrative method utilized by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development to prevent and reduce homelessness in the United States. The objective of this study is to provide a benchmark comprehensive picture of the structure and practices of CoC networks, as well as information about which of those factors are associated with lower service gaps, a key goal of the initiative. A national survey of the complete population of CoCs in the United States was conducted in 2014 (n = 312, 75% response rate). This survey is the first to gather information on all available CoC networks. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to determine the relationship between internal networking, advocacy frequency, government investment, and degree of service gaps for CoCs of different sizes. United States. Lead contacts for CoCs (n = 312) that responded to the 2014 survey. Severity of regional service gaps for people who are homeless. Descriptive statistics show that CoCs vary considerably in regard to size, leadership, membership, and other organizational characteristics. Several independent variables were associated with reduced regional service gaps: networking for small CoCs (β = -.39, P < .05) and local government support for midsized CoCs (β = -.10, P < .05). For large CoCs, local government support was again significantly associated with lower service gaps, but there was also a significant interaction effect between advocacy and networking (β = .04, P < .05). To reduce service gaps and better serve the homeless, CoCs should consider taking steps to improve networking, particularly when advocacy is out of reach, and cultivate local government investment and support.

  1. Do Tax Incentives Affect Business Location? Evidence from State Film Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Button

    2015-01-01

    I provide the first estimates of the impacts of recently-popular U.S. state film incentives on filming location, establishment location, and employment in the film industry. Filming in this industry is relatively insensitive to locational characteristics, and these incentives are numerous and strong, so this is a good case study to bound the effects of tax incentives on business location. I compile a detailed database of incentives across U.S. states, matching this with TV series and feature ...

  2. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies......Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...... with the administrative burden of implementing more complex incentive designs. We examine the effectiveness of different payment schemes using field parameterized, ecological economic models of extensive grazing farms. We focus on profit maximising farm management plans and use bird species as a policy-relevant indicator...

  3. A consideration of user financial incentives to address health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam; Brown, Lawrence D

    2012-04-01

    Health inequalities and user financial incentives to encourage health-related behavior change are two topical issues in the health policy discourse, and this article attempts to combine the two; namely, we try to address whether the latter can be used to reduce the former in the contexts of the United Kingdom and the United States. Payments for some aspects of medical adherence may offer a promising way to address, to some extent, inequalities in health and health care in both countries. However, payments for more sustained behavior change, such as that associated with smoking cessation and weight loss, have thus far shown little long-term effect, although more research that tests the effectiveness of different incentive mechanism designs, informed by the findings of behavioral economics, ought to be undertaken. Many practical, political, ethical, and ideological objections can be waged against user financial incentives in health, and this article reviews a number of them, but the justifiability of and limits to these incentives require more academic and public discourse so as to gain a better understanding of the circumstances in which they can legitimately be used.

  4. Economic incentives to promote innovation in healthcare delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Harold S

    2009-10-01

    Economics influences how medical care is delivered, organized, and progresses. Fee-for-service payment encourages delivery of services. Fee-for-individual-service, however, offers no incentives for clinicians to efficiently organize the care their patients need. Global capitation provides such incentives; it works well in highly integrated practices but not for independent practitioners. The failures of utilization management in the 1990s demonstrated the need for a third alternative to better align incentives, such as bundling payment for an episode of care. Building on Medicare's approach to hospital payment, one can define expanded diagnosis-related groups that include all hospital, physician, and other costs during the stay and appropriate preadmission and postdischarge periods. Physicians and hospitals voluntarily forming a new entity (a care delivery team) would receive such bundled payments along with complete flexibility in allocating the funds. Modifications to gainsharing and antikickback rules, as well as reforms to malpractice liability laws, will facilitate the functioning of the care delivery teams. The implicit financial incentives encourage efficient care for the patient; the episode focus will facilitate measuring patient outcomes. Payment can be based on the resources used by those care delivery teams achieving superior outcomes, thereby fostering innovation improving outcomes and reducing waste.

  5. Coordination of Individual and Organizational Planning for Natural Hazards (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Decision making consists of constructing or selecting a plan. This is true at many levels of decision making: individuals or households, small groups, larger organizations, and governments. In each case, plans are constructed or selected taking account of the decision maker's prioritized set of active goals and the decision maker's beliefs about the probability or the extent to which each goal will be attained through a given plan. Planning for mitigation of or response to natural hazards can be improved if the plans of the many decision makers at multiple levels are coordinated. Government planning should ideally be informed by knowledge about the plans of businesses and non-profit organizations as well as knowledge about individual, household, and neighborhood plans. Similarly, plans at the individual and organizational levels should be informed by knowledge of others' plans at the same and at higher and lower levels of aggregation. Coordination can be impaired by differences in goals, differences in beliefs about the instrumentality of plans toward given goals, and also by ignorance of others' goals and plans. Good coordination requires incentives that promote sharing of plans, horizontally and vertically, and that alleviate conflicts in goals and conflicts in beliefs that will inevitably surface once plans are shared. Thus, four different kinds of decision aids are needed to improve natural hazard planning: mechanisms that support horizontal dissemination of plans, mechanisms that support vertical dissemination, mechanisms for examining goal conflicts and reducing these through plans that take others' goals into account, and mechanisms for examining belief conflicts.

  6. Evaluating Safeguards in a Conservation Incentive Program: Participation, Consent, and Benefit Sharing in Indigenous Communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Krause

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics suggest that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ may not generate improvements in well-being for participating stakeholders, and may in fact undermine indigenous rights. To ensure positive social benefits from REDD+ projects, the United Nations REDD Programme has proposed core safeguards, including local stakeholder participation; free, prior, and informed consent; and equitable distribution of benefits. However, there is little experience to date in implementing and evaluating these safeguards. We apply these core safeguards as a framework to study how people in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon perceive and benefit from Programa Socio Bosque, a conservation incentive program in Ecuador's national REDD+ Programme portfolio. We interviewed 101 individuals in five communities that had participated in the Programa Socio Bosque for at least 18 months. Close to 80% of respondents reported that the decision to join Socio Bosque was made democratically, that they were familiar with the conservation goals of Socio Bosque, and that they were aware which area their community had selected for conservation. However, only 17% were familiar with the overall terms of the conservation agreement, implying that they were either not fully informed of or did not fully understand what they were consenting to in joining the program. Although the terms of the program require a community investment plan to be democratically developed by community members, less than half of respondents were aware of the existence of the investment plan, and fewer than 20% had participated in its development. The majority of respondents (61% reported that they did not know the amount of incentives that their community currently receives, and only 44% stated that incentives were managed democratically in communal assemblies. Moreover, although a slight majority (53% said they had noticed benefits to the community from participating in

  7. Better sorry than safe : Making a Plan B reduces effectiveness of implementation intentions in healthy eating goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Charlotte D W; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Implementation intentions (if–then plans) are helpful to health behaviour change. As these plans specify only one goal-directed behaviour for one specific situation, however, their effectiveness may be limited when a planned behaviour is impossible to execute in situ. The present research

  8. An assessment of incentive versus survey length trade-offs in a Web survey of radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y; Niederhauser, Blake D; Kallmes, David; Beebe, Timothy J

    2013-03-20

    It is generally understood that shorter Web surveys and use of incentives result in higher response rates in Web surveys directed to health care providers. Less is known about potential respondent preference for reduced burden as compared to increased reward. To help elicit preference for minimized burden compared to reward for completion of a survey, we observed physician preferences for shorter Web surveys compared to incentives as well as incentive preference (small guaranteed incentive compared to larger lottery incentive) accompanying an electronic request to complete a survey. This was an observational study that accompanied a large Web survey study of radiology staff, fellows, and residents at select academic medical centers in the United States. With the request to complete the survey, potential respondents were offered three options: (1) a 10-minute Web survey with the chance to win an iPad, (2) a 10-minute Web survey with a guaranteed nominal incentive ($5 amazon.com gift card), or (3) a shorter (5-7 minute) Web survey with no incentive. A total of 254 individuals responded to the Web survey request. Overwhelmingly, individuals chose a longer survey accompanied by an incentive compared to a shorter survey with no incentive (85% compared to 15%, P<.001). Of those opting for an incentive, a small, but not significant majority chose the chance to win an iPad over a guaranteed $5 gift card (56% compared to 44%). When given the choice, radiologists preferred a reward (either guaranteed or based on a lottery) to a less burdensome survey, indicating that researchers should focus more attention at increasing perceived benefits of completing a Web survey compared to decreasing perceived burden.

  9. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a) The Agency will offer a borrower, who submits a prepayment request meeting the conditions of § 3560...

  10. Changes in Incentives, Rewards and Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Alan

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature over the past decade reflects substantial changes in rewards, incentives, and sanctions used with college faculty. These changes parallel changes in the public sector generally. Increasing emphasis on formal evaluation and on use of money as an incentive and reward for performance is noted. (MSE)

  11. Incentive theory: IV. Magnitude of reward

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen, Peter R.

    1985-01-01

    Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes and implications of this interaction are discussed.

  12. The Incentive Effect of Scores: Randomized Evidence from Credit Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Paravisini; Antoinette Schoar

    2013-01-01

    We design a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the adoption of credit scoring with a bank that uses soft information in small businesses lending. We find that credit scores improve the productivity of credit committees, reduce managerial involvement in the loan approval process, and increase the profitability of lending. Credit committee members' effort and output also increase when they anticipate the score becoming available, indicating that scores improve incentives to use existing in...

  13. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  14. Customer response on price incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naesje, Paal C.; Andersen, Thale K.; Saele, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between end-users energy attitudes and their corresponding energy behaviour. It presents empirical findings from analyses of the effects of two-way communication between consumers and power companies. Two-way communication has made available high quality data on energy consumption. In the build-up to the analysis in this paper the a number of aspects thought to influence energy consumption has been looked at; including standard of housing, number and age of residents, as well as socio-economic factors, behaviour and preferences. Here we choose to focus specifically on attitudes and behaviour. These aspects are controlled for price incentives. The combination of very tight peak power balance in the Nordic power system and few investments in extension of power networks has turned the focus towards manual or automatic demand-response which requires hourly metering for documentation. The data are two-fold: Hourly recordings of meter-data of electric consumption of 10,894 customers (nearly half of these had installed technology for remote load control) in two different network areas and survey-data from a questionnaire distributed to consumers that resulted in nearly 550 answers. During the winter 2003/2004 these customers were offered different price incentives. The analyses showed a net reduction in electricity consumption of 1,0 kWh/h at the most in peak load hours. The paper is based on two connected studies, 'End-user flexibility by efficient use of ICT' and 'Improving end-user knowledge for managing energy loads end consumption' conducted in Norway by the SINTEF group

  15. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  16. The adrenergic alpha2 receptor and sexual incentive motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitamaa, Timo; Haapalinna, Antti; Agmo, Anders

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of the present series of experiments was to determine whether drugs acting at the alpha2-adrenoceptor modify unconditioned sexual incentive motivation in the male rat. To that end a highly specific agonist, dexmedetomidine, a corresponding antagonist, atipamezole, and a less specific antagonist, yohimbine, were administered to groups of sexually inexperienced male rats. The subjects were tested in a large rectangular arena, where a sexually receptive female and an intact male were employed as incentives. The incentive animals were confined behind a wire mesh in opposite corners of the arena. The animals could see, hear and smell each other, but no sexual interaction was possible. Approach to the incentives constituted the measure of incentive motivation. In addition, the test provided data on ambulatory activity and general arousal. Dexmedetomidine, at a dose of 8 microg/kg, produced a slight reduction of sexual incentive motivation. Ambulatory activity and general arousal were also inhibited. Atipamezole, in doses of 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg enhanced the positive incentive properties of the receptive female. A high dose of 1mg/kg did not have any significant effect. Ambulatory activity was slightly reduced by the two larger doses of atipamezole. Yohimbine had a slight stimulatory effect on sexual incentive motivation at a dose (4 mg/kg) that also reduced ambulatory activity and general arousal. It is concluded that blockade of the adrenergic alpha2 receptor stimulates sexual incentive motivation in the male rat whereas stimulation of it has the opposite effect. At present it is not clear if these drug effects are caused by pre- or postsynaptic actions of the drugs, and the importance of secondary changes in other neurotransmitter systems remains unknown.

  17. The effects of the Employment Tax Incentive on South African employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Amina; Leibbrandt, Murray; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    South Africa's Employment Tax Incentive, launched in 2014, aimed to address low youth employment by reducing the cost of hiring young workers. We make use of anonymized tax administrative data from the 2012-2015 tax years to examine the effect of the Incentive on youth employment. We match firms claiming the subsidy with similar firms not claiming the subsidy and observe their hiring behaviour before and after the implementation of the policy. We find no statistically significant impact on yo...

  18. Securing the Containerized Supply Chain: Analysis of Government Incentives for Private Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Bakshi; Noah Gans

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the threat that terrorists smuggle weapons of mass destruction into the United States through maritime containers, the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspects containers upon entry to domestic ports. Inspection-driven congestion is costly, and CBP provides incentives to firms to improve security upstream in the supply chain, thereby reducing the inspection burden at U.S. ports. We perform an economic analysis of this incentive program, called Customs-Trade Part...

  19. Price Endogeneity and Marginal Cost Effects on Incentive Compatible Stormwater Management Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Matthew C.; Willis, David B.; Hayes, John C.; Privette, Charles V., III

    2010-01-01

    Incentive based stormwater management policies offer the prospect of reducing urban stormwater runoff while increasing developer profits. An incentive compatible Stormwater Banking Program (SBP) is presented that allows developers to build at higher residential densities in exchange for including low impact stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the development’s stormwater management infrastructure. Price endogeneity presents itself when the smaller residential lots created by buildi...

  20. Strategic planning to reduce the burden of stroke among veterans: using simulation modeling to inform decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Tian, Yuan; Beadles, Christopher A; Williams, Linda S; Bravata, Dawn M; Cheng, Eric M; Bosworth, Hayden B; Homer, Jack B; Matchar, David B

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the burden of stroke is a priority for the Veterans Affairs Health System, reflected by the creation of the Veterans Affairs Stroke Quality Enhancement Research Initiative. To inform the initiative's strategic planning, we estimated the relative population-level impact and efficiency of distinct approaches to improving stroke care in the US Veteran population to inform policy and practice. A System Dynamics stroke model of the Veteran population was constructed to evaluate the relative impact of 15 intervention scenarios including both broad and targeted primary and secondary prevention and acute care/rehabilitation on cumulative (20 years) outcomes including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, strokes prevented, stroke fatalities prevented, and the number-needed-to-treat per QALY gained. At the population level, a broad hypertension control effort yielded the largest increase in QALYs (35,517), followed by targeted prevention addressing hypertension and anticoagulation among Veterans with prior cardiovascular disease (27,856) and hypertension control among diabetics (23,100). Adjusting QALYs gained by the number of Veterans needed to treat, thrombolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator was most efficient, needing 3.1 Veterans to be treated per QALY gained. This was followed by rehabilitation (3.9) and targeted prevention addressing hypertension and anticoagulation among those with prior cardiovascular disease (5.1). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the ranking of interventions was robust to uncertainty in input parameter values. Prevention strategies tend to have larger population impacts, though interventions targeting specific high-risk groups tend to be more efficient in terms of number-needed-to-treat per QALY gained. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Incentive mechanism design for the residential building energy efficiency improvement of heating zones in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y.; Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with analyzing the investigation results by Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China in 2005, more than half of the 10,236 participants are willing to improve the residential building energy efficiency and accept an additional cost of less than 10% of the total cost, the authors illustrate that incenting actions are necessary to improve building energy efficiency and build a central government-local government-market model. As a result of the model analysis, to pursue good execution effects brought by the incentive policies, the executors are required to distinguish the differences of incentive objects' economic activities and strongly respect the incenting on the energy conservation performance. A case study on the incentive policies of existing residential building energy efficiency improvement in heating zones in North China is given as well. Finally, it is strongly recommended to give the first priority to performance-based incentives so that to reduce the lazy behaviors of the incented objects and ensure the targets to be achieved.

  2. Social values and the corruption argument against financial incentives for healthy behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca C H

    2017-03-01

    Financial incentives may provide a way of reducing the burden of chronic diseases by motivating people to adopt healthy behaviours. While it is still uncertain how effective such incentives could be for promoting health, some argue that, even if effective, there are ethical objections that preclude their use. One such argument is made by Michael Sandel, who suggests that monetary transactions can have a corrupting effect on the norms and values that ordinarily regulate exchange and behaviour in previously non-monetised contexts. In this paper, I outline Sandel's corruption argument and consider its validity in the context of health incentives. I distinguish between two forms of corruption that are implied by Sandel's argument: efficiency corruption and value corruption While Sandel's thought-provoking discussion provides a valuable contribution to debates about health policies generally and health incentives specifically, I suggest the force of his criticism of health incentives is limited: further empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning are required to support the suggestion that health incentives are an inappropriate tool for promoting health. While I do not find Sandel's corruption argument compelling, this only constitutes a partial defence of health incentives, since other criticisms relating to their use may prove more successful. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Distributed Solar Incentive Programs: Recent Experience and Best Practices for Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Reger, A.; Heeter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Based on lessons from recent program experience, this report explores best practices for designing and implementing incentives for small and mid-sized residential and commercial distributed solar energy projects. The findings of this paper are relevant to both new incentive programs as well as those undergoing modifications. The report covers factors to consider in setting and modifying incentive levels over time, differentiating incentives to encourage various market segments, administrative issues such as providing equitable access to incentives and customer protection. It also explores how incentive programs can be designed to respond to changing market conditions while attempting to provide a longer-term and stable environment for the solar industry. The findings are based on interviews with program administrators, regulators, and industry representatives as well as data from numerous incentive programs nationally, particularly the largest and longest-running programs. These best practices consider the perspectives of various stakeholders and the broad objectives of reducing solar costs, encouraging long-term market viability, minimizing ratepayer costs, and protecting consumers.

  4. 26 CFR 54.4980F-1 - Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments significantly reducing the rate of future...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plans maintained by commercial airlines. See section 402 of PPA '06 for a special rule that applies to certain plans maintained by an employer that is a commercial passenger airline or the principal business of which is providing catering services to a commercial passenger airline. Under this special rule...

  5. Node-Dependence-Based Dynamic Incentive Algorithm in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.

  6. Incentives for preventing smoking in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefler, Marita; Liberato, Selma C; Thomas, David P

    2017-06-06

    Adult smoking usually has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not take up smoking during this period it is unlikely that they ever will. Further, once smoking becomes established, cessation is challenging; the probability of subsequently quitting is inversely proportional to the age of initiation. One novel approach to reducing the prevalence of youth smoking is the use of incentives. To assess the effect of incentives on preventing children and adolescents (aged 5 to 18 years) from starting to smoke. It was also our intention to assess, where possible, the dose-response of incentives, the costs of incentive programmes, whether incentives are more or less effective in combination with other interventions to prevent smoking initiation, and any unintended consequences arising from the use of incentives. For the original review (published 2012) we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, CSA databases and PsycINFO for terms relating to incentives, in combination with terms for smoking and tobacco use, and children and adolescents. The most recent searches were of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, and were carried out in December 2016. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) allocating children and adolescents (aged 5 to 18 years) as individuals, groups or communities to intervention or control conditions, where the intervention included an incentive aimed at preventing smoking uptake. We also considered controlled trials (CTs) with baseline measures and post-intervention outcomes. Two review authors extracted and independently assessed the data. The primary outcome was the smoking status of children or adolescents at follow-up who reported no smoking at baseline. We required a minimum follow-up of six months from baseline and assessed each included study for risks of bias. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial; we did

  7. Panel presentation: Should some type of incentive regulation replace traditional methods for regulating LDCs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of using incentive regulation to provide the best service and rates for natural gas consumers and compares it to the traditional rate-of-return regulation. It discusses some of the allegations used to prevent incentive regulation such as the rate-of-return regulation provides an incentive to over-build and pad rate base, thus creating inefficiencies. The author also feels that strict competition is not necessarily beneficial and that some form of regulation is necessary. The paper goes on to outline the author's ideas of how a successful incentive plan should work while emphasizing his preference for a rate-of-return regulation. From the ratepayers' view, the incentives granted should be rewards for improvement in a utility's performance. In other words, there must be clear goals set for management and the fulfillment or lack of fulfillment should result in rewards or penalties. The author feels that incentive regulation could prove to be appropriate in the areas of demand side management such as energy conservation programs

  8. The impact of removing financial incentives from clinical quality indicators: longitudinal analysis of four Kaiser Permanente indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Helen; Schmittdiel, Julie; Selby, Joe; Fireman, Bruce; Campbell, Stephen; Lee, Janelle; Whippy, Alan; Madvig, Philip

    2010-05-11

    To evaluate the effect of financial incentives on four clinical quality indicators common to pay for performance plans in the United Kingdom and at Kaiser Permanente in California. Longitudinal analysis. 35 medical facilities of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 1997-2007. 2 523 659 adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Main outcomes measures Yearly assessment of patient level glycaemic control (HbA(1c) financial incentives were attached to screening for diabetic retinopathy (1999-2003), the rate rose from 84.9% to 88.1%. This was followed by four years without incentives when the rate fell year on year to 80.5%. During the two initial years when financial incentives were attached to cervical cancer screening (1999-2000), the screening rate rose slightly, from 77.4% to 78.0%. During the next five years when financial incentives were removed, screening rates fell year on year to 74.3%. Incentives were then reattached for two years (2006-7) and screening rates began to increase. Across the 35 facilities, the removal of incentives was associated with a decrease in performance of about 3% per year on average for screening for diabetic retinopathy and about 1.6% per year for cervical cancer screening. Policy makers and clinicians should be aware that removing facility directed financial incentives from clinical indicators may mean that performance levels decline.

  9. Economic incentives exist to support measures to reduce illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Turner; J. Buongiorno; A. Katz; S. Zhu; R. Li

    2008-01-01

    Three studies of the global economic implications of eliminating illegal logging are summarized. Processors of illegally sourced wood would lose from the elimination of illegal logging through high prices for logs and decreased production of wood products. Associated with these changes could be losses in employment and income. Beyond these losses to the processing...

  10. Critical Role of Positive Incentives for Reducing Insider Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    connectedness at work [Sulea 2012]  perceived organizational support [Bordia 2008, Sulea 2012, Shoss 2013]  organizational citizenship behavior [Ariani...difficult to generalize these findings to the digital age wherein different machinations of theft and sabotage have evolved. Pre- digital age...research gap. Because the digital age engendered workplace surveillance, performance monitoring, etc. that employees sometimes maladapted to (loneliness

  11. The Critical Role of Positive Incentives for Reducing Insider Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    such skills . Creating a technical track of advancement separate from the management track can help ameliorate these problems. Effective Communication ...Omar, F.; Halim, F. W.; & Hafidz, S. W. M. The Mediating Role of Organizational- Based Self - Esteem in Perceived Organizational Support and... Esteem Relate to Deviant Behavior? The Role of Contingencies of Self -Worth. Journal of Applied Psychology. Volume 94. Number 5. September 2009. Page

  12. Hybrid carbon incentive mechanisms and political acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.; De Vries, J.L.; Koutstaal, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper it is analyzed how hybrid systems of carbon taxes and tradeable permits optimize some conflicting dimensions of political acceptability related to the design of these instruments. Pure systems like taxes without exemptions or auctioned tradeable permits cause problems for political acceptability in open economies due to high overall costs (abatement cost plus payments on the tax or auctions) for current polluters. Unfortunately, pure systems based on grandfathering of emission rights across the board do not provide a feasible alternative because of monitoring and enforcement problems. In contrast, consciously designed hybrid systems employ grandfathering of emission rights together with either carbon taxes or auctioned carbon permits in order to overcome acceptability problems of pure systems, while leaving incentives to reduce emissions at the margin untouched. Moreover, monitoring and enforcement costs of the hybrid systems are less due to the lower number of participating agents compared with the pure systems, while opportunities for cost- or burden-sharing exist as well. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs

  13. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  14. Countervailing incentives in value-based payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    Payment reform has been at the forefront of the movement toward higher-value care in the U.S. health care system. A common belief is that volume-based incentives embedded in fee-for-service need to be replaced with value-based payments. While this belief is well-intended, value-based payment also contains perverse incentives. In particular, behavioral economists have identified several features of individual decision making that reverse some of the typical recommendations for inducing desirable behavior through financial incentives. This paper discusses the countervailing incentives associated with four behavioral economic concepts: loss aversion, relative social ranking, inertia or status quo bias, and extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EHR Incentive Programs - Data and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of March 2013, more than 259,000 health care providers received payment for participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive...

  16. Chinese Academic Assessment and Incentive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Qinghui

    2016-02-01

    The Chinese academic assessment and incentive system drew mixed responses from academia. In the essay the author tried to explain why the current assessment system is appropriate in China and an opportunistic behavior in Chinese academia is exposed.

  17. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    to the OCCS platform as well as the efficient usage of these resources. We employ game theory and mechanism design to model and design the incentive schemes. We present two game models and show the existence of a pure strategy Nash equilibrium for both the cooperative and non-cooperative games. Three base...... ever contributing resources. It may also suffer from resource wastage from members or external entities trying to attack the system so that genuine users are deprived of valuable resources. The purpose of this paper is to design incentive schemes that will encourage the contribution of resources...... incentive schemes are presented and two advanced schemes one based on discount factor and the other a stochastic scheme are also presented. We perform analytical evaluation of our incentive schemes and conclude that the schemes meet the desired properties of budget-balance, ex-post individual rationality...

  18. The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support...... incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional...... trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated...

  19. Use of diffusion-weighted MRI to modify radiosurgery planning in brain metastases may reduce local recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rasheed; Pomschar, Andreas; Jenkinson, Michael D; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Belka, Claus; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective and well tolerated treatment for selected brain metastases; however, local recurrence still occurs. We investigated the use of diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) as an adjunct for SRS treatment planning in brain metastases. Seventeen consecutive patients undergoing complete surgical resection of a solitary brain metastasis underwent image analysis retrospectively. SRS treatment plans were generated based on standard 3D post-contrast T1-weighted sequences at 1.5T and then separately using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in a blinded fashion. Control scans immediately post operation confirmed complete tumour resection. Treatment plans were compared to one another and with volume of local recurrence at progression quantitatively and qualitatively by calculating the conformity index (CI), the overlapping volume as a proportion of the total combined volume, where 1 = identical plans and 0 = no conformation whatsoever. Gross tumour volumes (GTVs) using ADC and post-contrast T1-weighted sequences were quantitatively the same (related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test = -0.45, p = 0.653) but showed differing conformations (CI 0.53, p recurrence than the standard plan (median 3.53 cm 3 vs. 3.84 cm 3 , p = 0.002). ADC maps may be a useful tool in addition to the standard post-contrast T1-weighted sequence used for SRS planning.

  20. Marketable Incentive Contracts and Capital Structure Relevance.

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Gerald T

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the claim that debt finance can increase firm value by curtailing managers' access to 'free cash flow.' The author first shows that incentive contracts that tie the managers' pay to stockholder wealth are often a superior solution to the free cash flow problem. He then considers the possibility that the manager can trade on secondary capital markets. Liquid secondary markets are shown to undermine management incentive schemes and, in many cases, to restore the value ...

  1. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between ?nudging,? which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The lit...

  2. Hermann agreement updates IRS guidelines for incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccolo, B M; Peregrine, M W

    1995-01-01

    The October 1994 agreement between the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Hermann Hospital of Houston, Texas, elucidates current IRS policy on physician recruitment incentives. The IRS distinguishes between the recruiting and the retention of physicians and perimts incentives beyond reasonable compensation in the former but not the latter circumstance. This new agreement, while not legally precedential, nevertheless provides guidance for healthcare organizations seeking safe harbor protection.

  3. Altruism, Conformism, and Incentives in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Tichem, Jan

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractPerformance pay can motivate employees, but money is not the only motivation in the workplace. Altruism, which means that someone enjoys the well-being of someone else, can also provide a powerful motivation. The first part of this thesis studies theoretically how altruism between an employee and his superior affects the optimal use of monetary incentives. Among others, the analysis reveals how altruism influences the credibility of monetary incentive schemes, and how altruist...

  4. Incentive Effects of Peer Pressure in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.

  5. An RCT protocol of varying financial incentive amounts for smoking cessation among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynagh Marita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to the unborn child. Few smoking cessation interventions have been successfully incorporated into standard antenatal care. The main aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of a personal financial incentive scheme for encouraging smoking cessation among pregnant women. Design A pilot randomised control trial will be conducted to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two varying financial incentives that increase incrementally in magnitude ($20 vs. $40AUD, compared to no incentive in reducing smoking in pregnant women attending an Australian public hospital antenatal clinic. Method Ninety (90 pregnant women who self-report smoking in the last 7 days and whose smoking status is biochemically verified, will be block randomised into one of three groups: a. No incentive control group (n=30, b. $20 incremental incentive group (n=30, and c. $40 incremental incentive group (n=30. Smoking status will be assessed via a self-report computer based survey in nine study sessions with saliva cotinine analysis used as biochemical validation. Women in the two incentive groups will be eligible to receive a cash reward at each of eight measurement points during pregnancy if 7-day smoking cessation is achieved. Cash rewards will increase incrementally for each period of smoking abstinence. Discussion Identifying strategies that are effective in reducing the number of women smoking during pregnancy and are easily adopted into standard antenatal practice is of utmost importance. A personal financial incentive scheme is a potential antenatal smoking cessation strategy that warrants further investigation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number: ACTRN12612000399897

  6. 48 CFR 1552.216-77 - Award term incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... award term incentive periods] years. (c) Right not to grant or cancel the award term incentive. (1) The Government has the unilateral right not to grant or to cancel award term incentive periods and the associated... the award term incentive is cancelled, a unilateral modification will cite this clause as the...

  7. 48 CFR 1019.202-70-5 - Incentives for prime contractor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1019.202-70-5 Incentives for prime contractor participation. (a) Under the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 637(d)(4)(E), Treasury....219-75. (c) Before awarding a contract that requires a subcontracting plan, the existence of a mentor...

  8. Interventions to increase recommendation and delivery of screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers by healthcare providers systematic reviews of provider assessment and feedback and provider incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Susan A; Habarta, Nancy; Baron, Roy C; Coates, Ralph J; Rimer, Barbara K; Kerner, Jon; Coughlin, Steven S; Kalra, Geetika P; Chattopadhyay, Sajal

    2008-07-01

    Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet not all people who should be screened are screened, either regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation, and other harms or benefits of two provider-directed intervention approaches to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. These approaches, provider assessment and feedback, and provider incentives encourage providers to deliver screening services at appropriate intervals. Evidence in these reviews indicates that provider assessment and feedback interventions can effectively increase screening by mammography, Pap test, and fecal occult blood test. Health plans, healthcare systems, and cancer control coalitions should consider such evidence-based findings when implementing interventions to increase screening use. Evidence was insufficient to determine the effectiveness of provider incentives in increasing use of any of these tests. Specific areas for further research are suggested in this report, including the need for additional research to determine whether provider incentives are effective in increasing use of any of these screening tests, and whether assessment and feedback interventions are effective in increasing other tests for colorectal cancer (i.e., flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or double-contrast barium enema).

  9. Small Business Taxation: Revamping Incentives to Encourage Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts a new approach in assessing the impact of taxes on small business growth and suggests the need to consider new incentives that would be more effective in encouraging small business growth and would also improve the neutrality of the existing tax system. In recent years, federal and provincial governments have provided various corporate tax incentives to small businesses with the aim of helping them grow. While it is commonly believed that small businesses are responsible for most job creation, unfortunately the only study available has shown that while many small businesses are created, few grow. Yet many governments believe that the incentives are important even though little evidence supports the effectiveness of small business corporate concessions. Some provinces have actually eliminated corporate taxes on small businesses or reduced such taxes to a symbolic level (e.g., one to two percent without there being any empirical support in favour of the effectiveness of such actions. In contradiction to the widely held view that small business tax concessions encourage growth, such small business tax relief could actually be antithetical to growth by creating a “taxation wall.” First, it could result in the breakup of companies into smaller, less efficient-sized units in order to take advantage of tax benefits even if there are economic gains to growing in size. Second, it could encourage individuals to create small corporations in order to reduce their personal tax liabilities rather than grow companies. And third, it could lead to a “threshold effect” that holds back small business from growing beyond the official definition of “smallness,” regardless of the criteria for measuring size (e.g., the size of revenue or assets, or the number of employees. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of both corporate and personal taxes on the growth of small business and we focus in particular on the likely consequences of the

  10. Perceived financial incentives, HMO market penetration, and physicians' practice styles and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M; Sulmasy, D P; Bloche, M G

    1999-04-01

    To estimate the effects of physicians' personal financial incentives and other measures of involvement with HMOs on three measures of satisfaction and practice style: overall practice satisfaction, the extent to which prior expectations about professional autonomy and the ability to practice good-quality medicine are met, and several specific measures of practice style. A telephone survey conducted in 1997 of 1,549 physicians who were located in the 75 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in 1991. Eligible physicians were under age 52, had between 8 and 17 years of post-residency practice experience, and spent at least 20 hours per week in patient care. The response rate was 74 percent. Multivariate binomial and multinomial ordered logistic regression models were estimated. Independent variables included physicians' self-reported financial incentives, measured by the extent to which their overall financial arrangements created an incentive to either reduce or increase services to patients, the level of HMO penetration in the market, employment setting, medical specialty, exposure to managed care while in medical training, and selected personal characteristics. About 15 percent of survey respondents reported a moderate or strong incentive to reduce services; 70 percent reported a neutral incentive; and 15 percent reported an incentive to increase services. Compared to physicians with a neutral incentive, physicians with an incentive to reduce services were from 1.5 to 3.5 times more likely to be very dissatisfied with their practices and were 0.2 to 0.5 times as likely to report that their expectations regarding professional autonomy and ability to practice good-quality medicine were met. They were also 0.2 to 0.6 times as likely to report having the freedom to care for patients the way they would like along several specific measures of practice style, such as sufficient time with patients, ability to hospitalize, ability to order tests and procedures, and ability

  11. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  12. The case for investing in family planning in the Pacific: costs and benefits of reducing unmet need for contraception in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Unmet need for family planning in the Pacific is among the highest in the world. Better understanding of required investments and associated benefits of increased access to family planning in the Pacific may assist prioritisation and funding. Methods We modelled the costs and associated health, demographic and economic impacts of reducing unmet need for family planning between 2010–2025 in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Baseline data were obtained from census reports, Demographic and Health Surveys, and UN agency reports. Using a demographic modelling program we compared a scenario of “no change in unmet need” with two distinct scenarios: 1) all family planning needs met by 2020; and, 2) all needs met by 2050. Results Meeting family planning needs by 2020 would increase prevalence of modern contraception in 2025 from 36.8 to 65.5% in Vanuatu and 28.5 to 37.6% in the Solomon Islands. Between 2010–2025 the average annual number of unintended pregnancies would decline by 68% in Vanuatu and 50% in the Solomon Islands, and high-risk births would fall by more than 20%, averting 2,573 maternal and infant deaths. Total fertility rates would fall from 4.1 to 2.2 in Vanuatu and 3.5 in the Solomon Islands, contributing to slowed population growth and lower dependency ratios. The direct cost of reducing unmet need by 2020 was estimated to be $5.19 million for Vanuatu and $3.36 million for the Solomon Islands between 2010–2025. Preventing unintended pregnancies would save $112 million in health and education expenditure. Conclusions In small island developing states such as Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands, increasing investment in family planning would contribute to improved maternal and infant outcomes and substantial public sector savings. PMID:23758783

  13. Financial incentive increases CPAP acceptance in patients from low socioeconomic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Tarasiuk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We explored whether financial incentives have a role in patients' decisions to accept (purchase a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device in a healthcare system that requires cost sharing. DESIGN: Longitudinal interventional study. PATIENTS: The group receiving financial incentive (n = 137, 50.8±10.6 years, apnea/hypopnea index (AHI 38.7±19.9 events/hr and the control group (n = 121, 50.9±10.3 years, AHI 39.9±22 underwent attendant titration and a two-week adaptation to CPAP. Patients in the control group had a co-payment of $330-660; the financial incentive group paid a subsidized price of $55. RESULTS: CPAP acceptance was 43% greater (p = 0.02 in the financial incentive group. CPAP acceptance among the low socioeconomic strata (n = 113 (adjusting for age, gender, BMI, tobacco smoking was enhanced by financial incentive (OR, 95% CI (3.43, 1.09-10.85, age (1.1, 1.03-1.17, AHI (>30 vs. 30 vs. 30 vs. <30 (5.25, 1.34-18.5. CONCLUSIONS: Minimizing cost sharing reduces a barrier for CPAP acceptance among low socioeconomic status patients. Thus, financial incentive should be applied as a policy to encourage CPAP treatment, especially among low socioeconomic strata patients.

  14. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several incentives play a significant role. Subcontractors in the Netherlands predominantly are extrinsically motivated to engage in CO 2 reporting and reduction techniques. This is because they are mainly driven by regulatory compliance, energy costs and implementation costs. In contrast, British subcontractors are much more intrinsically motivated to comply. They are predominantly driven by energy costs, environmental awareness, relationship building and reputation building. The contractor will have to account for these differences in making its policies work. - Research highlights: → We investigate incentives for couriers to report CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reduction techniques. → We compare couriers in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. → Several incentives are significant for the adoption of CO 2 reporting and reduction measures. → There are significant differences in the sensitivity for incentives in the Netherlands and the UK.

  15. Tax Incentives Culture: An Analysis of Corporate Disclosures in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gomes dos Reis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of tax incentives Culture is essential for external users to make full analysis of the benefits generated by them. In this sense, the aim of this study was to verify the consistency and form of disclosure of the information disclosed by the Corporation Publicly Traded in southern Brazil, from the perspective of reducing the tax burden and the amount allocated to the Culture. The sample consisted of 27 Corporate Capital Open in southern Brazil and analyzed its financial statements, accompanying notes and supplementary reports through pre-established keywords, characterizing the research as descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The results showed the importance of the Notes, the Management Report and additional reports as Social and Sustainability Report. These reports had relevant information and helpful research. However, many of them did not have clear information about the tax incentives for culture. Some companies released the tax incentive culture along with other incentives, such as the Workers Food Program - PAT, which did not allow detailed analysis of the data. We found cases of disagreement between the Ministry of Culture and information disclosed statements. In some cases, were observed lack of information about the tax incentives in the statements and supplementary reports. It was concluded that the disclosure is lower than necessary, because only four out of a total of twenty seven companies analyzed, reported consistent, complete and appropriate on tax incentives for culture.

  16. TAX PLANNING: OPTIMIZATION TOOL OF DEBTS TOWARDS THE BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol GRAUR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax planning is complex of measures,consisting in the reduction of tax payments under the law. Tax planning at the enterprise starts from the initial structuring of businesses and activities and can be carried out both at entity level (corporate and the individual (individual. Compared to tax evasion, tax planning is performed only under the law by avoiding taxes. Avoiding or reducing taxes is possible by organizing activities in such a way that the law allows reducing the tax base or tax rate. Optimization of tax payments is possible by organizing the work in such a way, so as the legislation avoids or reduces the tax base,tax rates and tax incentives application.

  17. R&D Incentives for Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as ‘push’ or ‘pull’ programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency. PMID:23284648

  18. R&D incentives for neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Dimitri

    Full Text Available Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D, to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency.

  19. R&D incentives for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency.

  20. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  2. Reducing barriers to healthy weight: Planned and responsive adaptations to a lifestyle intervention to serve people with impaired mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Andrea C; Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Driver, Simon; Carlton, Danielle; Kramer, M Kaye

    2018-04-01

    People with impaired mobility (IM) disabilities have a higher prevalence of obesity and obesity-related chronic conditions; however, lifestyle interventions that address the unique needs of people with IM are lacking. This paper describes an adapted evidence-based lifestyle intervention developed through community-based participatory research (CBPR). Individuals with IM, health professionals, disability group representatives, and researchers formed an advisory board to guide the process of thoroughly adapting the Diabetes Prevention Program Group Lifestyle Balance (DPP GLB) intervention after a successful pilot in people with IM. The process involved two phases: 1) planned adaptations to DPP GLB content and delivery, and 2) responsive adaptations to address issues that emerged during intervention delivery. Planned adaptations included combining in-person sessions with conference calls, providing arm-based activity trackers, and adding content on adaptive cooking, adaptive physical activity, injury prevention, unique health considerations, self-advocacy, and caregiver support. During the intervention, participants encountered numerous barriers, including health and mental health issues, transportation, caregivers, employment, adjusting to disability, and functional limitations. We addressed barriers with responsive adaptations, such as supporting electronic self-monitoring, offering make up sessions, and adding content and activities on goal setting, problem solving, planning, peer support, reflection, and motivation. Given the lack of evidence on lifestyle change in people with disabilities, it is critical to involve the community in intervention planning and respond to real-time barriers as participants engage in change. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is underway to examine the usability, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of the adapted intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Workforce Incentives at IT companies : the Google’s Case

    OpenAIRE

    Belfo, Fernando Paulo; Sousa, Rui Dinis

    2011-01-01

    Organizations may have much to gain in attracting and retaining IT professionals than can help to reduce costs and improve the productivity of the business. That is even more crucial for IT companies that rely upon talented IT professionals to add value in their core business processes and not just to support them. Thus we need to better understand what motivates and keeps satisfied an IT workforce. As a successful IT company, Google may be a good example to look at adequate incentive policie...

  4. How does the employer contribution for the federal employees health benefits program influence plan selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis S; Thorpe, Kenneth E

    2003-01-01

    Market reform of health insurance is proposed to increase coverage and reduce growth in spending by providing an incentive to choose low-cost plans. However, having a choice of plans could result in risk segmentation. Risk-adjusted payments have been proposed to address risk segmentation but are criticized as ineffective. An alternative to risk adjustment is to subsidize premiums, as in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP). Subsidizing premiums may also increase total premium spending. We find that there is little risk segmentation in the FEHBP and that reducing the premium subsidy would lower government premium spending and slightly increase risk segmentation.

  5. [The use of management contracts and professional incentives in the public health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditterich, Rafael Gomes; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2012-04-01

    Results-based management is a cornerstone of reform in public administration, including the health field, and has become the basis for other innovations such as the institutionalization of management contracts and the use of professional incentives. This review article aims to introduce and discuss the use of such management contracts in the public health sector. Management by results has developed means and tools that highlight the importance of shared responsibility and mutual commitment between workers and management-level directors. Thus, preset goals are negotiated among all the stakeholders and are evaluated periodically in order to grant professional incentives. It is necessary to improve the mechanisms for control and observation, to more precisely determine the healthcare and management indicators and their patterns, to train stakeholders in designing the plan, and to improve the use of professional incentives in order to effectively increase accountability vis-à-vis the desired results.

  6. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  7. Are Delegation and Incentives Complementary Instruments ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied...... by more delegation. This issue is analyzedwithin a Principal-Agent framework in which there are two decisionsto be made: an effort decision which can only be made by the Agent,and some other decision which can be made by either the Principal(i.e. be centralized) or by the Agent (i.e. be delegated). Within...... thisframework it is shown that delegation and incentives are not necessarilycomplementary instruments; some decisions should be centralized whenincentives are introduced....

  8. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  9. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The safety-incentive theory of liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.M.

    1977-11-01

    The use of liability law to improve incentives for safety is supported by certain recent theoretical results. The main ideas and the key argumants are summarized. Basic weaknesses of the theory are discussed, namely: (1) the simple model of Calabresi does not generalize; (2) the more complex systems of J.P. Brown, P. Diamond, and J. Green require that courts possess a great deal of information and use it to set appropriate standards of due care; (3) in practice safety incentives also depend upon fear of criminal penalties and the sense of social responsibility. The questions whether and when liability rules can significantly affect incentives are addressed. It is concluded that the theory in its present state can hardly serve as a basis for altering liability rules

  11. Implementation evaluation of the business process services incentive programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonceba Mashalaba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation evaluation of the business process services (BPS incentive programme undertaken by the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti and the Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME as part of the 2012/2013 National Evaluation Plan. The evaluation started on 31 October 2012 and the final report was approved on 17 May 2013. The evaluation covers the period from the inception of the programme in January 2011 to December 2012. The BPS incentive programme was implemented to stimulate the business process sector which contributes to economic growth largely through employment creation. The main objectives of the programme are to attract investment and create employment opportunities through offshoring activities. Twenty-six indicators across the five Development Assistance Community (DAC evaluation criteria were developed. A multi-method approach was undertaken to collect data for each of the indicators. The key findings relate to the operation of the programme and a number of suggestions were made as to how to strengthen it. Overall 3807 jobs have been created through the BPS programme during the period under review. Estimated total investment provided by firms is approximately R2.7 billion. Amongst others, the study recommended that the design of the programme be reviewed and extended, potentially to a five-year period in order to maintain the competitiveness of South Africa as a business process off shoring destination. It is essential to address the skills shortage to ensure the growth and sustainability of the South African BPS industry and finally the uptake of the incentive programme.

  12. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    research addressing the need to better understand how interdependencies arise among management control system elements and how they affect organisational effectiveness. Based on an in-depth case study on the implementation of a new incentive system in a manufacturing firm, we seek to provide more research...... and insight into how incentive pay features in complementary and substitutional relationships in an individual organisational setting. Greater insight can help illustrate how complementary and substitutional relationships unfold in even more complex ways than current research indicates, as well as how...

  13. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  14. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Schnedler, Wendelin

    2013-01-01

    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  15. How effective are energy-efficiency incentive programs? Evidence from Italian homeowners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, Anna; Bigano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate incentives for residential energy upgrades in Italy using data from an original survey of Italian homeowners. In this paper, attention is restricted to heating system replacements, and to the effect of monetary and non-monetary incentives on the propensity to replace the heating equipment with a more efficient one. To get around adverse selection and free riding issues, we ask stated preference questions to those who weren't planning energy efficiency upgrades any time soon. We argue that these persons are not affected by these behaviors. We use their responses to fit an energy-efficiency renovations curve that predicts the share of the population that will undertake these improvements for any given incentive level. This curve is used to estimate the CO_2 emissions saved and their cost-effectiveness. Respondents are more likely to agree to a replacement when the savings on the energy bills are larger and experienced over a longer horizon, and when rebates are offered to them. Reminding the respondents about possible CO_2 emissions reductions (our non-monetary incentive) had little effect. Even under optimistic assumptions, monetary incentives similar to those in the Italian tax credit program are generally not cost-effective.

  16. Winds of change: How high wind penetrations will affect investment incentives in the GB electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steggals, Will; Gross, Robert; Heptonstall, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Wind power is widely expected to expand rapidly in Britain over the next decade. Large amounts of variable wind power on the system will increase market risks, with prices more volatile and load factors for conventional thermal plant lower and more uncertain. This extra market risk may discourage investment in generation capacity. Financial viability for thermal plant will be increasingly dependent on price spikes during periods of low wind. Increased price risk will also make investment in other forms of low-carbon generation (e.g. nuclear power) more challenging. A number of policies can reduce the extent to which generators are exposed to market risks and encourage investment. However, market risks play a fundamental role in shaping efficient investment and dispatch patterns in a liberalised market. Therefore, measures to improve price signals and market functioning (such as a stronger carbon price and developing more responsive demand) are desirable. However, the scale of the investment challenge and increased risk mean targeted measures to reduce (although not eliminate) risk exposure, such as capacity mechanisms and fixed price schemes, may have increasing merit. The challenge for policy is to strike the right balance between market and planned approaches. - Research highlights: → Analyses how increases penetrations of wind power effect electricity market functioning. → Assesses the impacts of this on investment incentives for different technologies. → Discusses implications for policy and market design.

  17. Differential dependence of Pavlovian incentive motivation and instrumental incentive learning processes on dopamine signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M.; Ostlund, Sean B.; Balleine, Bernard W.; Maidment, Nigel T.

    2011-01-01

    Here we attempted to clarify the role of dopamine signaling in reward seeking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of the dopamine D1/D2 receptor antagonist flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) on Pavlovian incentive motivation and found that flupenthixol blocked the ability of a conditioned stimulus to enhance both goal approach and instrumental performance (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer). In Experiment 2 we assessed the effects of flupenthixol on reward palatability during post-training noncontingent re-exposure to the sucrose reward in either a control 3-h or novel 23-h food-deprived state. Flupenthixol, although effective in blocking the Pavlovian goal approach, was without effect on palatability or the increase in reward palatability induced by the upshift in motivational state. This noncontingent re-exposure provided an opportunity for instrumental incentive learning, the process by which rats encode the value of a reward for use in updating reward-seeking actions. Flupenthixol administered prior to the instrumental incentive learning opportunity did not affect the increase in subsequent off-drug reward-seeking actions induced by that experience. These data suggest that although dopamine signaling is necessary for Pavlovian incentive motivation, it is not necessary for changes in reward experience, or for the instrumental incentive learning process that translates this experience into the incentive value used to drive reward-seeking actions, and provide further evidence that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning processes are dissociable. PMID:21693635

  18. [Incentive for Regional Risk Selection in the German Risk Structure Compensation Scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Danny

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of the new law GKV-FQWG strengthens the competition between statutory health insurance. If incentives for risk selection exist, they may force a battle for cheap customers. This study aims to document and discuss incentives for regional risk selection in the German risk structure compensation scheme. Identify regional autocorrelation with Moran's l on financial parameters of the risk structure compensation schema. Incentives for regional risk selection do indeed exist. The risk structure compensation schema reduces 91% of the effect and helps to reduce risk selection. Nevertheless, a connection between regional situation and competition could be shown (correlation: 69.5%). Only the integration of regional control variables into the risk compensation eliminates regional autocorrelation. The actual risk structure compensation is leading to regional inequalities and as a consequence to risk selection and distortion in competition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Role of the ventrolateral orbital cortex and medial prefrontal cortex in incentive downshift situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A; Glueck, Amanda C; Uhelski, Megan; Fuchs, Perry N; Papini, Mauricio R

    2013-05-01

    The present research evaluated the role of two prefrontal cortex areas, the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), on two situations involving incentive downshifts, consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) with sucrose solutions and Pavlovian autoshaping following continuous vs. partial reinforcement with food pellets. Animals received electrolytic lesions and then were tested on cSNC, autoshaping, open-field activity, and sucrose sensitivity. Lesions of the VLO reduced suppression of consummatory behavior after the incentive downshift, but only during the first downshift trial, and also eliminated the enhancement of anticipatory behavior during partial reinforcement, relative to continuous reinforcement, in autoshaping. There was no evidence of specific effects of mPFC lesions on incentive downshifts. Open-field activity was also reduced by VLO lesions, but only in the central area, whereas mPFC lesions had no observable effects on activity. Animals with mPFC lesions exhibited decreased consumption of the lowest sucrose concentration, whereas no effects were observed in animals with VLO lesions. These results suggest that the VLO may exert nonassociative (i.e., motivational, emotional) influences on behavior in situations involving incentive downshifts. No clear role on incentive downshift was revealed by mPFC lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of framing incentives as either losses or gains with contingency management for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2013-04-01

    Cumulative prospect theory predicts that losses motivate behavior more than equal gains. Contingency management procedures effectively reduce drug use by placing incentives in direct competition with the drug taking behavior. Therefore, framing incentives as losses, rather than gains should decrease drug use to a greater extent, given equivalent incentives. We examined whether contingent vouchers described as either losses or gains differentially affected smoking abstinence rates. Over 5 consecutive days, participants could either gain $75 per day for verified abstinence or lose $75 per day (initial endowment=$375) for continuing to smoke. As a result, loss-framed participants were more likely to achieve at least one day of abstinence. There was a trend towards loss-framed participants reducing the amount smoked more than gain-framed participants. However, participants in the gain-framed group were more likely to maintain abstinence, once initiated. The results partially support cumulative prospect theory and suggest additional ways to initiate behavior change using incentives, outside of using larger magnitude incentives in contingency management procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of Medicare plan choices: are beneficiaries more influenced by premiums or benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Buntin, Melinda B

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Medicare beneficiaries to premiums and benefits when selecting healthcare plans after the introduction of Part D. We matched respondents in the 2008 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans available to them using the Bid Pricing Tool and previously unavailable data on beneficiaries' plan choices. We estimated a 2-stage nested logit model of Medicare plan choice decision making, including the decision to choose traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare or an MA plan, and for those choosing MA, which specific plan they chose. Beneficiaries living in areas with higher average monthly rebates available from MA plans were more likely to choose MA rather than FFS. When choosing MA plans, beneficiaries are roughly 2 to 3 times more responsive to dollars spent to reduce cost sharing than reductions in their premium. We calculated an elasticity of plan choice with respect to the monthly MA premium of -0.20. Beneficiaries with lower incomes are more sensitive to plan premiums and cost sharing than higher-income beneficiaries. MA plans appear to have a limited incentive to aggressively price their products, and seem to compete primarily over reduced beneficiary cost sharing. Given the limitations of the current plan choice environment, policies designed to encourage the selection of lower-cost plans may require increasing premium differences between plans and providing the tools to enable beneficiaries to easily assess those differences.

  2. Incentives to participate in an international environmental agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, M.; Schneider, K.

    1997-01-01

    For international environmental problems involving many countries, such as the climate problem, it is unlikely that all countries will participate in an international environmental agreement. If some countries commit themselves to cooperate, while the remaining countries act independently and in pure self-interest, it appears to be possible to achieve a Pareto improvement if the non-signatory countries reduce their emissions, in exchange for transfers from the countries which sign an agreement. However, the paper shows that the prospect of receiving a transfer for reducing one's emissions provided the country does not commit itself to cooperation, tends to reduce the incentive a country might have to commit itself to cooperation. Moreover, if the disincentive effect of such side payments is strong, total emissions will be higher in a situation with side payments than in a situation in which the signatory countries commit themselves to not give transfers to free riding countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 2 appendices, 13 refs

  3. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments; promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers; selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals; placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and

  4. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E

    2009-06-26

    In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments); promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers); selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals); placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and retention); support (programmes

  5. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ...

  6. 75 FR 8854 - Teacher Incentive Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ..., evaluation, retention, and advancement into instructional leadership roles. When the PBCS's implementation... responsibilities and leadership roles; and (4) Include helping teachers and principals to better understand and use... high-need schools by creating incentives for effective teachers and principals in these schools. DATES...

  7. Non-organ donors' attitudes toward incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Abdullah, Nawi; Ng, Kok-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Malaysians indicating that they did not intend to become organ donors upon their death were surveyed regarding interest in non-fungible financial incentives to be granted to surviving family members. Among the 730 (56% of the total sample of 1311) indicating unwillingness to be donors, 29.6% (216/730) subsequently indicated that they would be willing donors if the government introduced policies that, upon their death, "rewarded your (their) family with incentives for your (their) deeds." Among the 69% (504/730) who insisted that they would not become organ donor even with incentive, nearly 80% (404/501) of them were able to identify relevant incentives they thought should be provided by the state to those who make organ donations upon death. The majority of both groups preferred the state provide medical benefits to a surviving family member, suggesting this may be an attractive policy option for the state to raise the deceased organ donation pool. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. BSN completion barriers, challenges, incentives, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Marie T; Friesen, Mary Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Swengros, Diane; Shanks, Laura A; Waiter, Pamela A; Sheridan, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore RN perceptions regarding barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion and identify recommendations to increase RN BSN completion. The Institute of Medicine's 2011 The Future of Nursing report recommended the proportion of RNs with a BSN increase to 80% by 2020. This qualitative study included 41 RNs who participated in 1 of 6 focus groups based on their BSN completion status. Primary themes were sacrifices, barriers/challenges, incentives/supports, value, how to begin, and pressure. Primary BSN completion barriers/challenges were work-life balance and economic issues. Incentives/supports identified were financial compensation, assistance from employer and academic institution, and encouragement from family. Institutional strategies recommended for increasing BSN completion rates were improved access to education and financial support facilitated by collaboration between hospitals and academic institutions. Exploring RN barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion can lead to implementation of institutional strategies, such as tuition reimbursement and academic collaboration.

  9. Incentives for Innovation in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, John

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of bureaucratic structure and the incentive systems of the public schools reveals access points for enhancing the school's ability to adopt and implement innovative education. Research and development coordinated to those points can provide a greater diversity of educational possibilities, assuming such diversity to be a positive…

  10. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  11. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in 64 adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds) and 42 young adults (18- to 29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade…

  12. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  13. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  14. Career concerns incentives: An experimental test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht; Raab, Philippe

    the information that individuals base their decisions on. Our laboratory experiment provides prima facie evidence: i) the signal jamming mechanism successfully creates incentives on the labor supply side; ii) decision errors take time to decrease; iii) while subjects' average beliefs are remarkably consistent...

  15. Career concerns incentives: An experimental test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht; Raab, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    the information that individuals base their decisions on. Our laboratory experiment provides prima facie evidence: i) the signal jamming mechanism successfully creates incentives on the labor supply side; ii) decision errors take time to decrease; iii) while subjects’ average beliefs are remarkably consistent...

  16. Linking performance incentives to ethical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudi FB

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Health spending is a huge part of the United States economy as it is a large business. We all have seen increasing inclusion of corporate practices in health care. One such inclusion is the incentive programs which have at their core the goal of production of the desired behavioral outcomes directly related either to performance output or extraordinary achievement. However, management influence on the organization’s ethical environment and culture can inadvertently encourage or endorse unethical behavior despite the best intentions. One way would be failing to link performance incentives to ethical practice. When leaders create strong incentives to accomplish a goal without creating equally strong incentives to adhere to ethical practice in achieving the desired goal, they effectively set the stage for ethical malpractice. Incentivizing ethical practice is equally important as incentivizing other behaviors (1. In the health care industry, unlike in the sales industry, professionalism and patient care are …

  17. Higher education reform: getting the incentives right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, Erik; Venniker, Richard; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Koelman, Jos; Koelman, Jos; van der Meer, Peter; van der Meer, Peter; Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2001-01-01

    This study is a joint effort by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies. It analyses a number of `best practices¿ where the design of financial incentives working on the system level of higher education is concerned. In Chapter 1,

  18. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  19. Biased managers, organizational design, and incentive provision

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Humberto Ataíde; Costa, Cristiano Machado; Ferreira, Daniel Bernardo Soares

    2004-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro We model the tradeoff between the balance and the strength of incentives implicit in the choice between hierarchical and matrix organizational structures. We show that managerial biases determine which structure is optimal: hierarchical forms are preferred when biases are low, while matrix structures are preferred when biases are high.

  20. Incentives, behavioral biases, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    While economists believe that monetary incentives provide the most powerful motivation for individuals to undertake an activity, major schools in psychology and sociology emphasize the motives coming from within the individual and from the personal and cultural differences among individuals. This

  1. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  2. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  3. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  4. Auctioning incentive contracts: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; van de Meerendonk, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we experimentally examine the relative performance of price-only auctions and multi-attribute auctions. We do so in procurement settings where the buyer can give the winning bidder incentives to exert effort on non-price dimensions after the auction. Both auctions theoretically

  5. Decommissioning Programme Management: reducing risk and cost while accelerating schedules through improved planning, Earned Value Management and safe work execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL experience includes more than two decades of managing nuclear facilities and providing clean-up and operations support for commercial and government facilities worldwide. Our expertise ranges from decommissioning and defence sector businesses to nuclear technology development and innovation. Our approach places top priority on the safe execution of work while reducing both risk and cost. Our nuclear services include: programme management, nuclear safety analysis, radiological protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear remediation, nuclear materials and waste transportation management, nuclear safeguards and security services, and nuclear decontamination and decommissioning. This paper will discuss our approach which has resulted in a strong track record of accelerating schedules and reducing costs of major nuclear programmes, including Rocky Flats, Idaho, and our work at UKAEA sites. (author)

  6. Incentives for early adoption of carbon capture technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comello, Stephen; Reichelstein, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a policy proposal for regulating the next generation of baseload electricity generation facilities in the United States. The cornerstone of this regulation is a (hypothetical) EPA mandate for an emission standard of 80 kg of CO 2 per MWh of electricity generated. The mandate would go into effect at the end of 2027 for all power generating facilities that come into operation after 2017. Fossil-fuel power plants could meet the standard by capturing between 80 and 90% of their current CO 2 emissions. While the initial cost of complying with this standard is relatively high for first-of-a-kind facilities, learning effects are projected to reduce this cost substantially by the end of 2027, provided new facilities consistently adopt carbon capture technology in the intervening years. We identify a combination of investment- and production tax credits that provide the required incentives for new facilities to be willing to comply with the standard ahead of the mandate. Due to the anticipated learning effects, the incremental cost associated with the stricter emission limit is projected to about 1.2¢ per kWh of electricity in the long run. - Highlights: • Study the cost effects of a CO 2 emission standard for natural gas power plants. • The standard requires the deployment of carbon capture technology. • Future compliance costs are reduced through learning effects. • Identify tax incentives that induce early technology adoption. • Early adoption results in relatively modest electricity cost increases

  7. Anticipating different grips reduces bimanual end-state comfort: A tradeoff between goal-related and means-related planning processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Seegelke

    Full Text Available The present study explored the sensitivity towards bimanual end-state comfort in a task that required anticipating different final grips. Participants simultaneously reached and grasped two objects with either a whole-hand grip (WHG or a precision grip (PG, and placed them at two target locations by transporting them either over or under an obstacle. The transport path was varied such that it could be either congruent (i.e., both objects over or under or incongruent (i.e., one object over and the other object under. In the congruent conditions, participants satisfied bimanual end-state comfort (and identical initial grips on the majority of trials. That is, participants adopted a PG for either hand when the objects were transported over the obstacle and a WHG for either hand when the objects were transported under the obstacle. In contrast, in the incongruent conditions, bimanual end-state comfort was significantly reduced, indicating the presence of intermanual inference. The results indicate that goal-related planning constraints (i.e., bimanual end-state comfort do not strictly take precedence over means-related constraints (i.e., identical initial grips if this requires anticipating different final grips. Thus, bimanual end-state comfort per se does not provide a predominant constraint in action selection, by which sensorimotor interference can be reduced. In line with the proposal that bimanual grip planning relies on a flexible constraint hierarchy, a simple formal model that considers bimanual grip posture planning as a tradeoff between goal-related and means-related planning processes can explain our results reasonably well.

  8. Incentives and nuclear waste siting: Prospects and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Sorensen, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Reed, J.H.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Peelle, E.

    1983-01-01

    Limited anecdotal evidence from existing incentive-based facility sitings, and from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 regarding the acceptability of a nuclear waste repository, indicates that incentives may help ahcieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward), and prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. 54 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  9. Using Effective Contractual Incentives to Obtain Superior Contractor Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venable, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide the reader with the ability to analyze the effectiveness of incentives and to document innovative approaches to incentive contracting that can be applied to Cost-Plus-Award-Fee (CPAF) contracts...

  10. Value affect of construction incentive payments on pavement performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) has been using monetary incentive payments : for many years to improve contractors conformance with specifications and their overall : workmanship. It was envisioned that incentive/disincentive (I/D...

  11. Grid Computing BOINC Redesign Mindmap with incentive system (gamification)

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchen, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Grid Computing BOINC Redesign Mindmap with incentive system (gamification) this is a PDF viewable of https://figshare.com/articles/Grid_Computing_BOINC_Redesign_Mindmap_with_incentive_system_gamification_/1265350

  12. 48 CFR 416.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 416.405 Section 416.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  13. Reports of unintended consequences of financial incentives to improve management of hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia J Hysong

    Full Text Available Given the increase in financial-incentive programs nationwide, many physicians and physician groups are concerned about potential unintended consequences of providing financial incentives to improve quality of care. However, few studies examine whether actual unintended consequences result from providing financial incentives to physicians. We sought to document the extent to which the unintended consequences discussed in the literature were observable in a randomized clinical trial (RCT of financial incentives.We conducted a qualitative observational study nested within a larger RCT of financial incentives to improve hypertension care. We conducted 30-minute telephone interviews with primary care personnel at facilities participating in the RCT housed at12 geographically dispersed Veterans Affairs Medical Centers nationwide. Participants answered questions about unintended effects, clinic team dynamics, organizational impact on care delivery, study participation. We employed a blend of inductive and deductive qualitative techniques for analysis.Sixty-five participants were recruited from RCT enrollees and personnel not enrolled in the larger RCT, plus one primary care leader per site.Emergent themes included possible patient harm, emphasis on documentation over improving care, reduced professional morale, and positive spillover. All discussions of unintended consequences involving patient harm were only concerns, not actual events. Several unintended consequences concerned ancillary initiatives for quality improvement (e.g., practice guidelines and performance measurement systems rather than financial incentives.Many unintended consequences of financial incentives noted were either only concerns or attributable to ancillary quality-improvement initiatives. Actual unintended consequences included improved documentation of care without necessarily improving actual care, and positive unintended consequences.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  14. Planning for seven generations: Energy planning of American Indian tribes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshire, Daniel; Kaza, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of energy resources on American Indian lands, the links between energy management and tribal sovereignty, and recent federal government incentives make tribal energy planning an interesting case study for community energy planning in the US. This paper studies the strategic energy planning efforts, energy resource development, and energy efficiency policies established by tribes within the continental US. The paper analyzes the results of a survey of various tribes′ energy resource development and planning efforts and supplements the responses with publicly available information on resources, economics, and demographics. We find that incentives and advisory services from the federal government are key to developing the capacity of the tribes to pursue energy planning and energy resource development. These incentives largely avoid the misdeeds of past federal policy by promoting tribal control over energy planning and energy resource development efforts. Tribes with formal energy plans or visions are more likely to develop energy resources than tribes without them and are engaged in a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to energy resource development and energy efficiency. - Highlights: • American Indian tribal energy planning is an understudied topic. • Tribal energy planning is interconnected with tribal sovereignty and sustainability. • We report the results of a survey of energy planning and development efforts. • Federal Government assistance is critical to the efforts of the tribes. • Tribes with energy plans take a more comprehensive approach to energy resource development

  15. The roles of incentives and voluntary cooperation for contractual compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Gächter, Simon; Kessler, Esther; Königstein, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency under contractual incompleteness often requires voluntary cooperation in situations where self-regarding incentives for contractual compliance are present as well. Here we provide a comprehensive experimental analysis based on the gift-exchange game of how explicit and implicit incentives affect cooperation. We first show that there is substantial cooperation under non-incentive compatible contracts. Incentive-compatible contracts induce best-reply effort and crowd out any voluntar...

  16. Unconventional energy resources in a crowded subsurface: Reducing uncertainty and developing a separation zone concept for resource estimation and deep 3D subsurface planning using legacy mining data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Alison A

    2017-12-01

    Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes. An exemplar from the Carboniferous of central Scotland, UK, illustrates how, in areas lacking hydrocarbon well production data and 3D seismic surveys, legacy coal mine plans and associated boreholes provide valuable data that can be used to reduce the uncertainty around geometry and faulting of subsurface energy resources. However, legacy coal mines also limit unconventional resource volumes since mines and associated shafts alter the stress and hydrogeochemical state of the subsurface, commonly forming pathways to the surface. To reduce the risk of subsurface connections between energy resources, an example of an adapted methodology is described for shale gas/oil resource estimation to include a vertical separation or 'stand-off' zone between the deepest mine workings, to ensure the hydraulic fracturing required for shale resource production would not intersect legacy coal mines. Whilst the size of such separation zones requires further work, developing the concept of 3D spatial separation and planning is key to utilising the crowded subsurface energy system, whilst mitigating against resource sterilisation and environmental impacts, and could play a role in positively informing public and policy debate. Copyright © 2017 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of monetary incentives on cognitive performance and error monitoring following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shulan; Li, Tzu-Hsien; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether monetary incentives attenuate the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in a flanker task that requires higher-level cognitive-control processes, including error monitoring. Twenty-four healthy adults aged 18 to 23 years were randomly divided into 2 subject groups: one received and the other did not receive monetary incentives for performance accuracy. Both subject groups performed a flanker task and underwent electroencephalographic recordings for event-related brain potentials after normal sleep and after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in a within-subject, counterbalanced, repeated-measures study design. Monetary incentives significantly enhanced the response accuracy and reaction time variability under both normal sleep and sleep-deprived conditions, and they reduced the effects of sleep deprivation on the subjective effort level, the amplitude of the error-related negativity (an error-related event-related potential component), and the latency of the P300 (an event-related potential variable related to attention processes). However, monetary incentives could not attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on any measures of behavior performance, such as the response accuracy, reaction time variability, or posterror accuracy adjustments; nor could they reduce the effects of sleep deprivation on the amplitude of the Pe, another error-related event-related potential component. This study shows that motivation incentives selectively reduce the effects of total sleep deprivation on some brain activities, but they cannot attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on performance decrements in tasks that require high-level cognitive-control processes. Thus, monetary incentives and sleep deprivation may act through both common and different mechanisms to affect cognitive performance.

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TAX INCENTIVES ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel NUTǍ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration trend has freed the capital movement and many new locations became available for investment. That is why the policy makers had to think for new and more efficient ways to lure the capital owners. One of the most used and dynamic method is the fiscal policy. The fiscal incentives were in many cases the main reason for choosing a country and stay away from another. The main reason for this situation is that the fiscal policy is one of the most flexible public tools to manipulate the market and the decisions on it. Public administrations can encourage or block different kinds of investment decisions according to its policy and long term plans.

  19. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such period...

  20. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid provider incentive payments. 495.310 Section 495.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.310 Medicaid provider incentive...

  1. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  2. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  3. Social and cultural drivers of incentive effectiveness in infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, T.M.; Volker, L.

    2013-01-01

    Formal incentives systems aim to encourage improved performance by offering a reward for the achievement of project-specific goals. Despite argued benefits of incentive systems on project delivery outcomes, there remains debate over how incentive systems can be designed to encourage the formation of

  4. Analysis of Preference of Incentives to Innovation of Dominican Manufacturing and Service Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gómez-Valenzuela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is analyzed  the structure of preference of incentives to innovation of Dominican manufacturing and services firms.  The analysis of preference was  carried out using a Conjoint Analysis. In  total  326 firms were surveyed across the country.   According to the main findings,   Dominican firms prefer combinations of incentives to minimize tax liabilities but also to reduce uncertainty related to innovation activities.   In terms of preference, no statistically significant differences between manufacturing and service firms were found.

  5. Effectiveness of structured planned post discharge support to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for reducing readmission rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Ersgard, Karen Bagger; Soerensen, Tina Brandt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, characterized by airflow limitation. The disease has a significant impact on the lives of patients and is a challenge for the health care due to readmissions to hospitals. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed...... exacerbation. TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS: Studies that evaluated discharge interventions that supported patients managing symptoms of COPD. TYPES OF STUDIES: Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental or cohort studies. OUTCOMES: Readmission, defined as hospitalization...... to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of discharge interventions that can reduce readmission of patients with COPD. TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized patients, aged 18 years or over, who had been diagnosed with COPD and were admitted to hospital due to acute...

  6. Augmenting the impact of technology adoption with financial incentive to improve radiology report signature times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P; Prevedello, Luciano M; Dufault, Allen; Pezeshk, Parham; Bransfield, Robert; Hanson, Richard; Doubilet, Peter M; Seltzer, Steven E; Khorasani, Ramin

    2010-03-01

    Radiology report signature time (ST) can be a substantial component of total report turnaround time. Poor turnaround time resulting from lengthy ST can adversely affect patient care. The combination of technology adoption with financial incentive was evaluated to determine if ST improvement can be augmented and sustained. This prospective study was performed at a 751-bed, urban, tertiary care adult teaching hospital. Test-site imaging volume approximated 48,000 examinations per month. The radiology department has 100 trainees and 124 attending radiologists serving multiple institutions. Over a study period of 4 years and 4 months, three interventions focused on radiologist signature performance were implemented: 1) a notification paging application that alerted radiologists when reports were ready for signature, 2) a picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)-integrated speech recognition report generation system, and 3) a departmental financial incentive to reward radiologists semiannually for ST performance. Signature time was compared before and after the interventions. Wilcoxon and linear regression statistical analyses were used to assess the significance of trends. Technology adoption (paging plus speech recognition) reduced median ST from >5 to 24 to 15 to 18 hours (P financial incentive further improved 80th-percentile ST to 4 to 8 hours (P Technology interventions coupled with financial incentive can result in synergistic and sustainable improvement in radiologist report-signing behavior. The addition of a financial incentive leads to better performance than that achievable through technology alone.

  7. Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Gu Jeong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirect load control (ILC is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS. However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1 the social welfare increases and (2 the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3 the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal.

  8. The role of economic incentives for managing technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunreuther, H.

    1995-01-01

    A key issue facing society in dealing with the management of technological facilities is balancing the costs of reducing risks with the relevant benefits. These tradeoffs are difficult for both experts and laypersons to make when there is limited objective data on the nature of the health and safety risks. Economic incentives, such as insurance and compensation, can play an important role in reducing and preventing losses associated with technological facilities if they are coupled with appropriate regulations and/or standards. They also can communicate information to the public on the price associated with different levels of risk. The talk will focus on how these policy tools can be utilized for improving the risk management process in conjunction with risk assessment. The siting of facilities for storing and disposing of potentially hazardous wastes will be used to illustrate these concepts and indicate how the public can be made a more integral part of the process

  9. A Truthful Incentive Mechanism for Online Recruitment in Mobile Crowd Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate emerging mobile crowd sensing (MCS systems, in which new cloud-based platforms sequentially allocate homogenous sensing jobs to dynamically-arriving users with uncertain service qualities. Given that human beings are selfish in nature, it is crucial yet challenging to design an efficient and truthful incentive mechanism to encourage users to participate. To address the challenge, we propose a novel truthful online auction mechanism that can efficiently learn to make irreversible online decisions on winner selections for new MCS systems without requiring previous knowledge of users. Moreover, we theoretically prove that our incentive possesses truthfulness, individual rationality and computational efficiency. Extensive simulation results under both real and synthetic traces demonstrate that our incentive mechanism can reduce the payment of the platform, increase the utility of the platform and social welfare.

  10. A Truthful Incentive Mechanism for Online Recruitment in Mobile Crowd Sensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Zhou, Yaqin; Li, Zhongcheng; Chen, Shuang; He, Xiangnan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate emerging mobile crowd sensing (MCS) systems, in which new cloud-based platforms sequentially allocate homogenous sensing jobs to dynamically-arriving users with uncertain service qualities. Given that human beings are selfish in nature, it is crucial yet challenging to design an efficient and truthful incentive mechanism to encourage users to participate. To address the challenge, we propose a novel truthful online auction mechanism that can efficiently learn to make irreversible online decisions on winner selections for new MCS systems without requiring previous knowledge of users. Moreover, we theoretically prove that our incentive possesses truthfulness, individual rationality and computational efficiency. Extensive simulation results under both real and synthetic traces demonstrate that our incentive mechanism can reduce the payment of the platform, increase the utility of the platform and social welfare.

  11. Incentive-based approaches in marine conservation: Applications for sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjertsen Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation practitioners are increasingly turning to incentive-based approaches to encourage local resource users to change behaviors that impact biodiversity and natural habitat. We assess the design and performance of marine conservation interventions with varying types of incentives through an analysis of case studies from around the world. Here we focus on seven examples that are particularly relevant to designing incentives for sea turtle conservation. Four of the cases are focused on sea turtle conservation, and the others contain elements that may be applied to turtle projects. Many more opportunities exist for interventions that combine the strengths of these approaches, such as performance-based agreements that provide funds for education or alternative livelihood development, and leasing fishing rights to reduce bycatch.

  12. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  13. Incentives for healthy behaviors: experience from Florida Medicaid's Enhanced Benefit Rewards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allyson G; Lemak, Christy Harris; Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Duncan, R Paul

    2013-04-01

    Engaging individuals in their own health care proves challenging for policy makers, health plans, and providers. Florida Medicaid introduced the Enhanced Benefits Rewards (EBR) program in 2006, providing financial incentives as rewards to beneficiaries who engage in health care seeking and healthy behaviors. This study analyzed beneficiary survey data from 2009 to determine predictors associated with awareness of and participation in the EBR program. Non-English speakers, those in a racial and ethnic minority group, those with less than a high school education, and those with limited or no connection to a health care provider were associated with lower awareness of the program. Among those aware of the program, these factors were also associated with reduced likelihood of engaging in the program. Individuals in fair or poor health were also less likely to engage in an approved behavior. Individuals who speak Spanish at home and those without a high school diploma were more likely than other groups to spend their earned program credits. Findings underscore the fact that initial engagement in such a program can prove challenging as different groups are not equally likely to be aware of or participate in an approved activity or redeem a credit. Physicians may play important roles in encouraging participation in programs to incentivize healthy behaviors.

  14. Forecasting uptake of retrofit packages in office building stock under government incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Andrew; Syme, Mike; McGregor, James; Marquez, Leorey; Seo, Seongwon

    2014-01-01

    As government and industry plan to reduce energy consumption in building stock, there is a need to forecast the uptake of retrofit packages across building stock over time. To address this challenge a diffusion model was set up and applied to office building stock across New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, accommodating a high spatial resolution and temporal capability for projecting uptake of technology packages characterised by multiple variables. Six retrofit packages were set up for the diffusion model, which ranged from inexpensive services and manuals through to mid-priced packages involving energy efficient T5 lighting and solar hot water through to expensive packages such as chilled beams and Solar PV. We evaluated the model using a base case and two policy programs, representing the Green Building Fund and Environmental Upgrade Agreements. These were recent incentive programs funded by the Australian government to accelerate the uptake of retrofit packages, by providing financial support to upfront expenditures and removing barriers to retrofit. By forecasting uptake of each retrofit package to 2032 under each program, we demonstrate how the model can be a valuable resource in tailoring expensive government programs and increasing their effectiveness. - Highlights: • Diffusion model for uptake of building retrofits. • Case study with New South Wales office buildings. • Forecast uptake of government policy programs

  15. Numerical semigroups in a problem about economic incentives for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Robles-Pérez, Aureliano M.; Rosales, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a promotion to increase the number of musical downloads, we introduce the concept of $C$-incentive and show an algorithm that compute the smallest $C$-incentive containing a subset $X \\subseteq {\\mathbb N}$. On the other hand, in order to study $C$-incentives, we see that we can focus on numerical $C$-incentives. Then, we establish that the set formed by all numerical $C$-incentives is a Frobenius pseudo-variety and we show an algorithmic process to recurrently build such a pseud...

  16. Wellness Programs With Financial Incentives Through Disparities Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison; LoSasso, Anthony T; Shah, Mona; Atwood, Alicia; Lewis-Walls, Tanya R

    2018-02-01

    To examine wellness programs with financial incentives and their effect on disparities in preventive care. Financial incentives were introduced by 15 large employers, from 2010 to 2013. Fifteen private employers. A total of 299 436 employees and adult dependents. Preventive services and participation in financial incentives. Multivariate linear regression. Disparities in preventive services widened after introduction of financial incentives. Asians were 3% more likely and African Americans were 3% less likely to receive wellness rewards than whites and non-Hispanics, controlling for other factors. Federal law limits targeting of wellness financial incentives by subgroups; thus, employers should consider outreach and culturally appropriate messaging.

  17. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  18. Review. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-10-12

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation ('wanting') for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive sensitization occur in human addicts? Is the development of addiction-like behaviour in animals associated with sensitization? What is the best way to model addiction symptoms using animal models? And, finally, what are the roles of affective pleasure or withdrawal in addiction?

  19. Incentives and compensation: providing resources for communities hosting low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    State responsibility for the management of low-level radioactive waste necessitates the selection of candidate locations for a disposal facility. Concern over potential impacts can be expected from segments of the citizenry neighboring a proposed site. A number of national organizations comprising state and local officials have recommended the use of incentives and compensation to help offset the negative local impacts. This document explores that concept. Discussion provides background information on potential local impacts from a low-level waste facility and considers the nature and types of incentives and compensation benefits that could be provided. The document then examines realistic options for planning and implementing the benefit program. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for and managing low-level waste disposal facilities

  20. Small sustainable monetary incentives versus charitable donations to promote exercise: Rationale, design, and baseline data from a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Lee, Harold H; Connell, Lauren; Boyle, Holly; Emerson, Jessica; Strohacker, Kelley; Galárraga, Omar

    2018-03-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) enhances weight-loss and reduces risk of chronic disease. However, as few as 10% of U.S. adults engage in regular PA. Incentive programs to promote PA have shown some promise, but have typically used incentives that are too large to sustain over time and have not demonstrated habit formation or been tested in community settings. This report presents the rationale and design of a randomized pilot study testing the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of small monetary incentives for PA (n=25) versus charitable donations in the same amount (n=25) versus control (n=25) over 12months among 75 low-active but otherwise healthy adults at a local YMCA. Incentives are based on YMCA attendance, which is verified by electronic swipe card data and is the primary study outcome, with self-reported minutes/week of PA assessed as a secondary outcome. Incentives are intentionally small enough-$1/session, maximum of $5/week-such that they could be indefinitely sustained by community organizations, privately-owned health clubs, healthcare organizations, or employers (e.g., employer fitness facilities). Costs of the incentive program for the sponsoring organization may be partially offset by increases in membership resulting from the appeal of the program. Moreover, if efficacious, the charitable donation incentive program may have the added benefit of building social capital for the sponsoring organization and potentially serving as a tax write-off, thus further offsetting the cost of the incentives. Findings will also have implications for the use of financially sustainable community-based incentive programs for other health-related behaviors (e.g., weight loss, smoking). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HEDGE FUND MANAGERIAL INCENTIVES AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hadaliza ABD RAHMAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the hedge fund industry over the decades has brought an interesting form of performance contract between the portfolio managers and their investors. The contractual relation has given an impact to the performance of the hedge fund industry, which benefited both fund managers and investors. Furthermore, it has created more investors and fund managers to participate in this high risk and high return investment. Currently, many issues on fee structures and performancebased incentives have been discussed. Do these issues affect the performance of the hedge fund in the market? This paper will investigate the issues in Australian market. It will empirically analyze the hedge fund performance in relation to the market performance and whether managerial incentives and discretions associated with better fund performance.

  2. Tax incentives and enhanced oil recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, J.S.

    1991-05-01

    Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation

  3. Incentive Contracts and Hedge Fund Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Carsten Jackwerth; James E. Hodder

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates dynamically optimal risk-taking by an expected-utility maximizing manager of a hedge fund. We examine the effects of variations on a compensation structure that includes a percentage management fee, a performance incentive for exceeding a specified highwater mark, and managerial ownership of fund shares. In our basic model, there is an exogenous liquidation barrier where the fund is shut down due to poor performance. We also consider extensions where the manager can vo...

  4. Beyond Widgets -- Systems Incentive Programs for Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Utility incentive programs remain one of the most significant means of deploying commercialized, but underutilized building technologies to scale. However, these programs have been largely limited to component-based products (e.g., lamps, RTUs). While some utilities do provide ‘custom’ incentive programs with whole building and system level technical assistance, these programs require deeper levels of analysis, resulting in higher program costs. This results in custom programs being restricted to utilities with greater resources, and are typically applied mainly to large or energy-intensive facilities, leaving much of the market without cost effective access and incentives for these solutions. In addition, with increasingly stringent energy codes, cost effective component-based solutions that achieve significant savings are dwindling. Building systems (e.g., integrated façade, HVAC and/or lighting solutions) can deliver higher savings that translate into large sector-wide savings if deployed at the scale of these programs. However, systems application poses a number of challenges – baseline energy use must be defined and measured; the metrics for energy and performance must be defined and tested against; in addition, system savings must be validated under well understood conditions. This paper presents a sample of findings of a project to develop validated utility incentive program packages for three specific integrated building systems, in collaboration with Xcel Energy (CO, MN), ComEd, and a consortium of California Public Owned Utilities (CA POUs) (Northern California Power Agency(NCPA) and the Southern California Public Power Authority(SCPPA)). Furthermore, these program packages consist of system specifications, system performance, M&V protocols, streamlined assessment methods, market assessment and implementation guidance.

  5. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  6. Managerial Incentives and Stock Price Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Lin; Röell, Ailsa A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a rational expectations model of optimal executive compensation in a setting where managers are in a position to manipulate short-term stock prices, and managers' propensity to manipulate is uncertain. Stock-based incentives elicit not only productive effort, but also costly information manipulation. We analyze the tradeoffs involved in conditioning pay on long- versus short-term performance and characterize a second-best optimal compensation scheme. The paper shows manipu...

  7. Incentives, equity and the Able Chooser Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Kalle

    2017-03-01

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviours in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivised options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behaviour if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those who fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasised by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, does not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. The Economics of Foreign Direct Investment Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Blomstrom; Ari Kokko

    2003-01-01

    This Paper suggests that the use of investment incentives focusing exclusively on foreign firms - although motivated in some cases from a theoretical point of view - is generally not an efficient way to raise national welfare. The main reason is that the strongest theoretical motive for financial subsidies to inward FDI – spillovers of foreign technology and skills to local industry – is not an automatic consequence of foreign investment. The potential spillover benefits are realized only if ...

  9. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  10. The use of financial incentives in Australian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Milica; Hall, Jane P

    2015-05-18

    To examine the uptake of financial incentive payments in general practice, and identify what types of practitioners are more likely to participate in these schemes. Analysis of data on general practitioners and GP registrars from the Medicine in Australia - Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) longitudinal panel survey of medical practitioners in Australia, from 2008 to 2011. Income received by GPs from government incentive schemes and grants and factors associated with the likelihood of claiming such incentives. Around half of GPs reported receiving income from financial incentives in 2008, and there was a small fall in this proportion by 2011. There was considerable movement into and out of the incentives schemes, with more GPs exiting than taking up grants and payments. GPs working in larger practices with greater administrative support, GPs practising in rural areas and those who were principals or partners in practices were more likely to use grants and incentive payments. Administrative support available to GPs appears to be an increasingly important predictor of incentive use, suggesting that the administrative burden of claiming incentives is large and not always worth the effort. It is, therefore, crucial to consider such costs (especially relative to the size of the payment) when designing incentive payments. As market conditions are also likely to influence participation in incentive schemes, the impact of incentives can change over time and these schemes should be reviewed regularly.

  11. Applied economics: The use of monetary incentives to modulate behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, S; Park, S Q; Strombach, T; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    According to standard economic theory higher monetary incentives will lead to higher performance and higher effort independent of task, context, or individual. In many contexts this standard economic advice is implemented. Monetary incentives are, for example, used to enhance performance at workplace or to increase health-related behavior. However, the fundamental positive impact of monetary incentives has been questioned by psychologists as well as behavioral economists during the last decade, arguing that monetary incentives can sometimes even backfire. In this chapter, studies from proponents as well as opponents of monetary incentives will be presented. Specifically, the impact of monetary incentives on performance, prosocial, and health behavior will be discussed. Furthermore, variables determining whether incentives have a positive or negative impact will be identified. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  13. Parking management : strategies, evaluation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    Parking facilities are a major cost to society. Current planning practices are based on the assumption that parking should be abundant and provided free, with costs borne indirectly. This report examined parking management strategies related to integrated parking plans. Problems with current parking planning practices were reviewed. The costs of parking facilities were examined, as well as the savings that can accrue from improved management techniques. Strategies included shared parking; remote parking and shuttle services; walking and cycling improvements; improved enforcement and control; and increasing the capacity of existing parking facilities. Parking pricing methods, financial incentives and parking tax reforms were reviewed. Issues concerning user information and marketing were examined. Overflow parking plans were evaluated. Three illustrative examples of parking management programs were outlined, along with details of implementation, planning and evaluation procedures. It was concluded that cost-effective parking management programs can often reduce parking requirements by 20 to 40 per cent compared with conventional planning requirements, in addition to providing economic, social and environmental benefits. 32 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Linking mortgage finance incentives to a voluntary home energy rating system: Insight into consensus building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenior, M.-M.

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative consensus process was created to implement a program linking voluntary home energy rating systems (HERS) to mortgage incentives. The participants involved many of the stakeholders or interest groups who have a role in implementing and who will be affected by energy efficiency mortgate incentive programs linked to HERS. The participants included representatives from the primary and secondary mortgage market; real estate, home building, and remodeling industries; utilities; state, local, consumer, and environmental organizations; and home energy rating providers. The participants defined the actions required to implement as well as the technical requirements of a program linking home energy ratings and mortgage finance. Building on the recommendations of the collaborative process, members of the collaborative continue to take initiatives to put a Home Energy Rating Systems Council into place, in planning pilot programs for developing and testing ways to link HERS and mortgage programs, and in making home buyers and owners aware of existing mortgage incentives. At the same time, mortgage providers are working to develop uniformity among mortgage incentive programs and with the US Department of Energy to develop procedures to verify the relative accuracy of HERS calculation tools and their application, and with the emerging HERS Council to develop the guidelines for voluntary HERS required under the Energy Policy Act of 1992

  15. The impact of removing financial incentives from clinical quality indicators: longitudinal analysis of four Kaiser Permanente indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, H.; Schmittdiel, J.; Selby, J.; Fireman, B.; Campbell, S.M.; Lee, J.; Whippy, A.; Madvig, P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of financial incentives on four clinical quality indicators common to pay for performance plans in the United Kingdom and at Kaiser Permanente in California. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis. SETTING: 35 medical facilities of Kaiser Permanente Northern California,

  16. Favorable Risk Selection in Medicare Advantage: Trends in Mortality and Plan Exits Among Nursing Home Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Jung, Hye-Young; Rahman, Momotazur

    2016-01-01

    The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) increased payments to Medicare Advantage plans and instituted a new risk-adjustment payment model to reduce plans' incentives to enroll healthier Medicare beneficiaries and avoid those with higher costs. Whether the MMA reduced risk selection remains debatable. This study uses mortality differences, nursing home utilization, and switch rates to assess whether the MMA successfully decreased risk selection from 2000 to 2012. We found no decrease in the mortality difference or adjusted difference in nursing home use between plan beneficiaries pre- and post the MMA. Among beneficiaries with nursing home use, disenrollment from Medicare Advantage plans declined from 20% to 12%, but it remained 6 times higher than the switch rate from traditional Medicare to Medicare Advantage. These findings suggest that the MMA was not associated with reductions in favorable risk selection, as measured by mortality, nursing home use, and switch rates. PMID:27516452

  17. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  18. What You Sow Is What You Reap? (Dis-Incentives for Adaptation Intentions in Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Buelow

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation by farmers and other land managers responsible for climate-sensitive activities is central to ensuring resilience in the face of ongoing climate variability and change. However, there remains an adaptation deficit among agricultural producers: action to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change is insufficient. To motivate adaptation, diverse incentives are in place most notably through the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy which offers financial incentives to farmers. However, the effect of incentives on behaviour appears to be low. To better understand adaptation intentions, we report on the results of a survey experiment assessing framing effects on German farmers. Four framings of adaptation motifs—financial, norms, risk awareness, and technological innovation—are tested against a socio-cognitive model based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT. According to PMT, adaptation intentions are a function of an individual’s risk and coping appraisal. Results show that, contrary to assumptions of profit maximizing individuals, economic incentives trigger fewer overall change intentions. Economic rewards do act on risk perception, but are less likely to trigger coping perception, while other treatments do. As coping perception is one of two socio-cognitive reactions to climate change, financial incentive structures fail to act on about half the factors leading to adaptation intentions. These effects dependent on subgroups, farm structures, and are mediated by climate experience. To support transitions towards robust adaptation, adaptation incentives must move beyond financial framings alone, and leverage on farmers’ recent experiences with adverse climate impacts, understandings of climate change, and the influence of social norms.

  19. Adoption of residential solar power under uncertainty: Implications for renewable energy incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauner, Christoph; Crago, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Many incentives at the state and federal level exist for household adoption of renewable energy like solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. Despite generous financial incentives the adoption rate is low. We use the option value framework, which takes into account the benefit of delaying investment in response to uncertainty, to examine the decision by households to invest in solar PV. Using a simulation model, we determine optimal adoption times, critical values of discounted benefits, and adoption rates over time for solar PV investments using data from Massachusetts. We find that the option value multiplier is 1.6, which implies that the discounted value of benefits from solar PV needs to exceed installation cost by 60% for investment to occur. Without any policies, median adoption time is eight years longer under the option value decision rule compared to the net present value decision rule where households equate discounted benefits to installation cost. Rebates and other financial incentives decrease adoption time, but their effect is attenuated if households apply the option value decision rule to solar PV investments. Results suggest that policies that reduce the uncertainty in returns from solar PV investments would be most effective at incentivizing adoption. - Highlights: • We examine household adoption of solar PV using the option value framework. • Uncertainty in benefits and costs leads to delay in investment timing. • Discounted benefits from solar PV have to exceed investment cost by 60% to trigger investment. • Policy incentives that reduce uncertainty in returns from solar PV are most effective.

  20. Incentives for increasing prenatal care use by women in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Sara R; Everetts, David; Haas, David M

    2015-12-15

    Prenatal care is recommended during pregnancy as a method to improve neonatal and maternal outcomes. Improving the use of prenatal care is important, particularly for women at moderate to high risk of adverse outcomes. Incentives are sometimes utilized to encourage women to attend prenatal care visits. To determine whether incentives are an effective tool to increase utilization of timely prenatal care among women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015) and the reference lists of all retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cluster-RCTs that utilized direct incentives to pregnant women explicitly linked to initiation and frequency of prenatal care were included. Incentives could include cash, vouchers, coupons or products not generally offered to women as a standard of prenatal care. Comparisons were to no incentives and to incentives not linked directly to utilization of care. We also planned to compare different types of interventions, i.e. monetary versus products or services. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and methodological quality. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We identified 11 studies (19 reports), six of which we excluded. Five studies, involving 11,935 pregnancies were included, but only 1893 pregnancies contributed data regarding our specified outcomes. Incentives in the studies included cash, gift card, baby carrier, baby blanket or taxicab voucher and were compared with no incentives. Meta-analysis was performed for only one outcome 'Return for postpartum care' and this outcome was not pre-specified in our protocol. Other analyses were restricted to data from single studies.Trials were at a moderate risk of bias overall. Randomization and allocation were adequate and risk of selection bias was low in three studies and unclear in two studies. None of the studies were blinded to the

  1. Policy Incentives for the Adoption of Electric Vehicles across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs have prominent advantages for reducing CO2 emissions and alleviating the dependence on fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. Therefore, many countries have set targets for EV development in recent years and have employed a number of policies to achieve environmental objectives and alleviate the energy pressure. Despite the fact that the adoption of EVs has increased in the past few years, more policies, such as financial incentives, technology support or charging infrastructure, should be made by governments to promote broader range use of EVs. In this paper, we review the relevant policies that different countries may adopt for stimulating the market of EVs. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between the policies and the adoption of EVs by taking America as an example. In conclusion, some effective policies are summarized to spur the market. Therefore, each country should learn from each other and employ effective policies based on the actual situation.

  2. Benefits of Government Incentives for Reusable Launch Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph W.; Prince, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Many exciting new opportunities in space, both government missions and business ventures, could be realized by a reduction in launch prices. Reusable launch vehicle (RLV) designs have the potential to lower launch costs dramatically from those of today's expendable and partially-expendable vehicles. Unfortunately, governments must budget to support existing launch capability, and so lack the resources necessary to completely fund development of new reusable systems. In addition, the new commercial space markets are too immature and uncertain to motivate the launch industry to undertake a project of this magnitude and risk. Low-cost launch vehicles will not be developed without a mature market to service; however, launch prices must be reduced in order for a commercial launch market to mature. This paper estimates and discusses the various benefits that may be reaped from government incentives for a commercial reusable launch vehicle program.

  3. Incentives for Energy Saving and Renewable Energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.

    2008-01-01

    Energy saving and renewable energy are again on the Dutch political agenda. Based on the governmental energy report, market parties have developed the action plan for the realisation of national renewable energy targets. The evaluation of recently closed subsidy programmes and development of new incentives take place in close cooperation among governmental organisations and market parties. For the financing of the action plan the government has reserved the budget up to 2011. The government believes that the implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy will strengthen the national economy and that the benefits of these measures will exceed the costs. The main obstacles related to the implementation of a large scale wind power generation are: spatial integration, permits and connection to the grid. Also, the large scale biomass plants meet problems because of the lack of clear environmental and sustainability criteria. The Dutch targets for 2020 are: increasing of energy efficiency with 20%, 20% renewable energy and decreasing of CO 2 -emissions with 30%.(author)

  4. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements...

  5. Incentives and participation in a medical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjøstein, Dagrun Kyte; Huitfeldt, Anders; Løberg, Magnus; Adami, Hans-Olov; Garborg, Kjetil; Kalager, Mette; Bretthauer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND Questionnaire surveys are important for surveying the health and disease behaviour of the population, but recent years have seen a fall in participation. Our study tested whether incentives can increase participation in these surveys.MATERIAL AND METHOD We sent a questionnaire on risk factors for colorectal cancer (height, weight, smoking, self-reported diagnoses, family medical history) to non-screened participants in a randomised colonoscopy screening study for colorectal cancer: participants who were invited but did not attend for colonoscopy examination (screening-invited) and persons who were not offered colonoscopy (control group). The persons were randomised to three groups: no financial incentive, lottery scratch cards included with the form, or a prize draw for a tablet computer when they responded to the form. We followed up all the incentive groups with telephone reminder calls, and before the prize draw for the tablet computer.RESULTS Altogether 3 705 of 6 795 persons (54.5  %) responded to the questionnaire; 43.5  % of those invited for screening and 65.6  % of the control group (p reminder calls, 39.2  % responded. A further 15.3  % responded following telephone reminder calls (14.1  % of the screening-invited and 16.5  % of the control group; p increase participation in this medical questionnaire survey. Use of telephone reminder calls and telephone interviews increased participation, but whether this is more effective than other methods requires further study.

  6. Tax issues and incentives for biomass projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.

    1993-01-01

    The federal government offers a number of tax incentives to developers of biomass projects. This paper describes each tax benefit, explains what conditions must be met before the benefit is available, and offers practical insights gained from working for over 10 years in the field. Understanding what tax benefits are available is important because the more tax benefits a developer can qualify for in connection with his project, the less expensive the project will be to build and operate and the easier it will be to arrange financing because there will be higher returns in the project for potential investors

  7. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... have, however, indicated that these factors interact. Using interviews, surveys and registers, the paper investigated how professional norms, economic incentives and sector affected the behaviour of Danish dentists and physicians. It was found that when strong professional norms existed, economic...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  8. Behavioral implications of providing real incentives in stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny

    2014-01-01

    the scope of research to other behavioral aspects where consumers in CE are often found to deviate from homo economicus. We develop a theoretical model where not only Willingness to pay (WTP) measures but also decision processing can be affected by the introduction of an economic incentive. Specifically...... incentive, we find marked benefits in relation to a number of behavioral aspects that together would favor the use of an economic incentive regardless of hypothetical bias being present or not....

  9. Globalisation and National Incentives for Protecting Environmental Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Alkuin Kölliker

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to explain national incentives for protecting environmental goods either autonomously or collectively; it explores how globalisation has affected those incentives; and it suggests how national environmental policy might respond so as to ensure its effectiveness. The central argument is that national incentives for environmental protection may to a considerable extent be explained by a combination of the type of environmental good to be protected (in terms of public goods th...

  10. The Evolution Of Cooperation In Business: Individual Vs. Group Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ladley; Ian Wilkinson; Louise Young

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative relations, within and between firms, play important roles in business. How to produce such relations, however, is less well understood. Building on work in evolutionary biology we examine the conditions under which group based incentives result in better performance than individual based incentives. We find that when individual and group interests are not aligned, group incentive systems lead to both higher group and individual performance. Hybrid reward systems, with both group a...

  11. Issues in the Design of Saving and Investment Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    David F. Bradford

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of and interactions among measures to effect saving and investment incentives ("S-I incentives")in the context of an income tax system that is inadequately indexed for inflation. Examples are proposals for more rapid depreciation of buildings and equipment and proposals to exempt larger amounts of interest income. SI incentives are classified into "consumption tax" and "direct grant" types, and it is shown that these differ in their influence on portfol...

  12. CRIMSON [CRisis plan IMpact: Subjective and Objective coercion and eNgagement] Protocol: A randomised controlled trial of joint crisis plans to reduce compulsory treatment of people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of compulsory treatment under the Mental Health Act (MHA has continued to rise in the UK and in other countries. The Joint Crisis Plan (JCP is a statement of service users' wishes for treatment in the event of a future mental health crisis. It is developed with the clinical team and an independent facilitator. A recent pilot RCT showed a reduction in the use of the MHA amongst service users with a JCP. The JCP is the only intervention that has been shown to reduce compulsory treatment in this way. The CRIMSON trial aims to determine if JCPs, compared with treatment as usual, are effective in reducing the use of the MHA in a range of treatment settings across the UK. Methods/Design This is a 3 centre, individual-level, single-blind, randomised controlled trial of the JCP compared with treatment as usual for people with a history of relapsing psychotic illness in Birmingham, London and Lancashire/Manchester. 540 service users will be recruited across the three sites. Eligible service users will be adults with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder (including bipolar disorder, treated in the community under the Care Programme Approach with at least one admission to a psychiatric inpatient ward in the previous two years. Current inpatients and those subject to a community treatment order will be excluded to avoid any potential perceived pressure to participate. Research assessments will be conducted at baseline and 18 months. Following the baseline assessment, eligible service users will be randomly allocated to either develop a Joint Crisis Plan or continue with treatment as usual. Outcome will be assessed at 18 months with assessors blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome is the proportion of service users treated or otherwise detained under an order of the Mental Health Act (MHA during the follow-up period, compared across randomisation groups. Secondary outcomes include overall costs, service user engagement

  13. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility's open-quotes hidden costs,close quotes which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate)

  14. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  15. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  16. R&D tax incentives for innovation and managerial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries tax incentives are a popular means of realizing political, economic and social objectives. The main motive of their application is often to achieve and accelerate the selected activities in the public interest and also stimulate development of industry, and induce growth in research and investment. The key element that helps a company achieve a competitive advantage is innovation. Global competition forces the production of unique products and services. Tax incentives in science, research and development are important in stimulating innovation. The purpose of this article is to show the level of managerial awareness about R&D tax incentives, the level of R&D tax incentive usage by companies in Poland, and main obstacles that managers meet with R&D tax incentives in practice. We explore R&D tax incentives as a government instrument on R&D management and aim to find the reasons why Polish companies do not take advantage of them. We examine 275 companies using a semi-structured questi onnaire. Our findings suggest that many firms report lack of knowledge about such incentives, and firms find many obstacles to reach all of the requirements which are necessary to use the incentive. Due to our analysis we find that large firms, especially those that implement innovation, are more likely to use the tax incentives, but small and medium sized companies find more obstacle. The effect of this tax policy is significant mainly in large, high-tech sector firms.

  17. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process

  18. Safety, economic incentives and insurance in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Aven, Terje; Erik Vinnem, Jan

    2008-01-01

    There is an increased use of key performance indicators and incentive schemes in the petroleum industry. Applying modern incentive theory, we explore what implications this management trend has for injury and major accident prevention efforts and safety. Can economic incentives be designed for accident prevention activities? In cases where this is not possible, what are the challenges for the safety efforts? In particular, how are safety efforts affected by enhanced economic incentives for other performance dimensions like production and rate of return? Can safety be neglected? What remedies are available?

  19. Dynamic Incentives in Microfinance Group Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential tools of poverty reduction would be the viable expansion of institutional credit facilities to large sections of the people who neither have adequate collateral nor credit history to secure a loan. In this backdrop, social collateral is popularized through the group lending programs to address the credit market problems. Microfinance through group lending is acting as a screening device; the joint liability mechanism creates incentives for internal monitoring. Hence, it has received a lot of attention from policy makers as well as academicians. It is playing an important role in delivering financial services to the “socially and economically excluded” poor, in general, and women, in particular. The group lending works with various dynamic incentives. One such kind is principle of progressive lending and it plays a vital role in sustaining the groups for the persistent delivery of microfinance services to its members. In progressive lending, a typical borrower receives very small amounts at first, which increases with good repayment conduct or it links new, larger loans to past repayment. This article explores possible theoretical and empirical relationship between progressive lending and its determinants in group lending approach. The primary survey was conducted in 10 villages covering 106 self-help groups and 318 members in Karnataka, India. The empirical results show the progressive lending amount rising up to 698% of the initial loan of the self-help groups.

  20. Community Forestry Incentives and Challenges in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. Sitoe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although communities have been living within forests and dependent on forest resources, in Mozambique, their role was not formally recognized until the late 1990s. The forest law of 1997 was the first to refer to communities as stakeholders in the forest sector, in line with the national Policy and Strategy for the Development of the Forestry and Wildlife Sector. As a new element, several pilot projects were established during the late 1990s and early 2000s to produce lessons that would inform policy and technical aspects. Community forestry received most of the attention until the first decade of this century, however, it seems that while communities have gained a role in the management of the forest sector, there are still challenges to fully implementing and securing community forestry initiatives. In this study, we document the advent and evolution of community forestry in Mozambique, discuss the conditions for success in community forestry, and discuss two cases of community forestry that have survived over beyond the end of external support. We conclude that devolution and training are the basic incentives, but additional incentives, including diversification of sources of revenue from non-destructive forestry activities, are required to maintain the stability of community forestry over time.

  1. Universal health insurance through incentives reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R

    1991-05-15

    Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.

  2. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  3. Regulating incentives: the past and present role of the state in health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2002-06-01

    The desire of national policymakers to encourage entrepreneurial behavior in the health sector has generated not only a new structure of market-oriented incentives, but also a new regulatory role for the State. To ensure that entrepreneurial behavior will be directed toward achieving planned market objectives, the State must shift modalities from staid bureaucratic models of command-and-control to more sensitive and sophisticated systems of oversight and supervision. Available evidence suggests that this structural transformation is currently occurring in several Northern European countries. Successful implementation of that shift will require a new, intensive, and expensive strategy for human resources development, raising questions about the financial feasibility of this incentives-plus-regulation model for less-well-off CEE/CIS and developing countries.

  4. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report assumes that local opposition is a critical issue in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although it recognizes the importance of local health and safety concerns, this report only addresses the economic issues facing local officials in the siting process. Finding ways to overcome local opposition through economic compensation and incentives is a basic step in the waste facility siting process. The report argues that the use of these compensation and incentive mechanisms can help achieve greater local acceptance of waste facilities and also help ease the economic burdens that many communities bear when they agree to host a low-level waste disposal facility. The growing national need for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires that state and local planning agencies develop creative new procedures for siting facilities, procedures that are sensitive to local perceptions and effects

  5. A problem of incentive compatibility in the North Sea petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, Hossein A.

    2006-01-01

    The principal-agent relationship between the governments of the UK and Norway, and the multinational oil companies active in the North Sea petroleum industry is, to some extent, different from a typical principal-agent interaction. For almost three decades, the major criterion for allowing a company to take part in the activity was its previous and planned contribution to the domestic economy by means of applying the highest possible domestic inputs. This study applies mathematical modeling to show that the authorities had the opportunity to offer an incentive scheme to persuade the oil companies to involve domestic suppliers at the governments' preferred level. Unlike a typical government regulatory framework, which aims to increase efficiency in terms of price and/or quality, the incentive compatible scheme discussed in this paper could, in certain circumstances, generate inefficiency in the daily operation of the oil and gas fields

  6. Incentives, compensation and other magic tricks: Will they help in establishing new waste disposal sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visocki, K.

    1988-01-01

    As a Fellow of the European Environmental Fellowship Program for US Environmentalists in 1987-88, the author collected case studies relating to the siting of controversial facilities in Western Europe. The author presents findings with regard to factors which may contribute to increased public acceptability in the siting of controversial facilities. Factors thought to have the most effect include sensitivity to cultural differences, the amount of time which is allowed to pass from the announcement of the siting plans to the opening of the facility, credibility of the project staff, sensitivity to the needs of politicians, and the use of incentives and compensation. Based on this and other recent studies, the author makes specific recommendations with regard to personnel selection, maximizing the positive effect of incentives and compensation, and meeting state and federal milestones

  7. The legitimacy of incentive-based conservation and a critical account of social safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Torsten; Nielsen, Tobias Dan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Legitimacy is a condition for the success of incentive based conservation and REDD+ programs, beyond pure carbon effectiveness. • Local stakeholders, i.e., Indigenous groups, must perceive these programs to be legitimate. • Social safeguards are not neutral but part of a wider discourse on how REDD+ is designed and legitimized. • Input and output criteria of legitimacy can provide a useful way to determine the legitimacy of conservation incentive programs. - Abstract: Incentive-based conservation has become a significant part of how tropical forests are being governed. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is a mechanism to mitigate climate change that many countries have started to implement. REDD+, however, is criticized for its potential negative impacts on local populations and Indigenous people. To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts, safeguards are increasingly being used to prevent and shift the focus toward ‘non-carbon’ elements of forest conservation. We discuss the legitimacy of these types of projects from a stakeholder perspective. Using a normative framework, we assess the Ecuadorian Socio Bosque conservation program, concentrating more specifically on the level of input and output legitimacy. Results show that Socio Bosque in its current form has shortcomings in both input and output legitimacy. We argue that an encompassing conception of legitimacy, including input and output criteria, particularly from a local stakeholder perspective, is essential for the future success of incentive-based conservation and particularly for REDD+ projects

  8. Energy efficiency investments in the context of split incentives among French households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector offers considerable potential for reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly through energy-efficient renovations. The objective of this study is twofold. First, I aim to provide initial empirical evidence of the extent to which split incentives between landlords and tenants may lead to underinvestment. Second, I investigate the influence of tax credits and energy burdens on energy efficiency expenditures. Given the complexity of studying the decision to invest in energy-saving renovations, I use a bivariate Tobit model to compare decisions about energy-efficient works and repair works, even when the renovation expenditures seem quite similar. The analysis shows that tenants are doubly penalized: they have high energy expenditures due to energy-inefficient building characteristics, and because they are poorer than homeowners, they are unable to invest in energy-saving systems. The results also confirm that tax credits are ineffective in the split incentives context. In terms of public policy, the government should focus on low-income tenants, and mandatory measures such as minimum standards seem appropriate. Financial support from a third-party financer also might be a solution. - Highlights: • I provide empirical evidence of underinvestment due to split incentives. • I investigate the influence of tax credit and energy burden on EE expenditures. • Results show that tax credits are ineffective in a context of split incentives. • Mandatory measures such as minimum standards seem to be appropriate. • Financial support from a third party financer can be also a solution.

  9. Perceptions of financial incentives for smoking cessation: a survey of smokers in a country with an endgame goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob

    2017-12-15

    Financial incentives can support smoking cessation, yet low acceptability may limit the wider implementation of such schemes. Few studies have examined how smokers view financial-incentive interventions aimed at reducing smoking prevalence. We recruited a sample of 623 smokers from an internet panel to a survey assessing support for, and perceived effectiveness of, financial incentives for smoking cessation. We used descriptive statistics, plus logistic regression, to test associations between demographics and smoking, and support. We used qualitative content analysis to analyse open-ended responses to a question that invited respondents to comment on financial incentives. 38.4% of smokers supported financial incentives; 42.2% did not (19.4% had no opinion). Support was higher among heavy (OR 3.96, CI 2.39 - 6.58) and moderate smokers (OR 1.68, CI 1.13 - 2.49), and those with a recent quit attempt (OR 1.47, 1.04 - 2.07). Support was strongly associated with perceived effectiveness. A Government-funded reward-only scheme was seen as the most acceptable option (preferred by 26.6% of participants), followed by a Government-funded deposit-based scheme (20.6%); few respondents supported employer-funded schemes. Open-ended responses (n=301) indicated three overarching themes expressing opposition to financial incentives: smokers' individual responsibility for quitting, concerns about abuse of an incentive scheme, and concerns about unfairness. Even amongst those who would benefit from schemes designed to reward smokers for quitting, support for such schemes is muted, despite evidence of their effectiveness. Media advocacy and health education could be used to increase understanding of, and support for, financial incentives for smoking cessation. Given the absolute effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of financial-incentive schemes for smoking cessation amongst pregnant smokers and in workplaces, implementing such schemes at a national-level could help reduce overall

  10. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  11. Performance comparison of renewable incentive schemes using optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak, Neeraj; Lawson, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Many governments worldwide have instituted incentive schemes for renewable electricity producers in order to meet carbon emissions targets. These schemes aim to boost investment and hence growth in renewable energy industries. This paper examines four such schemes: premium feed-in tariffs, fixed feed-in tariffs, feed-in tariffs with contract for difference and the renewable obligations scheme. A generalised mathematical model of industry growth is presented and fitted with data from the UK onshore wind industry. The model responds to subsidy from each of the four incentive schemes. A utility or ‘fitness’ function that maximises installed capacity at some fixed time in the future while minimising total cost of subsidy is postulated. Using this function, the optimal strategy for provision and timing of subsidy for each scheme is calculated. Finally, a comparison of the performance of each scheme, given that they use their optimal control strategy, is presented. This model indicates that the premium feed-in tariff and renewable obligation scheme produce the joint best results. - Highlights: • Stochastic differential equation model of renewable energy industry growth and prices, using UK onshore wind data 1992–2010. • Cost of production reduces as cumulative installed capacity of wind energy increases, consistent with the theory of learning. • Studies the effect of subsidy using feed-in tariff schemes, and the ‘renewable obligations’ scheme. • We determine the optimal timing and quantity of subsidy required to maximise industry growth and minimise costs. • The premium feed-in tariff scheme and the renewable obligations scheme produce the best results under optimal control

  12. Planning instruments to control urban growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2010-01-01

    It is challenging to plan and control urban development in peri-urban areas. But if no planning is done, the result will often be unsustainable, including widespread, dispersed and uncoordinated urban growth. Spatial planning based on zoning remains the most important planning instrument and its...... success depend on regional coordination. Incentive based instruments may contrbute to growth management, but only few examples are available and their effects on urban growth patterns yet to be seen....

  13. Design of effective interventions for smoking cessation through financial and non-financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama, Fanor; Longo, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Smoking has a tremendous negative impact on the Canadian economy and contributes to growing costs in the healthcare system. Efforts to reduce smoking rates may therefore reduce strain on the healthcare system and free up scarce resources. Academic literature on economic smoking cessation incentives presents a countless variety of interventions that have met with varying degrees of success. This study reviews six different variables used in the design of incentives in smoking cessation interventions: direction, form, magnitude, certainty, recipient grouping, and target demographic. The purpose of this study is to provide analysis and recommendations about the contribution of each variable into the overall effectiveness of smoking cessation programs and help health leaders design better interventions according to their specific needs.

  14. Equity Incentives: Aligning The Interests Of Employees And Owners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews how to align the interests of employees and of owners of businesses and directs attention to policy issues that are critical to the attainment of this noble objective. It demonstrates that Tax Incentives and Reforms are necessary and offers recommendations on how to promote equity incentives in Nigeria.

  15. Governing by carrot and stick: A genealogy of the incentive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dix, G.

    2014-01-01

    Managers, politicians and scientists frequently use the term ‘incentive’ in their explanations of human action. At the same time, individuals in the public and private sectors are now governed with the help of incentives. In this thesis, I study the incentive from a theoretical and normative

  16. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-03-05

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.

  17. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance...

  18. The Critical Role of Teacher Incentives in the Northeast States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, David

    This paper discusses a variety of incentives that can make a difference in attracting and retaining high quality teachers. These incentives include salaries, retirement benefits, working conditions, quality of life, tenure and seniority rights, and sick leave. The states in the Northeast vary considerably in their ability to attract quality…

  19. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, G.

    2013-01-01

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  20. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 48.105 Section 48.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar...

  1. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  2. The Wisconsin experience with incentives for demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgren, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed

  3. Fundamental Characteristics of Incentive Streams Created by Legal Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.

    2002-01-01

    The law shapes people’s behaviour by creating incentives. For example, tort law induces motorists to drive carefully by making them pay compensation for the accidents they may cause. This study analyses the way the law can create incentives in those cases in which the courts or the administrative

  4. Financial Incentives for Steering Education and Training. Getting Skills Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: (1) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; (2) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; (3)…

  5. Tax Incentives as Viewed by Economists and Lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiekowsky, Seymour

    1991-01-01

    States that tax economists' and lawyers' views on tax incentives are flawed in ways that have contributed to their assent to unnecessary and counterproductive complication of the tax laws in the name of tax reform and to their complicity in growth of the fiscal burden in the form of inefficient tax incentives that are either unaccounted for or understated.

  6. Nudging for health: do we need financial incentives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Nudges, creating simple processes or structures that guide people toward a particular behaviour choice, are potentially a powerful tool for health promotion. User financial incentives could be a monetary form of such nudges. Given the challenges of chronic disease prevention, interventions such as nudges should be explored further. However, there would appear to be limited rationale for pursuing financial incentives as nudges.

  7. 48 CFR 1316.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 1316.405 Section 1316.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.405 Cost-reimbursement...

  8. 48 CFR 216.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 216.405 Section 216.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contracts 216.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  9. 48 CFR 1816.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 1816.405 Section 1816.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS... 1816.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. [62 FR 3478, Jan. 23, 1997. Redesignated at 62 FR...

  10. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405 Cost-reimbursement...

  11. 48 CFR 16.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 16.405 Section 16.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...-reimbursement incentive contracts. See 16.301 for requirements applicable to all cost-reimbursement contracts...

  12. Credit ratings and CEO risk-taking incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.; Qin, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sophistication of rating agencies in incorporating managerial risk-taking incentives into their credit risk evaluation. We measure risk-taking incentives using two proxies: the sensitivity of managerial wealth to stock return volatility (vega) and the sensitivity of

  13. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  14. Do Firms Replenish Executives’ Incentives After Equity Sales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladika, T.

    2013-01-01

    After selling firm equity, executives' incentives to maximize shareholder value may decrease. How do boards respond? Theory shows boards can restore executives' incentives by shifting subsequent pay from cash toward equity. Unobservable firm-level changes that cause executives to sell equity and

  15. Patent quality and incentives at the patent office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling

  16. Tax incentive as a catalyst for economic development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical study using a well structured questionnaire survey, the work assesses the relationship that exists between tax incentive and economic development in Nigeria. This study was undertaken primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of tax incentive in developing the Nigerian economy. One hundred and twenty ...

  17. Tax planning strategies for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thomas R; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-07-01

    The development of tax reduction strategies is a critical aspect of both corporate and personal financial planning because taxes represent the largest annual expenditure for the majority of Americans. The categories of tax reduction strategies discussed include charitable-giving techniques, ways to maximize business deductions, shifting income to family members, education tax incentives, retirement planning, and small business tax considerations. One use for these tax savings is the enhancement of a corporation's capabilities to provide services to patients.

  18. Hidden Benefits of Reward : A Field Experiment on Motivation and Monetary Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaløy, Ola; Nieken, Petra; Schöttner, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment in a controlled work environment to investigate the effect of motivational talk and its interaction with monetary incentives. We find that motivational talk significantly improves performance only when accompanied by performance pay. Moreover, performance pay slightly reduces performance unless it is accompanied by motivational talk. These effects also carry over to the quality of work. Performance pay alone leads to more mistakes. Adding motivational talk make...

  19. Three experiments exploring how preferences, motivations and incentives influence behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    ZACHARY JAMES MOAR DORNER

    2018-01-01

    We can make better choices with a deeper understanding of what drives our behaviours. This thesis uses economic experiments to shed light on health and environmental behaviours. The first paper identifies that risk averse people care about the security of supply of city water. The second paper finds that small monetary payments can work better than high monetary payments for motivating people because large incentives can significantly reduce intrinsic motivation. The third paper shows that mo...

  20. Wind and solar energy incentives in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, G.; Kazemi Karegar, H.

    2006-01-01

    Incentive have yet been viewed as a means of supporting technological developments until a new technology becomes cost competitive wind based electricity is not jet generally competitive with alternate sources of electricity such as fossil fuels. This paper presents the potential for wind and solar in Iran and shows how much electric energy is now produced by renewable power plants compared to steam and gas. The importance of renewable energy effects on Iran environment and economy is also discussed and the issue of the contribution of renewable energy for producing electricity in the future will be shown. Also this paper highlights the ability of Iran to manufacture the components of the wind turbine and solar system locally, and its effect on the price of wind turbine and solar energy

  1. Operator and contractor benefit from incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports that with incentive contracts, drilling and service contractors assume greater responsibility for operations. That helps them to align their goals more closely with those of the operator. This achieves a more equitable division of the risks. Many operators and contractors believe this is a more appropriate approach to contracting drilling services. As they assume manageable responsibility, each party also has opportunities for greater reward. Innovations in cooperation can create a win-win situation. In a win-win contract all parties benefit from the new relationships between operator, contractor, and service company. The win-win situation can only be achieved by allowing the contracting parties to become much more closely involved in drilling operations. This is the primary motivation behind development of more productive contracting strategies

  2. Incentive compatibility in kidney exchange problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Silvia; Patrone, Fioravante

    2009-12-01

    The problem of kidney exchanges shares common features with the classical problem of exchange of indivisible goods studied in the mechanism design literature, while presenting additional constraints on the size of feasible exchanges. The solution of a kidney exchange problem can be summarized in a mapping from the relevant underlying characteristics of the players (patients and their donors) to the set of matchings. The goal is to select only matchings maximizing a chosen welfare function. Since the final outcome heavily depends on the private information in possess of the players, a basic requirement in order to reach efficiency is the truthful revelation of this information. We show that for the kidney exchange problem, a class of (in principle) efficient mechanisms does not enjoy the incentive compatibility property and therefore is subject to possible manipulations made by the players in order to profit of the misrepresentation of their private information.

  3. Barriers to reducing carbon emissions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe accounted for 27% of global carbon emissions in 1986. Although the recent opening of the former planned economies offers numerous opportunities to improve energy use efficiency in these regions and reduce their energy-related carbon emissions, various barriers hinder changes in Eastern European energy use. These barriers include the following: lack of incentives; insufficient infrastructure; scarce human resources; and heavy reliance on low quality fuels. Energy intensity in these countries far surpasses the estimated energy intensity in the United States and Western Europe. However, substantial potential exists for improving the efficiency of energy use in these regions

  4. Successive duopoly under moral hazard: Will incentive contracts persist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fernández-Olmos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this paper is to examine the incentive contract as an equilibrium phenomenon. We analyse a model of vertical differentiation in which we deal with the strategic role of the competitor’s decisions in a successive duopoly. Is it better for a processor to offer an incentive contract to an upstream producer or the spot market? We determine the equilibrium of a game in which the processors simultaneously decide whether to offer an incentive contract or to continue at the spot market to acquire their input. Our results show that under successive duopoly, offering an incentive contract constitutes the unique equilibrium solution, which highlights the incentive contract persistence.

  5. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...... parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available incentive strategies, classifying them along noncoercive and coercive lines. Thus, the article outlines the possibilities offered by an incentives approach, focusing on examples drawn from recent African cases....

  6. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.

  7. The Theory of Value-Based Payment Incentives and Their Application to Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    To present the implications of agency theory in microeconomics, augmented by behavioral economics, for different methods of value-based payment in health care; and to derive a set of future research questions and policy recommendations based on that conceptual analysis. Original literature of agency theory, and secondarily behavioral economics, combined with applied research and empirical evidence on the application of those principles to value-based payment. Conceptual analysis and targeted review of theoretical research and empirical literature relevant to value-based payment in health care. Agency theory and secondarily behavioral economics have powerful implications for design of value-based payment in health care. To achieve improved value-better patient experience, clinical quality, health outcomes, and lower costs of care-high-powered incentives should directly target improved care processes, enhanced patient experience, and create achievable benchmarks for improved outcomes. Differing forms of value-based payment (e.g., shared savings and risk, reference pricing, capitation, and bundled payment), coupled with adjunct incentives for quality and efficiency, can be tailored to different market conditions and organizational settings. Payment contracts that are "incentive compatible"-which directly encourage better care and reduced cost, mitigate gaming, and selectively induce clinically efficient providers to participate-will focus differentially on evidence-based care processes, will right-size and structure incentives to avoid crowd-out of providers' intrinsic motivation, and will align patient incentives with value. Future research should address the details of putting these and related principles into practice; further, by deploying these insights in payment design, policy makers will improve health care value for patients and purchasers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Linking sustainable use policies to novel economic incentives to stimulate antibiotic research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Theuretzbacher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong

  9. Incentives and stability of international climate coalitions: An integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the incentives to participate in an international climate agreement and the stability of the resulting climate coalition using the integrated assessment model WITCH. Coalition stability is assessed under alternative assumptions concerning the pure rate of time preference, the aggregation of social welfare, and the severity of climate damages. The profitability, stability, and strong potential internal stability of a number of coalitions, those potentially effective in reducing GHG emissions, is explored in the paper. The main conclusion is that only the grand coalition, i.e. a coalition where all world regions cooperate to reduce emissions, can maintain GHG concentration below 550 ppm CO 2 -eq. However, this coalition is not internally stable, even when allowing for monetary transfers across world regions. Nonetheless, the paper also shows that strongly potentially internally stable coalitions exist, though of smaller size, which can mitigate global warming and limit GHG concentrations to 600 ppm CO 2 -eq. - Highlights: ► We analyse climate coalitions with an integrated assessment model. ► Coalitions’ profitability and stability is analysed under alternative assumptions. ► Effective coalitions should include larger emitters (such as India and China). ► A coalition that achieves 550 ppm CO 2 -eq is not internally stable. ► A stable coalition can achieve around 518 ppme in 2050 and 600 ppme in 2100

  10. Demotivating incentives and motivation crowding out in charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Matthew

    2017-07-11

    Research has shown that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation in many contexts. Despite this, many nonprofits offer conditional thank-you gifts, such as mugs or tote bags, in exchange for donations. In collaboration with a nonprofit, this study implements a direct mail field experiment and demonstrates that thank-you gifts reduced donation rates in a fundraising campaign. Attention-based multiattribute choice models suggest that this is because prospective donors shift attention to the salient gift offer, causing them to underweight less salient intrinsic motives. Attention to the gift may also cause individuals to adopt a more cost-benefit mindset, further de-emphasizing intrinsic motives. Consistent with these hypotheses, crowding out was driven by those who donated higher amounts in the previous year (i.e., those who likely had higher intrinsic motivation). In a complementary online experiment, thank-you gifts also reduced donation rates but only when the gift was visually salient. This corroborates the mediating role of attention in crowding out. Taken together, the laboratory and field results demonstrate that this fundraising technique can be demotivating in some contexts and that this may occur through an attention-based mechanism.

  11. The impact of financial constraints and incentives on professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Marjoribanks, Tim

    2003-01-01

    General practice has been the subject of extensive reforms over the 1990s in Australia as elsewhere. Reforms have attempted to improve quality and contain the overall cost of health care, and have often been seen as reducing the autonomy of medical professionals. This paper examines the impact of financial constraints and incentives introduced during the 1990s on Australian GPs' perceptions of autonomy. An existing seven component definition of autonomy and six themes that emerged from reviewing publications were used to construct focus group questions. A total of 25 GPs participated in four focus groups. Those who participated believe that their financial autonomy has been diminished by policy changes and consumer expectations. They also perceive that their ability to control clinical decisions, which they regard as the most important aspect of professional autonomy, has been reduced along with financial autonomy. Organized medicine in Australia sees financial accountability and clinical decision making as polar opposites, and has continued to argue that fee-for-service payment is the only appropriate method of remuneration, despite increasing evidence that this does not guarantee clinical autonomy. Major changes to the financing of general practice in Australia are required to address the concerns of GPs, governments and patients.

  12. Acute effects of volume-oriented incentive spirometry on chest wall volumes in patients after a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Illia Ndf; Fregonezi, Guilherme Af; Melo, Rodrigo; Cabral, Elis Ea; Aliverti, Andrea; Campos, Tânia F; Ferreira, Gardênia Mh

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess how volume-oriented incentive spirometry applied to patients after a stroke modifies the total and compartmental chest wall volume variations, including both the right and left hemithoraces, compared with controls. Twenty poststroke patients and 20 age-matched healthy subjects were studied by optoelectronic plethysmography during spontaneous quiet breathing (QB), during incentive spirometry, and during the recovery period after incentive spirometry. Incentive spirometry was associated with an increased chest wall volume measured at the pulmonary rib cage, abdominal rib cage and abdominal compartment (P = .001) and under 3 conditions (P spirometry, and postincentive spirometry, respectively. Under all 3 conditions, the contribution of the abdominal compartment to VT was greater in the stroke subjects (54.1, 43.2, and 48.9%) than in the control subjects (43.7, 40.8, and 46.1%, P = .039). In the vast majority of subjects (13/20 and 18/20 during QB and incentive spirometry, respectively), abdominal expansion precedes rib cage expansion during inspiration. Greater asymmetry between the right and left hemithoracic expansions occurred in stroke subjects compared with control subjects, but it decreased during QB (62.5%, P = .002), during incentive spirometry (19.7%), and postincentive spirometry (67.6%, P = .14). Incentive spirometry promotes increased expansion in all compartments of the chest wall and reduces asymmetric expansion between the right and left parts of the pulmonary rib cage; therefore, it should be considered as a tool for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Incentives for Ex Ante wildfire risk mitigation in the wildland-urban interface: The relationship between contingent wildfire insurance and fuel management subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Lankoande, Mariam D.; Yoder, Jonathan K.; Wandschneider, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    Contingent wildfire insurance and fuel management cost-sharing programs are becoming more prevalent in western states. This paper develops a model to examine the incentive effects of these two mechanisms for private investment in wildfire risk mitigation. The model shows that contingent insurance contracts strengthen incentives for risk mitigation relative to pooled contracts and subsidies induce more risk mitigation effort by reducing margin private costs of mitigation. With pooled insurance...

  14. What incentives to climate change mitigation through harvested wood products in the current french policy framework? (Summary). Climate Report no. 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deheza, Mariana; N'Goran, Carmen; Bellassen, Valentin

    2014-09-01

    Beyond the important role that forests play in the fight against climate change through the sequestration of carbon in their biomass, wood products also contribute to climate change through three channels: - Material substitution: the manufacturing of wood products being less energy intensive allows to avoid carbon emissions from the processing of other alternative materials (eg. concrete, steel, etc); - Energy substitution: achieved by the generation of energy from wood combustion replacing other fossil fuels. - Carbon sequestration in the wood products: wood products sequester carbon during their whole life span until their decomposition. This Climate Report identifies French policies that have an impact on climate change mitigation by wood products through these three mitigation channels. Our analysis asserts that similarly to the context at the EU level, the current national policy framework incentives are mostly directed to the 'energy wood' sector. These incentives include fiscal and financial instruments such as: - The heat fund ('fonds chaleur'), which subsidizes the production of renewable heat particularly from biomass; - The zero interest rate eco-loans ('eco-pret a taux zero') and the Sustainable development tax credit ('credit d'impot developpement durable (CIDD)') which partly subsidize wood heating; - Reduced VAT on renewable heat purchases. The use of wood as a material is currently less encouraged, at least on the financial side: the few devices that support it are rarely binding and mobilize limited resources. Future measures planned under the National Action Plan for the forest-based sector and the upcoming law for the future of agriculture and forestry ('Loi d'avenir pour l'agriculture et la foret') could slightly re-balance this situation. (authors)

  15. An automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review reduces missed reviews at a large, high-volume academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Peter E; Woodhouse, Kristina D; Lin, Alexander; Finlay, Jarod C; Young, Richard B; Volz, Edna; Hahn, Stephen M; Metz, James M; Maity, Amit

    Assuring quality in cancer care through peer review has become increasingly important in radiation oncology. In 2012, our department implemented an automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review. The purpose of this study was to compare the overall impact of this electronic system to our previous manual, paper-based system. In an effort to improve management, an automated electronic system for case finding and documentation of review was developed and implemented. The rates of missed initial reviews, late reviews, and missed re-reviews were compared for the pre- versus postelectronic system cohorts using Pearson χ 2 test and relative risk. Major and minor changes or recommendations were documented and shared with the assigned clinical provider. The overall rate of missed reviews was 7.6% (38/500) before system implementation versus 0.4% (28/6985) under the electronic system (P automated system. Missed re-reviews occurred in 23.1% (3/13) of courses in the preelectronic system cohort and 6.6% (10/152) of courses in the postelectronic system cohort (P = .034). Late reviews were more frequent during high travel or major holiday periods. Major changes were recommended in 2.2% and 2.8% in the pre- versus postelectronic systems, respectively. Minor changes were recommended in 5.3% of all postelectronic cases. The implementation of an automated electronic system for managing peer review in a large, complex department was effective in significantly reducing the number of missed reviews and missed re-reviews when compared to our previous manual system. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A plan to reduce volatile organic compound emissions from consumer products in Canada (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and

  17. Sexual-incentive motivation and paced sexual behavior in female rats after treatment with drugs modifying dopaminergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Ellinor; Agmo, Anders

    2004-03-01

    The effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine, the dopamine releaser amphetamine, and the dopamine receptor antagonist cis(Z)-flupenthixol on sexual-incentive motivation and on paced-mating behavior were studied in female rats. Apomorphine, in the doses of 0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg, showed a tendency to reduce incentive motivation. Ambulatory activity was inhibited, evidenced both by diminished distance moved and reduced velocity of movement. Amphetamine (0.25 and 1 mg/kg) and flupenthixol (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) failed to modify incentive motivation while stimulating and reducing ambulatory activity, respectively. In the mating test, apomorphine enhanced the latency to enter the male's half and reduced the number of proceptive behaviors. However, these effects were associated with the appearance of stereotyped sniffing. Amphetamine increased the propensity to escape from the male after a mount without having other effects. Flupenthixol augmented the duration of the lordosis posture. Neither amphetamine nor flupenthixol affected sniffing. These data show that facilitated dopaminergic neurotransmission stimulates neither paced female sexual behavior nor sexual-incentive motivation. Dopamine receptor blockade has slight consequences. It is concluded that dopamine is not a transmitter of major importance for unconditioned female sexual motivation and behavior.

  18. Climate change. Proposal by 'Entreprises pour l'Environnement' for an effective plan of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    Globalization, equity, efficiency, and maintaining the competitiveness of European industry are the overall requirements of this plan of action, enabling the manufacturing sector to contribute to the national commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). It is in the interest of efficiency, in particular, that we have to ensure that we stick to the objective of reducing emissions without seeking additional goals. It means making flexibility a priority, motivating rather than restricting, and avoiding bureaucracy whilst ensuring that the simplicity of the mechanisms put in place is counterbalanced by an almost automatic compliance to the commitments made by the companies. Accompanying measures for a major innovation initiative are also crucial. In order to guide efforts to reduce GHG emissions within the manufacturing sector, Entreprises pour l'Environnement (EpE) proposes a combination of voluntary negotiated agreements (VNA) and emission credits (traded on the market). These voluntary agreements will be negotiated with authorities (national and, in some cases, EU) by industrial gas emitters (companies, industrial groups, industrial sectors or ad hoc groups of companies). In order to be eligible for a VNA, these industrial emitters must demonstrate their capacity to measure their emissions and to successfully conduct emission reductions or, in case of failure, to implement compensatory measures, and must show that they 'represent' a quantity of emissions in excess of a certain threshold, thereby enabling them to enter the permits market. This mechanism will make it possible to cover a large part of the manufacturing sector. The scheme is simple - if an industrial emitter improves on the target negotiated with the authorities, then he receives emission credits which he can sell or keep for a subsequent period. Should he fail to reach the target, then, on the contrary, he will have to purchase emission credits (permits) on the market

  19. Paying people to lose weight: the effectiveness of financial incentives provided by health insurers for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthapavan, J; Peterson, A; Sacks, G

    2018-05-01

    Curbing the obesity epidemic is likely to require a suite of interventions targeting the obesogenic environment as well as individual behaviour. Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of behaviour modification programmes can be enhanced by financial incentives that immediately reward weight loss behaviour. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of incentives with a focus on assessing the relative effectiveness of incentives that target different behaviours as well as factors of importance when implementing these programmes in real-world settings (health insurer settings). A narrative review of the academic and grey literature including a variety of study designs was undertaken. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria and were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Results suggest that incentivizing weight loss is effective in the short term while the incentives are in place. There are various incentive designs, and although the relative effectiveness of each of these on weight loss is not clear, it appears that positive incentives increase the uptake into programmes and may reduce dropouts. As with other weight loss initiatives, there is a need to explore ways to maintain weight loss in the longer term - incentives for weight maintenance could play a role. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Do intervention plans meet criteria for effective practice to reduce recidivism? How probation officers forget about social capital and basic needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, J.; Witteman, C.; Hermanns, J.

    2013-01-01

    The increased use of instruments for assessing risks and needs in probation should lead to intervention plans that meet the criteria for effective practice. An analysis of 300 intervention plans from the Dutch probation service showed that the match between the assessed criminogenic needs and the