Zehr, Mary Ann
It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…
Educating incarcerated youthful offenders is described from the perspective of a teacher who incorporates W. Glasser's (1998) counseling philosophy into her relationships with students. She reveals the results of her caring, encouraging, and goal-directed behavior with sex offenders and other young inmates.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong
Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…
Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins
Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.
Forrest, C B; Tambor, E; Riley, A W; Ensminger, M E; Starfield, B
To identify the health needs of adolescent males incarcerated in a juvenile justice facility and to compare their health profiles with those of male adolescents in the community. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of incarcerated (N = 202) and school (N = 379) samples of male youths. Questionnaires were self-administered and completed before admission health screens (incarcerated youth) or in classrooms (school sample). Health status was assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition, using scale and item means and by categorizing each youth's pattern of health into 1 of 13 mutually exclusive health profile types. Compared with school counterparts, incarcerated male youths had significantly worse health status as demonstrated by poorer health and functioning scores in perceived well being, self-esteem, physical discomfort, acute, chronic, and psychosocial disorders, family involvement, physical activity, interpersonal problem-solving, risk behaviors, and academic performance. Three profile types-High Risks, High Risks/Low Resilience, and Worst Health-accounted for patterns of health for 69.8% of incarcerated youth versus 37.3% of an age-matched school sample. Just 6.4% of incarcerated males were in the Excellent/Good Health profile types, which contrasted with 34.2% of the age-matched school sample. The health profiles of incarcerated male youths were worse than those of male youths in school. Our results indicate that rehabilitation programs will need to address incarcerated youth's basic health needs as well as modifying their risk and antisocial behaviors.
Connors, Angela D.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Gray, Andrew L.
The following study is an evaluation of the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP). The sample consisted of 298 male federal offenders who participated in the MIFVPP while incarcerated or on release within the community. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of…
Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R
There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American
Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.
Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…
Heynen, E.J.E.; Van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Korebrits, A.M.
Lack of empathy is related to aggression, delinquency, and criminal offense recidivism. The present study examined construct validity and reliability of the German version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) in a sample of 94 detained German male juvenile offenders (aged 14–26). A confirmatory factor
McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R
Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.
Clark, Nicholas; Dolan, Kate; Farabee, David
Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison. Women with drug problems are twice as likely to have been imprisoned for a drug offence as incarcerated men. Similarly, HIV prevalence is higher among female inmates. Serious attention should be paid to implementation of non-custodial sentences for women, particularly during pregnancy and those with young children.
Tolou-Shams, Marina; Conrad, Selby; Louis, Alaina; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Brown, Larry K
Juvenile offenders are a subgroup of adolescents at particular risk for HIV/STI infection. Although HIV prevalence among these youth is low (justice system, which is known to have an extremely high rate of HIV infection. US constitutional mandates provide HIV/STI testing for incarcerated juveniles, but close to 80% of juvenile arrestees are never detained. Moreover, although they engage in similar HIV risk behaviors as those detained, they have limited access to available HIV/STI testing services. Thus, our study examined rates of lifetime HIV testing among a pilot sample of 60 court-involved, substance-using juveniles monitored in the community to explore rates of testing and the reasons related to lifetime testing among a high-risk, yet understudied US juvenile population.
Noel, Kristine K.; Westby, Carol
This study employed a multiple baseline, across-participants, single-subject design to investigate the feasibility of an individual, narrative-based, social problem-solving intervention on the social problem-solving, narrative, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities of 3 incarcerated adolescent youth offenders identified as having emotional…
Hosp, Michelle K.; Griller-Clark, Heather; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.
Interviews with 29 incarcerated youth revealed significant differences in their knowledge of their Individualized Education Program transition plans. Those who took career classes had more knowledge about job searching, application, and interviewing. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
Studies on the effectiveness of correctional treatment have widely failed to assess program integrity. This study examined the program integrity of EQUIP in 34 treatment groups of incarcerated offenders, using a new multiaspect program integrity instrument (MIPIE). The first aim of our study was to
Tollenaar, N.; van der Laan, A. M.; van der Heijden, P. G M
Objectives: To estimate the incapacitation effect and the impact on post-release recidivism of a measure combining prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation, the ISD measure for high frequency offenders (HFOs) was compared to the standard practice of short-term imprisonment. Methods: We applied a
Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
In this study, the authors examined the facility-to-community transition experiences--focusing specifically on employment--of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system. They gathered data on the sample while these youth were still in custody and then every 6 months through phone interviews to…
Allen, Brad; Brekke, Karl E.
Explores the processes involved in treating sex offenders. Focuses on how therapists can feel traumatized by this patient population, the dynamism of transference, and tactics used by sex offender patients, such as seduction, imitation, intimidation, and invalidation. Describes ways for therapists to maintain objectivity and use transference…
Fishman, Susan Hoffman
Discusses impact of parent's imprisonment on children of male and female inmates at four crisis points: (1) arrest and pretrial; (2) sentencing day; (3) initial incarceration; and (4) pre/post release. Describes Sesame Street projects, designed to provide educational and entertaining activities for children on prison visiting days. (CMG)
Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S
to be associated with substance use. Adolescent offenders face an important amount of daily stress and do not always have the appropriate skills to deal with it. Indeed, we know from clinical experience that they often report a sense of hopelessness toward their lack of professional perspectives as well as familial conflicts which can be important stressors in addition to the incarceration in itself. Therefore, treatment aiming to improve psychic elaboration can help these adolescents to make their thinking styles more flexible and use more appropriate ways of coping with stress instead of externalizing behaviors and substance use. Moreover, considering the complex cases of these adolescents and the many changes of caregivers and institutions where they have lived, which can be important stressors as well, professionals working with these youth should be aware of their emotional reactions toward them and try to encourage continuity of care. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Reimbold , Haley
Despite international consensus among researchers that incarcerating youth is an ineffective and inefficient response to crime, this practice persists—to widely varying degrees—in every country. What are the differences in youth incarceration in disparate welfare state regimes? To answer this question, this paper develops a youth incarceration typology by comparing three cases: that of Sweden, Germany, and the United States. The first multi-¬‐dimensional typology specific to youth incarcerati...
Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Rad, Jordyn; Hummel, Erich V
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. Significant findings indicated that compared with lone offenders, group JHOs had a higher mean of pre-homicide arrests and were more likely to be Black, have a pre-homicide delinquent record, commit a crime-related homicide offense, and target a stranger. With respect to post-homicide variables, group JHOs were more likely to be released from prison and more likely to be rearrested. The two types of JHOs did not differ significantly in relation to the number of post-release violent offenses. Preliminary implications of the findings and avenues for future investigation are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B
Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.
In 2009, a quarter of the sentenced offenders in public and private correctional facilities was the youth, an increase from 26 275 in 2006 to 33 796 in 2009. The high recidivism rate of youth offenders illustrates the need to develop comprehensive and effective interventions for them and their families. Although rehabilitation is ...
Black, Donald W; Gunter, Tracy; Loveless, Peggy; Allen, Jeff; Sieleni, Bruce
We determined the frequency of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in offenders. We examined demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life in those with and without ASPD. We also looked at the subset with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A random sample of 320 newly incarcerated offenders was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). ASPD was present in 113 subjects (35.3%). There was no gender-based prevalence difference. Offenders with ASPD were younger, had a higher suicide risk, and had higher rates of mood, anxiety, substance use, psychotic, somatoform disorders, borderline personality disorder, and ADHD. Quality of life was worse, and their LSI-R scores were higher, indicating a greater risk for recidivism. A subanalysis showed that offenders with ASPD who also had ADHD had a higher suicide risk, higher rates of comorbid disorders, and worse mental health functioning. ASPD is relatively common among both male and female inmates and is associated with comorbid disorders, high suicide risk, and impaired quality of life. Those with comorbid ADHD were more impaired than those without ADHD. ASPD occurs frequently in prison populations and is nearly as common in women as in men. These study findings should contribute to discussions of appropriate and innovative treatment of ASPD in correctional settings.
Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen
Links between child sexual exploitation (CSE) and youth offending should be better recognised, according to these preliminary research findings from the UK. Data from a leading CSE service provider and Youth Offending Team were analysed for the period 2001-2010 inclusive. Of CSE victims, 40 percent had offending records and recidivism rates were high. Together they committed 1586 offences - 5 percent of all local youth crime. Male and female offending behaviour differed significantly. The types of offences identified were potentially symptomatic of CSE. Referral to CSE services typically post-dated arrest, indicating that children were recognised first as offenders. Challenges in researching the interactions between these two complex issues are discussed. This study has important implications for youth justice policy and practice, both nationally and internationally.
J. Michael Maurer
Full Text Available Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100 who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV. The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA. Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude.
Maurer, J. Michael; Steele, Vaughn R.; Cope, Lora M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Stephen, Julia M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude. PMID:26930170
This article reports the findings of a study examining the types of artistic responses and personal interpretations that incarcerated male youths make as they listen and respond to selected pieces of young adult literature. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methodology to gather information about incarcerated youth and their…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.
Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…
Li, Dongdong; Chu, Chi Meng; Goh, Joseph Teck Ling; Ng, Irene Y. H.; Zeng, Gerald
The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of childhood maltreatment on youth offender recidivism in Singapore. The study used case file coding on a sample of 3,744 youth offenders, among whom about 6% had a childhood maltreatment history. The results showed that the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory 2.0 (YLS/CMI 2.0) ratings significantly predicted recidivism for nonmaltreated youth offenders, but not for maltreated youth offenders. Using propensity score matching, the result from a Cox regression analysis showed that maltreated youth offenders were 1.38 times as likely as their nonmaltreated counterparts to reoffend with a follow-up period of up to 7.4 years. The results implied that the YLS/CMI 2.0 measures were insufficient for assessing the risk for recidivism for the maltreated youth offenders, and that other information is needed to help assessors use the professional override when making the overall risk ratings. PMID:26819485
Steven Downing PhD
Full Text Available Space and time are concepts familiar to physicists, philosophers, and social scientists; they are operationalized with varying degrees of specificity but are both heralded as important to contextualizing research and understanding individual, cultural, and historical differences in perception and the social construction of reality. Space can range from, at the macro level, geographic region, to at the micro level, the immediate physical surroundings of an individual or group of persons. Similarly, a conceptualization of time can range from era or epoch to the passing of seconds and minutes within a situational dynamic of human interaction. In this article we examine the microcosmic end of the space-time spectrum, specifically as it relates to doing qualitative interviews with current or former criminal offenders. Through a comparative discussion of interviews with incarcerated, recently released, and active offenders, we pose questions and offer insights regarding how interviewers and interviewees perceive physical space and the passage of time and, most importantly, how these perceptions relate to the interview process and resulting data. Notably, we suggest that interviewer reflexivity should take into account not only the relationship, dialogue, and discourse between interviewer and interviewee but also space and time as perceived and constructed by both parties. Finally, we offer several key strategies for incorporating these considerations into the interviewer toolkit.
Coll, Kenneth M.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Smith Robinson, Megan
This study investigated the differences among youth offenders for family engagement (as measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales--III) and conduct-disordered behaviors (as measured by "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" [4th ed., text revision] criteria) by means of the Youth Comprehensive…
Stahlkopf, Christina; Males, Mike; Macallair, Daniel
Under incapacitation theory, higher incarceration rates are expected to correlate with accelerated reductions in crime. California's contemporary incarceration patterns offer an opportunity to analyze the validity of this theory, particularly as it applies to young people. This study focuses on California's juvenile incarceration and crime trends…
Mihai, Cozmin; Robu, Viorel; Knieling, Anton; Iliescu, Diana Bulgaru; Chirita, Roxana
This paper summarizes the results of a cross-sectional study aimed at exploring the role of personality disorders in predicting the suicide risk among males imprisoned for various offenses. The data set used in analyses was based on the responses of 124 males imprisoned for various violent or non-violent offenses (M(age) = 32.39 years, SD = 8.43 years). Male offenders were interviewed using a form for demographic data and information on suicidal history. Also, they completed the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, as part of a broader protocol used in an ongoing study focused on the psychosocial and pharmacological aspects relevant to the diagnosis and management of personality disorders among inmates. At the time of data collection, forty-three respondents (34.7%) were diagnosed with at least one personality disorder. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. The frequency of suicide attempts during the periods of freedom and during incarceration were significant predictors of suicide risk. Moreover, the diagnosis of personality disorder brought a significant addition to the power of final regression model, explaining almost 8% of the variance in suicide risk among the inmates. The findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention programs in correctional institutions, with screening and monitoring of inmates diagnosed with severe mental disorders as an important component.
Frodi, A; Dernevik, M; Sepa, A; Philipson, J; Bragesjö, M
The present study sought to examine the current mental representations of early attachment relationships in 24 psychopathic criminal offenders, incarcerated in a forensic psychiatric hospital or a medium-security prison. The participants had been assessed on Hare's Psychopathy Checklist, Revised: Screening Version (PCL-R, sv, 1997) and scored either high or low. They were interviewed with the Main and Goldwyn Adult Attachment Interview (1998) and completed the EMBU, a Swedish self-report questionnaire tapping memories of the parent's rearing techniques. The results pointed to an extensive over-representation of individuals who were dismissing of attachment and attachment-related experiences (close to three times as many as in the normal population), no secure individuals, and with the remainder being either unclassifiable or unresolved with regard to severe early abuse/trauma. In addition, an examination of the EMBU data revealed an association between a higher psychopathy score and a family constellation of a rejecting father and an emotionally very warm (idealized) mother. The discussion will focus on the unique discourse of the dismissing individuals and on clinical implications.
The main goal of this study was to gain a better insight into efforts made to provide optimum education to juveniles in young offender institutions and in secure youth care institutions, and into barriers with which educators are confronted in this process. Results show that for a substantial number of juveniles insufficient information is…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth. This study examines the relationship between incarceration and drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Methods Between September 2005 and November 2014, data were collected through the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs, in Vancouver, Canada. An extended Cox model with time-dependent variables was used to examine the relationship between recent incarceration and initiation into drug dealing, controlling for relevant confounders. Results Among 1172 youth enrolled, only 194 (16.6% were drug dealing naïve at baseline and completed at least one additional study visit to facilitate the assessment of drug dealing initiation. Among this sample, 56 (29% subsequently initiated drug dealing. In final multivariable Cox regression analysis, recent incarceration was significantly associated with initiating drug dealing (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21–4.42, after adjusting for potential confounders. Measures of recent incarceration lagged to the prior study follow-up were not found to predict initiation of drug dealing (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95% CI 0.66–3.42. Conclusions These findings suggest that among this study sample, incarceration does not appear to significantly propel youth to initiate drug dealing. However, the initiation of drug dealing among youth coincides
McCrady, Fara; Kaufman, Keith; Vasey, Michael W; Barriga, Alvaro Q; Devlin, Renee S; Gibbs, John C
This study investigated the scope of cognitive distortions and their relationship to empathy among adolescent sex offenders. Self-report measures of sex-specific and generic self-serving cognitive distortions as well as empathy were administered to 175 male sex offenders aged 12 to 20 incarcerated at a juvenile correctional facility. Generic distortions (e.g., attribution of carelessness to theft victims) were elevated and correlated with sex-specific distortions (e.g., attribution of promiscuity to rape victims). Sex-specific and generic distortions were each inversely associated with unique variance in empathy. Relationships of the distortions to particular contexts of victimization and empathic distress (i.e., for their own sexual abuse victim, another offender's sexual abuse victim, or an accident victim) were also explored. Results suggested that adolescent sex offenders' self-serving cognitive distortions may pervasively neutralize concerns for victims and, therefore, that treatment programs should aim to remediate not only their sex-specific but also their generic self-serving cognitive distortions.
Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de
Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with
Vaughn, Michael S.
Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…
Buston, Katie Margaret
Teenage parenthood is problematised in the UK. Attention is increasingly falling on the potential or actual father yet we still know relatively little about young men's experiences and attitudes in this area. This paper focuses on the experiences of, and attitudes towards, pregnancy and fatherhood amongst a sample of men incarcerated in a Scottish Young Offender Institute. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 inmates, aged 16-20, purposively sampled using answers from a questionnaire administered to 67 inmates. Twelve men reported eighteen pregnancies for which they were, definitely or possibly, responsible. All but one of the pregnancies were unplanned. Five of the men were fathers: two were still in a relationship with the mother of their child and were in close contact with her and the child while incarcerated, three, all of whom had separated from their partner before the birth, had had patchy contact with mother and child before and/or during their sentence. All five of the men expressed a strong desire to be 'a good father'. Amongst the interview sample as a whole, most said they did not feel ready to become fathers. The main reason given was being unable to fulfil what they regarded as the key role of financial provider. Most of the men had given little or no thought to the possibility of a sexual partner becoming pregnant. Contraceptive use was high, however, amongst the minority who reported thinking about this possibility. The paper concludes by considering the cultural context of the men's attitudes and the potential for intervention development for incarcerated male young offenders in the areas of Sex and Relationships Education and parenting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noelle R Leonard
Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.
Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul; Mueller, Gina; Havel, Emily
A five-year longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated youth, more than half of whom had a disability, showed that those who were working or in school 6 months after release tended to stay involved in positive activities and had not returned to the juvenile facility 12 months after release. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Gavigan, Karen; Albright, Kendra
Graphic novels are an increasingly popular format that educators can use as a tool to teach reading and writing skills across the K-12 curriculum. This article describes a project in which incarcerated youths collaborated with a graphic illustrator to create a graphic novel about teens dealing with issues related to HIV/AIDS. The graphic novel is…
Voices for Illinois Children, Chicago.
Juvenile crime threatens the immediate safety and well-being of its victims. The cost of processing and punishing the offender takes money from more productive purposes. If the juvenile offender either continues a life of crime or otherwise drops out of the lawful economy, the cost to the community is a long-term burden. In the early 1970s, many…
Veen, V.C.; Stevens, G.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.
Ethnic minority youths are over-represented in the juvenile justice system in Western societies. However, research on the nature of crime committed by these youths is lacking. In the present study, offending patterns of incarcerated native Dutch adolescents and adolescents of Moroccan origin were
This article highlights the importance of learning disability nurses' skills to youth offending teams. Through the use of a case study, it explains why this role is making a difference in one location in the U.K. and how it could and should make a difference in other youth offending teams.
Robertson, Angela A.; Dill, Patricia L.; Husain, Jonelle; Undesser, Cynthia
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated juveniles in Mississippi was examined. A total of 482 adolescents completed a diagnostic questionnaire and a subset (N = 317) was assessed with face-to-face semistructured interview. Most of the study participants met criteria for one mental disorder, 71?85% depending on assessment method,…
Cunha, Olga; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa
The literature considers intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators to be a heterogeneous group. In Portugal, IPV perpetrators may be sentenced to either of two types of sentences: deprivation of freedom or alternatives to prison (in the community). In the present study, we performed a comparative analysis between 76 male individuals sentenced to prison and 76 male individuals sentenced to community measures for crimes against their current or former partners, using a set of psychological measures. The results indicate that although incarcerated and nonincarcerated IPV perpetrators demonstrate considerable differences, some similarities may also be observed. Incarcerated IPV perpetrators present the lowest socioeconomic status and education, perpetrate more severe IPV, and have more criminal convictions. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the use of weapons and objects increased the probability of IPV perpetrators belonging to the prison group above and beyond sociodemographic variables. Based on these results, implications for IPV perpetrators' treatment are discussed.
KJELLSTRAND, JEAN M.; EDDY, J. MARK
Over the past several decades, the number of youth with parents in prison in the U.S. has increased substantially. Findings thus far indicate a vulnerable group of children. Using prospective longitudinal data gathered as part of the population-based Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) randomized controlled trial, adolescents who had an incarcerated parent during childhood are compared to those who did not across four key domains: family social advantage, parent health, the ...
Full Text Available Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with psychopathy, offenders without psychopathy and healthy individuals (N = 18/14/18, respectively. Unfair offers in a modified Ultimatum Game were paired with different unselected alternatives, thereby establishing the context of a proposal, and made under opposing intentionality constraints (intentional vs. unintentional. As in previous studies, unfair offers were most often rejected when the alternative was fair and when the offer was made intentionally. Importantly, however, offenders with psychopathy demonstrated a similar rejection pattern to that of healthy individuals, i.e. taking the unselected alternative into account. In contrast, delinquents without psychopathy did not adjust their decision behavior to the alternatives to an offer, suggesting stronger impairments in social decision-making. Crucially, the mechanisms and processes underlying rejection decisions might differ, particularly with regard to cognitive versus emotional competencies. While preserved cognitive perspective-taking could drive seemingly intact decision patterns in psychopathy, emotional empathy is likely to be compromised.
Bechtel, Kristin; Lowenkamp, Christopher T.; Latessa, Edward
The purpose of the Youth Level of Service Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) is to assess, classify, and assist agencies with developing treatment and service plans according to the offender's criminogenic risk factors. Given the limited research in the predictive validity for this instrument, the current study attempts to examine this issue on a…
Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Tyler, Kimberly A
Our paper examines service usage (e.g., shelter) as well as a typology of individuals who are most likely to use groupings of services among 249 homeless youth. Our results revealed that the majority of homeless young people have used food programs (66%) and street outreach (65%) on at least one occasion within the past year. Cluster analysis of services revealed four distinct groups: (1) basic survival service use, characterized by above average shelter, food, and outreach service use, but below average on counseling, substance abuse/mental health services, and incarceration; (2) multiple service use, which included above average use of all six services; (3) incarceration experience, characterized by above average incarceration experience, but below average use of all other five services; and (4) minimal service use, which included slightly above average use of counseling, but below average use of all other services. These findings have the potential to provide important information that may assist with targeting services to homeless youth. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
This study examined whether a "program integrity booster" could improve the low to moderate program integrity and effectiveness of the EQUIP program for incarcerated youth as practiced in The Netherlands. Program integrity was assessed in EQUIP groups before and after the booster. Youth residing in
Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.
Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco
The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P < 0.05) increase in BIS-11 total and attentional-impulsiveness scores. In summary, these findings support the role of MAOA gene as a prominent genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given concerns over rising use of methamphetamine, especially among street-involved youth, and the links between exposure to the correctional system and the production of drug-related harm, we sought to assess the relationship between ever using methamphetamine and reporting ever being incarcerated in the At-Risk Youth Survey (ARYS in Vancouver, Canada. Methods The relationship between ever being imprisoned and ever using methamphetamine was estimated using a multivariate logistic regression analysis while also considering potentially confounding secondary demographic, social and behavioural variables. Results Of the 478 youth recruited into ARYS between September 2005 and October 2006, 385 (80.5% reported ever being incarcerated overnight or longer. In the multivariate model, methamphetamine use was independently associated with ever being incarcerated (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03 – 3.13. Conclusion Incarceration was very common in this cohort and strongly linked with ever using methamphetamine. This finding is of concern and, along with the previously identified risks of drug-related harm associated with incarceration, supports the development of novel public policy, such as community-based drug treatment, to address the use of methamphetamine among street youth.
Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P
Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance, and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Gervais, Christine L M; Romano, Elisa
Research on youth sexual offending has focused primarily on its prevalence. However, recent efforts have begun to consider the collateral consequences for the relatives of offending youth, although little has been done in this regard toward exploring caregiver accountability. This study presents qualitative data on parents' sense of responsibility in situations where their child engaged in sexual offending behaviour against another child. We analyzed interview data among 16 parents from 10 families in Canada using thematic coding procedures. Findings illustrated the range of responsible actions that caregivers of sexual offending youth undertook with regard to preventing recidivism and accessing appropriate services for all the abuse-affected children. Caregivers reported on the enormous complexities they encountered as they attempted to simultaneously attend to the best interests of both the victim and offending youth. A particularly significant theme was that, despite the overwhelming challenges caregivers faced in dealing with the needs of their offending child, they were also highly attentive to the well-being of the victims. Our findings point to the importance of comprehensive and non-biased support services for both children and caregivers in order to fully uphold the rights of all affected individuals, and to better meet the needs as well as best interests of sexual abuse-affected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chng, Grace S; Chu, Chi Meng; Zeng, Gerald; Li, Dongdong; Ting, Ming Hwa
There were two aims to this study: firstly, to identify family subtypes of Singaporean youth offenders based on eight family variables. Secondly, the associations of these family subtypes with youth offending outcomes were tested. With a sample of 3,744 youth, a latent class analysis was first conducted based on eight family variables. Multivariate analyses and a Cox regression were subsequently performed to analyze the associations of the family classes with age at first arrest, age at first charge, and recidivism. A three-class solution was found to have the best fit to the data: (1) intact functioning families had little family risk; (2) families with criminality had higher probabilities of family criminality, of drug/alcohol abuse, and of being nonintact; and (3) poorly managed families received the poorest parenting and were more likely to be nonintact. Youth offenders from the latter two classes were arrested and charged at younger ages. Additionally, they reoffended at a quicker rate. Family backgrounds matter for youth offending outcomes. Interventions have to be multifaceted and targeted at the family in order to mitigate the risk of young offenders from developing into pathological adult criminals.
Papp, Jordan; Campbell, Christina; Onifade, Eyitayo; Anderson, Valerie; Davidson, William; Foster, Dawn
Understanding the criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs of juvenile drug offenders is important because of the myriad negative outcomes that befall juveniles that are involved in drugs. A widely used juvenile risk assessment tool, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) was utilized to explore criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs to predict recidivism. Demographic differences between drug and nondrug offenders were also examined. Results ...
Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul; Havel, Emily
This study examined the facility-to-community transition of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system, for a period of 12 months. Data on the sample were gathered through phone interviews, while they were still in custody and then every 6 months after their parole. The interviewees were asked to…
Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul
We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
The present study examined whether the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth would reduce recidivism and whether higher levels of program integrity - the extent to which a program is implemented as intended - would strengthen the effectiveness of EQUIP on recidivism. Program
Toombs, Nancy J.; Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn
Examines what sociodemographic and criminogenic factors discriminate between inmates in a boot camp for non-violent offenders who commit crimes against persons and other offenders. Stepwise discriminant analysis results are discussed. The intervention implications of the findings are also discussed. (Author/MKA)
Snow, Pamela C; Woodward, Mary N
Although a number of studies have described high rates of wide-ranging language difficulties in youth offender samples, minimal intervention research has been conducted with this population. The aim of this study was to implement a small-scale speech-language pathology (SLP) intervention study in a secure youth justice facility and to identify key practical challenges associated with conducting SLP interventions in youth custodial settings. Six young males were recruited and underwent assessment via a range of standardised and self-report communication measures. Measures of nonverbal IQ and of therapeutic engagement were also employed, and participants' own goals concerning communication competence were incorporated into treatment. Participants completed seven to 16 weeks' of 1:1 SLP intervention, once or twice per week. Therapeutic engagement was generally strong. All participants made gains and responded favourably regarding the usefulness of the intervention. Many practical issues conspired to make this a challenging SLP intervention setting. Youth custodial sentences represent an important opportunity for high-risk youths with compromised communication skills to receive specialist SLP therapeutic services to reduce the impact of their communication difficulties post-release into the community.
Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien
The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…
Papp, Jordan; Campbell, Christina; Onifade, Eyitayo; Anderson, Valerie; Davidson, William; Foster, Dawn
Understanding the criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs of juvenile drug offenders is important because of the myriad negative outcomes that befall juveniles that are involved in drugs. A widely used juvenile risk assessment tool, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) was utilized to explore criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs to predict recidivism. Demographic differences between drug and nondrug offenders were also examined. Results suggested that of the eight YLS/CMI domains, the substance abuse domain was not predictive of recidivism for juvenile drug offenders. However, peer relationships and attitudes significantly predicted future recidivism, suggesting that case planners should pay particular attention to these domains when designing a treatment plan for this group. Cox Regression Hazard Modeling was also used to estimate risk for recidivism among juvenile drug offenders as compared to other juvenile offenders. Results revealed that while juvenile drug offenders had a significantly higher score for substance use, they were not more likely to recidivate than nondrug offenders. Implications are discussed.
Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V
A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Bryan, Karen; Gregory, Juliette
The purpose of this research was to ascertain the views of staff and managers within a youth offending team on their experiences of working with a speech and language therapist (SLT). The model of therapy provision was similar to the whole-systems approach used in schools. The impact of the service on language outcomes is reported elsewhere…
... Collection for a Youthful Offender Grants Management Information System, New Collection AGENCY: Employment... is soliciting comments concerning the collection of data for a proposed management information system... permit the Department of Labor to implement a management information system for these various sets of...
Fine, Adam; Cavanagh, Caitlin; Donley, Sachiko; Frick, Paul J; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Youth who hold negative attitudes toward the justice system are more likely to engage in crime. It is particularly important to study attitudes early in someone's criminal career when they may still be open to change. To date, however, there has been no empirical test assessing whether the relation between attitudes and behavior changes after a first arrest. Using a sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the Crossroads Study, the present study explored: (a) racial/ethnic differences in the longitudinal patterns of youths' attitudes; and (b) reciprocal associations between youths' attitudes and both their offending behavior and rearrests in the 2.5 years after their first arrest. The results indicated that White youths' attitudes remained largely stable, Black youths' attitudes became more negative, and Latino youths' attitudes became more negative but only among Latino youth who reoffended. Although the results indicated that youths' attitudes were related to both offending and rearrest, the bidirectional relation between attitudes and offending weakened across time. After 2.5 years after their first arrest, attitudes no longer predicted offending or rearrests. These novel findings suggest that a youth's first contact is likely the most impactful. When it comes to young offenders' interactions with the justice system, first impressions matter. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Barretto, Craig; Miers, Sarah; Lambie, Ian
Public perceptions of crime and punishment have taken on increasing importance as countries grapple with how to address youth violence. The current study aimed to compare the views of those who have had personal experience of victimisation from youth offenders and those who have not, on what could be improved in managing youth offending in New Zealand. A qualitative methodology was used with data from open-ended survey responses from a nationally representative sample. Public sentiments favoured addressing systemic issues and providing rehabilitation as main emphases followed by more punitive measures, prevention, and restorative justice. Victims were over-represented on sentiments of prevention whereas non-victims were over-represented in support for more punitive measures and restorative justice. There was also considerable support for a multi-facetted approach that utilised a number of the approaches above, suggesting that the solution is as complex as the offender's circumstances. These findings are very much in line with the current goals of the youth justice system with its emphasis on diversion and rehabilitation.
Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik
prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding......, including assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the SAPAS for various cut-off scores, will be presented Conclusions: The study provides a basis for preliminary conclusions regarding the validity of SAPAS as a brief routine screen for personality disorders amongst incarcerated male youth......Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...
Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik
Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...... prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding...
Yoder, Jamie R; Leibowitz, George S; Peterson, Leanne
Attachment deficits have been suggested as an etiological explanation underlying the development of sexually abusive behaviors and general delinquency among youth. Yet, few researchers have explored the discriminating functions of attachment characteristics or investigated attachments as a stand-alone risk/protective factor explaining offending profiles among youth sexual offenders. This article explored the differences in characteristics of parental and peer attachments between youth sexual (n = 355) and non-sexual offenders (n = 150). Furthermore, associations between family and peer attachments and criminal profiles of sexual offenders were tested. The t-test results revealed that the groups of youth differed on various mother and father attachment characteristics, with youth sexual offenders exhibiting greater deficits. Regression models revealed lower levels of mother and peer trust and communication were associated with more severe sexual offenses; low levels of mother trust were associated with more victims; and low levels of mother trust and high father alienation were associated with more non-sexual criminality. Practice implications suggest the need to amalgamate families more consistently into treatment and addressing peer dynamics within groups and community contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.
Veen, Violaine C; Stevens, Gonneke Wjm; Doreleijers, Theo Ah; Deković, Maja; Pels, Trees; Vollebergh, Wilma Am
In the Netherlands, youths of Moroccan origin account for a disproportionately large percentage of the population in juvenile justice institutions. Previous research showed that Moroccan adolescents in pre-trial arrest are characterized by less serious offending behavior (i.e., primarily property-based) and lower levels of mental health problems than native Dutch adolescents in pre-trial arrest. To date, little is known about the parent-child relationship of these adolescents. This study examines the mother-son relationships of Moroccan and native Dutch delinquent adolescents and their association with adolescent delinquency. In the present study, differences in the mother-son relationship characteristics between families of incarcerated (N = 129) and non-incarcerated (N = 324) adolescents were examined, and it was analyzed if these differences between incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents were the same for Moroccans and native Dutch. Data collection for the incarcerated sample took place from 2006 to 2008. Comparison data were used of interviews conducted with mothers originating from former larger studies in the general Dutch population. Latent Class Analysis was performed in order to identify types of mother-son relationship. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the relationships between mother-son relationship types, incarceration and ethnicity. A three class model of mother-son relationship types was found: a low-conflict mother-son relationship type, a high-conflict mother-son relationship type, and a neglectful mother-son relationship type. Compared to the native Dutch adolescents, Moroccans (both in the incarcerated and non-incarcerated population) more often showed a neglectful mother-son relationship type. For Moroccans, no differences in mother-son relationship types were found between the incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents, whereas considerable differences occurred between the native Dutch incarcerated and non-incarcerated
Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David
We examined cases in which sex offenders arrested for Internet-related crimes used the Internet for sexual communications with minors, comparing crimes by offenders who met victims online to those by offenders who knew victims in-person prior to the offense. We collected data from a national sample of law enforcement agencies (n = 2,653) about arrests in 2009 for Internet-related sex crimes against minors, conducting detailed telephone interviews with investigators about individual cases. This paper examines a subset of arrest cases that included the use of online sexual communications (online-meeting offenders, n = 143; know-in-person/online offenders, n = 139). Compared with know-in-person/online offenders, online-meeting offenders were less likely to have criminal backgrounds and more likely to use online communications to deceive victims. However, deception was a factor in a minority of cases and was also used by some know-in-person/online offenders. The majority of cases in both groups involved statutory rape (i.e., nonforcible illegal sexual activity with underage youth) or noncontact offenses such as child pornography production or sexual solicitation of a minor. We conclude that crimes by online-meeting offenders should not be treated as different or more dangerous than those by know-in-person/online offenders who use online sexual communications. Rather, prevention efforts should educate about the nature of statutory rape and related noncontact offenses. The primary message should be that it is criminal for adults to make sexual overtures to minors, online or offline, no matter what their relationship to the youth. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Snow, Pamela C; Sanger, Dixie D
Restorative Justice is an approach to responding to youth offending that aims to be collaborative and conciliatory rather than adversarial. In this respect, it is a welcome innovation in justice, welfare, and educational settings, and is gaining favour around the world. To date, however, the Restorative Justice literature has not considered the possible implications of unidentified language impairment in the young offenders who are asked to participate in face-to-face conferences with their victim(s). The aims of this paper are (1) to bring two paradigms together: Restorative Justice on the one hand, and the literature on language and social cognition impairments in vulnerable and socially marginalized young people on the other; (2) to stimulate awareness and interest in this aspect of public policy and practice by speech-language pathologists; and (3) to suggest some research questions that need to be tackled from an oral language competence perspective. A narrative review of the relevant literature pertaining to both Restorative Justice and oral language competence in vulnerable young people was conducted, with particular emphasis on the implications of the undetected language impairments as a source of possible unintended harm to both victims and offenders in Restorative Justice conferences. This is the first paper that specifically addresses the oral language skills of vulnerable and socially marginalized young people with respect to their capacity to participate in Restorative Justice conferences. It is important that speech-language pathologists contribute their specialized knowledge and clinical skills to public policy-making and debate, and practice that pertains to marginalized young people who may have undetected oral language impairments. Speech-language pathology as a profession is well positioned to plan and execute important programmes of research on this growing approach to dealing with youth offending and reducing recidivism. © 2010 Royal College
Lo, T Wing; Cheng, Christopher H K
This study was designed to explore the self and contextual factors for violence in two samples of school students and youth offenders in Macau. There were 3085 participants who were between 12 and 20 years old; 48.3% of them were male and 51.7% female. Findings revealed that youth offenders exhibited more violence than school students. For the self factors, while lower self-esteem and higher self-efficacy of school students were associated with more violent behavior, these two variables had no significant effects for youth offenders. For the contextual factors, family conflict was the strongest predictor of violence, and school commitment/attachment was the weakest predictor for both samples. For youth offenders, family conflict had the largest direct effect, followed by susceptibility to negative peer influence and influence of the Triad gangs, while school commitment/attachment had a significant though mild direct effect. For school students, family conflict mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. While Triad gangs' influence was the second strongest predictor of violence, being exposed to Triad gangs' influence also mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. It is recommended that youth outreach services with a focus on family support and gang detachment for at-risk youth be strengthened.
T. Wing Lo
Full Text Available This study was designed to explore the self and contextual factors for violence in two samples of school students and youth offenders in Macau. There were 3085 participants who were between 12 and 20 years old; 48.3% of them were male and 51.7% female. Findings revealed that youth offenders exhibited more violence than school students. For the self factors, while lower self-esteem and higher self-efficacy of school students were associated with more violent behavior, these two variables had no significant effects for youth offenders. For the contextual factors, family conflict was the strongest predictor of violence, and school commitment/attachment was the weakest predictor for both samples. For youth offenders, family conflict had the largest direct effect, followed by susceptibility to negative peer influence and influence of the Triad gangs, while school commitment/attachment had a significant though mild direct effect. For school students, family conflict mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. While Triad gangs’ influence was the second strongest predictor of violence, being exposed to Triad gangs’ influence also mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. It is recommended that youth outreach services with a focus on family support and gang detachment for at-risk youth be strengthened.
Lo, T. Wing; Cheng, Christopher H. K.
This study was designed to explore the self and contextual factors for violence in two samples of school students and youth offenders in Macau. There were 3085 participants who were between 12 and 20 years old; 48.3% of them were male and 51.7% female. Findings revealed that youth offenders exhibited more violence than school students. For the self factors, while lower self-esteem and higher self-efficacy of school students were associated with more violent behavior, these two variables had no significant effects for youth offenders. For the contextual factors, family conflict was the strongest predictor of violence, and school commitment/attachment was the weakest predictor for both samples. For youth offenders, family conflict had the largest direct effect, followed by susceptibility to negative peer influence and influence of the Triad gangs, while school commitment/attachment had a significant though mild direct effect. For school students, family conflict mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. While Triad gangs’ influence was the second strongest predictor of violence, being exposed to Triad gangs’ influence also mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. It is recommended that youth outreach services with a focus on family support and gang detachment for at-risk youth be strengthened. PMID:29401666
Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
A 5-year study investigated the relationship of selected variables to engagement (working, attending school, or both) status of 108 formerly incarcerated youth. Participants whose first formal adjudication occurred after 14 and were not gang-involved were more likely to be engaged, as were those who received mental health services. (Contains…
van Wijk, A.P.; Loeber, R.; Vermeiren, R; Pardini, D.; Bullens, R.A.R.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.
Only a limited number of studies have compared the psychosocial characteristics of juvenile sex offenders and nonsex offenders. The results of these studies have often been contradictory. Furthermore, studies in normal population groups are rare and most of those studies have been conducted in
Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.
Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…
Wright, Kevin A; Kim, Byungbae; Chassin, Laurie; Losoya, Sandra H; Piquero, Alex R
Serious youthful offenders are presented with a number of significant challenges when trying to make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. One of the biggest obstacles for these youth to overcome concerns their ability to desist from further antisocial behavior, and although an emerging body of research has documented important risk and protective factors associated with desistance, the importance of the neighborhoods within which these youth reside has been understudied. Guided by the larger neighborhood effects on crime literature, the current study examines the direct and indirect effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending among a sample of highly mobile, serious youthful offenders. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders (N = 1,354; 13.6% female; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic, 20.2% White), matched up with 2000 Census data on neighborhood conditions for youth's main residence location during waves 7 and 8 of the study. These waves represent the time period in which youth are navigating the transition to adulthood (aged 18-22; average age = 20). We estimate structural equation models to determine direct effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending and also to examine the possible indirect effects working through individual-level mechanisms as specified by theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., unsupervised peer activities), strain (e.g., exposure to violence), and learning (e.g., exposure to antisocial peers). Additionally, we estimate models that take into account the impact that a change in neighborhood conditions may have on the behavior of youth who move to new residences during the study period. Our results show that concentrated disadvantage is indirectly associated with youth reoffending primarily through its association with exposure to deviant peers. Taking into account youth mobility during the study period produced an additional
Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R
Researchers have consistently linked commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of youth and involvement in prostitution with substance dependency and delinquency. Yet, important questions remain regarding the directionality and mechanisms driving this association. Utilizing a sample of 114 CSE/prostituted youth participating in the Pathways to Desistance study-a longitudinal investigation of the transition from adolescence to adulthood among serious adolescent offenders-the current study examined key criminal career parameters of CSE/prostitution including age of onset and rate of recurrence. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore concurrent associations and causal links between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement. Findings show a general sequential pattern of the ages of onset with substance use and selling drugs occurring prior to CSE/prostitution, evidence that a small group with chronic CSE/prostitution account for the majority of CSE/prostitution occurrences, and high rates of repeated CSE/prostitution. SEM results suggest CSE/prostituted youth persist in drug involvement from year to year but infrequently experience perpetuation of CSE/prostitution from year to year. Concurrent associations between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement were found across the length of the study. Additionally, drug involvement at one year was linked to CSE/prostitution during the subsequent year during early years of the study. © The Author(s) 2014.
... treatment within the criminal justice system. Players in that policy game focused, as we are doing today, on the need to provide criminal offenders with drug abuse treatment as an alternative to incarceration...
Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana
The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…
Atkins, Trent; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
This longitudinal study of the community adjustment of 531 youth exiting Oregon's juvenile justice system focused on youth categorized as being in either low or high socioeconomic status (SES) groups. The team gathered data before participants exited the corrections system and afterwards by telephone interviews. The study found no statistical…
Full Text Available The most successful programming offered in juvenile justice facilities do not transfer easily back to communities to give youth the opportunity to practice intervention skills once they return home. Having this opportunity is particularly important to youth leaving state custody given that they disproportionately return to poor communities and disrupted families that both exacerbate behaviors associated with juvenile justice involvement and act as barriers to much needed services and support. With this in mind, a randomized controlled trial was used to quantitatively assess the ability of freely available Internet-based mindfulness meditation instruction to increase mindfulness in treatment youth, with weekly journals and open-ended post-test questions used to qualitatively explore the treatment experience. Findings suggest that an Internet delivery of mindfulness meditation is both engaging to incarcerated youth, helpful to them in coping with life in a juvenile justice facility, and able to increase mindfulness in youth who practice it.
Peer van der Helm PhD; M. van Genabeek; P.H. van der Laan; G.J.J.M. Stams
Aggression in youth prison is considered a major problem, probably interfering with treatment and rehabilitative goals, and creating an unsafe work environment for group workers. The present study examined how inmates’ personality (dispositional characteristics) and living group climate (situational
Johnson, V. Scott
Describes goals of the Robert F. Kennedy Youth Center (KYC) and the philosophical stance and the implementation of that philosophy within the center. Issues discussed range from administrative structure through descriptions of inmate classification and treatment. Educational and vocational programs as well as the token economy systems are…
EMPEY, LAMAR T.
THIS EXTENSIVE REPORT DISCUSSES VARIOUS CORRECTIONAL PRACTICES FOR ADULT AND JUVENILE OFFENDERS, AND DESCRIBES POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES. ALTERNATIVES TO PRETRIAL INCARCERATION OF ADULT OFFENDERS ARE SUPERVISED RELEASE, DAYTIME RELEASE, RELEASE IN THE CUSTODY OF A THIRD PARTY, SUMMONS INSTEAD OF ARREST, AND REVISED BAIL PROCEDURES. ALTERNATIVES TO…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2013
A sea change is underway in the nation's approach to dealing with young people who get in trouble with the law. Although the country still leads the industrialized world in the rate at which it locks up young people, the youth confinement rate in the United States is rapidly declining. In 2010 this rate reached a new 35-year low, with almost every…
Cross, Lara E.; Morrison, William; Peterson, Patricia; Domene, Jose F.
This article examines how a rural Canadian secure custody facility for youth implemented positive psychology principles in its case management protocols and residential programming. A directed content analysis design was utilized to identify specific factors of positive psychology in the facility's policy and programming manual, as well as in…
Describes the growth and development of a library program serving a shelter for abused and neglected children and youth and a juvenile detention center in Orange County (California). Program funding, materials preferred by teen users, library management, special events, and problems are discussed. Teen patrons and their use of the services are…
Wallace, Barbara C
The purpose of this article was to discuss significant challenges to the achievement of urban health, specifically acknowledging numerous controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment that prevent the achievement of health equity. Seven specific controversies are analyzed in this article. The results of the analysis are recommendations for moving toward the resolution of each controversy. Among the most important recommendations is a call to end the policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders-as policies reflecting how politics and the misuse of power may derail knowledge translation. The article provides justification for evidence-based policy that supports community-based drug treatment as a public health approach consistent with the goals of health equity, ethical practice, and effective knowledge translation.
Cope, L M; Ermer, E; Gaudet, L M; Steele, V R; Eckhardt, A L; Arbabshirani, M R; Caldwell, M F; Calhoun, V D; Kiehl, K A
Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses.
Morosan, Larisa; Badoud, Deborah; Salaminios, George; Eliez, Stephan; Van der Linden, Martial; Heller, Patrick; Debbané, Martin
Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15.78, SD = 1.60) participated in our study. In the IA group, 28 adolescents presented CPs (M age = 16.06, SD = 1.41) and 19 did not meet the diagnostic criteria for CPs (M age = 15.97, SD = 1.20). Source monitoring was assessed through a speech-monitoring task, using items requiring different levels of cognitive effort; recognition and source-monitoring bias scores (internalising and externalising biases) were calculated. Between-group comparisons indicate greater overall biases and different patterns of biases in the source monitoring. IA participants manifest a greater externalising bias, whereas CA participants present a greater internalising bias. In addition, IA with CPs present different patterns of item recognition. These results indicate that the two groups of adolescents present different types of source-monitoring bias for self-generated speech. In addition, the IAs with CPs present impairments in item recognition. Future studies may examine the developmental implications of self-monitoring biases in the perseverance of antisocial behaviours from adolescence to adulthood.
Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.
Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…
Gover, Angela R
While prior literature generally supports the connection between child maltreatment and violent offending in adolescence and early adulthood for general population samples, less is known about the relationship between child maltreatment and the frequency of violent offending among serious juvenile offenders. As a result, few studies have examined whether the effects of child maltreatment on the frequency of violent offending are mediated by other social processes, as developmental models of aggression and violence would suggest. To examine this issue, self-report data on child maltreatment, general delinquency risk factors, and violent offending were collected from 3,694 juveniles confined to 48 correctional institutions. Results from a series of negative binomial regression models indicated that the relationship between child maltreatment and the frequency of violent offending was mediated by social risk factors. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.
Boonmann, Cyril; Grisso, Thomas; Guy, Laura S; Colins, Olivier F; Mulder, Eva A; Vahl, P; Jansen, Lucres M C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
To examine the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and mental health problems in juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) over and above general offending behavior. A sample of 44 JSOs incarcerated in two juvenile detention centers in the Netherlands between May 2008 and March 2014 were examined for childhood abuse history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form) and mental health problems (Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2). Furthermore, the connection between childhood abuse and mental health problems in JSOs was compared to a sample of 44 propensity score matched juveniles who offended non-sexually (non-JSOs). In JSOs, sexual abuse was related to anger problems, suicidal ideation, and thought disturbance. These associations were significantly stronger in JSOs than in non-JSOs. Our results suggest that the relationship between childhood abuse and both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems is of more salience for understanding sexual offending than non-sexual offending, and should, therefore, be an important focus in the assessment and treatment of JSOs.
Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Bierman, Ralph; Arnold, Robert; Stasiak, Eugene
A 3-year follow-up was conducted for Relating Without Violence, an emotion-focused group psychotherapy program for incarcerated men who have a history of intimate partner violence. This is the only known manualized experiential treatment for incarcerated batterers. A sample of 66 men who completed the treatment was compared to 184 men from the same prison. Although the initial research design was quasi-experimental, new procedures were used to match the groups' averages on all known pre-treatment variables. At 7 and 8 months post-release, the treatment group recidivated by assault and/or sexual assault significantly less than controls. Treatment effects are comparable to those of best practices. The study also demonstrates methodological developments for statistically creating matched groups not previously used in psychotherapy research.
Blank, Susan; Davie, Fred
Why would a law-and-order district attorney in one of the toughest, most crime-prone areas in the nation develop a faith-based alternative to incarceration for youthful offenders? District Attorney Charles J. Hynes credits his faith and a strong conviction that society can't prison-build its way out of the crime problem. Hynes established Youth…
Perceptions of Recidivism Among Incarcerated Youth: The Relationship Between Exposure to Childhood Trauma, Mental Health Status, and the Protective Effect of Mental Health Services in Juvenile Justice Settings
Jamie R. Yoder
Full Text Available Research suggests that youth involved the juvenile justice system have trauma histories that are two times higher than the general youth population. Juvenile justice-involved youth also have high rates of mental health symptoms. Fewer studies have examined how trauma links to mental health symptoms among youth offenders, and even less research focuses on how mental health status and service delivery can impact their perceived likelihood for success. This study examines the effects of mental health screening and service delivery on perceived future criminal justice interactions— arrest and incarceration—among adjudicated youth (n=7,073 housed in correctional facilities. Secondary data were used to examine trauma histories, mental health needs, and mental health screening and service delivery. Significant relationships between traumatic events and mental health problems were found, along with relationships between mental health problems and mental health screening and service delivery. Most interestingly, results pointed to the strong inverse relationship between mental health service delivery and youth’s perceived likelihood for recidivism. These findings show the promise of juvenile justice systems appropriately responding to the mental health concerns of youth.
Bryan R. Garner
Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health (NIH data harmonization project on existing measures ( www.phenx.org has recommended the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN–-Short Screener (GSS as one of the most reliable, valid, efficient, and inexpensive general behavioral health screeners to quickly identify people with internalizing and externalizing mental health disorders, substance use disorders, and crime/violence problems. The present study examined how well the four GSS screeners and their sum predict future arrest or incarceration among individuals entering treatment for a substance use disorder. Using a cross-validation design, a diverse sample of 6,815 youth with substance use disorders was split into a development sample and a validation sample. Overall, results found the GSS's crime and violence screener (CVScr and the substance disorder screener (SDScr to be the two best predictors of arrest/incarceration within the 12 months following treatment intake. Additionally, we found that these screeners could be used to categorize individuals into three groups (low risk, moderate risk, high risk and this simplified classification had good predictive validity (Area Under the Curve = 0.601. In sum, the GSS's predictive validity was similar to other instruments that have been developed to predict risk for recidivism; however, the GSS takes only a fraction of the time to collect (ie, approximately 2–3 minutes for just these two screeners.
Ten Bensel, Tusty; Gibbs, Benjamin; Burkey, Chris Rush
Studies on female sex offending have been limited for a number of reasons, such as societal perceptions that females are incapable of engaging in such behaviors because of their role as caretakers and nurturers in society. However, over the past few decades, studies examining female sex offenders have increased, revealing that females do commit sexual offenses and differ from their male counterparts. We examined offender, victim, and offense characteristics of female sex offenders who were convicted from 1995 to 2013 ( N = 223) in Arkansas and were sentenced to serve time in prison or placed on probation. We focused on the similarities and differences of solo and co-female sex offenders because we know from previous studies that the pathway of offending can differ between solo and co-female offenders, yet few studies have exclusively compared the similarities and differences among female sex offenders. Our data were collected from offender files that included basic personal offender information, offender survey and social history, criminal history, incident reports while incarcerated, court records, police investigation reports, initial offender and victim statements (prior to offender incarceration), and probation/parole reports. We believe the results of this study will provide further insight into the types of female sex offenders as well as the possible differences between co- and solo-offenders in relation to their victim preferences, risk levels, rehabilitation amenability, and recidivism propensities.
Loughran, Thomas A.; Piquero, Alex R.; Fagan, Jeffrey; Mulvey, Edward P.
Perceptual deterrence has been an enduring focus of interest in criminology. Although recent research has generated important new insights about how risks, costs, and rewards of offending are perceived and internalized, there remain two specific limitations to advancing theories of deterrence: (a) the lack of panel data to show whether issues of…
Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia
Purpose: The present study sought to examine the independent and interactive contribution of negative emotionality and emotion dysregulation in predicting levels of physical aggression among violent offenders. Methods: A sample of 221 male violent offenders incarcerated in Italian prisons completed
Part of the problem appears to be that the police do not have sufficient crime intelligence about house robbers. This article focuses on the value of incarcerated offenders of house robberies as an additional source of crime intelligence to the police on the basis of research conducted by the author in Gauteng in 2007.
Schwalbe, Craig S; Maschi, Tina
Probation officers are the focal point for most interventions with delinquent youths in the juvenile justice system. The present study examines probation strategies and interventions in a sample of 308 probation officers who completed the Probation Practices Assessment Survey (PPAS) in a web-based survey. The PPAS measures six probation approaches: deterrence, restorative justice, treatment, confrontation, counseling, and behavioral tactics. Structural equation models and latent class analyses showed that probation officers use multiple approaches with delinquent youths consistent with the balanced and restorative justice movement. Younger youths, high-risk youths, and youths with prior social service involvements are likely to receive more intensive interventions. The implications of these findings for improving probation practices with delinquent youth are discussed.
Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M
Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.
Rios, Victor M.
This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…
Cuervo, Keren; Villanueva, Lidón
Although a large body of research has studied the factors associated to general recidivism, predictive validity of these factors has received less attention. Andrews and Bonta's General Personality and Social-Psychological Model attempts to provide an in-depth explanation of risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory was administered to 210 adolescents aged between 14 and 18 with a criminal record to analyse risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. Their possible differential contribution over a 2-year follow-up period was also examined. Risk factors showed good levels of recidivism prediction. The factors that emerged as the most discriminative were education/employment, leisure/recreation, and personality. Protective factors differentiated between recidivists and non-recidivists in all factors. Hence, results showed that not only individual but also social factors would be crucial in predicting recidivism. © The Author(s) 2014.
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Geest, V.R.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Nagin, D.
Life-course theories expect imprisonment to negatively influence a person’s employment prospects. Incarceration not only instantaneously interrupts a number of life-course domains but may also reduce future opportunities to reconnect to them. This article analyzes the effects of incarceration on
Day, David M; Hart, Trevor A; Wanklyn, Sonya G; McCay, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Alison; Burnier, Nathalie
Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population.
Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.
Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…
Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This report on a study of family violence in the homes of serious juvenile offenders in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts contains a brief introduction and seven substantive sections. Sections 2, 3 and 4 review the literature with regard to the extent of family violence, the consequences of childhood victimization, and societal reaction to the…
Carmen Lucia Guimarães de Mattos
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa (MATTOS; ALMEIDA; CASTRO, 2011 que investigou a situação educacional das jovens e mulheres em privação de liberdade e de seus filhos utilizando a abordagem etnográfica de pesquisa. Constituíram-se como loci de estudo duas penitenciárias femininas e uma unidade para jovens cumprindo medidas socioeducativas de internação, todas situadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os registros dos dados realizaram-se com o auxílio de entrevistas etnográficas, vídeos, documentos e fotografias com as análises realizadas pelo método indutivo. Dentre os resultados da pesquisa, apresentam-se, neste artigo, as explicações sobre a situação de vulnerabilidade das jovens e mulheres em privação de liberdade e de seus filhos, com o encarceramento das mães. Além destas, as análises realizadas apontaram para as disparidades socioeducacionais na trajetória de vida das jovens e mulheres, evidenciando que a vulnerabilidade social das mesmas são indicadores de desigualdades que não tem garantido os direitos básicos estabelecidos pelas leis brasileiras e pelos Direitos Humanos.This paper presents results from the research (MATTOS; ALMEIDA; CASTRO, 2011 that investigated the educational situation of incarcerated youths and women and of their children using the ethnographic research approach. The study loci were two female prisons and one female juvenile correctional facility located in Rio de Janeiro State. Data collection took place using ethnographic interviews, videos, documents and photos and the analyses were performed by inductive method. Among the research results, explanations about the vulnerability of incarcerated youths and women and of their children, as a consequence of their mothers’ incarceration are presented in this paper. In addition, the collected data shows that social and educational disparities in the youths and women life course indicates their social vulnerability as a result of
Gordon, V; Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D
To explore the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline in incarcerated male youths aged 18-21 years. A case-control study of 169 male youth offenders incarcerated in Scottish prisons and classified as 'symptomatic' or 'non-symptomatic' of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms were measured using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report: Long Version, and prison breaches of discipline were gathered from the Scottish Prison Service's Prisoner Records System. Youths who were symptomatic of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) ADHD total symptoms had a significantly higher number of prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. Youths who were symptomatic of DSM-IV hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had a significantly higher number of violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. However, no such significant difference was found between youths who were symptomatic and non-symptomatic of DSM-IV inattentive symptoms. Young male offenders who are symptomatic of ADHD have a higher number of prison breaches of discipline. In particular, symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity are associated with breaches of both a violent and non-violent nature. Implications of such symptoms on rehabilitation and recidivism are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Wijk, A Ph; Blokland, A A J; Duits, N; Vermeiren, R; Harkink, J
Several studies have paid attention to the relationship between psychiatric disorders and adolescent offending but few have distinguished different types of offenders, especially within the category of youngsters who have committed sex offences. To test for relationships between psychiatric disorder and specific offence category among young male offenders. Nationwide data were extracted from Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Services (FPD) files for five groups of offenders, as defined by their index offence: 308 violent sex offenders; 134 non-violent sex-offenders; 270 sex offenders against children; 3148 violent offenders and 1620 offenders charged with any crime other than interpersonal body contact crimes. They were compared on individual characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria. Having a diagnosis of a paraphilia alone was exclusively associated with sex offending, therefore all such youths were excluded from further analyses. The OVERALS technique was used to explore possible relationships between offence, psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic and individual characteristics among the remaining young men for whom all pertinent data were available (n = 1894). Sex offenders constituted a distinct group of juvenile delinquents. Developmental disorders were more common among non-violent sex offenders and child molesters. Violent offences were more typical of delinquents from immigrant backgrounds. Group differences in types of psychiatric diagnoses may reflect differences in aetiological factors for the various types of sexual and other delinquent behaviour, and this would be worthy of further study. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda
The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.
This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…
Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.
The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…
Berman, Ariel K; Knight, Raymond A
The present study explored the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the adaptation of male juveniles who subsequently sexually offended (JSOs; n = 178; age, M = 16.05 years, SD = 0.27, range = 12-22). It examined multiple levels of interpersonal closeness between the perpetrators of sexual abuse and their JSO victims. JSOs who were sexually abused by older children or adults who cohabitated with them for at least 3 months reported higher levels of emotional dysregulation, callousness/manipulativeness, and sexualization than did both JSOs who were sexually abused by someone they had never lived with and JSOs who reported no experiences of sexual abuse. Implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kronick, Robert F.
Examined effectiveness of methods used by public and private institutions' handling of incarcerated delinquents. Concluded that organizational culture is key concept in delivery of services to incarcerated children and youth; that private sector provides alternative to public in delivery of services; that alcohol and drug treatment programs are…
HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an ... of viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...
Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V
Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.
Blomberg, Thomas G; Bales, William D; Piquero, Alex R
Research has linked the role of education to delinquency, but much of the focus has been on general population samples and with little attention to demographic differences. Employing a cumulative disadvantage framework that integrates elements of informal social control and labeling theories, this article examines whether academic achievement serves as a positive turning point and re-directs juvenile delinquents away from subsequent offending. Attention is also given to race/sex contingencies. Using a sample of 4,147 delinquents released from Florida correctional institutions (86% male, 57% non-White, average age at release = 16.8 years), propensity score analysis yielded two findings: youth with above average academic achievement while incarcerated were significantly more likely to return to school post-release, and youth with above average attendance in public school were significantly less likely to be re-arrested in the 1-year post-release period. While the academic gains were pronounced among African-American males, the preventive effects of school attendance are similar across race and sex, suggesting that education can be a part of a larger prevention effort that assists juvenile delinquents in successful community re-entry.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer
Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front end of the justice system. Female-male, multi-group latent class analyses identified two subgroups, High Risk and Lower Risk, of youths described by a latent construct of risk based on drug test results, STD test results, and a classification for the seriousness of arrest charge. The results found: (1) a similar classification distinguished High Risk and Lower Risk male and female youths, and (2) important gender group differences in sexual risk related factors (e.g., substance use during sexual encounters). Among the youths in this sample who tested positive for an STD, 66% of the girls and 57% of the boys were released back into the community after arrest. Overall, our findings raise serious public health and social welfare concerns, for both the youths and the community. Prevention and intervention implications of these findings are also discussed.
Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker
This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.
van den Berg, C.J.W.; Beijersbergen, K.A.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.
Empirical literature has revealed that social isolation can affect the rehabilitation of sex offenders after serving their sentence. This process of social isolation can already start during incarceration due to strained relationships with fellow prisoners and correctional staff. The current study
Klimecki, Megan R.; And Others
The recidivism of 75 offenders with intellectual disability who had been incarcerated in Melbourne (Australia) was examined. Results showed a recidivist rate of 41.3% with the variables of unemployment, substance abuse, and a psychiatric history being important antecedents of recidivism. (Author/DB)
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of exposure to community violence among delinquent Brazilian youth in the 12-month period prior to their incarceration and to identify factors associated with this exposure. METHOD: With an oversampling of girls, a cross-section of youth under 18 years of age from juvenile detention units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil completed a structured interview. Key items related to exposure to violence (witnessed and experienced were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment questionnaire to cover the 12-month period prior to incarceration. RESULTS: Participants (n = 325, 89% boys reported high rates of exposure to violence with largely similar levels for boys and girls. Being threatened with physical harm, being beaten or mugged and/or shot at were the most common forms of violence experienced. After controlling for demographic and family variables, the fact of having peers involved in risk behavior, easy access to guns and previous involvement with the justice system were associated with witnessed violence; whereas having slept on the street was the only variable associated with experienced violence. CONCLUSION: This group of youth was exposed to high levels of violence and other adverse experiences. Future research should examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at reducing the exposure to violence of high-risk youth.OBJETIVO: Esse estudo procurou determinar a extensão da exposição à violência na comunidade entre jovens brasileiros delinquentes nos 12 meses que antecederam sua privação de liberdade e identificar fatores associados a essa exposição. MÉTODO: Um corte transversal de menores de 18 anos internados em unidades da Fundação Casa/ex-FEBEM na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil (com meninas superamostradas participou de entrevista estruturada. Itens-chave sobre exposição à violência (testemunhada e vivenciada foram retirados do questionário Social and Health Assessment para
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of exposure to community violence among delinquent Brazilian youth in the 12-month period prior to their incarceration and to identify factors associated with this exposure. METHOD: With an oversampling of girls, a cross-section of youth under 18 years of age from juvenile detention units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil completed a structured interview. Key items related to exposure to violence (witnessed and experienced were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment questionnaire to cover the 12-month period prior to incarceration. RESULTS: Participants (n = 325, 89% boys reported high rates of exposure to violence with largely similar levels for boys and girls. Being threatened with physical harm, being beaten or mugged and/ or shot at were the most common forms of violence experienced. After controlling for demographic and family variables, the fact of having peers involved in risk behavior, easy access to guns and previous involvement with the justice system were associated with witnessed violence; whereas having slept on the street was the only variable associated with experienced violence. CONCLUSION: This group of youth was exposed to high levels of violence and other adverse experiences. Future research should examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at reducing the exposure to violence of high-risk youth.OBJETIVO: Esse estudo procurou determinar a extensão da exposição à violência na comunidade entre jovens brasileiros delinquentes nos 12 meses que antecederam sua privação de liberdade e identificar fatores associados a essa exposição. MÉTODO: Um corte transversal de menores de 18 anos internados em unidades da Fundação Casa/ex-FEBEM na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil (com meninas superamostradas participou de entrevista estruturada. Itens-chave sobre exposição à violência (testemunhada e vivenciada foram retirados do questionário Social and Health Assessment
Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver
Sexual homicide by a juvenile offender occurs approximately 9 times per year in the United States. Little is known about the post-incarceration adjustment of these offenders. The current study was designed to follow up 30 years later on a sample of eight adolescent sexual homicide offenders who were convicted of murder and sentenced to adult prison. The results indicated that six out of eight offenders were released from prison, and their mean sentence length was 12 years and 2 months. Four offenders out of the six released were rearrested, but none of the arrests were for homicide, sexual or otherwise. The post-incarceration arrests were for violent, drug-related, and property crimes, as well as possession of a firearm. Three out of the four recidivists have been recommitted to prison. Implications concerning the comparability of results to past research, time served in prison, and types of post-release offenses are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Peer van der Helm PhD; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.C. van der Stel; M.A.M. van Langen; P.H. van der Laan
The present study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour, and may therefore be vital for
Khan, Maria R; Scheidell, Joy D; Rosen, David L; Geller, Amanda; Brotman, Laurie M
We measured associations between parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk, assessing differences by race, age at first parental incarceration, and potential mediators of the relationship. We used Waves I (adolescence), III (young adulthood), and IV (adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,884) to measure associations between age of parental incarceration (never; STI in adolescence and adulthood among white, Black, and Hispanic participants and assessed mediation by sexual and physical abuse, mental disorder symptoms, and drug use. By Wave IV, approximately one in six had experienced a parental incarceration; higher prevalence observed among black (26%) and Hispanic (20%) versus white (15%) respondents (p STI/HIV risk outcomes. In multivariable models, parental incarceration at age STI/HIV risk in both adolescence and adulthood, with strongest associations among non-whites. Among black participants, parental incarceration at STI/HIV prevention and treatment. The unintended consequences of incarceration for children should be considered in decarceration discussions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Brook, Michael; Kosson, David S.; Bustillo, Juan R.; Harenski, Keith A.; Caldwell, Michael F.; Van Rybroek, Gregory J.; Koenigs, Michael; Decety, Jean; Thornton, David M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Abstract Relative to the general population, individuals with psychotic disorders have a higher risk of suicide. Suicide risk is also elevated in criminal offenders. Thus, psychotic-disordered individuals with antisocial tendencies may form an especially high-risk group. We built upon prior risk analyses by examining whether neurobehavioral correlates of social cognition were associated with suicidal behavior in criminal offenders with psychotic disorders. We assessed empathic accuracy and brain structure in four groups: (i) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and past suicide attempts, (ii) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and no suicide attempts, (iii) incarcerated offenders without psychotic disorders and (iv) community non-offenders without psychotic disorders. Established suicide risk variables were examined along with empathic accuracy and gray matter in brain regions implicated in social cognition. Relative to the other groups, offenders with psychotic disorders and suicide attempts had lower empathic accuracy and smaller temporal pole volumes. Empathic accuracy and temporal pole volumes were significantly associated with suicide attempts independent of other risk variables. The results indicate that brain and behavioral correlates of social cognition may add incremental value to models of suicide risk. PMID:28065894
Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Background: Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of…
Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa
Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.
Hampton, Ashley S.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Steinberg, Laurence
Although evidence indicates that both psychopathy and intelligence independently predict juvenile offending, relations among IQ, psychopathy, and offending are inconsistent. We investigated whether intelligence moderates the relation between psychopathy and aggressive and income offending concurrently and over time among 1,354 juvenile offenders enrolled in Pathways to Desistance, a prospective study of serious juvenile offenders in Philadelphia and Phoenix. Participants were assessed on intelligence, psychopathy, and self-reported offending both at their initial interview (ages 14–18 years old), and 36 and 84 months later. Results indicate that intelligence moderates the concurrent relation between both aggressive and income offending and total psychopathy, as well as scores on Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and Factor 2 (social deviance); the 36-month prospective relation between all aspects of psychopathy and income offending; and the 84-month prospective relation between Factor 2 psychopathy and aggressive offending. As expected, higher levels of psychopathy are associated with higher levels of offending, but the highest levels of offending are evinced among youth with relatively higher levels of psychopathy and relatively higher IQ. PMID:23750597
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
Data from the study, Transition Research on Adjudicated Youth in Community Settings, were used to examine community integration outcomes for the subgroup of adolescent fathers. Juvenile offenders who were fathers were found to return to the correctional system at a higher rate than nonfathers, but fathers who remained in the community were…
Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.
Piquero, Alex; Blumstein, Alfred; Brame, Robert; Haapanen, Rudy; Mulvey, Edward P.; Nagin, Daniel S.
Examined effect of accounting for exposure (incarceration) time on arrest rate of 272 paroled serious offenders followed through age 33. Analysis without exposure time adjustments suggested that over 92 percent exhibited highest arrest activity in late teens and early 20s. Adjusted for exposure time, about 72 percent showed a decline in arrest…
Beatriz Saraiva, A.; Pereira, Beatriz O.; Zamith-Cruz, Judite
This study examines school dropouts from the perspective of male adults themselves through interviews with offenders currently serving sentences. Participants were 10 Portuguese male inmates, between the ages of 19 and 46 years of age, incarcerated in two prison facilities on the Azores. Qualitative and interpretative methods were carried out…
Pallone, Nathanial J.
Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to…
Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rolison, Jonathan J
It has long been assumed that risk taking is closely associated with criminal behavior. One reason for placing criminals behind bars--aside from punishment and protecting the public--is to prevent them from engaging in further risky criminal activities. Limited attention has been paid to whether being inside or outside prison affects offenders' risk-taking behaviors and attitudes. We compared risk-taking behaviors and attitudes in five risk domains (ethical, financial, health/safety, recreational, social) among 75 incarcerated offenders (i.e., offenders who are currently in prison) and 45 ex-offenders (i.e., offenders who have just been released from prison). Ex-offenders reported higher likelihood of engaging in risky behavior, driven largely by a willingness to take more risks in the recreational and ethical domains. Benefits attributed to risk taking as well as risk perception did not differ between incarcerated and ex-offenders, indicating that the opportunity to take risks might underlie behavioral risk intentions. Our results also indicate that risk-taking activities are better predicted by the expected benefits rather than by risk perception, aside from the health/safety domain. These results highlight the importance of studying the person and the environment and examining risk taking in a number of content domains. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
Dec 1, 2011 ... Politics and Conflict in Africa4 offers readings on youth involvement in ... youth from a religious perspective seems primarily to be focused on education .... Conflict. An anthropological definition of war offered in No Peace, No War: An An- thropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts28 is: 'All war is long-term ...
Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James
We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.
Beardslee, Jordan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Allison, Paul; Infante, Arynn; Pardini, Dustin
Although studies have found that youth exposed to violence are more likely to carry guns than non-exposed youth, this association could be due to common causal factors or other pre-existing differences between individuals. In this study, within-individual change models were used to determine whether juvenile offenders exhibit an increased propensity to carry a firearm after being exposed to gun violence and/or non-gun violence. The advantage of this approach is all time-invariant factors are eliminated as potential confounders. A sample of 1,170 racially/ethnically diverse male juvenile offenders was recruited in Arizona and Pennsylvania (14-19 years old at recruitment). Participants were interviewed every 6 months for 3 years followed by 4 annual assessments. The outcome was gun carrying and the primary predictors were exposure to gun violence and non-gun violence. Time-varying covariates included exposure to peers who carried guns, exposure to peers who engaged in other (non-gun) criminal acts, developmental changes in gun carrying, and changes in gun carrying from incarceration or institutionalization. Adolescent offenders were significantly more likely to carry a gun in recall periods after exposure to gun violence, but not after exposure to non-gun violence. Effect of gun violence on carrying was significant throughout adolescence and young adulthood and could not be accounted for by time-varying and time-invariant confounders. Interventions to decrease illegal gun carrying should target young men in medical and mental health settings who experience or witness gun violence and those living in communities with high rates of gun violence. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Becker, Judith V.
Reviews what is known about child sex offenders and their treatment. The author discusses the role of paraphilia in child molestation and reviews what is known about juvenile and incest offenders and recidivism rates. What is known about recidivism of untreated offenders and treatment practices is also summarized. Recommendations conclude the…
Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei
Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.
Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies confirmed personality traits as being important predictors of criminal behavior. The aim of this research was to determine which constellation of basic personality traits incarcerated individuals and those serving alternative sanctions differ, and which traits make the difference between the criminal and the non-criminal populations. In this research, the model of personality used is a cybernetic model of conative functioning, which assumes that conative regulation systems almost completely describe the structure of personality. Methods: The study sample consisted of 391 male respondents (152 offenders serving prison sentence, 91 convicts sentenced to alternative penalties and 148 non-offenders. Examined variables were: the regulator of activity (Extroversion, the regulator of organic functions (Hysteria, the regulator of defense reactions (Anxiety, the regulator of attack reactions (Aggressiveness, the system for coordination of regulatory functions (Psychoticism and the system for integration of regulatory functions (Integration. Results: There were significant differences in all dimensions of personality between groups, except for the framework of Extraversion. The traits that contribute to the difference between individuals serving prison sentence and offenders sentenced to alternative penalties are Integration and Aggressiveness. The traits that contribute to the difference between non-offenders and offenders serving prison sentence are Psychoticism, Integration, Aggressiveness, and Anxiety. Among offenders sentenced to alternative penalties and the general population no difference in personality traits was found. Conclusion: Our findings may indicate the need for mandatory diagnostic psychological evaluation of persons who have committed minor offenses, to ensure the right decision is made when choosing between prison and an alternative method of punishment.
Bridges, M R; Wilson, J S; Gacono, C B
Rorschach protocols of 60 incarcerated men who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for Pedophilia were compared to those of 60 incarcerated men with no history of sex offenses (matched for age, education, and race). Comprehensive System Rorschach variables (Exner, 1991) were selected based on both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral models of pedophilia. Pedophiles' Rorschachs (a) contained significantly more responses and were more likely to reveal signs of (b) anxiety and helplessness, (c) painful introspection, (d) distorted views of others, and (e) primitive dependency needs than the comparison group's Rorschachs. Like other incarcerated men, the pedophiles exhibited disturbances in self-worth (either poor self-esteem or excessive self-focus), tendencies to abuse fantasy and avoid emotionally tinged stimuli, and chronic oppositionality and hostility. Pedophiles possess many core personality features associated with Narcissistic Personality Disorders, but are less well defended against feelings of vulnerability and painful introspection than other incarcerated men. Like Antisocial Personality Disorder patients (Gacono & Meloy, 1994), our pedophiles and nonpedophile offenders showed signs of impaired attachment and, in the context of incarceration, failed narcissism.
Recruiting, retaining and engaging men in social interventions can be challenging. The focus of this paper is the successful implementation of a parenting programme for incarcerated fathers, delivered in a Young Offender Institution (YOI) in Scotland. Reasons for high levels of recruitment, retention and engagement are explored, with barriers…
DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance
During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…
Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.
Gustavo B. Castellana
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Method: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses. Results: We observed statistically significant between-group differences (p < 0.01 in mean PCL-R scores, with a mean score of 13.4 in the offender group vs. 2.1 in the non-offender group. We also detected significant between-group differences when we analyzed mean factor 1 (p < 0.01 and factor 2 (p < 0.01 scores separately. Although the groups exhibited statistically significant difference in educational attainment, between-group comparison of mean PCL-R scores controlling for educational attainment by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA showed that the difference in PCL-R scores remained statistically significant (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We conclude that, in this sample, the presence of both primary (interpersonal/affective characteristics and secondary (lifestyle/antisocial behavior psychopathic traits differed between offender and non-offender youths, even when excluding psychopathy and other mental disorders from the assessments. These results suggest a need for wide-ranging interventions, not restricted to socioeconomic aspects, for the management of juvenile delinquency.
Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly
This article describes trends in child pornography (CP) possession cases that ended in arrest in 2000 and in 2006, using data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, a two-wave longitudinal survey of a national sample of more than 2,500 U.S. law enforcement agencies. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,672 arrests for CP possession, compared with 1,713 arrests in 2000. Many characteristics of the offenders and the offense remained stable. In both 2006 and 2000, most offenders were White, non-Hispanic males and socioeconomically diverse. Few were known to have committed previous sex crimes. Most had CP that depicted preteen children and serious sexual abuse. In 2006, however, a higher proportion of offenders were aged 18 to 25 years, used peer-to-peer (p2p) networks, had images of children younger than 3 years, and had CP videos. P2p users had more extreme images (e.g., younger victims, sexual violence) and larger numbers of images than those who did not use p2p networks. Findings reflect heightened efforts in the criminal justice system to combat CP crimes. More cases originated with investigations of CP possession and involved proactive investigations aimed at detecting CP. The great majority of cases were successfully prosecuted, with more offenders sentenced to incarceration and serving longer sentences than in 2000. As in 2000, one in six cases that began with investigations of CP possession detected offenders who had molested children.
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael
This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…
Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott
Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2014.
Calley, Nancy G.; Richardson, Emily M.
This study examined factors influencing clinician predictions of recidivism for juvenile offenders, including youth age at initial juvenile justice system involvement, youth age at discharge, program completion status, clinician perception of strength of the therapeutic relationship, and clinician perception of youth commitment to treatment.…
Cuervo, Keren; Villanueva, Lidón
Intervention in youth recidivism is critical in helping prevent young people from continuing their criminal career into adulthood, on a life-course-persistent trajectory. Andrews and Bonta attempt to provide an explanation of risk and protective factors using a conversion of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), which predicts recidivism. In this study, scores have been obtained from 382 adolescents ( M age = 16.33 years) from the juvenile court, to check the ability of a reduced version of the YLS/CMI, to predict recidivism. The outcome variables for recidivism were examined in the 2-year follow-up period, after their first assessment in the court. The risk factors showed good levels of recidivism prediction. Recidivists obtained significant higher mean total risk scores than nonrecidivists in the reduced ( M = 6.54, SD = 2.44; M = 3.66, SD = 2.85), with areas under the curve (AUCs) ranging from .601 to .857. The factors that emerged as the most discriminative were education/employment, criminal friends, and personality. All the protective factors differentiated between recidivists and nonrecidivists. The results, therefore, showed that this reduced version would be capable of predicting youth recidivism in a reliable way.
Lieb, Roxanne; Kemshall, Hazel; Thomas, Terry
In recent years, both the United States and United Kingdom have developed numerous innovations in legal efforts to protect society from sex offenders. Each country has adopted special provisions for sex offenders. In particular, governments have focused on forms of social control after release from incarceration and probation. These policy innovations for this category of offenders have been more far reaching than those for any other offender population. The two jurisdictions have adopted policies with similar goals, but the selected strategies have important differences. Generally speaking, the U.S. has favored an ever-expanding set of policies that place sex offenders into broad categories, with few opportunities that distinguish the appropriate responses for individual offenders. The UK government observed the proliferation of Megan's Laws(1) in the U.S., and deliberately chose to establish carefully controlled releases of information, primarily relying on governmental agencies to work in multi-disciplinary groups and make case-specific decisions about individual offenders. Although the UK policy leaders expressed significant concern that the public's response to knowing about identified sex offenders living in the community would result in vigilantism, to date the results have not borne out this fear. Both governments have turned to other crime control measures such as polygraphy testing, electronic monitoring, and civil protection orders as a means to prevent further sexual violence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Trupin, Eric J.; Kerns, Suzanne E. U.; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; DeRobertis, Megan T.; Stewart, David G.
This study evaluates the impact of the Family Integrated Transitions (FIT) program on juvenile recidivism. FIT is a family-based intervention for youths with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders transitioning to home from incarceration. We used administrative data to compare 36-month recidivism rates for youths receiving FIT (N =…
Hunter, John A.
Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…
It is against this background that the CWP is perceived to have a positive impact through the community work done by ex-offenders who talk to the youth-at-risk about the negative consequences of crime and violence, as well as of substance abuse. Key words: Community Work Programme, crime, ex-offenders, violence, ...
Voas, Robert B; DuPont, Robert L; Talpins, Stephen K; Shea, Corinne L
To describe a proposed national model for controlling the risk presented by offenders convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) and promoting behavioral change to reduce future recidivism. Traditional methods of controlling the risk they present to the driving public are not adequate, as indicated by the fact that approximately 1000 people are killed each year-in alcohol-related crashes involving drivers convicted of DWI in the previous three years. However, stimulated by the success of special drug courts for substance abusers and new technological methods for monitoring drug and alcohol use, new criminal justice programs for managing impaired driving offenders are emerging. A national model for a comprehensive system applicable to both drug and alcohol impaired drivers is proposed. The program focuses on monitoring offender drinking or the offender driving employing vehicle interlocks with swift, sure but moderate penalties for non-compliance in which the ultimate sanction is based on offender performance in meeting monitoring requirements. Several new court programs, such as the 24/7 Sobriety Project in South Dakota and North Dakota and the Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Project, which feature alcohol/drug consumption monitoring, have produced evidence that indicates even dependent drinkers can conform to abstinence monitoring requirements and avoid the short-term jail consequence for failure. Based on the apparent success of emerging court monitoring systems, it appears that the cost of incarcerating driving-while-impaired offenders can be minimized by employing low-cost community correction programs paid for by the offender. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Wallace, Danielle; Fahmy, Chantal; Cotton, Lindsy; Jimmons, Charis; McKay, Rachel; Stoffer, Sidney; Syed, Sarah
A significant number of prisoners experience mental health problems, and adequate social support is one way that facilitates better mental health. Yet, by being incarcerated, social support, particularly family support, is likely to be strained or even negative. In this study, we examine whether familial support--either positive or negative--in-prison and after release affects mental health outcomes post-release. Using the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) dataset, we regress post-release mental health on in-prison familial support, post-incarceration familial support, and changes in familial support. We find that while in-prison family support does not affect mental health, post-release familial support does. Also, experiencing an increase in negative familial support is associated with lower post-incarceration mental health. We conclude with a discussion of policies which may facilitate better familial support environments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wijkman, M.D.S.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Hendriks, J.
Little is known about the criminal careers of female sex offenders. A meta-analysis by Cortoni, Hanson and Coache revealed that about 1.5% of female sex offenders re-offend sexually. Even less is known about the extent to which female sex offenders' criminal careers contain sex offences as well as
Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Ward, Ashley K.; Cormier, Nicole S.; Day, David M.; Newman, Jennifer E.
Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature…
Full Text Available Abstract Most Spanish prisons provide specialised treatment for incarcerated sex offenders, both rapists and child molesters. This treatment is a cognitive-behavioural intervention that has shown relative effectiveness in previous research. With regard to offenders’ rehabilitation, recidivism assessments are necessary as a final measure of treatment effectiveness. However, the evaluation of recidivism by itself does not provide sufficient information on the treatment process and the specific effects that treated subjects could undergo. This paper aims to analyse the therapeutic effectiveness of psychological treatment provided to rapists (in general, males sentenced for committing a sexual offence against women. To this aim, a group of treated rapists (N=153 serving a sentence in prison was analysed. Using a specially designed scale (PASSO, the global therapeutic change and ten specific variables (including assertiveness, readiness to change, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, etc. were assessed. The within-subjects comparison showed that treated sex offenders improved, in therapeutic terms, globally as well as in most of the specific variables assessed (improvements not experimented by the control group. Also, different therapeutic subscales showed relevant associations between them. The findings regarding treatment effectiveness are discussed.
Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).
Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin
External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surg...
Barrett, Carla J
This study used participant/observation and open-ended interviews to understand how male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from yoga and mindfulness training within an Alternative to Incarceration (ATI) program. Findings suggest that the male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from the intervention through reductions in stress and improvements in emotion regulation. Several participants noted the importance of the development of an embodied practice for assisting them in managing anger and impulse control. The young men's narratives suggest that mindfulness-based interventions can contribute positively to rehabilitative outcomes within alternative to incarcerations settings, providing complementary benefit to existing ATI programs, especially for clients amenable to mindfulness training. With many jurisdictions expanding rehabilitation-focused interventions for young offenders, service providers should consider the potential positive contributions that mindfulness-based interventions can have for fostering desistance and reducing recidivism among justice system-involved populations.
Bakken, Nicholas W; DeCamp, Whitney; Visher, Christy A
Prior research has indicated an inverse relationship between religion and criminal behavior; however, few studies have specifically examined the effect of spirituality on the desistance process among a contemporary and diverse sample of reentering drug-involved offenders. A comprehensive understanding of how spirituality is related to desistance from substance use can lead to more effective and evidence-based preventive and rehabilitative interventions. Using data from a longitudinal study of 920 diverse offenders returning to the community after a period of incarceration, the current study examines three distinct forms of substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) to gauge the effect that spirituality plays in the desistance process. The findings suggest a relatively high importance of spirituality in terms of preventing substance use during reentry, particularly concerning the use of both alcohol and cocaine. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A
Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths' odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes.
Bailey, C; Shelton, D
This study examined self-reports of psychopathic offenders' childhood interactions with their parents to better understand what variables influence adult criminal psychopathy. The findings showed that childhood separations, physical abuse and indifferent parenting styles were more prominent in self-reports of incarcerated male psychopaths than with incarcerated males who were not psychopathic. To better understand the worldview of the criminal psychopath, and the trajectory of psychopathy, there is a need for more studies that examine childhood interactions with parental figures as reported by the adult criminal psychopath. Despite the high percentage of incarcerated psychopaths, few studies attempt to assess the past parent-child bonds of these individuals by asking them to report childhood attachments with their parents. Currently, there is limited data regarding common variables that contribute to a break in parent-child attachment and later adult criminal psychopathy. The data that presently exist concentrate on juvenile or community samples and do not explore the attachment variables that continue into adult criminal psychopathy. This paper presents the current literature regarding self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult psychopaths compared with self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult non-psychopaths. Variables that influence a break in attachment between the offenders and their parents and suggestions for future clinical research are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Butler, Tony; Belcher, Josephine M; Champion, Una; Kenny, Dianna; Allerton, Mark; Fasher, Michael
To describe the socio-economic background and physical health status of young offenders in custody in New South Wales (Australia). Cross-sectional survey of all young offenders held at nine juvenile detention centres across New South Wales (NSW) (eight male and one female) between January and March 2003. Demographic and health information was collected by nurse interviewers and psychologists using a face-to-face interview. Blood and urine samples were collected to screen for blood-borne viruses and sexually transmissible infections. The final sample comprised 242 young people (223 males and 19 females). Overall, 90% of those assessed rated their general health as 'excellent', 'very good' or 'good'. Sixty-nine (30%) young offenders reported that they had been previously diagnosed with asthma. Two young women reported a past diagnosis of diabetes with the results of the random blood glucose testing indicating that a further six young people required testing for possible diabetes. None of those tested were positive for HIV, 9% tested positive for hepatitis C antibody, and 11% tested positive for hepatitis B core-antibody. Our findings indicate that young offenders in New South Wales have backgrounds characterised by extreme disadvantage (poor educational attainment, unemployment, and care placements) and poor physical health. Parental incarceration was common to 43% of the sample. Our findings reinforce the concept that for marginalised groups, contact with the criminal justice system represents an important opportunity to detect illness, initiate treatment, and promote contact with health services.
Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Isoma, Zachary; Donoghue, Kathleen
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth are believed to be a developmental precursor to adult psychopathy, tapping its affective dimension. There is growing support for the existence of variants of psychopathy that can be distinguished based on the presence of anxiety, maltreatment histories, and comorbid psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether primary and secondary variants of CU traits could be differentiated according to their experiences of distinct types of childhood maltreatment among a sample of 227 incarcerated adolescent boys. Results indicated that variants of youth scoring high on CU traits could be identified which were consistent with theory and prior research. Greater sexual abuse histories, violent and property delinquency, and a sexually motivated index offense distinguished secondary variants, whereas greater neglect distinguished primary variants of youth with CU traits. Psychopathy variants were behaviorally indistinguishable with respect to their levels of aggression and drug delinquency, although they differed in several important ways from youth scoring low on CU traits. Variants also showed distinct patterns of scores on the measure of CU traits. These findings are important to informing developmental theories of psychopathy and have practical and policy implications for intervening with maltreated and antisocial youth.
Kahn, Rachel E.; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; 1) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; 2). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in high risk youth were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits. PMID:26779640
Sampson, Alice; Themelis, Spyros
This paper discusses how the "at risk" and "what works" approach that drives the management of youth criminal justice systems produces little knowledge that informs practitioners how best to work with young people who offend and how to design effective crime prevention programmes. An alternative approach that is more informative for the…
Flowers, R. Barri
The increasingly serious nature of juvenile criminal behavior has led to greater efforts to understand the roots, causes, and correlates of juvenile violence and chronic delinquency, as well as develop more effective means of identifying at-risk youth and treating serious and violent juvenile offenders. This book examines the realities and…
Full Text Available Neuroscience is increasingly used to infer the cognitive capacities of offenders from the activity and volume of different brain regions, with the resultant findings receiving great interest in the public eye. This field experiment tested the effects of public engagement in neuroscience on attitudes toward offenders. Brainstorm is a play about teenage brain development. Either before or after watching this play, 728 participants responded to four questions about the age of criminal responsibility, and the moral responsibility and dangerousness of a hypothetical young or adult offender. After watching the play, participants perceived the young offender as less likely to reoffend than the adult offender and the young, but not adult, offender as less morally responsible for his actions, especially on the first offense. Therefore, public engagement in the newest arrival to the criminological scene – neuroscience – may shift support for different youth justice responses.
Checknita, D; Maussion, G; Labonté, B; Comai, S; Tremblay, R E; Vitaro, F; Turecki, N; Bertazzo, A; Gobbi, G; Côté, G; Turecki, G
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by elevated impulsive aggression and increased risk for criminal behaviour and incarceration. Deficient activity of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene is suggested to contribute to serotonergic system dysregulation strongly associated with impulsive aggression and antisocial criminality. To elucidate the role of epigenetic processes in altered MAOA expression and serotonin regulation in a population of incarcerated offenders with ASPD compared with a healthy non-incarcerated control population. Participants were 86 incarcerated participants with ASPD and 73 healthy controls. MAOA promoter methylation was compared between case and control groups. We explored the functional impact of MAOA promoter methylation on gene expression in vitro and blood 5-HT levels in a subset of the case group. Results suggest that MAOA promoter hypermethylation is associated with ASPD and may contribute to downregulation of MAOA gene expression, as indicated by functional assays in vitro, and regression analysis with whole-blood serotonin levels in offenders with ASPD. These results are consistent with prior literature suggesting MAOA and serotonergic dysregulation in antisocial populations. Our results offer the first evidence suggesting epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to MAOA dysregulation in antisocial offenders. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
... development, or GED, and teaching them construction skills geared toward career placement. The evaluation will... and work, incarcerated, unmarried, and have children outside of marriage. The evaluation of the Youth... incarcerated parents. Of the universe of YouthBuild programs, the study team will recruit 83 sites (60...
Rowe, Cynthia L; Wang, Wei; Greenbaum, Paul; Liddle, Howard A
Incarcerated adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups for STD infection, and substance abuse is prevalent in over half of this population. Substance abuse and HIV/STD-associated risk behaviors are closely linked among juvenile justice-involved youth, but it is unclear whether common antecedents explain these different problems. The current study examined predictors of HIV/STD risk level and substance use disorders, and investigated whether family variables added unique predictive variance for these problems among incarcerated youth. The sample included 154 substance-involved youth ages 13 to 17 recruited in detention facilities in Miami and Tampa, FL and was primarily male (82%) and African-American (58%). Using a comprehensive assessment strategy with data obtained from youth report, parent report, and laboratory confirmed STD testing, the results show that delinquency is a consistent predictor of both HIV/STD risk level and substance use disorders, and also that substance use directly predicts HIV/STD risk level among incarcerated adolescents. Consistent with previous research, family conflict is an important predictor of substance use disorders even after controlling for other factors. The results suggest the need for integrated family-based interventions addressing delinquency, substance abuse, and HIV/STD-associated risk factors with juvenile justice-involved adolescents.
use of any substance. Being sexually active and substance use before incarceration significantly (P<0.05) predicted current use of illicit substances while high self esteem and being the first born was protective. Since substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse ...
This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…
Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.
Spiropoulos, Georgia V.; Spruance, Lisa; Van Voorhis, Patricia; Schmitt, Michelle M.
The effects of "Problem Solving" (Taymans & Parese, 1998) are compared across small diversion and prison samples for men and women. A second program, "Pathfinders" (Hansen, 1993), was compared to the Problem Solving program among incarcerated women offenders to determine whether its focus upon empowerment and relationships enhanced the effects of…
Berryessa, Colleen M
Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system. Symptoms of ADHD, specifically reward deficiency, behavioral inhibition, and attention deficits, may affect whether individuals will be successful in their experiences in court, with probation, and during incarceration. This is especially true for individuals whose ADHD diagnoses are unknown to the criminal justice system or have never been formally diagnosed. Actors in the criminal justice need to be aware of the symptomatic features and behavioral patterns of offenders with ADHD in order to recognize and identify these offenders, and correspondingly, to refer them to mental health services. Recognizing that at least some of an offender's behavior may be related to symptoms of ADHD will help the criminal justice system better provide recommendations regarding sentencing, probation, and treatment provisions, as well as better ensure that offenders with ADHD have a more successful and just experience in their interactions with the criminal justice system.
Vreugdenhil, C.; van den Brink, W.; Ferdinand, R.; Wouters, L.; Doreleijers, T.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the empirical or DSM-oriented scales of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) can be used to screen for DSM psychiatric disorders among incarcerated boys. DSM-oriented scales have recently been developed by Achenbach to enhance comparability of YSR results with DSM diagnostic
In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...
Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia
The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)
Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy
Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544
Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A
The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour.Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed.Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed.The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.
Willison, Robert Andrew
place. Knowledge of this relationship would be of obvious interest to practitioners who would aim to manipulate the environment and influence offender choices accordingly. To address this oversight, this paper, therefore, advances two criminological theories which it is argued can be used to examine...... the stages an offender must go through in order for a crime to be committed i.e. the `procedural stages' of computer crime. Hence, this paper illustrates how the two theories, entitled the rational choice perspective and situational crime prevention, can be applied to the IS domain, thereby offering...
Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri
The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Wildeman, Christopher; Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent.
Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire
In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Weulen Kranenbarg, Marleen; van der Laan, André; de Poot, C.J.; Verhoeven, Maite; van der Wagen, Wytske; Weijters, Gijs; Leukfeldt, Rutger
Weulen Kranenbarg, M., Laan, A. van der, Poot, C. de, Verhoeven, M., Wagen, W. van der, Weijters, G. (2017). Individual Cybercrime Offenders. In E.R. Leukfeldt (Ed.), Research Agenda: The Human Factor in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity. Den Haag: Eleven International Publishing.
The Obama Administration is striving to promote both public health and public safety by improving the public policy response to criminal offenders who have substance use disorders. This includes supporting drug courts, evidence-based probation and parole programs, addiction treatment and re-entry programs. Scientists and clinicians in the addiction field have a critical role to play in this much-needed effort to break the cycle of addiction, crime and incarceration.
Loeber, Rolf; Ahonen, Lia
The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7–11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early intervention and for interventions with high-risk offenders. PMID:24122366
Seroczynski, Alesha D.; Jobst, Amy D.
Latinos are one of the fastest growing sectors in the American population, and Latinos figure prominently in many political, economic, and educational social systems. Unfortunately, the juvenile justice system is no exception. At least 18,000 Latino youth are incarcerated annually, and they are 2 to 3 times more likely to be incarcerated than…
Wilton, Geoff; Stewart, Lynn A
Whether a diagnosis of a mental disorder contributes to the risk of poorer correctional outcomes is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the extent to which mental and substance use disorders individually and in combination contribute to correctional outcomes in order to determine optimal treatment and promote public safety. Differences were examined between four groups of federal offenders in Canada (N=715): those with a mental disorder only, those with a substance use disorder only, those with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, and those with no disorder. Groups were compared on profiles, criminal histories, charges while incarcerated (institutional charges), and reconvictions after release from incarceration by using chi-square tests and Cox regression analyses that controlled for risk factors. Of the four groups, those with co-occurring disorders had the most substantial criminal histories and the highest rates of institutional charges, transfers to segregation while incarcerated, and reconvictions. The group with only mental disorders had outcomes intermediate between the groups with only substance use disorders and the group with neither type of disorder. Having a substance use disorder appeared to be the key factor contributing to poorer correctional outcomes for offenders with mental disorders. Psychiatric services in correctional facilities must screen for substance use disorders and, if they are present, ensure provision of treatment to improve quality of life for this population and promote public safety.
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Banks, Devin E; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C
Although many juvenile offenders report experiencing police injustice, few studies have examined how this source of strain may impact youths' behavioral outcomes, including risk for future recidivism. This study begins to address that gap in the literature. We applied the general strain theory as our theoretical framework to examine the interactive effect of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement on juvenile aggressive behavior. Our sample included 95 juvenile offenders who completed questionnaires on measures of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement. Results supported our hypothesis, such that moral disengagement predicted past month aggression among juvenile offenders, but only by youth who reported mean and high levels of perceived police injustice. While more research is needed in this area, this study's findings underscore the need to address both perceived police engagement and moral disengagement among youth at-risk of engaging in delinquent behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are also presented.
Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M
Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric
This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kjelsberg, Ellen; Laake, Petter
The mortality in prisoners is high. However, our knowledge about the mortality in convicted offenders, irrespective of incarceration history, is limited. Our aim was to investigate possible predictors for over-all and cause specific mortality in a nation-wide study of convicted offenders with and without previous imprisonment. This case-control study drew random samples of deceased and living offenders (N = 1,112) from four complete cohorts of convicted offenders, two male (born 1967 and 1977, respectively), and two female (born 1967-70 and 1977-80, respectively). All criminal records were systematized and information about date and cause of death was collected on those deceased. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that age at first court conviction (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.93), drug related crimes (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.23-3.22), and crime diversity (1.51, 95% CI = 1.07-2.13) were significant predictors of premature death in males. In females, age at first court conviction (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.97), drug related crimes (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.37-3.69) and belonging to the oldest cohort (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.35-3.26) were significant predictors of premature death. Age at first court conviction remained a significant predictor for death in all cause specific multivariable mortality analyses. In addition, having committed drug related crimes and high crime diversity were strong predictors for substance related deaths. Males did more often die in accidents or commit suicide. Somatic deaths were most often encountered in the oldest cohort. Incarceration did not remain a significant predictor for premature death in any of the multivariable analyses. Measures intended to prevent premature death in convicted offenders should target wider populations than hitherto acknowledged.
Dean, Hazel D; Lansky, Amy; Fleming, Patricia L
In the United States, monitoring the HIV/AIDS epidemic among the incarcerated population is done by (a) conducting a census of persons in prisons and jails reported to be infected with HIV or diagnosed with AIDS, (b) seroprevalence surveys in selected correctional facilities, and (c) population-based HIV/AIDS case surveillance by state health departments. We describe methods for HIV/AIDS case surveillance in correctional settings and present data from the HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS) and the Supplement to HIV and AIDS Surveillance (SHAS) to describe the demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected persons who were incarcerated at the time of diagnosis. HARS data showed a higher proportion of females and a lower proportion of injection drug users for incarcerated persons diagnosed with HIV (not AIDS) compared to those initially diagnosed with AIDS. The SHAS data showed a high prevalence of injection drug use, crack use, alcohol abuse, and exchanging sex for money or drugs. Together, HARS and SHAS collect fairly comprehensive information of risk behaviors from persons with HIV infection and AIDS. Advances in HIV prevention and care for the incarcerated community will require an accurate and timely description of the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in correctional settings. These data are needed to guide programmatic efforts to reduce HIV transmission in prisons and jails and in the general community upon release and ensure needed risk reduction and health care services for incarcerated persons.
Previous research has suggested that adolescent peers influence behavior and provide social support during a critical developmental period, but few studies have addressed the antecedents of adolescent social networks. Research on the collateral consequences of incarceration has explored the implications of parental incarceration for children's behavioral problems, academic achievement, health, and housing stability, but not their social networks. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that adolescents with recently incarcerated fathers are in socially marginal positions in their schools and befriend more-marginal peers than other adolescents: their friends are less advantaged, less academically successful, and more delinquent than other adolescents' friends. Differences in network outcomes are robust to a variety of specifications and are consistent across race and gender subgroups. This study advances the social networks literature by exploring how familial characteristics can shape adolescent social networks and contributes to the collateral consequences of incarceration literature by using network analysis to consider how mass incarceration may promote intergenerational social marginalization.
Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya
Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention progr...
Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Caldwell, Michael F.
In this policy paper we briefly review the historical predecessors of modern sex crime legislation. We then review modern policies, focusing on those that have been applied to youth who have sexually offended and for which there is at least some empirical evaluation. These include sex offender civil commitment, registration and public…
Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.
... and criminal behaviour in Nigeria — an assessmet and comparison of homeless youths incarcerated in prisons with a control group of non-prison and never-homeless youths from the general population using the Psychopathic Deviate Scale (PDS) and the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist hostility subscale (MAACL-H).
Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.
Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…
Flora I. Matheson
Full Text Available Criminal behaviour is believed to arise from a multiplicity of factors, including unemployment and poverty [1,2], low self-control , psychological issues [4,5], early conduct problems , childhood physical and sexual abuse disorder , and social bonding in child- and adulthood . Social-structural influences like family conflict/disruption, financial resources, child-parent and school/peer attachment and abuse and neglect in childhood have lasting impressions, leading to multiple problems including delinquency and later criminal activity, substance use/abuse, mental illness and poor self-rated health [8-12]. The consequences of such behaviour include financial losses, injury, and death that together have significant personal and societal costs. Society also bears the burden of incarcerating and rehabilitating offenders; a burden that is not trivial. Direct costs of imprisonment in Canada approach $3.5 billion annually; in the US the cost is substantially higher, approaching $74 billion . [...
Thompson, Jason D.
There is an increased interest in music instruction and research with incarcerated populations. Amid this attention is a need to learn more about how music teachers develop competencies for working with juvenile offenders and navigate this unfamiliar context, how they come to learn more about culturally diverse music, and how they become aware of…
Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others
This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…
Maradiaga, Jeronimo A; Nahvi, Shadi; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Sanchez, Jennifer; Fox, Aaron D
Incarceration is a common experience for individuals with opioid use disorder, including those receiving medication assisted treatments (MAT), such as buprenorphine or methadone. In the United States, MAT is rarely available during incarceration. We were interested in whether challenges with methadone maintenance treatment during incarceration affected subsequent attitudes toward MAT following release. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 formerly incarcerated individuals with opioid use disorder in community substance abuse treatment settings. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged upon iterative readings of transcripts were discussed by the research team. The three main themes relating to methadone were: 1) rapid dose reduction during incarceration; 2) discontinuity of methadone during incarceration; and 3) post incarceration aversion to methadone. Participants who received methadone maintenance treatment prior to incarceration reported severe and prolonged withdrawal symptoms from rapid dose reductions or disruption of their methadone treatment during incarceration. The severe withdrawal during incarceration contributed to a subsequent aversion to methadone and adversely affected future decisions regarding reengagement in MAT. Though MAT is the most efficacious treatment for opioid use disorder, current penal policy, which typically requires cessation of MAT during incarceration, may dissuade individuals with opioid use disorder from considering and engaging in MAT after release from incarceration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees § 2... year or more for a crime committed while on parole, the case shall be referred to correctional...
Buschman, J.; Wilcox, D.; Spreen, M.; Marshall, B.; Bogaerts, S.
A previous exploratory study of the Child Molester Empathy Measure (CMEM) focused on the difference between offenders' normal level of general empathy and the way in which a sample of Dutch offenders viewed their own victims. The authors found that, regardless of their level of general victim
Deranek, Traci; Gilman, David A.
This study investigates juvenile sex offenders and the predetermining factors that are present in their lives, prior to their first offenses. This study will give an overview of theories, children's sexual behaviors ranging from normal to disturbed, and family dynamics of juvenile offenders. The treatment files of boys and young men, currently in…
Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.
This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…
Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M; Brown, Larry K
Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual risk taking behavior, and in particular examines the role of family emotional involvement and responsiveness in young offenders' risk-taking behaviors. Participants included 53 juvenile drug court offenders and their parents. Results indicate that poor parent-child communication is associated with marijuana use and unprotected sexual activity for young offenders; however, family affective responsiveness is also a significant unique predictor of unprotected sexual activity for these youth. Findings suggest that interventions focused on improving parent-child communication may reduce both marijuana use and risky sexual behavior among court-involved youth, but a specific intervention focused on improving parents and young offenders' ability to connect with and respond to one another emotionally may provide a novel means of reducing unprotected sexual risk behaviors.
Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C
Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Treanor, Virginia; Newlon, Betty J.
This document begins by briefly outlining the problems of juveniles incarcerated in correctional institutions, including the problems of overcrowding and recidivism. It asserts that creative art therapy is designed to provide a therapeutic atmosphere for understanding and change and documents the use of creative art therapy techniques with…
Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay
A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
While optimism regarding the treatment of sexual offenders has increased over the past couple of decades, research into the factors that assist offenders in maintaining therapeutic changes remains in the dark. Maintenance programs for offenders, while theoretically appearing to have a solid place in offender rehabilitation, surprisingly have not…
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.
Frederick, Tyler J; McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John
Perceptions of the danger of crime are typically discussed in the context of people's fear that they will be harmed by offenders. We shift the focus and examine the association between perceived danger and offending and the contribution of these perceptions to the well-established relationship between violent victimization and crime. We hypothesize that violence may embolden some victims and contribute to their perception that offending is not dangerous. We examine the mediating effects of these perceptions alongside two other potential links between violent victimization and crime: deviant definitions and risk seeking. Our analyses of data from a sample of homeless youth find that violent victimization is strongly associated with four types of offending--theft, drug use, drug selling, and prostitution--and that perceived danger significantly mediates several of these relationships. Our results suggest that perceived danger may be an important mechanism connecting victimization and crime.
Klein, Verena; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Köhler, Nora; Briken, Peer
To date, research on juvenile sexual offender recidivism has tended to focus on risk factors rather than protective factors. Therefore, very little is known about protective factors in the population of juveniles who sexually offended. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of protective factors on non-recidivism in a sample of accused juveniles who sexually offended (N = 71) in a mean follow-up period of 47.84 months. Protective factors were measured with the Protective Factor Scale of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF). Criminal charges served as recidivism data. The internal scale of the SAPROF, in particular, yielded moderate predictive accuracy for the absence of violent and general recidivism, though not for the absence of sexual recidivism. No protective factor of the SAVRY did reveal predictive accuracy regarding various types of the absence of recidivism. Furthermore, protective factors failed to achieve any significant incremental predictive accuracy beyond that captured by the SAVRY risk factors alone. The potential therapeutic benefit of protective factors in juvenile sexual offender treatment is discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Green, Kemeche; Shippen, Margaret; Flores, Margaret
Over the past 20 years, punitive approaches and policies similar to those of the criminal justice system have become prominent in our schools. These local, state, and federal education and public safety policies serve to remove students from the educational environment and channel them into the criminal justice system. This phenomenon is often…
Hallingberg, Britt; Moore, Simon; Morgan, Joanne; Bowen, Katharine; van Goozen, Stephanie H M
There is a lack of research investigating organised activity participation and associated alcohol use in vulnerable groups. The purpose of this research was to test and compare associations between participation in organised activities and indicators of hazardous drinking between young offenders and young non-offenders. Two groups of 13-18 year-old males were recruited in Cardiff, UK: 93 young offenders and 53 non-offenders from secondary schools matched on estimated IQ, sex and socioeconomic status. Indicators of hazardous drinking were measured using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). Organised activity participation and externalising behaviour was measured by the Youth Self Report. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was also administered. Young offenders participated in fewer organised activities and had higher FAST scores than non-offenders. Young offenders and non-offenders significantly differed on mean FAST scores if they participated in no organised activities but not if they participated in at least one team sport. Externalising behaviour problems were unrelated to participation in organised activities. Although young offenders were less likely to have participated in organised activities, for them, participation in a team sport was associated with less hazardous drinking. Vulnerable youths who might benefit most from sporting activities actually access them the least. Future research should identify the different barriers to participation that they face. © 2014 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C
Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.
This study examined differences between comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), and those with either internalizing disorder or DBD. We focused on differences with regard to trauma exposure and offending characteristics in 8,431 juvenile justice youths. Self-reported,
Scarborough, Zane T.; Glaser, Brian A.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Stefurak, Tres; Petrocelli, John V.
Examined the cluster-derived typologies of males in a juvenile offender sample. Adolescent males, age 12-17, in a regional youth detention center were given the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Self Report-Adolescent (BASC-SRP-A; C. Reynolds &R. Kamphaus, 1992) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; T. Millon, 1993).…
Stevenson, Margaret C.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Wiley, Tisha R. A.
Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be…
As women commit to a conventional lifestyle, the bond of attachment becomes a fundamental component in sustaining the desistance process. If weak attachments in the community cannot be replaced or enhanced with the cultivation of strong conventional attachments while incarcerated, female offenders will leave prison without a supportive network. Strong social networks and a high level of social capital are essential for female offenders to reintegrate successfully; if social bonds are constructed before release, there is a greater chance of maintaining a crime-free lifestyle. One way to cultivate strong bonds of attachment during incarceration is through prison-based programming. This qualitative study, based on the narratives of 49 female offenders, examines the potential for inmates to form prosocial attachments with staff in two HIV prison-based peer programs in New York State. Strong attachments were formed between the inmates and civilian staff during incarceration, maintained upon release, and served to reinforce the establishment of bourgeoning conventional identities. The dedication and commitment of the civilian staff, and the support they provided to the inmates, was essential to achieving both rehabilitative and reintegrative goals.
Nyamathi, Adeline M; Zhang, Sheldon X; Wall, Sarah; Hall, Elizabeth A; Salem, Benissa E; Farabee, David; Faucette, Mark; Yadav, Kartik
Transitioning into society after release from incarceration presents real challenges for male offenders; in California, up to 60% return to prison within 3 years after release. The risk for ongoing drug use and having sex with multiple partners is a significant challenge for ex-offenders preparing to enter the community. The aims are to describe drug use and sexual behavior (sex with multiple partners) prior to incarceration and 6 and 12 months after study enrollment using data obtained as part of a randomized controlled trial. This is a planned secondary analysis of data obtained as part of a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effects of intensive peer coaching and nurse case management, intensive peer coaching, and brief nurse counseling on hepatitis A and B vaccination adherence compared to a usual care control treatment that also included brief peer coaching and brief nurse counseling. Self-report data from subjects enrolled at one residential drug treatment facility in Los Angeles were captured at three time points: baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Findings showed substantive and significant reductions in drug use and engaging in sex with multiple partners 6 months after enrollment into the study compared to the baseline data, but results did not differ by study condition. At 12-month follow-up, drug use and sex with multiple partners increased but remained less than at baseline levels. Sustaining reductions in drug use and engaging in sex with multiple partners remains a challenge after incarceration.
Full Text Available Spigelian hernias are rare, making up only 1-2% of all hernias. Like other hernias, they may contain abdominal contents but are more likely to be incarcerated due to the small size of the fascial defect.(1 We describe here the case of a 71-year-old female with a 10-year history of right lower quadrant pain that remained undiagnosed despite multiple imaging studies. Prior to presentation the patient developed a new bulge and increasing pain at this site; an ultrasound revealed the presence of a bowel-containing hernia. The patient was taken urgently to the operating room for a laparoscopic Spigelian hernia repair, and was found to have an incarcerated appendix in the hernia. After the hernia was reduced, an appendectomy was performed and the hernia was repaired with biological mesh. Postoperatively, the patient did well, and her pain resolved.
Shlafer, Rebecca J; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver-child and incarcerated parent-child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children's behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children's behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment.
Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia
Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.
Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of the possible association between language, literacy and offending behaviour. This study investigates the perceptions and experiences YOs have of using literacy and communicating with others. It addresses the following questions. How satisfied are YOs with their own literacy and communication skills and how important do YOs perceive these to be? How much do YOs believe they understand others in their communicative interactions? How satisfied are YOs with their communicative interactions with others and how does this influence conflict at home, school, and in the youth justice system? An opportunity sample of 31 YOs on court orders were recruited from a local youth offending service, excluding any who did not have English as a first language or were in receipt of current speech and language therapy provision. Twenty-six qualitative individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group interviews were carried out and analysed using a framework analysis method. Themes revealed participants were dissatisfied with their communication and literacy ability. Other themes identified were difficulty in understanding others, a perceived lack of support and respect gained from others, and a negative impact of communication on self-esteem. The findings suggest that YOs often found themselves in disputes with authority figures, but that they avoided using positive communication to solve such conflicts and also avoided confiding in others. The findings support the results found from quantitative research on the language abilities of YOs. This emphasizes the value in adopting qualitative methodology to understand the relationship between literacy
Fine, Adam; Cavanagh, Caitlin; Frick, Paul J; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Judgments about a youth's level of remorse are frequently used to make important decisions in the juvenile justice system that can have serious consequences to the person. Unfortunately, little is known about these ratings and what factors may influence them. In a sample of 325 1st-time youth offenders who were arrested for offenses of moderate severity, we tested whether probation officers' ratings of an adolescent's remorse soon after arrest were associated with the youth's self-report of showing a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, being arrested for a violent offense, and several demographic and background characteristics (e.g., age, race, socioeconomic status [SES], and intelligence). Our analyses indicated that both arrest for a violent offense and the adolescent's self-reported level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits were associated with probation officers' ratings of remorse. Further, youth age, SES, and intelligence neither were associated with these judgments nor moderated the association between CU traits and probation officers' ratings of remorse. However, youth race or ethnicity did moderate the association between CU traits and judgments of remorse, such that Latino youth who were high on CU traits showed a very low probability of being rated as remorseful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Tsay, Sharon; Childs, Gwendolyn; Cook-Heard, Dayna; Sturdevant, Marsha
The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of modes of HIV transmission and increase HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STD) prevention efforts for incarcerated youth through use of an HIV/STD prevention program guided by the Making Proud Choices! curriculum. A convenience sample of 662 youth aged 13 to 18 was recruited from Alabama juvenile detention facilities. Participants took part in three 2-hour sessions. Baseline and postintervention data were collected. There was no significant difference between males and females in intent to use condoms at baseline and postintervention. Intent to use condoms was the most influential predictor of condom self-efficacy. However, there was little change in condom self-efficacy among males and females at baseline and postintervention.
Lammers, M.; Bernasco, W.; Elffers, H.
Keywords:clearance;serial offenders;DNA traces;unidentified offenders;Cox proportional hazards model;hazard ratio Abstract Why is it that some serial offenders are arrested quickly and others only after a long period, or never at all? What characterises offenders who continue to escape arrest
Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.
Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…
Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.
Lawing, Kathryn; Childs, Kristina K; Frick, Paul J; Vincent, Gina
The current study tested a method of risk assessment for adolescent offenders that relies on structured professional judgment: the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk for Youth (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006). Trained probation officers in 3 jurisdictions administered the SAVRY to 505 adjudicated adolescents (M age = 15.43 years, SD = 1.62). The results supported the validity of the SAVRY administered in this juvenile justice context. Specifically, scores from the SAVRY differentiated violent from nonviolent offenders and predicted both violent and nonviolent recidivism over a 12-month follow-up period. Violent offenders showed more historical and individual risk factors than nonviolent offenders, and violent sex offenders were rated as more deficient in empathy and remorse. The anger control item was a particularly important indicator of risk for reoffending in the violent offender group. The implications of these findings for weighting risk factors in individual cases when using structured professional judgment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W
Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.
Liem, Marieke; Zahn, Margaret A; Tichavsky, Lisa
Homicide offenders are released to communities in large numbers. Little is known, however, about how these offenders fare after release. The aim of this study is threefold: to examine recidivism patterns among released homicide offenders, to assess to what extent predictors for recidivism are similar to those for other violent offenders, and to study whether the degree of recidivism differs by type of homicide. Using data from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, we extracted all individuals who committed a homicide in Philadelphia between 1977 and 1983 and who were paroled. Data were supplemented with court documents, police department data, and newspaper articles. We examined frequency and severity of recidivism, and used logistic regression analyses and survival analyses to examine the likelihood and time to recidivism. Of the 92 paroled homicide offenders, 54% recidivated; 15% recidivated with a violent offense. Race and original conviction for a financially motivated homicide were significant predictors of recidivism. While socio-demographic predictors of recidivism have theoretical and practical significance, focusing on factors associated with the motive of the original homicide may prove highly beneficial for intervention strategies and post-release planning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Despite steadily declining incarceration rates overall, racial and ethnic minorities, namely African Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, continue to be disproportionately represented in the justice system. Ex-offenders commonly reenter communities with pressing health conditions but encounter obstacles to accessing care and remaining in care. The lack of health insurance coverage and medical treatment emerge as the some of the most reported reentry health needs and may contribute to observed health disparities. Linking ex-offenders to care and services upon release increases the likelihood that they will remain in care and practice successful disease management. The Affordable Care Act (ACA offers opportunities to address health disparities experienced by the reentry population that places them at risk for negative health outcomes and recidivism. Coordinated efforts to link ex-offenders with these newly available opportunities may result in a trajectory for positive health and overall well-being as they reintegrate into society.
Shapiro, Cheri J.; Smith, Bradley H.; Malone, Patrick S.; Collaro, Alyssa L.
Little empirical data exist addressing potential iatrogenic effects of placing youth in juvenile justice settings. We took advantage of a natural experiment in one state where juvenile offenders are evaluated in either residential settings characterized by high-density contact with delinquent youth or community settings with naturally varying…
Garde, K; Mortensen, A C; Toft, P B
incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death....
Cobbina, Jennifer E.
Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…
Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana
Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…
Forgays, Deborah Kirby
Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…
van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.
The current study examines the intergenerational transmission and concentration of violent offending using conviction data of 3,440 persons from three consecutive generations from the Dutch Transfive study. Violent offending is more concentrated within nuclear families than non-violent offending,
Background: In patients with incarcerated inguinal hernia, initial manual reduction, which is not always feasible, rather than immediate surgery, is associated with fewer complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate factors associated with successful manual reduction of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.
Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.
Clark, Heather Griller; Unruh, Deanne
Reentry outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth are dismal. The challenges these youth face are even further intensified when they have learning or emotional and behavioral disabilities. Successful transition services need to be initiated in the correctional facility and continue in the community. This article discusses interventions designed to…
Mathur, Sarup R.; Clark, Heather Griller
Many youth in detention facilities come from vulnerable home environments where factors such as economic pressures, abuse, neglect, and parental incarceration are constantly operating within the family system. A vast majority of these youth have not had positive school experiences and many of them experience special needs and mental health issues.…
Dawes, Glenn Desmond
One of the greatest challenges for the juvenile justice system is to successfully reintegrate young offenders back to their communities so that they do not re-offend and return to detention. This challenge is even greater for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth who are over-represented in the Queensland juvenile justice system in…
The purpose of this investigation was to examine young offenders' perceptions of the relationship between exposure to music and their criminal behavior. Using a tool designed for the study, male felony offenders ages 12 to 17 were questioned about their music listening patterns and the perceived influence of listening on their offending fantasies and behavior. Rap music was the predominant choice across all participant profiles. While 72% of respondents believed that music influenced the way they feel at least some of the time, only 4% perceived a connection between music listening and their deviant behavior. Narrative comments provided by the youths were largely consistent with objective data. Most respondents believed in the reflection-rejection theory, in which music is perceived as a mirror of the adolescents' lives rather than a causative factor in their behavior. Two additional theoretical perspectives were espoused: drive reduction theory, which states that music serves as an expressive vehicle (thus reducing the likelihood of emotional and physical outburst); and excitation-transfer theory, wherein residual physiological arousal affects subsequent behavior. In the latter, music was perceived as harmful only when applied to preexisting states of negative arousal.
Harris, Andrew J; Socia, Kelly M
Particularly over the past two decades, the terms sex offender and juvenile sex offender (JSO) have attained increasingly common usage in media and public policy discourse. Although often applied as factual descriptors, the labels may evoke strong subconscious associations with a population commonly presumed to be compulsive, at high risk of re-offense, and resistant to rehabilitation. Such associations, in turn, may exert considerable impact on expressions of support for certain policies as well as public beliefs and opinions about adults and youth who have perpetrated sexual offenses. The current study systematically evaluated the impact of the "sex offender" and "JSO" labels through series of items administered to a nationally stratified and matched sample from across the United States. The study employed an experimental design, in which one group of participants (n = 498) ranked their levels of agreement with a series of statements utilizing these labels, and a control group (n = 502) responded to a matched set of statements substituting the labels with more neutral descriptive language. Findings support the hypothesis that use of the "sex offender" label strengthens public support for policies directed at those who have perpetrated sexual crimes, including public Internet disclosure, residency restrictions, and social networking bans. The "JSO" label is demonstrated to produce particularly robust effects, enhancing support for policies that subject youth to public Internet notification and affecting beliefs about youths' propensity to re-offend as adults. Implications for public policy, media communication, and research are explored and discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.
The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.
Mihailides, Stephen; Devilly, Grant J; Ward, Tony
This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender implicit cognitive distortions in child sexual offenders ("children as sexual beings," "uncontrollability of sexuality," and "sexual entitlement-bias"). Results showed that child sexual offenders had larger IAT effects than did mainstream offenders and male and female nonoffenders for the "children as sexual beings" and the "uncontrollability of sexuality" implicit theories. Child sexual offenders also had a larger IAT effect than male and female nonoffenders for the "sexual entitlement-bias" implicit theory. Implications for the semantic-motivation hypothesis are discussed.
Full Text Available The aim is to analyse the parenting styles effects (acceptance, negative control and negligence on prosociality and aggressive behavior in adolescents through the mediator variables empathy and emotional instability, and also, if this model fits to the same extent when we study adolescents institutionalized due to problems with the law and adolescents from the general population, and at the same time, if the values of the different analyzed variables are similar in both groups of adolescents. We carried out a cross-sectional study. 220 participants from schools in the metropolitan area of Valencia took part in the study. Also, 220 young offenders took part recruited from four Youth Detention Centres of Valencia, in which they were carrying out court sentences. The age of the subjects range from 15-18 years. The results indicate that the emotional variables act as mediators in general, in the non-offender adolescents, but it has been observed, in the offender adolescents, a direct effect of support on aggressive behavior in a negative way and on prosociality in a positive way; and of negligence on aggressive behavior and of permissiveness on prosociality in a negative way.
Llorca, Anna; Richaud, María Cristina; Malonda, Elisabeth
The aim is to analyse the parenting styles effects (acceptance, negative control and negligence) on prosociality and aggressive behavior in adolescents through the mediator variables empathy and emotional instability, and also, if this model fits to the same extent when we study adolescents institutionalized due to problems with the law and adolescents from the general population, and at the same time, if the values of the different analyzed variables are similar in both groups of adolescents. We carried out a cross-sectional study. 220 participants from schools in the metropolitan area of Valencia took part in the study. Also, 220 young offenders took part recruited from four Youth Detention Centres of Valencia, in which they were carrying out court sentences. The age of the subjects range from 15-18 years. The results indicate that the emotional variables act as mediators in general, in the non-offender adolescents, but it has been observed, in the offender adolescents, a direct effect of support on aggressive behavior in a negative way and on prosociality in a positive way; and of negligence on aggressive behavior and of permissiveness on prosociality in a negative way.
Scott, Christy K; Johnson, Kimberly; Dennis, Michael L
Mobile technology holds promise as a recovery tool for people with substance use disorders. However, some populations who may benefit the most may not have access to or experience with mobile phones. Incarcerated women represent a group at high risk for recidivism and relapse to substance abuse. Cost-effective mechanisms must be in place to support their recovery upon release. This study explores using mobile technology as a recovery management tool for women offenders residing in the community following release from jail. This study surveyed 325 minority women offenders with substance use disorders to determine whether or not they use cell phones, their comfort with texting and search features, and the social networks that they access from mobile phones. We found that 83% of survey subjects had cell phones; 30% of those were smartphones. Seventy-seven percent of the women reported access to supportive friends, and 88% had close family members they contacted regularly using mobile technology. Results indicated that most of the women were comfortable using a mobile phone, although the majority of them had prepaid minutes rather than plans, and most did currently use smartphones or have the capability to download applications or access social networks via their phones. Most women reported that they would be comfortable using a mobile phone to text, e-mail, and answer surveys. The high rate of adoption of mobile technology by women offenders makes them a promising target for recovery support delivered via mobile phone.
Aiello, Brittnie; McQueeny, Krista
This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers.…
Smith, Craig; And Others
Youthful prison inmates (N=170) with mental retardation were studied to evaluate adjustment to incarceration, based on the frequency of five disciplinary infractions: hygiene violations, noncompliance with authority, assault on an inmate, assault on a correctional officer, and attempted escape. Results showed that subjects demonstrated poor…
transnational gang is the only viable solution to escape their economic struggles and sense of abandonment by their families and government. As a...primary issues that Honduran politicians and security institutions failed to anticipate was the massive overpopulation of incarcerated gang members...result of mano dura policies, Honduran prisons have become overpopulated with youth prisoners yet dangerously understaffed to effectively secure the
Vélez Young-Alfaro, Morghan
This ethnography explores incarcerated students' experiences and dynamics of identity formation inside a youth prison school. Across two years, 100 students and 50 adults were engaged. The structure, discourse, and adult-student interactions revealed a fixation on framing students as threats with a racialized undertone while also exposing the…
Polcin, Douglas L; Korcha, Rachael; Mericle, Amy A; Mahoney, Elizabeth; Hemberg, Jordana
There is currently a nationwide effort to decrease the number of persons who are incarcerated in jails and prisons. However, many ex-offenders on probation or parole do not have access to affordable housing and larger proportions have histories of HIV risk as well as substance abuse problems. In California, sober living houses (SLHs) are becoming an increasingly popular housing option for these individuals. Based largely on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), SLHs require abstinence from alcohol and drugs and provide peer support for recovery. The current study examined the types of problems experienced among 330 ex-offenders with lifetime risk for HIV during the six months prior to entering SLHs. Nearly three fourths (74%) of all ex-offenders entering the houses had at least one HIV risk. The importance of housing was evident in the finding that housing status and participants' perceptions of their housing situation were associated with a variety of problem areas, including substance use, HIV risk, psychiatric severity, and legal problems. SLHs represent an important housing option for ex-offenders, but many residents may need additional services to address various problems.
Garde, K.; Mortensen, A.C.; Toft, P.B.; Soerensen, M.B.; Madsen, F.F.; Henriksen, O.
We report 3 cases of 31 P and 1 H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1 H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31 P-spectra were obtained using the chemical shift imaging technique. Medical treatment including controlled ventilation and sedation of the patients was carried out during the examination. The first patient was evaluated on days 6 and 10 after evacuation of an acute subdural haematoma. An intracranial pressure of 35 mm Hg was registered during the first examination. The 2nd patient had suffered a spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage and showed clinical signs of imminent incarceration during the examination. The 3rd patient showed clinical signs of incarceration just prior to the examination. In the 1st patient 1 H-MRS showed a 3-fold increase in the concentration of choline-containing compounds and a small decrease in N-acetyl aspartate from the 1st to the 2nd examination, which we interpret as a loss of neurones. In case 2 only small changes in metabolism could be detected, indicating that, despite signs of imminent clinical incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1 H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31 P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection
Worling, James R.
Since the early 1980s, five assumptions have influenced the assessment, treatment, and community supervision of adolescents who have offended sexually. In particular, interventions with this population have been informed by the assumptions that these youth are (i) deviant, (ii) delinquent, (iii) disordered, (iv) deficit-ridden, and (v) deceitful.…
Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.
The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…
Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.
Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…
This paper examines the potential incapacitation effect on various categories of crime committed by youth offenders. I exploit exogenous variation generated by the increase in school-leaving age and compulsory education or work requirement in the state of New South Wales, Australia from 15 to 17. Using incidents of crime committed by offender of different age-group incorporates incapacitation effect on crimes that do not necessarily lead to arrests. Comparative Interrupted Time-Series analysi...
Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.
Blagov, Pavel S; Patrick, Christopher J; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Powers, Abigail D; Phifer, Justine E; Venables, Noah; Hudak, Marissa; Herres, Daniel J; Lieb, Kate; Leigh, Sophia C Garvin; Cooper, Gabrielle
Advances in the operationalization of psychopathy have led to an increased understanding of the boundaries, structure, and nomological network of this construct, although significant questions remain. The empirical identification of replicable and theoretically meaningful psychopathy subtypes may help to improve the classification and diagnosis of this condition. We conducted a classification study of 91 incarcerated men who met conventional criteria for high levels of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. We expanded on the methodology of previous research on psychopathy subtypes by utilizing a comprehensive personality assessment instrument and a prototype matching approach to classification. The analyses revealed a primary (narcissistic) subtype and a secondary (hostile and dysregulated) subtype that were broadly consistent with the previous literature. External validation analyses, statistical controls, and incremental validity analyses provided substantial support for the primary and secondary subtypes.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 51-year-old male presents complaining of increasing right groin pain and an enlarging bulge. Symptoms started as a “bubble” 6 weeks prior to presentation. One week prior to presentation, thinking the bulge was an abscess, the patient attempted to “pop” the bulge with a sewing needle, the needle became lodged in the site and he attempted retrieval with a second sewing needle, which also became lodged. No purulent material was obtained. The patient denied any nausea, vomiting or constipation as well as any fevers or urinary symptoms. His abdomen was soft, non-tender, non-distended with active bowel sounds. The groin exam demonstrated an incarcerated right inguinal hernia and cellulitis of the right hemiscrotum with associated induration and tenderness. Significant findings: The AP and lateral pelvis x-rays revealed two sewing needles, 60 mm in length, within the soft tissue over the anterior right lower hemipelvis. In addition, the AP view showed emphysema involving the right hemiscrotum (arrow, concerning for perforated bowel. Discussion: Groin hernias have a lifetime risk of 27% for men and 3% for women and the incidence increases with age.1 Groin hernias can be either direct or indirect, and inguinal or femoral. The distinction is made during surgery. Femoral hernias make up only 5% of groin hernias but are more common in women.1 Concerning complications include incarceration, in which a hernia cannot be reduced, and strangulation in which vascular compromise occurs.1 Incarcerated hernias often present with a painful, tender mass and are difficult to distinguish from strangulation. Patients with strangulation may present with fevers and peritonitis. The overlying skin may also be red.2 The percentage of patients presenting with strangulation varies by region. Western developed countries report only 1%-3% of patients presenting as surgical emergencies whereas in Africa the percentage can be as high as 26
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, Wm. Dustin
By some estimates more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach - mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that in order to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the “helper” and the “helped,” and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. PMID:25941214
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, W Dustin
By some estimates, more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders, including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach-mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the "helper" and the "helped," and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. © The Author(s) 2015.
Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Latzman, Natasha E; Scalora, Mario J; Ullman, Daniel
Literature on risk factors for recidivism among juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs) is limited. In addition, there have been no studies published concerning protective factors among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of risk and protective factors to sexual and nonsexual recidivism among a sample of 193 male JSOs (mean age = 15.26). Youths were followed for an average of 7.24 years following discharge from a residential sex offender treatment program. The risk factor opportunities to reoffend, as coded based on the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism, was associated with sexual recidivism. Several risk factors (e.g., prior offending; peer delinquency) were associated with nonsexual recidivism. No protective factors examined were associated with sexual recidivism, although strong attachments and bonds as measured by the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth was negatively related to nonsexual recidivism. These findings indicate that risk factors for nonsexual recidivism may be consistent across both general adolescent offender populations and JSOs, but that there may be distinct protective factors that apply to sexual recidivism among JSOs. Results also indicate important needs for further research on risk factors, protective factors, and risk management strategies for JSOs.
Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T
While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%-8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.
Michael T. Baglivio
Full Text Available While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13 were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.
Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E
The present study aims to examine risk factors and risk-based and interactive protective factors for violent offending in a group of 437 young Australians. Participants were recruited into the study when they were in Grade 5 (10-11 years) and followed up almost annually until young adulthood (18-19 years). Measures of violent offending, risk and protective factors, and demographics were obtained through a modification of the Communities That Care youth survey. The data collected enabled identification of groups of students at-risk of violent offending according to drug use, low family socioeconomic status, and antisocial behavior. Results showed that there were very few associations between the risk factors and risk-based protective factors measured in this study (e.g., belief in the moral order, religiosity, peer recognition for prosocial involvement, attachment to parents, low commitment to school, and poor academic performance) and later self-reported violent offending. There were no statistically significant interactive protective factors. Further longitudinal analyses with large sample sizes are needed to examine risk factors and risk-based protective factors and interactive protective factors in at-risk groups. The findings support the need for multi-faceted prevention and early intervention approaches that target multiple aspects of youth's lives.
Currently, offender education, in general, is inadequate in supporting offenders to progress to university, succeed in Higher Education (HE) and progress into sustainable employment. In the community the picture is grim regarding offender education with little literature or policy to support academically able offenders to break free of low-level attainment constraints imposed by institutionalised stereotypical support mechanisms. What little exists is focused on low level attainment: a little...
James C. Oleson
Full Text Available In the early twentieth century, the eugenics movement exercised considerable influence over domestic US public policy. Positive eugenics encouraged the reproduction of “fit” human specimens while negative eugenics attempted to reduce the reproduction of “unfit” specimens like the “feebleminded” and the criminal. Although eugenics became a taboo concept after World War II, it did not disappear. It was merely repackaged. Incarceration is no longer related to stated eugenic goals, yet incapacitation in prisons still exerts a prophylactic effect on human reproduction. Because minorities are incarcerated in disproportionately high numbers, the prophylactic effect of incarceration affects them most dramatically. In fact, for black males, the effect of hyper-incarceration might be so great as to depress overall reproduction rates. This article identifies some of the legal and extralegal variables that would be relevant for such an analysis and calls for such an investigation.
Kjær Minke, Linda
This study examines the effects of mixing offenders with nonoffenders at Skejby half-way house in Denmark. Skejby halfway house constitutes an outstanding social experiment, as offenders are deliberately mixed with non-offenders in order to reduce their risk of recidivism. The treatment group...
Souverein, F.A.; Ward, C.L.; Visser, I.; Burton, P.
Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group.
Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847
This study is a report of a narrative review to explore the challenges facing prisoners and the corrections system in the presence of the death of a significant person to the prisoner. Death of a loved one is an important challenge, amplified for incarcerated men. There are unique aspects of incarceration that prevent prisoners from having access to usual ritual expressions and support structures. A search of the CINAHL, ProQuest Medical, PubMed, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases was conducted for papers published from 1998-2007. The search terms were bereavement and prison nursing. A hand search of material specific to grief and incarceration was also undertaken. A narrative technique involving reading, writing, thinking, interpreting, arguing and justifying was used to synthesize the material and create a convincing and cohesive story. Limited research is available specifically addressing the grief experience of incarcerated individuals or the impact of unresolved grief on recidivism. However, a number of potential challenges to the grieving process in the prison system are identified in the literature, such as the prison culture of toughness and limited options for funeral attendance. Whilst the literature is scant, it is clear that issues of masculinity and culture have a strong impact on the ability of incarcerated men to resolve grief issues. More research is required to understand the impact of this on issues, such as recidivism. In the meantime, prison nurses have an important role to play in supporting prisoners who have lost a loved one during their incarceration.
A growing literature has documented the mostly deleterious intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration, but less research has considered heterogeneity in these relationships. In this article, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,065) to estimate the heterogeneous relationship between paternal incarceration and children's problem behaviors (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and early juvenile delinquency) and cognitive skills (reading comprehension, math comprehension, and verbal ability) in middle childhood. Taking into account children's risk of experiencing paternal incarceration, measured by the social contexts in which children are embedded (e.g., father's residential status, poverty, neighborhood disadvantage) reveals that the consequences-across all outcomes except early juvenile delinquency-are more deleterious for children with relatively low risks of exposure to paternal incarceration than for children with relatively high risks of exposure to paternal incarceration. These findings suggest that the intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration are more complicated than documented in previous research and, more generally, suggest that research on family inequality consider both differential selection into treatments and differential responses to treatments.
Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P
Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.
Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.
Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692
Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G
Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.
Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael
Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621
Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Zwets, Almar J; Leenaars, Ellie P E M; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Bout, Ruben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine A L M; Kanters, Thijs
Psychological determinants of aggressive behavior (personality traits and problem behaviors) in 59 Dutch female offenders (outpatients and detainees) were compared with those in 170 male offenders (outpatients and detainees) who were all convicted of a violent crime. The violent female offenders scored significantly higher on neuroticism and trait anger, and significantly lower on hostility than the male offenders; however, effect sizes were small. A subgroup of female forensic psychiatric outpatients did not differ from a subgroup of male outpatients on all measures, whereas a subgroup of female detainees scored significantly higher on anger and aggression, but lower on hostility and psychopathy than did a subgroup of male detainees. These first results might indicate that violent female offenders do not differ much from violent male offenders regarding personality traits and problem behaviors. The differences between both groups of violent offenders were largely borne by the subgroup of violent female detainees compared with the subgroup of violent male detainees.
Pierce, Matthias; Hayhurst, Karen; Bird, Sheila M; Hickman, Matthew; Seddon, Toby; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim
To assess the relationship between testing positive for opiates and/or cocaine and prior offending. 139,925 persons (107,573 men) identified from a saliva test for opiate and cocaine metabolites following arrest in England and Wales, 1 April 2005-31 March 2009, were case-linked with 2-year recorded offending history. The prior offending rate, accounting for estimated incarceration periods, was calculated by: drug-test outcome; gender; four main crime categories (acquisitive, non-acquisitive, serious acquisitive, and non-serious acquisitive) and 16 sub-categories. Rate ratio (RR) compared opiate and/or cocaine positive to dual-negative testers. Adjusted rate ratio (aRR) controlled for age at drug test. The relationship between testing positive for opiates and cocaine and prior 2-year offending was greater for women than men (aRR men 1.77; 95% CI: 1.75-1.79: women 3.51; 3.45-3.58). The association was weaker for those testing positive for opiates only (aRR: men: 1.66, 1.64-1.68; women 2.73, 2.66-2.80). Men testing positive for cocaine only had a lower rate of prior offending (aRR: 0.93, 0.92-0.94), women had a higher rate (aRR: 1.69, 1.64-1.74). The strongest associations were for non-serious acquisitive crimes (e.g. dually-positive: prostitution (women-only): aRR 24.9, 20.9-29.7; shoplifting: aRR men 4.05, 3.95-4.16; women 6.16, 5.92-6.41). Testing positive for opiates and cocaine was associated with violent offences among women (aRR: 1.54, 1.40-1.69) but not men (aRR: 0.98, 0.93-1.02). Among drug-tested offenders, opiate use is associated with elevated prior offending and the association is stronger for women than men. Cocaine use is associated with prior offending only among women. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Pierce, Matthias; Hayhurst, Karen; Bird, Sheila M.; Hickman, Matthew; Seddon, Toby; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim
Aim To assess the relationship between testing positive for opiates and/or cocaine and prior offending. Methods 139,925 persons (107,573 men) identified from a saliva test for opiate and cocaine metabolites following arrest in England and Wales, 1 April 2005–31 March 2009, were case-linked with 2-year recorded offending history. The prior offending rate, accounting for estimated incarceration periods, was calculated by: drug-test outcome; gender; four main crime categories (acquisitive, non-acquisitive, serious acquisitive, and non-serious acquisitive) and 16 sub-categories. Rate ratio (RR) compared opiate and/or cocaine positive to dual-negative testers. Adjusted rate ratio (aRR) controlled for age at drug test. Results The relationship between testing positive for opiates and cocaine and prior 2-year offending was greater for women than men (aRR men 1.77; 95% CI: 1.75–1.79: women 3.51; 3.45–3.58). The association was weaker for those testing positive for opiates only (aRR: men: 1.66, 1.64–1.68; women 2.73, 2.66–2.80). Men testing positive for cocaine only had a lower rate of prior offending (aRR: 0.93, 0.92–0.94), women had a higher rate (aRR: 1.69, 1.64–1.74). The strongest associations were for non-serious acquisitive crimes (e.g. dually-positive: prostitution (women-only): aRR 24.9, 20.9–29.7; shoplifting: aRR men 4.05, 3.95–4.16; women 6.16, 5.92–6.41). Testing positive for opiates and cocaine was associated with violent offences among women (aRR: 1.54, 1.40–1.69) but not men (aRR: 0.98, 0.93–1.02). Conclusions Among drug-tested offenders, opiate use is associated with elevated prior offending and the association is stronger for women than men. Cocaine use is associated with prior offending only among women. PMID:26361712
Full Text Available This paper describes three different service-learning approaches the authors utilized in graduate art education students and incarcerated residents at a municipal jail facility. By situating our experiences within feminist theory, we analyze and unpack the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Through an analysis of teacher and student journal entries we came to see that our level of responsiveness to residents needed to increase as compared to our considerations of the university students. We came to see the significant knowledge that the residents hold about excellence in teaching and created an opportunity for the university students and ourselves to learn from the residents. We also identified three areas, breaking stereotypes, awareness of privilege, and showing empathy, that created change in the university students. We believe that service-learning in pre-service teacher preparation programs allows university students to learn from and with residents, thus helping to create more empathetic future teachers.
Mann, Ruth E.
This paper sets out the case for the manualization of sex offender treatment. The movement towards evidence-based practice in psychotherapy has led to strongly voiced opposing views on the value of manualization. However, "what works" evidence, i.e. the meta-analytical research behind the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation,…
Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.
The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale…
Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.
The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…
Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan
This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…
Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L
Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.
The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...
Describes problems persons with a criminal record encounter in attempting to locate a job. Describes the National Clearinghouse on Offender Employment Restrictions established in 1971 and the steps it is taking to change laws to make it easier for ex-offenders to obtain jobs. (EJT)
Muster, Nori J.
Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…
Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy.
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Walsh, Thomas C.
Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…
Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders
... Reintegration Program (IVTP) grants designed to support incarcerated Veterans ``at risk'' of homelessness. These... incarcerated Veterans who are ``at risk'' of homelessness. The full Solicitation for Grant Application is...
Zeng, Cheng; Yu, Lei; Chen, Yu; Bian, Hong-Qiang; Zheng, Kai; Ye, Guo-Gang
To investigate the high-risk factors for neonatal incarcerated hernia with intestinal necrosis by logistic regression analysis. Retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 131 neonates with incarcerated oblique inguinal hernia containing the intestine. Of the 131 cases, 14 suffered from intestinal necrosis. The high risk factors for neonatal incarcerated hernia with intestinal necrosis were determined by logistic regression analysis. Manual reduction after incarceration (>2 times) (χ2 = 69.289, P2 times) (χ2 = 84.731, Pneonatal incarcerated hernia with intestinal necrosis. Intestinal necrosis tends to occur in neonates with incarcerated hernia who have incarceration or received manual reduction more than twice and suffer from mesentery incarceration. Manual reduction is prohibited for these cases, which should be surgically treated immediately.
Atarhouch, N; Hoffmann, E; Adam, S; Titeca, J; Stillemans, E; Fossion, P; Le Bon, O; Servais, L
The concept of psychopathy has received many definitions for the first days of psychiatry. Recently, the Hare's Psychopathy Check List Revised has been created. This scale has the advantage to investigate the classically characteristic traits of the syndrome (need of stimulation, lack of culpability, superficial activity, lack of empathy, impassivity) and to point out the early development of behavior disturbances. In the American classification (DSM IV), oppositional and aggressive behavior in child and adolescent is grouped under the Conduct Disorder diagnostic criteria. This trouble appears to be a strong predictive factor of psychopathy in adult. Identifying the high risk factors of evolution to psychopathic personality would allow an earlier intervention and prevention by multisystemic interventions for example. The present study aims to evaluate in what measure characteristic traits of psychopathy in adults are present in severe juvenile offenders and to point out, in a second time, the differences between adolescents meeting the DSM IV criteria for Conduct Disorder and a control population by a dimensional personality inventory. The sample consists in 47 severe juvenile offenders referred for at least 3 months by a Youth Court to a Public Institution for Youth Protection (Belgium, Wauthier-Braine, 1999-2001), who have given an oral contentment and completely fulfilled the Temperament and Character Inventory-TCI. We have collected data about: schooling year by year, number of fails, changes of school; antecedents of oppositional defiant disorder with provocation (ODD, DSM IV criteria); antecedent of Conduct Disorder (CD, DSM IV criteria); penal antecedents (Youth Judge, works of general interest, placements); medico-psychological antecedents (consultation to a psychologist or a psychiatrist, hospitalization, illness, surgical intervention); psychoactive drug use or abuse. We used the TCI--Temperament and Character Inventory. This is a dimensional personality
Daykin, Norma; de Viggiani, Nick; Pilkington, Paul; Moriarty, Yvonne
Youth justice is an important public health issue. There is growing recognition of the need to adopt effective, evidence-based strategies for working with young offenders. Music interventions may be particularly well suited to addressing risk factors in young people and reducing juvenile crime. This systematic review of international research seeks to contribute to the evidence base on the impact of music making on the health, well-being and behaviour of young offenders and those considered at risk of offending. It examines outcomes of music making identified in quantitative research and discusses theories from qualitative research that might help to understand the impact of music making in youth justice settings.
Tamara Timofeevna Shchelina
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the features of adolescent and youth crime, shows the influence of the nature of socialization in previous years of age development in the family and other institutions of socialization on its prevalence in modern Russia. We also give a characterization of the basic socio-psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders serving sentences. The authors describe the data characterizing the ratio of pupils to work and family, children themselves, as well as alcohol and drug use. Besides, we presented the experience of professional use of socio-psychological characteristics in the process of developing and implementing FKOU «Evening shift school № 1» GUFSIN Russia Nizhny Novgorod Region preventive project involving different on the status and objectives of the impact of re-socialization subjects pupils colony.
Heller, Sara B
Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
van der Put, Claudia E; Creemers, Hanneke E; Hoeve, Machteld
Little is known about the needs of substance-using juveniles in treatment aimed at reducing criminal recidivism. Therefore, we aimed to examine treatment needs of substance-using juvenile offenders. Differences were examined between juvenile offenders who abstain from substance use (ASU; n=1974) and substance-using juvenile offenders without (SU; n=7000) and with substance use problems (SUP; n=3317), in the prevalence of risk/protective factors for criminal recidivism and strength of associations between risk/protective factors and criminal recidivism. We conducted secondary data analysis on recidivism risk assessments, collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment, and re-offending data. Analyses of variance and Partial correlations, adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity were applied, as well as Fisher's z tests and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that substance-using offenders, especially those with substance use problems, had more risk factors and less protective factors than ASU youths in the domains of school, use of free time, relationships, family, attitude, aggression and skills. The associations between most of the risk/protective factors and recidivism were stronger in the ASU group than in the SUP group. Substance use uniquely predicted recidivism, net of risk factors. These results suggest that general interventions for juvenile offenders addressing risk and protective factors with the aim to reduce recidivism may be less effective for offenders with substance use problems, and that substance use (problems) should be addressed, too. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wijkman, M.D.S.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Hendriks, J.
The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children;
Sweigart, Amy N
Full Text Available Uterine incarceration is an uncommon but serious presentation in the emergency department that requires early recognition to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.Case: A 29-year-old female, at 12 weeks gestation, presented to the emergency department (ED with complaints of fever, sacral pain and urgency. Based on history and physical examination, she was found to have a retroverted, incarcerated uterus. After a failed attempt at reduction in the ED, her uterus was successfully reduced under general anesthesia.Discussion: Pain and urinary difficulties, such as retention and hesitancy, are frequent in pregnancy, yet incarcerated uterus is an uncommon emergency department diagnosis that often presents with these symptoms. Clues to the diagnosis include a retroverted uterus, urinary retention, and pain in a patient presenting in the third to fourth months of gestation. Treatment is by manual reduction of the uterus. Complications range from spontaneous abortion to uterine rupture.[WestJEM. 2008;9:232-234.
Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Donoghue, Christine
With its ever-growing penetration of remote regions of the world, the Internet provides great opportunity for conducting research. Beyond clear advantages such as increased cost-effectiveness and efficiency in collecting large samples, Internet-based research has proven particularly useful in reaching hidden or marginalized populations who engage in illegal or deviant behaviors. However, this new medium for research raises important and complex legal, ethical, and methodological/technological issues that researchers must address, particularly when studying undetected criminal behaviors. The current paper chronicles various issues that were encountered in the implementation of an active Internet-based pilot research study of child pornography (CP) users. Moreover, this study was undertaken to address a critical gap in the existing research on CP offending, which has to date primarily focused on incarcerated or convicted samples. The Internet provides the optimal medium for studying community populations of CP users, given that it has become the primary market for CP distribution. This paper is designed to serve as a guide for researchers interested in conducting Internet-based research studies on criminal and sexually deviant populations, particularly CP offenders. Several recommendations are offered based on our own experiences in the implementation of this study. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Robinson, Marvin; Zalut, Lauren
In an effort to humanize the issues surrounding mass incarceration, and to foster empathy in historic site visitors, Eastern State Penitentiary Historic Site launched a pilot tour program that hired formerly incarcerated people to give tours of the building. These 15-minute tours allowed visitors to hear personal stories of incarceration alongside…
Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P.; Sekol, Ivana
Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p behavior among children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730
Merdian, Hannah Lena; Curtis, Cate; Thakker, Jo; Wilson, Nick; Boer, Douglas Pieter
The internet has opened up opportunities for non-contact sex offending, such as the viewing of child pornography. This paper proposes a model for the classification of child pornography offenders as an aid for their assessment and treatment, deducted from empirical studies and existing typologies for child pornography offenders. Different subgroups of child pornography offenders may be described according to three dimensions: (1) type of offending, (2) the motivation behind child pornograp...
Full Text Available There is a stereotype of an ideal victim that deserves attention and sympathy of the public because it is helpless and has not done anything to cause harm or damage inflicted on her. In real life, a victim can often have quite the opposite attributes and identities. Recent studies deal with the phenomenon of victim-offender overlap, or the circumstance in which an individual is the victim and the offender at the same time. Numerous authors state that offenders are more likely to become crime victims than non-offenders, while on the other hand, crime victims are more likely to become offenders than non-victims. This article provides an overview of some of the characteristics of the victim-offender overlap phenomenon in the context of adolescents, aiming to point out the theoretical determinants and practical implications of the relationship between offending and victimization of juveniles. Studying this relationship is a current topic in criminology and victimology, which also has applicative importance for making various decisions in juvenile justice system.
Rowell, Tawandra L; Wu, Elwin; Hart, Carl L; Haile, Rahwa; El-Bassel, Nabila
Black men currently comprise a substantial percentage of prisoners in the United States. Drug dependence is common among prison populations, and US prisons are high-risk environments for drug use. Prison drug use exacerbates health problems disproportionately prevalent among Black men and prisoners. The goal of this research was to examine predictors of prison drug use among incarcerated Black men. This study examined drug use within the prison environment in a random sample of 134 Black men incarcerated in maximum-security correctional institution. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used to measure illicit drug use history and the extent to which drug use occurred within the prison environment. Seventy-five percent of the participants reported a history of illicit drug use. Overall, 20% (n 25) of the participants, or 25% of those with a history of drug use, reported using drugs during a time frame consistent with incarceration. Participants with lengthier histories of drug use (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) and those who were incarcerated longer (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) were more likely to use drugs in prison. Drug use in prison was associated with history of injection drug use and with probation/parole status when arrested. Prisoners are engaging in illicit drug use while incarcerated, suggesting that they could benefit from harm reduction and drug treatment services offered during incarceration. Drug treatment programs that address long-standing addictions and coping mechanisms for lengthy prison stays, specifically, would be especially useful for this population.
Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.
Full Text Available Abstract Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world.
Breitenstein, S; Eisenbach, C; Wille, G; Decurtins, M
We report here of a patient with an incarcerated vermiform appendix occurring in a left-sided indirect inguinal hernia. Occasionally, appendices are found in a hernial sac; however, the finding of an incarcerated vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia on the left side is very unusual and has only been previously described once. The patient suffering this rare entity underwent appendectomy and repair of the hernia and experienced an uneventful postoperative recovery. The possibility of the presence of a situs inversus, or malrotation, as an underlying cause for the observed pathology was excluded by x-ray examination.
Carla L. Harenski
Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on “moral violation severity”. Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits-Youth Version (ICU-Y. While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment.
Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne
The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical
Salem, Leila; Reichert, Emily; Siegfriedt, Julianne; Hall, Taylor; Hartwell, Stephanie W
To bridge a gap in access to community services for releasing state inmates, the Boston Offender Needs Delivery (BOND) project was developed as a longitudinal study (2014-2016) of adult inmates with a history of substance use and co-occurring mental health disorders returning to the community following detention in one of Massachusetts' State correctional facilities. Pre-release inmates who were wrapping up their sentence (i.e., no community supervision) and presented with mental illness and/or substance use disorder were recruited. Participants were provided substance abuse treatment immediately post-release, as well as a variety of recovery supports for a follow-up period of 6 months. This first manuscript is intended to describe the rationale behind the BOND project, as well as the methods and procedure used to collect the data.
This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.
Nijman, H.L.I.; Cima, M.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.
Previous studies have suggested that offenders have lowered verbal intelligence compared to their performance intelligence. This phenomenon has been linked traditionally to childhood risk factors (e.g. deficient education, abuse and neglect). Substantial discrepancies between performance
Sexual offenders are a heterogeneous group of offenders with different personality structures and different patterns of crime. As a consequence, difficulties arise with the definition of sexually deviant or offending behaviour, which depends on period of time and culture. After presenting the actual definition of sexual offences, their frequency is shown by means of German epidemiological data. The problem of the assumed relationship between paraphilia and sexual offending behaviour is called into question. After the description of the central neurobiological and endocrinological mechanisms, the established pharmacological treatment strategies (Selective Serotonine Reuptake Inhibitors, Antiadrogenes, LHRH (Luteotropic Hormone Releasing Hormone)-Agonists) are presented. Finally, the step-wise algorithm for the therapy of sexual according to Bradford is presented.
Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve
This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…
Cobbina, Jennifer E.; Bender, Kimberly A.
Research reveals that most incarcerated adults are optimistic about their chances of success after release and believe they will be less likely to reoffend than other prisoners. Moreover, studies suggest that optimism shapes desistance. This raises the interesting question of how and why female inmates maintain an optimistic outlook about their…
Saddichha, Sahoo; Fliers, Joelle M; Frankish, Jim; Somers, Julian; Schuetz, Christian G; Krausz, Michael R
Incarceration and homelessness are closely related yet studied rarely. This article aimed to study the incarcerated homeless and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the nonincarcerated homeless. It also aimed to describe the homeless population and its significant involvement with the criminal justice and enforcement system. Data were derived from the British Columbia Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban center Vancouver (n = 250), Victoria (n = 150) and Prince George (n = 100). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Incarcerated homeless were more often male (66.6%), were in foster care (56.4%) and had greater substance use especially of crack cocaine (69.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (78.7%). They also had greater scores on emotional and sexual abuse domains of CTQ, indicating greater abuse. A higher prevalence of depression (57%) and psychotic disorders (55.3%) was also observed. Risk factors identified which had a positive predictor value were male gender (p Homeless individuals may be traumatized at an early age, put into foster care, rendered homeless, initiated into substance use and re-traumatized on repeated occasions in adult life, rendering them vulnerable to incarceration and mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated ...
Teather, Susan; Evans, Les; Sims, Margaret
Investigated how prison officers view the importance of maintaining relationships between incarcerated mothers and their children. Found that some hold the punishment ethic quite strongly; that women prisoners are often judged to be inadequate, uncaring mothers who use their children to access privileges; and that child visitation, while generally…
Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.
Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…
Metraux, Stephen; Culhane, Dennis P.
This study examined incarceration histories and shelter use patterns of 7,022 persons staying in public shelters in New York City. Through matching administrative shelter records with data on releases from New York State prisons and New York City jails, 23.1% of a point-prevalent shelter population was identified as having had an incarceration…
Slotboom, A.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Menting, B.
In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates' psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive
Andrew S. Denney
Full Text Available Utilizing data from 326 cases of alleged child sexual abuse that occurred at or through activities provided by Protestant Christian congregations, this study examines demographic and contextual characteristics of alleged child sexual abuse that took place within the most prevalent religious environment in the United States. Research questions are addressed in this study. First, what type of child sexual abuse most commonly occurs at or through activities provided by Protestant Christian congregations? Second, where do such offenses physically take place? Third, who are the offenders and what role(s do they assume in the congregations? We find that the overwhelming majority of offenses were contact offenses that occurred on church premises or at the offender’s home, and that most offenders were white male pastors or youth ministers who were approximately 40 years in age. We conclude with policy implications and recommendations for future research.
Haskins, Anna R
A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.
Williams, Charles A.
Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…
Wilson, R J
The tendency of some sexual offenders against children to display an exaggerated cognitive and emotional affiliation with childhood has been labeled "emotional congruence" by Finkelhor (1984) and as overidentification with childhood by others. This study consisted of an evaluation of emotional congruence in 194 men--homosexual and heterosexual pedophiles (N's = 41 and 31), heterosexual nonpedophilic incest offenders (N = 62), sexual offenders against women (N = 27), and nonsexual offender criminals (N = 33). A revised version of the Child Identification Scale (CIS-R) was used in combination with a semistructured interview (SSI) also intended to measure the construct. Maximum-likelihood factor analysis of the CIS-R generated eight factors. All subjects, particularly the nonsexual offenders, scored high on a factor indicating a wish to restart their lives. With respect to emotional congruence, results showed that only the homosexual pedophiles' scores indicated a preference for interacting with children on the child's level, while the incest offenders seemed to prefer to elevate their victims to adult status rather than fixating on the child role themselves. The group of heterosexual pedophiles, however, seemed to be motivated more by sexual gratification than by an emotional or relationship interest in their victims or children.
Tejani, N; Rosenheck, R; Tsai, J; Kasprow, W; McGuire, J F
There is increasing concern that adults with a past history of incarceration are at particular disadvantage in exiting homelessness. Supported housing with case management has emerged as the leading service model for assisting homeless adults; however there has been limited examination of the success of adults with past history of incarceration in obtaining housing within this paradigm. Data were examined on 14,557 veterans who entered a national supported housing program for homeless veterans, the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program (HUD-VASH) during 2008 and 2009, to identify characteristics associated with a history of incarceration and to evaluate whether those with a history of incarceration are less likely to obtain housing and/or more likely to experience delays in the housing attainment process. Veterans who reported no past incarceration were compared with veterans with short incarceration histories (≤ 1 year) and those with long incarceration histories (>1 year). A majority of participants reported history of incarceration; 43 % reported short incarceration histories and 22 % reported long incarceration histories. After adjusting for baseline characteristics and site, history of incarceration did not appear to impede therapeutic alliance, progression through the housing process or obtaining housing. Within a national supported housing program, veterans with a history of incarceration were just as successful at obtaining housing in similar time frames when compared to veterans without any past incarceration. Supported housing programs, like HUD-VASH, appear to be able to overcome impediments faced by formerly incarcerated homeless veterans and therefore should be considered a a good model for housing assistance programs.
Jones, Sara; Cisler, Josh; Morais, Hugo; Bai, Shasha
To effectively address the needs of youth who perpetrate sexual violence and reduce rates of recidivism, a better understanding of the mechanisms of juvenile sexual offending is needed. Current literature identifies various factors that are believed to put youth at risk for sexual offending, two of which are empathy deficits and childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The extent to which empathy deficits contribute to juvenile sexual offending, however, is often debated, though studies have not yet explored a neurobehavioral model of this mechanism. This pilot study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of empathy in juveniles who sexually offend (JSOs), and the possible role of CSA. A total of 38 males (ages 12-20) were enrolled, including 11 healthy control subjects and 27 JSOs, of which, 11 had a history of CSA. Participants underwent clinical assessment and completed an empathy task during fMRI. Using both whole-brain and region-of-interest analysis, results of the fMRI data showed no statistical differences in engagement of brain regions associated with empathy between controls and all JSOs. There were also no significant differences between JSOs with and without a history of CSA. These null findings pose implications for guiding future research studies with larger samples and more statistical power, and may support the need to further explore empathy-related explanatory models and interventions for JSOs. Neuroimaging may demonstrate to be a useful tool to identify individualized risk factors and aid in tailoring interventions for this population.
Baillargeon, Jacques; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Penn, Joseph V; Williams, Brie A; Murray, Owen J
A number of legal, social, and political factors over the past 40 years have led to the current epidemic of psychiatric disorders in the U.S. prison system. Although numerous investigations have reported substantially elevated rates of psychiatric disorders among prison inmates compared with the general population, it is unclear whether mental illness is a risk factor for multiple episodes of incarceration. The authors examined this association in a retrospective cohort study of the nation's largest state prison system. The study population included 79,211 inmates who began serving a sentence between September 1, 2006, and August 31, 2007. Data on psychiatric disorders, demographic characteristics, and history of incarceration for the preceding 6-year period were obtained from statewide medical information systems and analyzed. Inmates with major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and nonschizophrenic psychotic disorders) had substantially increased risks of multiple incarcerations over the 6-year study period. The greatest increase in risk was observed among inmates with bipolar disorders, who were 3.3 times more likely to have had four or more previous incarcerations compared with inmates who had no major psychiatric disorder. Prison inmates with major psychiatric disorders are more likely than those without to have had previous incarcerations. The authors recommend expanding interventions to reduce recidivism among mentally ill inmates. They discuss the potential benefits of continuity of care reentry programs to help mentally ill inmates connect with community-based mental health programs at the time of their release, as well as a greater role for mental health courts and other diversion strategies.
Salmons, Patrick Jeremiah
The United States has many problems currently, the most persistent of which is the issue of race, and the problem of Mass Incarceration. This thesis addresses what Mass Incarceration is, as well as developing a theoretical understanding of how to overcome Mass Incarceration through the music of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement. This thesis presents the questions: What is the era of Mass Incarceration? How does Kendrick Lamar's music inform the problems of Mass Incarceration?...
Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Woessner, Gunda; Schneider, Stephanie
Research on the role of self-esteem and self-control among violent offenders has so far yielded inconsistent findings. Certain factors, such as an adverse upbringing, foster development of delinquent behaviour, but it is less clear how this is mediated. Little is known about the interrelationship between self-control and self-esteem or factors that influence them. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to examine the relevance of self-esteem and self-control as distinct characteristics of violent offenders, and of their interrelationship with biographical risk factors for violence. Data were obtained from interviews and psychological testing with 101 incarcerated violent male offenders. These violent men showed higher body-related self-esteem compared with a general population sample. There were no offence-specific differences for self-control. Self-esteem was associated with self-control on binary testing, but, when entered into a regression analysis with attention and cognitive factors together with established early childhood risk factors, only the variable 'family problems' was independently related to self-control. The findings stress the complex interrelation between self-control, self-esteem and early childhood risk factors for antisocial behaviour. The combination of low social self-esteem, high body-related self-esteem and history of parenting problems characterising the violent offenders raises testable questions about whether high body-related self-esteem and violence are means of compensating for low social self-esteem with origins in parental neglect, inconsistent or harsh discipline. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Goodman, Wendy; Leggett, Janice; Garrett, Tanya
Locus of control can be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders from the general population. However, there is little information regarding locus of control and offenders with learning disabilities. Existing measures of locus of control use complex language and abstract ideas that may not be accessible to individuals in this group. A…
Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…
Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.
Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…
How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in Selected Police Cells and the Central Prison in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Regarding punishment, some respondents expressed a preference for the handling of rape cases within the community, suggesting that the sanctions for those cases were less severe than ...
Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Armstrong, Kevin S; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sinha, Debajyoti
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that South Carolina's sex offender registration and notification policy influenced juvenile sex offense case plea bargains. Two types of plea bargains were examined: initial sex offense charges amended to nonsex offense charges and amended to lower severity charges. Comparison analyses were conducted with juvenile assault and robbery offense cases. Archival data on cases involving 19,215 male youth charged with sex, assault, and/or robbery offenses between 1990 and 2004 informed analyses. Of these youth, 2,991 were charged with one or more sex offense, 16,091 were charged with one or more assault offense, and 2,036 were charged with at one or more robbery offense. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model changes in the probabilities of plea bargain outcomes across three time intervals: before policy implementation (1990 to 1994), after initial policy implementation (1995 to 1998), and after implementation of a revised policy that included online registration requirements (1999 to 2004). Results indicate significant increases in the probability of plea bargains for sex offense cases across subsequent time periods, supporting the hypothesis that South Carolina's initial and revised registration and notification policies were associated with significant increases the likelihood of plea bargains to different types of charges and to lower severity charges. Results were either nonsignificant or of much lower magnitude for the comparison assault and robbery analyses. Suggestions for revising South Carolina and national registration and notification policies are discussed.
Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.
The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…
Lambie, Ian; Seymour, Fred
In recent years the problem of sexually abusive youth has been increasingly recognized as a significant issue in our community. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature that shows sexually abusive youth to be a heterogeneous population. We argue for the development of typologies of adolescent sexual offenders to assist in the guiding…
Tesson, J; Cordier, B; Thibaut, F
Most people recognize that incarceration alone will not solve sexual violence. Treating the offenders is critical in an approach to preventing sexual violence and reducing victimization. The Law of June 17, 1998, on the prevention and repression of sexual offences, as well as the protection of minors, makes a provision for the possibility of medical and psychological monitoring adapted to these particular individuals. Sex offenders may well be constrained, after their incarceration, to social and judicial follow-up, which may include coerced treatment in order to reduce the risk of recidivism. In order to control this follow-up, the legislature has created the position of medical coordinator, who acts as an interface between justice and care in conjunction with the treating physician. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the activity of physician coordinators conducted in France since the implementation in 2004 of the 1998 law on monitoring sex offenders. An interview of all the physician coordinators in Upper Normandy was conducted. The files of all sex offenders subjected to coerced treatment were studied. In our sample of 100 sex offenders who were subjected to coerced treatment (any kind of treatment) (99% men, 60% of sexual assaults on minors, 14% of cases of indecent exposure), minor victims of sexual assault were: 78% females; in 90% of cases the victim was aged under 14 years (under 10 in 52% of cases), 60% of cases were intrafamilial incest; the victim was an unknown aggressor in only one case out of 60. The constraint follow-up contributed to reducing the risk of recidivism (three cases of recidivism in 100 individuals over an average duration of follow-up of five years), although it remains difficult to assess the recidivism over a duration of time as short as five years. A diagnosis of paraphilia was only applied in 19% of cases (in 10 cases pedophilia, exhibitionism in nine cases). Only six subjects were receiving antiandrogen treatment. A
Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318
Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte
Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quinn, Sterling; Swain, Nathaniel
Research suggests that transgender young offenders are a uniquely vulnerable caseload that may benefit from speech pathology intervention to help bring their voice into alignment with their gender identity. However, no previous studies have investigated treatment efficacy in this population. This study investigated the impact of intensive voice feminisation therapy targeting fundamental frequency and oral resonance in a 17 year old transgender individual within a youth justice institution. Acoustic analysis, listener and self-ratings of vocal femininity, self-ratings of vocal satisfaction, a post-treatment structured interview, and pre- and post- treatment completion of the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) were utilised to determine treatment impact. Outcome measures indicated therapy was effective at increasing the client's vocal pitch and perceptually femininity without compromising vocal quality. However, the client was still not consistently perceived as female post-intervention and had difficulty implementing feminine speech strategies in discourse. This case study provides preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of intensive voice feminisation therapy in a youth offending population. This research also highlights the potential utility of speech pathologists working in youth justice settings, even when the timeframe for intervention is limited. Furthermore, this research paper validates the use of perceptual outcome measures in transgender voice work, by replicating previous findings in which significant correlations were found between perceptual ratings of vocal gender and client satisfaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marlow, Elizabeth; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique
Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV-infected cohort in an urban county jail with an active case management program. Fifty-two inmates surveyed in 1999 at the San Francisco County Jail were followed for rearrests through 2006. In follow-up, 73% were re-incarcerated on an average of 6.8 times for 552 days. Risk factors included nonwhite ethnicity, history of homelessness and crack use, common risk factors for incarceration. Less than high school education was associated with recidivism, shorter time to reincarceration, and more incarcerations. HIV-infected inmates spend a high proportion of time in multiple incarcerations, a reflection of the cyclical nature of incarceration despite comprehensive case management. Well-known risk factors for incarceration were associated with recidivism; in addition, lack of high school education played a prominent role. Education should be explored as a way to make further progress on breaking the cycle of incarceration. PMID:18418714
Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarceration history is associated with lower rates of condom use and increased HIV risk. Less is known about duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations’ impact on condom use post-release. Methods In the current study, we surveyed 1,416 adults in Mississippi about their incarceration history and sexual risk behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to test associations between duration of incarceration, multiple incarcerations, socio-demographic factors, substance use, sexual behavior, and event level condom use at last sex. Results After adjusting for covariates, having been incarcerated for at least 6 months two or more times remained significantly associated with condomless sex. Conclusions This study found a strong, independent relationship between condom use and multiple, long-term incarceration events among patients in an urban STI clinic in the Deep South. The results suggest that duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations have significant effects on sexual risk behaviors, underscoring the deleterious impact of long prison or jail sentences on population health. Our findings also suggest that correctional health care professionals and post-release providers might consider offering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services and those providing community care should consider screening for previous incarceration as a marker of risk.
Revnaud-Maurupt, Catherine; Caer, Yves; Escaffre, Noëlle; Gagneau, Murielle; Galinier, Anne; Marzo, Jean-Noël; Meroueh, Fadi
To describe the social and medical profiles of incarcerated (in detention or after sentencing) opiate addicts, whether or not they had already begun substitution treatment at arrival, and assess the impact of high-dose buprenorphine substitution therapy on the health of prisoners and the course of their incarceration. A prospective survey was conducted on opiate addicts on admission to prison and after 2 months of incarceration, from December 2001 to February 2003, in 6 prison centres in the South East of France. During incarceration, no significant difference (other than in medical follow-up) appeared between the prisoners receiving substitution treatment and those who went through withdrawal on arrival. The first group differed from the second in several respects: their occupational history before incarceration was less stable, their history of drug addiction and incarceration was more serious (injection, psychotropic use, number of prior incarcerations, early age at first incarceration). The buprenorphine patients also differed in their more intense use of medical follow-up before incarceration. The impact of buprenorphine substitution therapy during incarceration could not be demonstrated, but prisoners receiving this treatment had a substantially different profile than those who were not receiving treatment when they arrived in prison.
Knust, Sonja; Stewart, Anna L
This study investigated relationships between hostility, Zuckerman's sensation seeking, and Eysenck and Eysenck's personality scales within a prison population, to explore whether they could be conceptualized in terms of two socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking factors. Participants included 79 incarcerated adult male offenders (age range = 18-62). Findings support the distinction between socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking and suggest that these factors represent more overarching personality factors. Psychoticism was a clear marker of the more broad impulsive, unsocialized sensation seeking factor, rather than representing a supertrait in its own right. This factor was also represented by lie, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility scales. Findings relating to hostility also supported such a reformulation, as unsocialized scales did cluster together to predict the unsocialized hostility factor, whereas unsocialized scales did not. The results demonstrate the need for a theoretical reformulation of the two given theories of personality.
Full Text Available Respect is fundamental aspect of how human beings relate to each other and, arguably, is a significant factor in the relationship between student and teacher. For incarcerated adults, the relationships they foster with their teachers (and by extension the respect or disrespect cultivated within it often has a considerable impact on their educative development. This research explores how respect, and disrespect, is perceived to be communicated within prison education by 13 prisoners and 13 teachers in an Irish Young Offenders institution. The values at the core of prison educators’ practice and their capacity to promote self-respect within their students emerged as central to this cultivation of respect. The place of socialisation within these educative relationships also emerged as a prominent factor and is discussed in relation to MacMurray’s (2012 assertion that the primary function of education is ‘learning to be human’
Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan
To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.
Roč. 97, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0026-9301 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : sex offenders * treatment of sex offenders * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2014
Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Bullens, R.A.R.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent
Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.
In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…
Full Text Available One of the basic standards of serving the punishment of imprisonment is its individualization, which means varying interactions consisting in adjusting them to the personality of the offender and the purposes of executing the sentence. A properly served psychological diagnosis, especially the penitentiary diagnosis, should describe the studied phenomenon well. The content of the penitentiary diagnosis should include a description of the clinical picture of an imprisoned person and basic social rehabilitation indications. The paper was written on the basis of literature on the subject, legislation and available research results. The aim of this paper is to characterize the diagnosis performed for the needs of justice, which is continuous and should be performed at every stage of imprisonment. The effect of a properly formed psychological and penitentiary decision should be the placement of a prisoner in a suitable type, kind of prison and appropriate system of serving imprisonment, followed by the correct selection of educational measures which may imply the efficiency and effectiveness of the punishment of imprisonment.
Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær; Moran, Paul; Bo, Sune
in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS) for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after......, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting...
Ron Langevin; Suzanne Curnoe
Learning impairment in childhood and adolescence was examined in a sample of 1915 sex offenders and 279 non-sex offender and community controls. They were compared on school dropouts, grade failures, and placement in special education classes. The sex offenders showed significantly lower education and higher incidences of dropouts than community controls. The offender groups more often had failed grades and had been in special education classes than the population at large. Neurodevelopmenta...
White, Stuart F; Cruise, Keith R; Frick, Paul J
The association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with violence and severe antisocial behavior has led to a recent focus on the association between CU traits and sexual offending behavior. When assessing juveniles with sexual offenses, practice standards recommend that multiple sources of data are considered. However, the differential correlates of parent-report versus self-report of CU traits in juvenile sex offenders have not been investigated. A sample of 94 detained male youth (mean age = 15.22, SD = 1.48) was administered both youth and parent versions of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), a general delinquency risk assessment tool (YLS), and a sexual offending risk assessment tool (J-SOAP-II) to investigate concordance between self-report and parent-report of CU traits as well as association with general and sex-specific risk factors. Both parent-report and self-report of CU traits were significantly related to higher general delinquency risk scores, with parent-report showing stronger correlations than self-report. Both parent-report and self-report were related to sex-specific risk factors. However, only parent-report significantly predicted static sexual risk, while self-report significantly predicted dynamic sexual risk scores. Evidence supports the importance of including both parent- and self-report of CU traits in the comprehensive assessment of sexually offending youth.
Viljoen, Jodi L.; Beneteau, Jennifer L.; Gulbransen, Erik; Brodersen, Etta; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Cruise, Keith R.
The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV; Nicholls, Viljoen, Cruise, Desmarais, & Webster, 2010; Viljoen, Cruise, Nicholls, Desmarais, & Webster, in preparation) is a clinical guide designed to assist in the assessment and management of adolescents’ risk for adverse events (e.g., violence, general offending, suicide, victimization). In this initial validation study, START:AV assessments were conducted on 90 adolescent offenders (62 male, 28 female), who were prospectively followed for a 3-month period. START:AV assessments had good to excellent inter-rater reliability and strong concurrent validity with Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth assessments (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006). START:AV risk estimates and Vulnerability total scores predicted multiple adverse outcomes, including violence towards others, offending, victimization, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. In addition, Strength total scores inversely predicted violence, offending, and street drug use. During the 3-month follow-up, risk estimates changed in at least one domain for 92% of youth, and 27% of youth showed reliable changes in Strength and/or Vulnerability total scores (reliable change index, 90% confidence interval; Jacobsen & Truax, 1991). While these findings are promising, a strong need exists for further research on the START:AV, the measurement of change, and on the role of strengths in risk assessment and treatment-planning. PMID:23436983
Craig, Leam A.; Hutchinson, Roger B.
While the literature on the assessment, treatment and management of non-learning disabled sexual offenders is well established, it is only in recent years that researchers and clinicians have focused on sexual offenders with learning disabilities. In contrast to mainstream sex offender treatment programmes, there are few evaluated community-based…
Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.
Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…
Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey
Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…
Moody, Edward E., Jr.; And Others
Examined personality and background characteristics of adolescent sexual offenders (n=21) and oppositional defiant adolescents (n=17) who completed High School Personality Questionnaire. Findings revealed no significant difference between offenders and oppositional defiant adolescents using multiple analysis of variance. Sex offenders tended to be…
Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of repeat offending are common across nations that are socially and culturally different. Although psychiatric disorders are believed to be risk factors for violent reoffending, the available evidence is sparse and liable to bias. Method We conducted a historical cohort study in Sweden of a selected sample of 4828 offenders given community sentences who were assessed by a psychiatrist during 1988–2001, and followed up for an average of 5 years for first violent offence, death, or emigration, using information from national registers. Hazard ratios for violent offending were calculated by Cox regression models. Results Nearly a third of the sample (n = 1506 or 31.3% offended violently during follow-up (mean duration: 4.8 years. After adjustment for socio-demographic and criminal history variables, substance use disorders (hazard ratio 1.97, 95% CI, 1.40–2.77 and personality disorders (hazard ratio 1.71, 1.20–2.44 were significantly associated with an increased risk of violent offending. No other diagnoses were related to recidivism risk. Adding information on diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders to data recorded on age, sex, and criminal history improved only minimally the prediction of violent offending. Conclusion Diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders are associated with the risk of subsequent violent offending in community offenders about as strongly as are its better documented demographic and criminal history risk factors. Despite this, assessment of such disorders in addition to demographic and criminal history factors enhances only minimally the prediction of violent offending in the community.
Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Roberts, Mary B.; Bock, Beth C.; Stein, L.A.R.; Parker, Donna R.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as “smoking used cigarettes.” Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes (‘butts’), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a US prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and femal...
Katharine Elizabeth Stott
Full Text Available We describe a case of HIV/tuberculosis (TB co-infection from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, characterised by drug resistance in both pathogens. The development of drug resistance was linked temporally to two periods of incarceration. This highlights the urgent need for improved integration of HIV/TB control strategies within prison health systems and within the broader public health framework.
Riley, Ben J; Larsen, Amii; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter
Prisoners represent a group containing the highest problem gambling (PG) rate found in any population. PG is of particular concern among Indigenous Australians. Little data exist concerning PG rates among Indigenous Australian prisoners. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the lifetime prevalence of PG among male prisoners, whilst identifying prisoners of Aboriginal background. The EIGHT Gambling Screen (Early Intervention Gambling Health Test) was administered to 296 prisoners across three male prisons in South Australia. Previous help-seeking behaviour and forms of gambling were also examined. Sixty percent of prisoners indicated a lifetime prevalence of PG with 18% reporting they were incarcerated due to offending relating to their gambling problem. Indigenous Australian prisoners indicated a significantly higher prevalence of PG (75%) than non-Indigenous prisoners (57%) and reported less than half the rate of help-seeking. Given the high levels of PG and overall low rates of help-seeking among prisoners, prisons may provide an important opportunity to engage this high-risk population with effective treatment programs, in particular culturally appropriate targeted interventions for Australian Indigenous prisoners.
Stahler, Gerald J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Belenko, Steven; Welsh, Wayne N.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Zajac, Gary
We examined the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics and spatial contagion in predicting reincarceration on a sample of 5,354 released Pennsylvania state prisoners. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, offense type, drug involvement, various neighborhood variables (e.g., concentrated disadvantage, residential mobility), and spatial contagion (i.e., proximity to others who become reincarcerated). Using geographic information systems (GIS) and logistic regression modeling, our results showed that the likelihood of reincarceration was increased with male gender, drug involvement, offense type, and living in areas with high rates of recidivism. Older offenders and those convicted of violent or drug offenses were less likely to be reincarcerated. For violent offenders, drug involvement, age, and spatial contagion were particular risk factors for reincarceration. None of the neighborhood environment variables were associated with increased risk of reincarceration. Reentry programs need to particularly address substance abuse issues of ex-offenders as well as take into consideration their residential locations. PMID:24443612
This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.
Middleton, David; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Hayes, Elizabeth
The increase in convictions for internet-related sexual offending has led to new challenges for treatment providers. By 2005 nearly one-third of all sexual convictions in England and Wales were for internet-related sexual offending. In late 2006 a treatment programme for internet-related sexual offending (the i-SOTP) was given accreditation for…
Long, Matthew L; Alison, Laurence A; McManus, Michelle A
This study examined a sample of 120 adult males convicted of offences involving indecent images of children (IIOC); 60 had a previous contact child sexual offence (dual offenders) and 60 had no evidence of an offence against a child. Analyses explored socio-demographic characteristics, previous convictions, and access to children. Of the 120 offenders, a subsample of 60 offenders (30 dual offenders and 30 non-contact) were further examined in terms of the quantity of IIOC, types of IIOC, and offending behavior. The study found the two offender groups could be discriminated by previous convictions, access to children, the number, proportion, and type of IIOC viewed. The IIOC preferences displayed within their possession differentiated dual offenders from non-contact IIOC offenders. Within group comparisons of the dual offenders differentiated sadistic rapists from sexual penetrative and sexual touching offenders. The paper suggests there may be a homology between IIOC possession, victim selection, and offending behavior. Implications for law enforcement are discussed in terms of likelihood of contact offending and assisting in investigative prioritization.
Anna R Haskins
Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratiﬁcation, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age ﬁve is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.
Newman, Claire; Cashin, Andrew; Waters, Cheryl
This study aimed to examine the lived experience of incarceration for those with autism using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Eight adults who were incarcerated in New South Wales, Australia, were interviewed. The lived experience of incarceration for the participants was about being in an unpredictable environment characterised by ever-changing routines and complex social situations. Participants were deprived of their ability to create predictability in their environment, and experienced confusion and distress when forced to comply with actions that were in conflict with their logic. Mental health nursing case management is recommended to address the needs of incarcerated persons with autism.
Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P
We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.
The 1990s saw the enactment of much "get tough with young offenders" legislation in the United States. At the same, problems with our present punishment and treatment model, in which many youngsters cycle repeatedly through the justice and mental health systems, raised interest in restorative justice, a community-based alternative model emphasizing a balanced, negotiated approach to the needs of victims, offenders, and the community. After summarizing the philosophical bases underlying both models, this article describes the practice of restorative justice in New Zealand, where it was pioneered. Restorative justice has special relevance for Maori community in New Zealand and minority communities in the United States, where youth are consistently overrepresented in the courts, detention centers, and jails, and in which the juvenile justice system is seen as hostile and biased. Outcome data from New Zealand and early outcome research from the United States suggest that the restorative model, in which offenses are understood as a breakdown in social bonds, offers a hopeful alternative for offending youngsters, their families, and their communities.
Wiklund, Gunnar; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Koposov, Roman A; Af Klinteberg, Britt
The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Factor 1 denoted Callous/Dominance and Factor 2 denoted Manipulativeness/Impulsiveness. Subjects with complete data on PAS and Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS) (n=171) were divided into extreme groups (first and fourth quartiles) according to their total scores on PAS and the two factor scores, respectively. The extreme groups of total PAS and PAS Factor 1 differed in CPS ratings and in violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC). They also differed in the personality dimension Harm Avoidance as measured by use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and in delinquent and aggressive behavior as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR). The extreme groups of PAS Factor 2, in turn, differed in aggressive behavior as assessed by the YSR, and in the TCI scale Self-Directedness. When PAS was used as a continuous variable, total PAS and PAS Factor 1 (Callous/Dominance) were significantly positively related to registered violent crime. The possible usefulness of PAS in identifying high-risk individuals for bullying tendencies among incarcerated delinquents is discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S.; Krischer, Maya K.
Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male…
Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael
Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahern, Nancy R; Mechling, Brandy
Youth engaging in sexting (texting plus sex) includes behaviors such as sending, receiving, or forwarding of nude or partially nude images via cell phones. The true prevalence of tweens and teens engaging in sexting is unclear. This might be because of the general secrecy of the behavior, the rapid advances in technology, and the lack of a clear definition that accounts for the added developmental factors (e.g., peak sexual development, impulsivity). Additionally, there is a lack of recognition of the consequences and increased risks of sexting (e.g., shame and guilt, earlier sexual behavior, bullying, incarceration, substance abuse, depression, suicide) for youth as a vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to examine sexting behaviors among youth by exploring factors specific to today's adolescent population that may influence the prevalence and outcomes of sexting behavior. Implications for nursing practice, including the assessment, intervention, and evaluation that is needed to treat adolescents affected by sexting, are discussed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather
The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group.
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro
Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.
Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L
Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered.
The youth population bulge is often mentioned in discussions of youth unemployment and unrest in developing countries, most recently in explaining the “Arab Spring.” But the youth share of the population has fallen rapidly in recent decades in most countries, and is projected to continue to fall. Evidence on the link between youth population bulges and youth unemployment is mixed. It should not be assumed that declines in the relative size of the youth population will translate into falling y...
Bryan, Karen; Freer, Jackie; Furlong, Cheryl
Background: Studies of the prison population suggest that the numbers of prisoners with language and communication disorders is higher than that of the overall population. However, the prison population is heterogeneous and it is important to focus on specific areas of the population. This study focuses on juvenile offenders. Aims: The study aimed…
Nijman, Henk; Merckelbach, Harald; Cima, Maaike
Previous studies have suggested that offenders have lowered verbal intelligence compared to their performance intelligence. This phenomenon has been linked traditionally to childhood risk factors (e.g. deficient education, abuse and neglect). Substantial discrepancies between performance intelligence quotients (PIQ) and verbal intelligence…
Miller, Katrina R.; Vernon, McCay; Capella, Michele E.
Previous research suggested an unexplained difference in the patterns of offending behaviors among deaf people when compared to hearing people. This study, conducted in Texas, compares the incidence and types of violent offenses of a deaf prison population in comparison to the hearing prison population. Sixty-four percent of deaf prisoners were…
Is it morally acceptable to instigate criminal offenders to participate in rehabilitative treatment by offering treatment in return for early release from prison? Some theorists have supported such treatment schemes by pointing to the beneficial consequences that follow from the treatment. Others...
van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.
Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The
... 1380, Washington, DC 20004. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rorey Smith, Deputy General Counsel, (202) 220-5797, or email@example.com . Questions about this publication are welcome, but inquiries... addition, the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA), Title I of the Adam Walsh Child...
Page, Amy Dellinger; Hill, Julie Sprinkle; Gilbert, Griff
Current legislation at the state and federal level is largely based on the premise that we can best protect children by prohibiting sexual offenders' access to children through the use of residency restrictions, employment sanctions, and community notification. While well intentioned, these policies are short sighted and based more on public…
Krieger, George W.
In many respects ex-offenders can be seen as "socially disabled" persons, subject to the same treatment as other minority groups. Both counselors and clients must work to overcome barriers in the counseling relationship. Certain affirmative approaches are discussed, including self-help groups, peer counseling, and the use of paraprofessionals.…
Ruddell, Rick; Broom, Ian; Young, Matthew
Offenders sentenced to terms of life imprisonment pose special challenges for correctional systems. The Correctional Service of Canada collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to develop programmatic interventions to better prepare this population to survive their prison sentences and transition to the community. This study describes the…
Full Text Available Violent offenders and soldiers are at high risk of developing appetitive aggression and trauma-related disorders, which reduce successful integration into societies. Narrative Exposure Therapy for Forensic Offender Rehabilitation (FORNET aims at reducing symptoms of traumatic stress (e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder and controlling readiness for aggressive behavior. It follows the logic of the evidence-based trauma-focused Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET with special emphasis on violent acts in past and future behavior. In NET the therapist guides the client by means of exposure through his traumatic experiences in chronological order linking the negative emotions, such as fear, shame and disgust, to the past context and integrating the traumatic experiences into the autobiographical memory. During FORNET we also encourage verbalization of any positive emotions and experiences linked to past violent and aggressive behaviors. This recall of positive emotions (linked to the there and then is contrasted with feelings that emerge during the narration process (here and now. In this way, the therapist helps the client to anchor the whole range of sensory and bodily experiences, cognitions, and emotions to the contextual cues. Over the process of the therapy we support the client to begin the role change from a violent offender to a citizen, who is capable of living a non-violent and socially adjusted life. Finally, the client develops visions and wishes for the future to support a successful integration into society. Several studies with veterans and violent youths have proven the feasibility of FORNET, found evidence of a positive outcome (recovered mental health, fewer offenses committed, less drug intake and improved integration into civil society, and highlighted the importance of addressing the whole range of experiences while treating violent offenders or veterans.
Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas
Violent offenders and soldiers are at high risk of developing appetitive aggression and trauma-related disorders, which reduce successful integration into societies. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) for forensic offender rehabilitation (FORNET) aims at reducing symptoms of traumatic stress (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder) and controlling readiness for aggressive behavior. It follows the logic of the evidence-based trauma-focused NET with special emphasis on violent acts in past and future behavior. In NET, the therapist guides the client by means of exposure through his traumatic experiences in chronological order linking the negative emotions, such as fear, shame, and disgust, to the past context and integrating the traumatic experiences into the autobiographical memory. During FORNET, we also encourage verbalization of any positive emotions and experiences linked to past violent and aggressive behaviors. This recall of positive emotions (linked to the there and then) is contrasted with feelings that emerge during the narration process (here and now). In this way, the therapist helps the client to anchor the whole range of sensory and bodily experiences, cognitions, and emotions to the contextual cues. Over the process of the therapy, we support the client to begin the role change from a violent offender to a citizen, who is capable of living a non-violent and socially adjusted life. Finally, the client develops visions and wishes for the future to support a successful integration into society. Several studies with veterans and violent youths have proven the feasibility of FORNET, found evidence of a positive outcome (recovered mental health, fewer offenses committed, less drug intake, and improved integration into civil society), and highlighted the importance of addressing the whole range of experiences while treating violent offenders or veterans. PMID:26157395
This document contains materials from a conference designed to examine policy issues related to potential dropouts, youth offenders, drug and alcohol abusers, teenage parents, young children at risk, unemployed youth, and compensatory education. A brief overview of the 2-day conference is followed by summaries of each of the conference's…
Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick
A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…
... offenders, including sex offenders convicted of the offense for which registration is required prior to the... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of the Sex Offender...) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.3 Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and...
Hartley, Carolyn Copps
Explores cognitions incest offenders use to overcome their initial inhibitions against offending and to maintain their offending behavior once begun. Involves in-person interviews with caucasian male incest offenders in treatment. Discusses cognitions identified within the context of new theory on the role of cognitions in sexual offending. (MKA)
Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H.
Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental…
De Cuyper, R.H.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Völker, B.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.
This study examines inmates' core discussion network prior to their incarceration. The core discussion network consists of the immediate social circle of relatively strong ties. The aims of the study are twofold: (1) to describe inmates' core discussion network prior to their incarceration in terms
Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan
Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…
Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.
Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present
Menting, A.T.A.; Orobio De Castro, B.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.
Objective. The present study examines cognitive and emotional problems in mothers being released from incarceration. Design. Participants were 98 mothers who were about to be released or had just been released from incarceration, and 63 comparison mothers from disadvantaged areas with low
Wang, Emily A; Moore, Brent A; Sullivan, Lynn E; Fiellin, David A
Behaviors associated with opioid dependence often involve criminal activity, which can lead to incarceration. The impact of a history of incarceration on outcomes in primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine whether having a history of incarceration affects response to primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. In this post hoc secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, we compared demographic, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes among 166 participants receiving primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment stratifying on history of incarceration. Participants with a history of incarceration have similar treatment outcomes with primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone than those without a history of incarceration (consecutive weeks of opioid-negative urine samples, 6.2 vs. 5.9, p = 0.43; treatment retention, 38% vs. 46%, p = 0.28). Prior history of incarceration does not appear to impact primary care office-based treatment of opioid dependence with buprenorphine/naloxone. Community health care providers can be reassured that initiating buprenorphine/naloxone in opioid dependent individuals with a history of incarceration will have similar outcomes as those without this history.
Hopkins, Susan; Farley, Helen
While incarcerated students have always faced many obstacles to full and effective participation in university study, the global shift toward paperless e-learning environments has created new challenges for prisoners without direct internet access. Based on prison focus groups with Australian incarcerated students and direct participant…
Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A
This study sought to investigate the rates and correlates of homelessness, especially mental illness, among adult jail inmates. Data from a national survey of jail inmates (N=6,953) were used to compare the proportion of jail inmates who had been homeless in the previous year with the proportion of persons in the general population who had been homeless in the previous year, after standardization to the age, race and ethnicity, and gender distribution of the jail sample. Logistic regression was then used to examine the extent to which homelessness among jail inmates was associated with factors such as symptoms or treatment of mental illness, previous criminal justice involvement, specific recent crimes, and demographic characteristics. Inmates who had been homeless (that is, those who reported an episode of homelessness anytime in the year before incarceration) made up 15.3% of the U.S. jail population, or 7.5 to 11.3 times the standardized estimate of 1.36% to 2.03% in the general U.S. adult population. In comparison with other inmates, those who had been homeless were more likely to be currently incarcerated for a property crime, but they were also more likely to have past criminal justice system involvement for both nonviolent and violent offenses, to have mental health and substance abuse problems, to be less educated, and to be unemployed. Recent homelessness was 7.5 to 11.3 times more common among jail inmates than in the general population. Homelessness and incarceration appear to increase the risk of each other, and these factors seem to be mediated by mental illness and substance abuse, as well as by disadvantageous sociodemographic characteristics.
Seung Chan Lee
Full Text Available Background Among the various signs and symptoms of orbital fractures, certain clinical findings warrant immediate surgical exploration, including gaze restriction, computed tomographic (CT evidence of entrapment, and prolonged oculocardiac reflex. Despite proper surgical reconstruction, prolonged complications such as diplopia and gaze restriction can occur. This article evaluated the prognostic factors associated with prolonged complications of orbital fractures with muscle incarceration. Methods The medical records of 37 patients (37 orbits with an orbital fracture with muscle incarceration from January 2001 to January 2015 were reviewed. The presence of Incarcerated muscle was confirmed via CT, as well as by intraoperative findings. Various factors potentially contributing to complications lasting for over 1 year after the injury were categorized and analyzed, including age, cause of injury, injury-to-operation time, operative time, fracture type, nausea, vomiting and other concomitant symptoms and injuries. Results All patients who presented with extraocular muscle limitations, positive CT findings, and/or a positive forced duction test underwent surgery. Of the 37 patients, 9 (24% exhibited lasting complications, such as diplopia and gaze restriction. The mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (range, 1–108 months, while that of patients who experienced prolonged complications was 30.1 months (range, 13–36 months. Two factors were significantly associated with prolonged complications: injury-to-operation time and nausea/vomiting. Loss of vision, worsening of motility, and implant complication did not occur. Conclusions Patients who present with gaze limitations, with or without other signs of a blow-out fracture, require a thorough evaluation and emergent surgery. A better prognosis is expected with a shorter injury-to-operation time and lack of nausea and vomiting at the initial presentation.
Simonsen, Erik; Kongerslev, Mickey; Moran, Paul
Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routin......Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time...... in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS) for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after...
Full Text Available Abstract This article gives insight into a German as a foreign language course in a prison in the German speaking part of Switzerland. From the perspective of the teacher, the author reflects on beliefs and assumptions regarding professional issues which are carried into this specific learning setting and challenges these by contrasting them with anecdotal accounts. She advocates the view that rather than try and do away with beliefs teachers should believe in incarcerated person’s capability to learn and achieve.
La Fond, John Q; Winick, Bruce J
Recently enacted legal strategies to protect society from dangerous sex offenders generally use two very different approaches: Long-term incapacitation or outright release. The first strategy relies on harsh criminal sentences or indeterminate sexual predator commitment laws. The second relies primarily on registration and notification laws. Both strategies rely on prediction models of dangerousness. Authorities determine at a single moment the likelihood that an offender will sexually "recidivate" and then choose the appropriate type of control for an extended period. This paper reviews the problems of predicting sexual recidivism in the context of both strategies. It then proposes special sex offender reentry courts to manage the risk that sexual offenders will reoffend. Risk management allows decision makers to adjust calculations of individual risk on an ongoing basis in light of new information and to adjust the level of control. Drawing on Therapeutic Jurisprudence-a belief that legal rules, procedures, and legal roles can have positive or negative psychological impact on participants in the legal system-these courts can impose, and then adjust control over sex ofenders in the community. In a sex offender reentry court, the judge is a member of an interdisciplinary team that uses a community containment approach; the offender, as a condition for release, enters into a behavioral contract to engage in treatment and submit to periodic polygraph testing. This therapeutic jurisprudence approach creates incentives for offenders to change their behavior and attitudes, thereby reducing their recidivism risk and earning more freedom. It can also monitor compliance and manage risk more effectively.
Full Text Available While incarcerated students have always faced many obstacles to full and effective participation in university study, the global shift toward paperless e-learning environments has created new challenges for prisoners without direct internet access. Based on prison focus groups with Australian incarcerated students and direct participant observation while tutoring tertiary students within four Queensland correctional centres, this paper explores the obstacles and constraints faced by incarcerated students in light of the increasing digitisation of materials and methods in higher education. This paper also reviews the outcomes, limitations and challenges of recent Australian projects trialling new internet-independent technologies developed to improve access for incarcerated tertiary students. This paper argues that technology-centred approaches alone will not adequately address the challenges of access for incarcerated students unless such interventions are also informed by an understanding of the sociocultural nature of learning and teaching within correctional centres.
Son, Ji; Miller, Willa M; Tossone, Krystel; Butcher, Fredrick; Kuo, Kelly
To assess the effects of an interprofessional student-led comprehensive sexual education curriculum in improving the reproductive health literacy among at-risk youths in detention. We performed a prospective cohort study involving 134 incarcerated youth and an interprofessional team of 23 medical, nursing, and social work students, who participated in a comprehensive reproductive health curriculum over the course of 3 days. Basic reproductive health knowledge, confidence in condom use with a new partner, and self-efficacy with regard to contraception use and sexual autonomy were assessed before and after completion of the curriculum. We also assessed the student teachers' level of comfort with teaching reproductive health to adolescents and their perception of interprofessionalism. Incarcerated youth showed a statistically significant increase in knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections as well as self-reported confidence in condom use (P = .002). Self-efficacy in contraception use and sexual autonomy did not show significant improvement. Qualitative analysis of student teachers' surveys revealed theme categories regarding perception of youth, perception of self in teaching youth, perception of interacting with youth, and perception of working in interprofessional teams. Our program might represent a mutually beneficial community relationship to improve reproductive health literacy in this high-risk youth population. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated 1 whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and 2 whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Swedish males (N=270, aged 18-25 sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their incarceration. Data on character maturity as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory were available for n=148 subjects, and used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, Conduct disorder (CD and substance use disorders (SUD, aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits.Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed; i a later age at onset of criminality, ii a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, iii lower prevalences of ADHD, CD, and SUD, iv less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and v less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount
Barta, William D; Fisher, Virginia; Hynes, Patrick
In some jurisdictions, persons who are convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are allowed to serve some portion of their prison sentence under home confinement as part of Intensive Supervision Programs (ISPs) which include pre-release psycho-education and close post-release supervision. Test the hypothesis that persons convicted of DUI offenses who have spent some portion of their sentence under home confinement, as compared to a historical comparison group, will exhibit a relatively low re-conviction rate. Using administrative data for 1,410 repeat DUI offenders (302 members of the historical comparison group, 948 ISP members, and 160 persons who appear in both groups at different points in time), with a follow-up period of up to 3 years and 10 months, a marginal Cox model was employed to compare conviction rates of persons who experienced intensive supervision and home confinement with historical comparison group members. Persons with ISP + home confinement experience a re-conviction rate that is less than half that observed in the comparison group. Age, ethnicity (white vs. non-white), and gender are also significant predictors of re-conviction. Home confinement, in conjunction with psycho-education and other program elements, is one means of reducing the costs of incarceration. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to cost savings, states may realize a public safety benefit in the form of a reduction in DUI offense rates.
Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael
While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12-19 years; M=15.6; SD=1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Monica; Bostrom, Alan; Jessup, Martha; Davis, Thomas; Marsh, Cheryl
This paper reports findings from a clinical trial of a probation case management (PCM) intervention for drug-involved women offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to either PCM (n=92) or standard probation (n=91), and followed for 12 months using measures of substance abuse, psychiatric symptoms, social support and service utilization. Arrest data were collected from administrative datasets. The sample (N=183) included mostly African American (57%) and White (20%) women, with a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 9.2) and mean education of 11.6 years (SD = 2.1). Cocaine and heroin were the most frequently reported drugs of abuse, 86% reported prior history of incarceration, and 74% had children. Women assigned to both PCM and standard probation showed change over time in the direction of clinical improvement on 7 of 10 outcomes measured. However, changes observed for the PCM group were no different than those observed for the standard probation group. Higher levels of case management, drug abuse treatment, and probationary supervision may be required to achieve improved outcomes in this population. PMID:21464888
Dennis, Jane A; Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Powney, Melanie J; Duggan, Conor
Sexual offending is a legal construct that overlaps, but is not entirely congruent with, clinical constructs of disorders of sexual preference. Sexual offending is both a social and a public health issue. Victim surveys illustrate high incidence and prevalence levels, and it is commonly accepted that there is considerable hidden sexual victimisation. There are significant levels of psychiatric morbidity in survivors of sexual offences.Psychological interventions are generally based on behavioural or psychodynamic theories.Behavioural interventions fall into two main groups: those based on traditional classical conditioning and/or operant learning theory and those based on cognitive behavioural approaches. Approaches may overlap. Interventions associated with traditional classical and operant learning theory are referred to as behaviour modification or behaviour therapy, and focus explicitly on changing behaviour by administering a stimulus and measuring its effect on overt behaviour. Within sex offender treatment, examples include aversion therapy, covert sensitisation or olfactory conditioning. Cognitive behavioural therapies are intended to change internal processes - thoughts, beliefs, emotions, physiological arousal - alongside changing overt behaviour, such as social skills or coping behaviours. They may involve establishing links between offenders' thoughts, feelings and actions about offending behaviour; correction of offenders' misperceptions, irrational beliefs and reasoning biases associated with their offending; teaching offenders to monitor their own thoughts, feelings and behaviours associated with offending; and promoting alternative ways of coping with deviant sexual thoughts and desires.Psychodynamic interventions share a common root in psychoanalytic theory. This posits that sexual offending arises through an imbalance of the three components of mind: the id, the ego and the superego, with sexual offenders having temperamental imbalance of a
Maria Fernanda Faria Achá
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of mental disorders in convicted sex offenders admitted to the Psychiatric Custody and Treatment Hospital (Forensic Psychiatric Facility. METHOD: 89 patient records of males admitted from March 2005 to August 2006 were analyzed. The analysis included evaluation of two study groups: Group I comprised subjects who had committed sex offenses (sexual offenders while Group II contained subjects convicted for other crimes (non-sexual offenders. Variables studied were: age bracket, years of schooling, marital status, skin color, place of birth, previous psychiatric admissions and psychiatric diagnosis. RESULTS: Mental retardation and personality disorders were the mainly diagnoses in Group I (sexual offenders (61,76% and 29,41% respectively. In the other hand, schizophrenic subjects predominated in Group II (non-sexual offenders (82,93%. CONCLUSION: Different from international data, we have found low prevalence of personality disorders among Brazilian forensic population and we believe that it's due to a distinguishing characteristic of the Brazilian legal system, which does not consider personality disorder a mental disease, thus, not prompting these patients to civil commitment.
Quackenbush, Ray E
No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system, social service agencies, and other consumers and providers of sex offender assessments be aware of both what is possible to learn about an offender as well as the limitations on that knowledge and its application. Prominent theories that influence the assessment of offenders in North America and Europe are presented and examined. Uses and limitations of each theory are discussed. Several trends emerge which could influence the future of sex offender assessment, treatment, management, and policy.
Martin, Rosemarie A.; Stein, Lynda A.R.; Clair, Mary; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Hurlbut, Warren; Rohsenow, Damaris J.
Background Treatment engagement is often measured in terms of treatment retention and drop out, resource utilization, and missed appointments. Since persons may regularly attend treatment sessions but not pay close attention, actively participate, or comply with the program, attendance may not reflect the level of effort put into treatment. Teens in correctional settings may feel coerced to attend treatment, making it necessary to develop measures of treatment involvement beyond attendance. This study describes the development and validation of the Adolescent Substance Treatment Engagement Questionnaire (ASTEQ), Teen and Counselor versions. Methods The psychometric properties of the ASTEQ were examined in a sample of incarcerated teens (N = 205) and their counselors. Principal component analysis was conducted on teen and counselor versions of the questionnaire. Results Scales of positive and negative treatment engagement were found, reflecting both overt behaviors (joking around, talking to others) and attitudes (interest in change). Significant correlations with constructs related to treatment attitudes and behaviors, and misbehaviors (including substance use) demonstrate good concurrent and predictive validity. Teen and counselor ratings of engagement produced validity correlations in the medium effect size range. Conclusions These measures comprise a valid and reliable method for measuring treatment engagement for incarcerated teens. PMID:26021405
Giles, Christopher M.H.
Typically, research on “chronic offenders” employs a cohort design with general population or higher risk samples. These designs tend to include a small number of high frequency offenders. This dissertation examines the conviction histories of 152 pre-identified high frequency offenders who are supervised by the Chronic Offenders Program (COP) at the Vancouver Police Department in Vancouver, British Columbia. The lifetime conviction histories and other background variables of the 152 offen...
Bischof, Gary Paul
Literature on families of adolescent sexual offenders is sparse. Adolescents' perception of family structure, family adaptability and cohesion, parent-child communication, and family communication about sexuality are considered in an effort to identify family characteristics that distinguish families of adolescent sex offenders (n=39) from violent juvenile delinquents (n=25), non-violent juvenile delinquents (n=41), and from non-problem families (normative data). Families of sex offende...
Lancaster, Chloe; Balkin, Richard S.; Garcia, Roberto; Valarezo, Alexandra
The authors obtained recidivism data on a predominantly Latino/a sample of juvenile offenders within a 24-month period following their participation in a community-based psychoeducational counseling program emphasizing life skills development. The treatment group was compared with a sample of youth derived from the same database who had…
Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis
Using large-sample, archival data from the state of South Carolina's juvenile justice agency, we examine the question of race differences in predictors of repeat offending for a sample of approximately 100,000 youth who had been referred for criminal offenses. Independent variables relating to background, adverse parenting, mental health,…
Lee, Zina; Salekin, Randall T.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.
The current study employed model-based cluster analysis in a sample of male adolescent offenders (n = 94) to examine subtypes based on psychopathic traits and anxiety. Using the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth et al. 2003) and the self-report Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Caputo et al. 1999), analyses identified…
Roush, David W.
Derived from experience with cognitively and emotionally impaired juvenile offenders, several techniques are presented to increase the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Therapy with youth. The techniques provide young people with useful tools for building an effective personal problem solving approach to life. (JAC)
Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S; Hart, Stephen D
Remorse has long been important to the juvenile justice system. However, the nature of this construct has not yet been clearly articulated, and little research has examined its relationships with other theoretically and forensically relevant variables. The present study was intended to address these issues by examining relationships among remorse, psychopathology, and psychopathy in a sample of adolescent offenders (N = 97) using the theoretically and empirically established framework of guilt and shame (Tangney & Dearing, 2002). Findings indicated that shame was positively related to behavioral features of psychopathy, whereas guilt was negatively related to psychopathic characteristics more broadly. In addition, shame was positively associated with numerous mental health problems whereas guilt was negatively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety. These results provide empirical support for theory that psychopathy is characterized by lack of remorse (e.g., Hare, 1991), and also underscore shame and guilt as potentially important treatment targets for adolescent offenders. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kirkwood, Steve; Richley, Tim
This paper examines the links between homelessness and offending and provides a description of supported accommodation services provided by Sacro for offenders in Scotland and a summary of some of the main ﬁndings from research on the impact of supported accommodation for offenders. Finally, the paper identiﬁes a set of ‘critical issues’ for the consideration of practitioners that arise from the research and which may hinder the ability of the ex-offender to ‘move on’. These critical issues a...
Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M
Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.
Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.
Mutter, Robin; Shemmings, David; Dugmore, Paul; Hyare, Mina
This paper discusses part of an evaluation of the 'Family Group Conference (FGC) Project for Young People Who Offend' within a large social services department ('Exshire'). The evaluation covers all 30 family group conferences during a 15-month period from September 2000 to December 2001. This article presents the findings relating to young people along with changes in their psychosocial profile using a modified version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman 1997). The views of all participants were positive, with the majority saying they would recommend FGCs to others. FGC was felt by most participants to have brought about changes in the way young people view the world, partly by helping them to accept the reality of offending in a way that had not previously been possible. It provided victims with a unique opportunity to become involved in the youth justice system, recognising them as key stakeholders as a result of a crime. This process left most victims with a sense of satisfaction and resolution. Average SDQ scores were lower following FGC for the 12 young people who responded to follow-up interviews. Although there are a number of restorative justice projects using FGC in youth justice, we believe this project is among the first in the UK to establish the use of the New Zealand model with its emphasis on 'private family time' as an ongoing established service. Although the data were collected before 2002, the project contains unique features which we believe should be brought to the attention of the wider academic and practice community given that FGC is still a fairly new, unexplored and under-evaluated phenomenon in youth justice. There is currently a need for more research looking at the use of FGC in relation to young offenders.
Mooney, Louise; Strelan, Peter; McKee, Ian
Although relationship restoration is an important outcome of forgiveness, little is known about how forgiveness facilitates such an outcome. In addition, in forgiveness research, little attention is paid to the perspective of the offender. We address these two shortcomings simultaneously, testing the idea that forgiveness promotes offender gratitude, which in turn encourages offender pro-relational intentions. Across three experimental studies, participants were induced to believe they had transgressed; recalled a time when they had transgressed; and imagined transgressing. In studies 1 and 2, forgiveness was manipulated; in Study 3, victim motivation for forgiving was manipulated. State gratitude--in comparison with guilt, indebtedness, and positive affect--was consistently found to play the primary mediating role between forgiveness and pro-relational intentions. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Voisin, Dexter R; Kim, Dong Ha; Bassett, Sarah M; Marotta, Phillip L
African American adolescents in poorer neighborhoods experience significant sanctions related to drug use and delinquency. Parental stress (i.e. substance use, mental distress, and incarceration) is associated with youth drug use and delinquency. We examined whether high self-esteem and positive future orientation mediated parental stress and youth substance use and delinquency. Demographic, family stress, future orientation, self-esteem, and drug use data were collected from 578 youths. Major findings indicated that self-esteem mediated the relationship between family stress and both drug use and delinquency. Future mediated the relationship between family stress and delinquency. Resiliency factors may promote positive development for low-income youth.
Michele Morris; Charles Sullivan
This study provides evidence to help inform sentencing policy by assessing the differential impact of two types of sentences (community work and fines) on adult offenders subsequent employment, benefit receipt and re-offending. This is the first study in New Zealand to examine post-sentencing employment outcomes and benefit receipt of such offenders. We focus on offences where we observe variation in sentencing after controlling for observable differences and examine outcomes for up to three ...
Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Pals, Sherri L; Kidder, Daniel P; Henny, Kirk; Emshoff, James G
Among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) experiencing homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness, a history of incarceration may serve as a marker for ongoing risk behavior or health disparities. We examined factors associated with a history of incarceration among HIV-positive clients of housing agencies in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles (N = 581). We used logistic regression to conduct analyses. Of the 581 participants, 68% (n = 438) reported a history of incarceration: 32% (n = 182) had spent more than 1 year incarcerated. After adjustment for covariates, incarceration history was associated with having ever injected drugs, ever engaged in sex exchange, and ever experienced physical abuse. Incarceration history was also associated with having a detectable HIV viral load, better mental health, and being a biological parent. It was not associated with current risk behavior. Service providers may explore possible increased need for medical support among homeless PLWHA with a history of incarceration.
Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R
The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; McGuire, James F
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been increasing efforts to reach out to assist incarcerated veterans. While previous studies have shown strong associations between incarceration and homelessness, few studies have examined distinctive characteristics of incarcerated homeless and non-homeless veterans. National administrative data on 30,348 incarcerated veterans served by the Health Care for Re-entry Veterans (HCRV) program were analyzed. Incarcerated veterans were classified into four groups based on their history of past homelessness: not homeless, transiently homeless, episodically homeless, and chronically homeless. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare groups on sociodemographic characteristics, criminal justice status, clinical status, and their interest in using VHA services. Of the sample, 70 % were classified as not homeless, 8 % as transiently homeless, 11 % as episodically homeless, and 11 % as chronically homeless. Thus, 30 % of the sample had a homeless history, which is five times the 6 % rate of past homelessness among adult men in the general population. Compared to non-homeless incarcerated veterans, all three homeless groups reported significantly more mental health problems, more substance abuse, more times arrested in their lifetime, more likely to be incarcerated for a non-violent offense, and were more interested in receiving VHA services after release from prison. Together, these findings suggest re-entry programs, like HCRV, can address relevant mental health-related service needs, especially among formerly homeless veterans and veterans in need of services are receptive to the offer of assistance.
Vogel, Matt; Porter, Lauren C
Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present study examines the extent to which differences in age structure account for incarceration disparities across racial and ethnic groups. We apply two techniques commonly employed in the field of demography, age-standardization and decomposition, to data provided by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the 2010 decennial census to assess the contribution of age structure to racial and ethnic disparities in incarceration. The non-Hispanic black and Hispanic incarceration rates in 2010 would have been 13-20 % lower if these groups had age structures identical to that of the non-Hispanic white population. Moreover, age structure accounts for 20 % of the Hispanic/white disparity and 8 % of the black/white disparity. The comparison of crude incarceration rates across racial/ethnic groups may not be ideal because these groups boast strikingly different age structures. Since the risk of imprisonment is tied to age, criminologists should consider adjusting for age structure when comparing rates of incarceration across groups.
Chakhssi, Farid; de Ruiter, Corine; Bernstein, David P
Although there is a growing body of research on the role of offense supporting cognitive distortions in child sexual offending, little is known about the origins of these distortions. According to cognitive theory, maladaptive cognitive schemas originating in adverse childhood experiences with caregivers have been hypothesized to underlie these cognitive distortions. This exploratory study investigates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in child sexual offenders compared with sexual offenders against adults and nonsexual offenders. EMSs were measured with the Young Schema Questionnaire, and psychopathy was measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Three groups of forensic inpatients-23 child sexual offenders, 19 sexual offenders against adults, and 24 nonsexual violent offenders-were assessed. Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to examine the hypothesized group differences in EMSs. Results showed that, after controlling for level of psychopathy, EMSs related to Abandonment (M = 2.61 vs. M = 1.73, P < 0.01), Social Isolation (M = 2.50 vs. M = 1.62, P < 0.01), Defectiveness/Shame (M = 2.05 vs. M = 1.42, P < 0.05), Subjugation (M = 2.28 vs. M = 1.57, P < 0.05), and Self-Sacrifice (M = 3.29 vs. M = 2.41, P < 0.05) were more prevalent in child sexual offenders compared with nonsexual violent offenders. Compared with sexual offenders against adults, child sexual offenders showed a trend to have higher scores on EMSs related to Social Isolation (M = 2.50 vs. M = 1.88, P = 0.066). Our findings suggest that EMSs may play a role in offending behavior in child sexual offenders and offer the possibility of informing treatment strategies. © 2013 FPC de Rooyse Wissel. Journal of Sexual Medicine © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis
Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette
We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.
Klipfel, Kristen M.; Garofalo, C.; Kosson, D.S.
Purpose This study examined bivariate, unique, and multivariate associations between psychopathy facets and other Personality Disorders (PDs). Method 76 incarcerated males were assessed with clinical interviews measuring psychopathy and DSM-5 PDs. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was used to
Perrot, M; Bénony, H; Chahraoui, K; Juif, C
A review of the literature reveals a consensus on the high prevalence of personality disorders among sexual offenders. Studies show that there is no unique personality profile for sex offenders. In France, little research has been conducted on this population with standardized assessment tools. The objective of the present study is to identify the distribution of personality disorders among sexual offenders using a new French questionnaire, i.e. the TD12. In view of the literature, we postulate that this tool will identify the diversity of personality disorders observed by various authors, but with a higher proportion of cluster B disorders. This study was conducted among 56 men, including 28 sex offenders aged from 21 to 70 years old, and a control group of 28 men without psychiatric disorders. The sex offenders in this study are men convicted or charged with sex offenses of various kinds: exhibitionism, the recording, distribution and possession of pornography depicting minors, aggravated corruption of a minor, sexual assault of a minor, or rape of a minor. They were examined using an inventory of dysfunctional trends recently developed by Rolland and Pichot with the aim of assessing dysfunctional personality styles. The TD-12 questionnaire is composed of 140 items describing thoughts, feelings and behaviors. It is based on the diagnostic criteria of Axis II of DSM IV-TR and consists of twelve scales that match the personality disorders described in this diagnostic manual (ten officially recognized disorders and two additional disorders). From a categorical viewpoint, results indicate rigid dysfunctional trends with regard to avoidant personality disorder in sex offenders compared to the control group (Chi(2)=9.16; P=0.005). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the number of rigid dysfunctional trends. Potentially controllable dysfunctional personality trends are identified for the dependent personality (Chi(2
Zeola, Michael P; Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W
While psychiatric disorders are common among juvenile delinquents, many mental health problems go undetected, increasing the likelihood for persistent difficulties. This is the first known study to examine mental health referral rates and recidivism in the juvenile justice system. In addition to the study, we review juvenile justice mental health screening to improve detection and treatment. Juvenile criminal records in conjunction with behavioral health screenings were analyzed to determine differences in referrals and recidivism among first time offenders. Recidivism rates were significantly lower (p = 0.04) and time to recidivism was significantly longer (p = 0.03) for those referred specifically for mental health services than for those without any referrals, even after adjusting for offense severity. While black youths had a significantly higher recidivism rate (p = 0.02) and a shorter time to recidivism (p = 0.009) than white youths, there was no significant difference between races when referred specifically for mental health services. Among the groups studied, black youths had the most profound positive effect from mental health referrals (p < 0.0001). This study indicates the importance of detecting mental health problems among juvenile delinquents, especially for black offenders. The apparent protective effect of mental health interventions necessitates screening that better identifies underlying psychosocial factors rather than strict reliance upon diagnostic criteria and self-report. Broader or even universal mental health referrals for juvenile offenders could reduce future legal system involvement and costs to society. We review potential reasons that mental health problems go undetected and provide recommendations.
S J Baruah
Full Text Available Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V. We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.
Karam, Eli A; Sterrett, Emma M; Kiaer, Lynn
The current study employed a quasi-experimental design using both intent-to-treat and protocol adherence analysis of 155 moderate- to high-risk juvenile offenders to evaluate the effectiveness of Parenting with Love and Limits® (PLL), an integrative group and family therapy approach. Youth completing PLL had significantly lower rates of recidivism than the comparison group. Parents also reported statistically significant improvements in youth behavior. Lengths of service were also significantly shorter for the treatment sample than the matched comparison group by an average of 4 months. This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that intensive community-based combined family and group treatment is effective in curbing recidivism among high-risk juveniles. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda
In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to
Kate Taylor Harcourt
Full Text Available The current study examined program outcomes for an understudied population of Relationship Education (RE participants: incarcerated men and women. In addition to relationship functioning, we examined a number of individual and parenting outcomes which had not previously been explored. In a sample of 453 adult inmates, we found improvements in (a trust, (b confidence in the relationship, (c intimacy, (d individual empowerment, (e conflict management, (f help-seeking attitudes, (g self-esteem, (h depression, (i global life stress, (j faulty relationship beliefs, and (k parenting efficacy. Tests of moderation by gender and race indicated minimal differences in change patterns between groups; however, we found a significant time by gender interaction on intimacy and a time by race interaction on parenting efficacy. Implications for research and practice are presented
In correctional facilities intervention programs are used to reduce behavioral problems and recidivism. Intervention programs can be effective when they contain effective ingredients and are implemented with high levels of program integrity. Program integrity is the degree to which programs are
Transition to adulthood is increasingly complex, extended, and challenging. Working-class Brown and Black young men face very difficult transitions, as they are overrepresented in the justice system, poverty, foster care, special education, and among victims of violence. What effects do these developments have on young people's places in free…
Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.
This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…
Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick
This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…
Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.
In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…
Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.
This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…
Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P
This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Method: All the 66 homicide offenders in a Nigerian prison and 66 matched control prisoners, charged for nonviolent offences were studied. Information on socio-demographic variables and drug use was obtained from all the respondents by interview. Results: Before imprisonment, the homicide offenders reported the use ...
Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sanders, T.
There has been a significant increase in the focus on sex offending in recent years. This has occurred in both the academic and the public spheres. In attempting to understand sexual offending, this collection recognizes two different discourses that currently operate in relation to sex crime. At
Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris
The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…
Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.
Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…
Schaefer, Nicole J.; Stefancic, Ana
Mentally ill offenders represent a substantial proportion of jail and prison inmates. Despite the fact that confining mentally ill offenders can and often will exacerbate their mental illness, the quality of mental health services available to them remains poor and insufficient. Up to date, only a few cities and counties have considered a more…
Hossack, Alex; Robinson, Julie
This paper will briefly review the utilization of the paraprofessional in a community-based sex offender treatment programme in Merseyside, UK. The paraprofessionals are treated paedophiles in the role of treatment co-facilitators. Further thoughts on the role dynamic, training issues and supervision are discussed. This is an example of…
Lawing, Kathryn; Frick, Paul J.; Cruise, Keith R.
In the present study, the authors investigated whether callous and unemotional (CU) traits designated a distinct and important group of adolescent sex offender. A sample of 150 detained adolescents (mean age = 15.89, SD = 1.53) with a current sexual offense disposition was assessed with a self-report measure of CU traits and through extensive…
Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard
The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.