WorldWideScience

Sample records for incarcerated young offenders

  1. Traumatic brain injury, mental health, substance use, and offending among incarcerated young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth; Indig, Devon; Haysom, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Despite being at high risk, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among incarcerated young people. This study aims to describe the prevalence of TBI among incarcerated young people and assess the association with mental health, substance use, and offending behaviors. The 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey was conducted in 9 juvenile detention centers. A total of 361 young people agreed to participate, representing 80% of all incarcerated young people. Young people were asked if they ever had a head injury where they became unconscious or "blacked-out." The survey used the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders for Children to assess for psychiatric disorders, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Severity of Dependence Scale to measure problematic substance use. The sample comprised 88% man, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years. One-third (32%) of young people reported ever experiencing a TBI, and 13% reported multiple TBIs. The majority (92%) of "most serious" TBIs were defined as mild, and the most common cause was an assault (62% woman, 34% man). Young people who reported a history of TBI (compared with those reporting no TBI) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health disorder, psychological distress, a history of bullying, problematic substance use, participation in fights, and offending behaviors. Reporting multiple (>2) TBIs conferred a higher risk of psychological disorders and problematic substance use. Incarcerated young people have high rates of TBI. Enhanced detection of TBI among incarcerated young people will assist clinicians in addressing the associated psychosocial sequelae.

  2. An Evaluation of Past Special Education Programs and Services Provided to Incarcerated Young Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Trussell, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the past special education programs and services provided to children and youth who later became incarcerated. Participants in this study were inmates from a medium security state correctional facility in the southwest region of the United States. All inmates involved in this study were identified as having a disability and…

  3. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  4. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  5. Brief Prescriptive Psychotherapy for Depression with an Incarcerated Young Offender: An Application of Barkham's 2+1 Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Developed and evaluated psychological intervention for depression in Young Offenders. Recognizing pressure on clinical teams to be both cost and time effective, it was decided to pilot Barkham's 2+1 format in prison setting. Results suggest that depression in prisons can be treated with cognitive-behavioral techniques and that 2+1 format may be…

  6. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  7. Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Recidivism in Young Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime, it became highly suggestive that substance abuse is the main cause of incarceration for the entire cohort.

  8. Suicide attempts among incarcerated homicide offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Katie; Boduszek, Daniel; Hyland, Philip; Shagufta, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the role of age, drug abuse, period of confinement, loneliness, difficulty in controlling emotions, having no friends in prison, victimization in prison, guilt over crimes, insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, depression, and mood change in predicating suicide attempts in a sample of homicidal young prisoners. Poisson regression model indicated that five variables contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide attempts. Specifically, participants reporting drug ab...

  9. Do Incarcerated Offenders Experience the Five Stages of Grief as Do Terminally Ill Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, Carolyn Brastow

    1985-01-01

    Examines Kubler-Ross' five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) as they are experienced not by terminally ill persons, but by 20 criminal offenders and their families during incarceration. Concludes that shock of arrest and incarceration stimulates reactions similar to those of persons coping with terminal diagnosis.…

  10. Effectiveness of a prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation measure for high-frequency offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, N.; van der Laan, A. M.; van der Heijden, P. G M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the incapacitation effect and the impact on post-release recidivism of a measure combining prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation, the ISD measure for high frequency offenders (HFOs) was compared to the standard practice of short-term imprisonment. Methods: We applied a

  11. Single and multiple clinical syndromes in incarcerated offenders : Associations with dissociative experiences and emotionality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, P.; Crocamo, Cristina; Carrá, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of clinical syndromes in a large group (N = 438) of incarcerated violent offenders, looking at differences between inmates with one and those with more than one clinical syndromes. More than a half of the sample (57%) reported clinically

  12. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first

  13. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  14. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Two-Week Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Future Aggression and Incarceration in Clinically Aggressive Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R

    2017-12-01

    There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American

  16. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...

  17. Adolescent Fathers Who Are Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders: Explanatory Study of the Co-Occurrence of Two Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…

  18. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  19. A Rorschach investigation of incarcerated female offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B

    2005-10-01

    Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.

  20. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2014-12-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females ( N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.

  1. Antisocial personality disorder in incarcerated offenders: Psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Gunter, Tracy; Loveless, Peggy; Allen, Jeff; Sieleni, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    We determined the frequency of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in offenders. We examined demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life in those with and without ASPD. We also looked at the subset with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A random sample of 320 newly incarcerated offenders was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). ASPD was present in 113 subjects (35.3%). There was no gender-based prevalence difference. Offenders with ASPD were younger, had a higher suicide risk, and had higher rates of mood, anxiety, substance use, psychotic, somatoform disorders, borderline personality disorder, and ADHD. Quality of life was worse, and their LSI-R scores were higher, indicating a greater risk for recidivism. A subanalysis showed that offenders with ASPD who also had ADHD had a higher suicide risk, higher rates of comorbid disorders, and worse mental health functioning. ASPD is relatively common among both male and female inmates and is associated with comorbid disorders, high suicide risk, and impaired quality of life. Those with comorbid ADHD were more impaired than those without ADHD. ASPD occurs frequently in prison populations and is nearly as common in women as in men. These study findings should contribute to discussions of appropriate and innovative treatment of ASPD in correctional settings.

  2. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  3. Recruiting, Retaining and Engaging Men in Social Interventions: Lessons for Implementation Focusing on a Prison-Based Parenting Intervention for Young Incarcerated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Recruiting, retaining and engaging men in social interventions can be challenging. The focus of this paper is the successful implementation of a parenting programme for incarcerated fathers, delivered in a Young Offender Institution (YOI) in Scotland. Reasons for high levels of recruitment, retention and engagement are explored, with barriers…

  4. Serious, Violent Young Offenders in South Africa : Are They Life-Course Persistent Offenders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; Ward, C.L.; Visser, I.; Burton, P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group.

  5. HIV testing among non-incarcerated substance-abusing juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Conrad, Selby; Louis, Alaina; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Brown, Larry K

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile offenders are a subgroup of adolescents at particular risk for HIV/STI infection. Although HIV prevalence among these youth is low (justice system, which is known to have an extremely high rate of HIV infection. US constitutional mandates provide HIV/STI testing for incarcerated juveniles, but close to 80% of juvenile arrestees are never detained. Moreover, although they engage in similar HIV risk behaviors as those detained, they have limited access to available HIV/STI testing services. Thus, our study examined rates of lifetime HIV testing among a pilot sample of 60 court-involved, substance-using juveniles monitored in the community to explore rates of testing and the reasons related to lifetime testing among a high-risk, yet understudied US juvenile population.

  6. The diversion of young offenders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people who are exposed to such incidents of violence .... keeping in mind the 'best interest of the child'.26 .... behaviour with positive behaviour, understanding the impact of ..... Counselors, Teachers, Psychologists and Human Service.

  7. Engaging Scottish Young Offenders in Education through Music and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstin; Overy, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined music and art classes as a way to engage young offenders in education, and to see if such engagement had an effect on their further participation in education, self-esteem, self-control, behaviour and literacy skills. The arts are often discussed as being an inviting and safe method of entry for young offenders who may have had…

  8. Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R

    2017-02-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

  9. Incarcerated Violent Offenders' Ability to Avoid Revealing Their Potential for Violence on the Rorschach and the MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Fodstad, Lars; Kuisma, Irene; Lunde, Ketil Berge; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Hartmann and Hartmann (2014) found that psychiatric outpatients, both with and without access to Internet-based information about the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Weiner, 2003 ) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989 ), were unable to imitate healthy test performance on these tests. We replicated the study by administering the RIM and the MMPI-2 to 63 incarcerated violent offenders using similar testing conditions. As in the previous study, comparisons were made not only among the 3 subgroups of incarcerated offenders, but also between these offender groups and the group of nonpatients examined in the previous study. On the RIM, Internet-coached and uncoached "faking good" offenders produced records with significantly higher F% and X-% and significantly lower M, m, SumC, X+%, P, AG, and COP than nonoffenders under standard instructions (effect sizes between d = 0.24 and d = 2.39). For AgC, AgPot, AgPast, and TCI% there were no significant differences between the faking offenders and the nonoffenders under standard instructions. On the MMPI-2 clinical scales, there were no significant differences between the faking good groups and the nonoffenders under standard instructions, except on Hs, Pd, and Sc. Both faking groups were identifiable by their high L scale scores. Although both faking groups managed to avoid giving responses with aggressive and generally psychopathological content on the RIM, they were unable to produce test profiles demonstrating healthy test performance on any of the tests; nevertheless, Internet-based test information might weaken test validity.

  10. Young Offenders' Perspectives on Their Literacy and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of…

  11. [Psychological processes of stress management and neuroendocrine regulation in incarcerated adolescent offenders: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S

    2018-04-01

    to be associated with substance use. Adolescent offenders face an important amount of daily stress and do not always have the appropriate skills to deal with it. Indeed, we know from clinical experience that they often report a sense of hopelessness toward their lack of professional perspectives as well as familial conflicts which can be important stressors in addition to the incarceration in itself. Therefore, treatment aiming to improve psychic elaboration can help these adolescents to make their thinking styles more flexible and use more appropriate ways of coping with stress instead of externalizing behaviors and substance use. Moreover, considering the complex cases of these adolescents and the many changes of caregivers and institutions where they have lived, which can be important stressors as well, professionals working with these youth should be aware of their emotional reactions toward them and try to encourage continuity of care. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlates of Incarceration Among Young Methamphetamine Users in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Nicholas; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlates of incarceration among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2005 to 2006. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1189 young methamphetamine users. Participants were surveyed about their recent drug use, sexual behaviors, and incarceration. Biological samples were obtained to test for sexually transmitted and viral infections. Results. Twenty-two percent of participants reported ever having been incarcerated. In multivariate analysis, risk behaviors including frequent public drunkenness, starting to use illicit drugs at an early age, involvement in the drug economy, tattooing, injecting drugs, and unprotected sex were correlated with a history of incarceration. HIV, HCV, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection were also correlated with incarceration. Conclusions. Incarcerated methamphetamine users are engaging in behaviors and being exposed to environments that put them at increased risk of infection and harmful practices. Alternatives to incarceration need to be explored for youths. PMID:18923109

  13. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with

  14. Academic and Vocational Education for Incarcerated Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…

  15. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  16. Correlates of emotional congruence with children in sexual offenders against children: a test of theoretical models in an incarcerated sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ian V; Hermann, Chantal A; Fernandez, Yolanda M

    2014-02-01

    Emotional congruence with children is a psychological construct theoretically involved in the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending against children. Research conducted to date has not examined the relationship between emotional congruence with children and other psychological meaningful risk factors for sexual offending against children. The current study derived potential correlates of emotional congruence with children from the published literature and proposed three models of emotional congruence with children that contain relatively unique sets of correlates: the blockage, sexual deviance, and psychological immaturity models. Using Area under the Curve analysis, we assessed the relationship between emotional congruence with children and offense characteristics, victim demographics, and psychologically meaningful risk factors in a sample of incarcerated sexual offenders against children (n=221). The sexual deviance model received the most support: emotional congruence with children was significantly associated with deviant sexual interests, sexual self-regulation problems, and cognition that condones and supports child molestation. The blockage model received partial support, and the immaturity model received the least support. Based on the results, we propose a set of further predictions regarding the relationships between emotional congruence with children and other psychologically meaningful risk factors to be examined in future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  18. ADHD modulates the course of delinquency: a 15-year follow-up study of young incarcerated man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp-Wiegmann, Florence; Rösler, Michael; Clasen, Oriana; Zinnow, Toivo; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Retz, Wolfgang

    2018-06-01

    There is growing evidence of an association between ADHD and rule-breaking behaviour and that subjects with ADHD are more likely to be involved in the legal system. However, the research on ADHD as a risk factor not only for delinquency but also for recidivism is scarce and findings are controversial. Therefore, we explored the impact of ADHD on the course of delinquency in a sample of incarcerated young men. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study by investigating the criminal records of 106 former youth prisoners. Criminal recidivism was operationalized through three variables: criminal recidivism; frequency of recidivism; and time to recidivism. The incremental predictive validity of ADHD was analysed using survival analysis and controlled for confounders associated with recidivism. Offenders with ADHD (n = 74) reoffended 2.5 times faster and showed a higher rate of recidivism and further incarcerations compared to non-ADHD offenders (n = 33), even when controlling for general risk factors such as antisocial personality disorder. Median survival rate ranged between 6 and 7 months in the ADHD groups and 25 months in the non-ADHD group. Our results revealed that ADHD has an incremental predictive power on criminal recidivism, even above general risk factors. Moreover, the criminogenic influence of ADHD appeared to be crucial in terms of the interplay of childhood ADHD, irrespectively of the persistence of the symptomatology into later life. Our findings therefore highlight the importance of early intervention and consequently prevention.

  19. Psychopathic traits in young offenders vs. non-offenders in similar socioeconomic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo B. Castellana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Method: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses. Results: We observed statistically significant between-group differences (p < 0.01 in mean PCL-R scores, with a mean score of 13.4 in the offender group vs. 2.1 in the non-offender group. We also detected significant between-group differences when we analyzed mean factor 1 (p < 0.01 and factor 2 (p < 0.01 scores separately. Although the groups exhibited statistically significant difference in educational attainment, between-group comparison of mean PCL-R scores controlling for educational attainment by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA showed that the difference in PCL-R scores remained statistically significant (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We conclude that, in this sample, the presence of both primary (interpersonal/affective characteristics and secondary (lifestyle/antisocial behavior psychopathic traits differed between offender and non-offender youths, even when excluding psychopathy and other mental disorders from the assessments. These results suggest a need for wide-ranging interventions, not restricted to socioeconomic aspects, for the management of juvenile delinquency.

  20. Before the Doors Are Locked: Effective Alternatives to Incarceration for Non-Violent Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voices for Illinois Children, Chicago.

    Juvenile crime threatens the immediate safety and well-being of its victims. The cost of processing and punishing the offender takes money from more productive purposes. If the juvenile offender either continues a life of crime or otherwise drops out of the lawful economy, the cost to the community is a long-term burden. In the early 1970s, many…

  1. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Hubble

    Full Text Available Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour.Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed.Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed.The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  2. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L; Moore, Simon C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  3. Young Offending: Towards a Radical/Critical Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Young offending is perceived as a serious social problem and always remains near the top of the political agenda. Over the post-war years, policy and practice moved from welfare/treatment towards punishment as the key for addressing the problem, culminating in New Labour's Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Thereafter there was increasing concern about…

  4. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Van Der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether

  5. The effectiveness of aftercare for juvenile and young adult offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether

  6. Educating Youthful Offenders in a Youth Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Educating incarcerated youthful offenders is described from the perspective of a teacher who incorporates W. Glasser's (1998) counseling philosophy into her relationships with students. She reveals the results of her caring, encouraging, and goal-directed behavior with sex offenders and other young inmates.

  7. Prosocial reasoning and emotions in young offenders and non-offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Llorca-Mestre, Anna; Malonda-Vidal, Elisabeth; Samper-García, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the cognitive processes (prosocial moral reasoning, perspective taking) and emotional processes (empathic concern, emotional instability, state-trait anger) which interact in predicting aggressive behaviour and prosocial behaviour of adolescents who have committed a crime and those who have not, for the purpose of establishing the predictor variables in both groups. Participants were 440 adolescents, 220 of them young offenders residing in four yo...

  8. Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Natalie; Ozolins, Andrejs; Westling, Sofie; Westrin, Åsa; Billstedt, Eva; Hofvander, Björn; Wallinius, Märta

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18-25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders.

  9. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina eRadke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with psychopathy, offenders without psychopathy and healthy individuals (N = 18/14/18, respectively. Unfair offers in a modified Ultimatum Game were paired with different unselected alternatives, thereby establishing the context of a proposal, and made under opposing intentionality constraints (intentional vs. unintentional. As in previous studies, unfair offers were most often rejected when the alternative was fair and when the offer was made intentionally. Importantly, however, offenders with psychopathy demonstrated a similar rejection pattern to that of healthy individuals, i.e. taking the unselected alternative into account. In contrast, delinquents without psychopathy did not adjust their decision behavior to the alternatives to an offer, suggesting stronger impairments in social decision-making. Crucially, the mechanisms and processes underlying rejection decisions might differ, particularly with regard to cognitive versus emotional competencies. While preserved cognitive perspective-taking could drive seemingly intact decision patterns in psychopathy, emotional empathy is likely to be compromised.

  10. Parent--child relations and offending during young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-07-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents (mean age of 15 years), and later as young adults (mean age of 20 years), is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N = 1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults' criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being.

  11. The incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Al Malki, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait. A total of 91 children/young adults from 8 juvenile delinquent welfare centres across Kuwait were interviewed and tested. A measure of non-verbal reasoning ability was used to exclude those with low general ability. The remaining 53 participants were tested on their ability to identify alliteration and rhyme, retain and manipulate sequences of digit and letter names, decode novel letter strings and identify words within letter chains. Participants' reading accuracy, rate of reading, reading comprehension and ability to spell correctly dictated text were also assessed. These measures were used to determine those with indicators of dyslexia. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals presenting evidence of dyslexia was much larger (greater than 20%) in this population of young offenders than would be expected based on the national average (around 6%) of dyslexics in Kuwait derived from a nationwide study (A survey study of dyslexia in Kuwait, Kuwait Dyslexia Association: Kuwait City; 2002). These findings replicate previous evidence for an increased frequency of dyslexia among young offenders. The implications of such findings are discussed in terms of dyslexia awareness, socio-cultural factors, education and intervention, particularly in Kuwait juvenile delinquent welfare centres.

  12. Psychopathic traits modulate brain responses to drug cues in incarcerated offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora M Cope

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroscientific evidence indicates that psychopathy is associated with abnormal function and structure in limbic and paralimbic areas. Psychopathy and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, but clinical experience suggests that psychopaths abuse drugs for different reasons than non-psychopaths, and that psychopaths do not typically experience withdrawal and craving upon becoming incarcerated. These neurobiological abnormalities may be related to psychopaths’ different motivations for – and symptoms of – drug use. This study examined the modulatory effect of psychopathic traits on the neurobiological craving response to pictorial drug stimuli. Drug-related pictures and neutral pictures were presented and rated by participants while hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging. These data were collected at two correctional facilities in New Mexico using the Mind Research Network mobile magnetic resonance imaging system. The sample comprised 137 incarcerated adult males and females (93 females with histories of substance dependence. The outcome of interest was the relation between psychopathy scores (using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and hemodynamic activity associated with viewing drug-related pictures versus neutral pictures. There was a negative association between psychopathy scores and hemodynamic activity for viewing drug-related cues in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, hippocampus, amygdala, caudate, globus pallidus, and parts of the prefrontal cortex. Psychopathic traits modulate the neurobiological craving response and suggest that individual differences are important for understanding and treating substance abuse.

  13. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Public health system and psychiatry in the treatment of 'dangerous' young offenders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Cordeiro, Quirino; Taborda, José G V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Experimental Health Unit, a special forensic mental health facility in Brazil, created by court order and administered by the São Paulo Department of Health. It was designed for young offenders receiving compulsory inpatient treatment for severe personality disorders. All nine patients admitted to date came from Foundation CASA (a socio-educational centre of assistance for adolescents, the juvenile correctional centres managed by the São Paulo state Department of Justice). The court decision is questionable, relying on a new interpretation of the Child and Adolescent Statute and the law that regulates psychiatric treatment in Brazil. The public health system and psychiatry have been supporting the isolation of some individuals from society, based on the seriousness of their crimes and possession of particular personality characteristics. The decision to commit and send a small group of personality disordered individuals to this unit as inpatients is an unfair decision, since jails and correctional centres hold a high number of psychopathic who have also committed barbaric crimes. The central mental health issue is the role that the public health system should play in the custody of dangerous people; the cost-effectiveness of this model, the accuracy of risk assessment and tractability of people with severe personality disorders are also debatable. From a legal perspective, the operation of this facility raises questions about age of legal majority, the maximum period of incarceration of young offenders and use of whole-life sentences for certain types of crimes and criminals in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance, and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct expressions of narcissistic defensiveness. The present study examined whether both dimensions exhibit a general defensive style marked by selective attention to evaluative stimuli or are differentially associated with selective attention to positive and negative information, respectively. Using a dot probe task consisting of valenced and neutral trait adjectives, we evaluated these hypotheses in a group of male offenders. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissism was associated with attention biases for both positive and negative stimuli, though the dimension was further distinguished by disengagement difficulties and a greater recognition memory bias in response to negative words. Conversely, grandiose narcissism was associated with increased accuracy when attending to positive stimuli and directing attention away from negative stimuli. Overall, these findings suggest narcissistic individuals share motivated selective attention in response to evaluative stimuli, while simultaneously highlighting important phenotypic differences between grandiose and vulnerable dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Aggressive antisocial behaviors are related to character maturity in young Swedish violent offenders independent of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated 1 whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and 2 whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Swedish males (N=270, aged 18-25 sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their incarceration. Data on character maturity as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory were available for n=148 subjects, and used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, Conduct disorder (CD and substance use disorders (SUD, aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits.Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed; i a later age at onset of criminality, ii a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, iii lower prevalences of ADHD, CD, and SUD, iv less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and v less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount

  17. Young offenders' perspectives on their literacy and communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of the possible association between language, literacy and offending behaviour. This study investigates the perceptions and experiences YOs have of using literacy and communicating with others. It addresses the following questions. How satisfied are YOs with their own literacy and communication skills and how important do YOs perceive these to be? How much do YOs believe they understand others in their communicative interactions? How satisfied are YOs with their communicative interactions with others and how does this influence conflict at home, school, and in the youth justice system? An opportunity sample of 31 YOs on court orders were recruited from a local youth offending service, excluding any who did not have English as a first language or were in receipt of current speech and language therapy provision. Twenty-six qualitative individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group interviews were carried out and analysed using a framework analysis method. Themes revealed participants were dissatisfied with their communication and literacy ability. Other themes identified were difficulty in understanding others, a perceived lack of support and respect gained from others, and a negative impact of communication on self-esteem. The findings suggest that YOs often found themselves in disputes with authority figures, but that they avoided using positive communication to solve such conflicts and also avoided confiding in others. The findings support the results found from quantitative research on the language abilities of YOs. This emphasizes the value in adopting qualitative methodology to understand the relationship between literacy

  18. ‘Learning to Be More Human’: Perspectives of Respect Within Prison Education in an Irish Young Offenders institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O'Grady

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Respect is fundamental aspect of how human beings relate to each other and, arguably, is a significant factor in the relationship between student and teacher. For incarcerated adults, the relationships they foster with their teachers (and by extension the respect or disrespect cultivated within it often has a considerable impact on their educative development. This research explores how respect, and disrespect, is perceived to be communicated within prison education by 13 prisoners and 13 teachers in an Irish Young Offenders institution. The values at the core of prison educators’ practice and their capacity to promote self-respect within their students emerged as central to this cultivation of respect. The place of socialisation within these educative relationships also emerged as a prominent factor and is discussed in relation to MacMurray’s (2012 assertion that the primary function of education is ‘learning to be human’

  19. Troubled adolescents: substance abuse and mental disorder in young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Siñol, Maria; Del Prado-Sanchez, Noemi; Claramunt-Mendoza, Jaume; Civit-Ramirez, Monica; Canalias-Perez, Oriol; Ochoa, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Many studies indicate the high prevalence of juvenile substance abuse. There is increasingly more dual diagnosis and mental illnesses in adolescents and many juvenile offenses are related to drug abuse. This is a descriptive study about the relationship between drug abuse and clinical, demographic and criminal characteristics in a sample of 144 youths seen in the Therapeutic Juvenile Justice Unit (UTJJ) of the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu. A total of 65.3% of the sample had a disorder on Axis I, 22.2% of which were related with the psychotic spectrum and 18.1% ADHD. Personality disorder occurred in 42.4%, the most frequent ones being antisocial disorder (16%), and borderline personality disorder (6.9%). Of the sample, 78.5% were drug consumers and 51.4% of the total only consumed 1 substance. There is a tendency among psychotic teenagers to consume cannabis and ADHD patients to consume cannabis and cocaine. A significant relationship is found between nationality and inhalants drugs, social and economic level and sedative drugs and alcohol, and parental death and alcohol (p<0.05-0.005). The level of drug use/abuse in juvenile justice is very high. Although there is no evidence about the relationship between the substance they consume and the profile of the young offender, some tendencies are observed.

  20. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Darran

    2012-08-01

    The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR). Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland\\'s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs.

  2. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  3. How Effective Are Severe Disciplinary Policies? School Policies and Offending from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the stage environment and the person environment fit perspectives, the current study examined the relation between school disciplinary policies and offending from adolescence into young adulthood. Using Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (a.k.a., Add Health), hierarchical multinomial logistic…

  4. Young male Offenders, Spiritual Journeys and Criminal Desistance In Denmark and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Deuchar, Ross; Matemba, Yonah,

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on a recent (2014) research in two remand prisons in Copenhagen, Denmark and one young offenders’ institution in Scotland. Based on in-depth life history interviews with 5 offenders in Denmark (age 23-37) and 9 in Scotland (age 16-21), the findings suggest that working with int......-religious and spiritual journeys....

  5. Restorative justice conferencing for reducing recidivism in young offenders (aged 7 to 21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Nuala; Macdonald, Geraldine; Carr, Nicola

    2013-02-28

    Restorative justice is "a process whereby parties with a stake in a specific offence resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and its implications for the future" (Marshall 2003). Despite the increasing use of restorative justice programmes as an alternative to court proceedings, no systematic review has been undertaken of the available evidence on the effectiveness of these programmes with young offenders. Recidivism in young offenders is a particularly worrying problem, as recent surveys have indicated the frequency of re-offences for young offenders has ranged from 40.2% in 2000 to 37.8% in 2007 (Ministry of Justice 2009) To evaluate the effects of restorative justice conferencing programmes for reducing recidivism in young offenders. We searched the following databases up to May 2012: CENTRAL, 2012 Issue 5, MEDLINE (1978 to current), Bibliography of Nordic Criminology (1999 to current), Index to Theses (1716 to current), PsycINFO (1887 to current), Social Sciences Citation Index (1970 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), Social Care Online (1985 to current), Restorative Justice Online (1975 to current), Scopus (1823 to current), Science Direct (1823 to current), LILACS (1982 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Restorative Justice Online (4 May 2012), WorldCat (9 May 2012), ClinicalTrials.gov (19 May 2012) and ICTRP (19 May 2012). ASSIA, National Criminal Justice Reference Service and Social Services Abstracts were searched up to May 2011. Relevant bibliographies, conference programmes and journals were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of restorative justice conferencing versus management as usual, in young offenders. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included trials and extracted the data. Where necessary, original investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Four trials including a total of 1447 young offenders were included in the review. Results

  6. Original research: online social networking patterns among adolescents, young adults, and sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, Elizabeth B; Burgess, Ann W; Flores, J Robert

    2011-07-01

    The use of online social networks like Facebook continues to increase rapidly among all age groups and segments of our society, presenting new opportunities for the exchange of sexual information as well as for potentially unsafe encounters between predators and the vulnerable or young. This study surveyed middle school, high school, and college-age students, as well as sexual offenders, regarding their use of social networking sites in order to provide information to better focus education and prevention efforts from nurses and other health care providers. Written questionnaires asking about various characteristics of participants' use of social networking sites were distributed to each group and filled out by 404 middle school students, 2,077 high school students, 1,284 students drawn from five traditional four-year colleges, and 466 adults who had committed either an Internet sexual offense or a hands-on sexual offense (in some cases both). Notable findings emerging from our analysis of the questionnaire responses included the following: offenders and students both frequent social networking sites, although at the time of the study offenders reported that they preferred Myspace and students that they preferred Facebook; nearly two-thirds of the Internet offenders said they'd initiated the topic of sex in their first chat session; more than half of the Internet offenders disguised their identity when online; most Internet offenders we surveyed said they preferred communicating with teenage girls rather than teenage boys; high school students' experience with "sexting" (sharing nude photos of themselves or others on cell phones or online) differed significantly according to their sex; a small number of students are being threatened and assaulted by people they meet online; avatar sites such as Second Life were used both by students and offenders, with both child molesters and Internet offenders expressing interest in Second Life. The use of the Internet presents

  7. Characteristics of young offenders depending on the type of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cuervo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define a profile of juvenile offenders depending on the type of crime (againstproperty or against persons, according to several socio?demographic variables, and a number of indicatorsof juvenile risk. Participants were 395 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 with a criminal record inthe juvenile court over a two-year follow-up period. Results showed that in property-related offences theoffender is more likely to be male, from an Eastern European country, and with inconsistent parenting. Onthe other hand, crimes against persons would be committed mostly by girls, Latin American or Africanjuveniles, and with individual factors such as aggressive behaviour, outbursts of anger, poor frustrationtolerance, or little concern for others. These results may be useful in designing crime prevention andoffender intervention programmes.

  8. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Darran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR. Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland’s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs. Methods Every third new committal to a young offenders prison was interviewed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS to identify the Ultra High Risk (UHR state and a structured interview for assessing drug and alcohol misuse according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Developmental Understanding of Drug Misuse and Dependence - Short Form (DUNDRUM-S. Results Over a twelve month period 171 young male offenders aged 16 to 20 were assessed. Of these 39 (23%, 95% confidence interval 18% to 30% met UHR criteria. UHR states peaked at 18 years, were associated with lower SOFAS scores for social and occupational function and were also associated with multiple substance misuse. The relationship with lower SOFAS scores persisted even when co-varying for multiple substance misuse. Conclusions Although psychotic symptoms are common in community samples of children and adolescents, the prevalence of the UHR state in young offenders was higher than reported for community samples. The association with impaired function also suggests that this may be part of a developing disorder. Much more attention should be paid to the relationship of UHR states to substance misuse and to the health needs of young offenders.

  9. Adolescents who assault their parents:a different family profile of young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Lourdes; Cano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P behavior in young male violent offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluating the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings.

  12. In search of psychosocial variables linked to the recidivism in young offenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on juvenile delinquency is aimed to the identification of the protective and risk factors of the antisocial and criminal behaviors. In this line, a study was carried out to assess whether the family setting, personal variables of the youngster and variables linked to the judicial measure execution mediate in recidivism. For this reason, all the closed judicial files of the young offenders from the Service of Juvenile Justice in Jaén (Spain have been analysed. The results showed that such family setting variables as broken homes, large families, low incomes, deprived neighborhoods, criminal records, drug abuse, children protection records and crime legitimacy are linked to recidivism. As for personal variables of the youngster, the findings illustrate that re-offenders are characterized by external attribution, deficits in social skills, deficits in self-control, violent behaviors and low tolerance to frustration. In relation to the judicial measure execution variables, data support that the non re-offenders are defined in contrast to re-offenders, by a high compliance with rules and timetables and with the established objectives, as well as a high family involvement during the judicial measure execution. The implications of the results for prevention of recidivism are discussed.

  13. Female and Male Juvenile Offenders with Disabilities: Differences in the Barriers to Their Transition to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…

  14. Testimony on Drug Treatment Alternatives to Incarceration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iguchi, Martin

    2000-01-01

    ... treatment within the criminal justice system. Players in that policy game focused, as we are doing today, on the need to provide criminal offenders with drug abuse treatment as an alternative to incarceration...

  15. The Development and Evaluation of a Life Skills Programme for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Jacques; Beukes, Roelf; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research project was to develop, implement, and evaluate a Life Skills programme for young adult male long-term offenders with the aim of improving their life skills that, in turn, could enable them to adjust more effectively in the correctional environment. Experimental research was used to investigate the effectiveness of the programme. In this study, 96 literate young adult male offenders between the ages of 21 and 25 years, with long sentences, were selected randomly. The participants were assigned randomly into an experimental and a control group. The Solomon four-group design was utilized to control for the effect of pretest sensitization. The measurements of the effectiveness of the programme were conducted before the programme commenced, directly (short term) after, 3 months (medium term) after, and 6 months (long term) after. The findings indicated that the programme had limited success in equipping the offenders with the necessary skills crucial to their survival in a correctional centre. The programme did, however, have significant effects, especially on problem solving and anger management in the short and medium term. These improvements were not long lived.

  16. Healing the victim, the young offender, and the community via restorative justice: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, S

    2001-03-01

    The 1990s saw the enactment of much "get tough with young offenders" legislation in the United States. At the same, problems with our present punishment and treatment model, in which many youngsters cycle repeatedly through the justice and mental health systems, raised interest in restorative justice, a community-based alternative model emphasizing a balanced, negotiated approach to the needs of victims, offenders, and the community. After summarizing the philosophical bases underlying both models, this article describes the practice of restorative justice in New Zealand, where it was pioneered. Restorative justice has special relevance for Maori community in New Zealand and minority communities in the United States, where youth are consistently overrepresented in the courts, detention centers, and jails, and in which the juvenile justice system is seen as hostile and biased. Outcome data from New Zealand and early outcome research from the United States suggest that the restorative model, in which offenses are understood as a breakdown in social bonds, offers a hopeful alternative for offending youngsters, their families, and their communities.

  17. Predictors of Sex Offender Treatment Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…

  18. Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

  19. Female Sex Offenders: Is There a Difference Between Solo and Co-Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Gibbs, Benjamin; Burkey, Chris Rush

    2016-10-01

    Studies on female sex offending have been limited for a number of reasons, such as societal perceptions that females are incapable of engaging in such behaviors because of their role as caretakers and nurturers in society. However, over the past few decades, studies examining female sex offenders have increased, revealing that females do commit sexual offenses and differ from their male counterparts. We examined offender, victim, and offense characteristics of female sex offenders who were convicted from 1995 to 2013 ( N = 223) in Arkansas and were sentenced to serve time in prison or placed on probation. We focused on the similarities and differences of solo and co-female sex offenders because we know from previous studies that the pathway of offending can differ between solo and co-female offenders, yet few studies have exclusively compared the similarities and differences among female sex offenders. Our data were collected from offender files that included basic personal offender information, offender survey and social history, criminal history, incident reports while incarcerated, court records, police investigation reports, initial offender and victim statements (prior to offender incarceration), and probation/parole reports. We believe the results of this study will provide further insight into the types of female sex offenders as well as the possible differences between co- and solo-offenders in relation to their victim preferences, risk levels, rehabilitation amenability, and recidivism propensities.

  20. Innocent inmates: The case of children living with incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...

  1. Life satisfaction and perceived stress among young offenders in a residential therapeutic community: Latent change score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kristen N S; Chan, Christian S

    2017-06-01

    Recent rehabilitation frameworks underscore the importance of strength-based interventions for young offenders who may lack internal and external resources to manage their stress and plan for their life. This multi-wave longitudinal study investigated the dynamic relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction among a group of young ex-offenders in a residential therapeutic community. Four waves of data were collected from 117 Hong Kong youths (24.0% female, mean age = 17.7) over one year. Latent change score analysis was employed to examine the univairate and bivariate changes of their perceived stress and life satisfaction. Results suggest a positive growth trajectory in life satisfaction over time. The results of perceived stress were less conclusive. Bivariate models indicated that the previous level of life satisfaction was negatively linked to the subsequent perceived stress level but not vice versa. The findings suggest that improvement in life satisfaction may reduce perceived stress in young ex-offenders. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex Offender Rehabilitation Programs in State Prisons: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Allen D.; Vaughn, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined programs and strategies for rehabilitation used in adult sex offender treatment programs in state-operated adult correctional institutions. Questionnaires were completed by 73 adult sex offender treatment providers. The results revealed that incarcerated adult sex offenders were receiving comprehensive psychotherapy and behavior…

  3. Assessment of moral judgment and empathy in young sex offenders: a comparison of clinical judgment and test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Professional decision making in forensic clinical practice may have lifelong consequences for offenders. Although information on moral development is important for prediction of reoffending and referral to adequate treatment, conclusions regarding moral development are still largely based on unstructured clinical judgment instead of assessment instruments. For this study, the authors examined to what extent unstructured clinical judgment of both moral judgment and victim empathy concurred with test results in a group of young sex offenders. Moral judgment was measured with the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF), whereas victim empathy was measured with an extended version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). No significant associations were found between clinical judgment of moral judgment and the mean scores on the SRM-SF. However, clinical judgment of victim empathy was significantly associated with victim empathy on the Victim Empathy Scale but not consistently in the expected direction. Juvenile sex offenders, who were judged by clinicians to show little victim empathy, displayed lower mean scores on the Victim Empathy Scale than juvenile sex offenders who were evaluated to lack victim empathy or to have intact victim empathy. This study showed unstructured clinical judgment of moral development not to concur with test results. To improve decision-making processes regarding moral development, clinicians are advised to rely on instruments that assess moral development to inform clinical judgment. Further research is needed to examine which predictions are more accurate and to establish the predictive validity of moral development evaluations.

  4. The Affordable Care Act, Insurance Coverage, and Health Care Utilization of Previously Incarcerated Young Men: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Tyler N A; Choi, HwaJung; Davis, Matthew M

    2017-05-01

    To estimate health insurance and health care utilization patterns among previously incarcerated men following implementation of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion and Marketplace plans in 2014. We performed serial cross-sectional analyses using data from the National Survey of Family Growth between 2008 and 2015. Our sample included men aged 18 to 44 years with (n = 3476) and without (n = 8702) a history of incarceration. Uninsurance declined significantly among previously incarcerated men after ACA implementation (-5.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -11.5, -0.4), primarily because of an increase in private insurance (6.8 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.1, 13.3). Previously incarcerated men accounted for a large proportion of the remaining uninsured (38.6%) in 2014 to 2015. Following ACA implementation, previously incarcerated men continued to be significantly less likely to report a regular source of primary care and more likely to report emergency department use than were never-incarcerated peers. Health insurance coverage improved among previously incarcerated men following ACA implementation. However, these men account for a substantial proportion of the remaining uninsured. Previously incarcerated men continue to lack primary care and frequently utilize acute care services.

  5. Socio-cognitive and personal characteristics of young offenders: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Borrás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is characterised by a higher prevalence of risk-taking and the challenging of social norms, which appears to bear a relationship to personal abilities and social-cognitive deficits. With the aim of understanding this relationship, a comparative study was undertaken with two groups of adolescents, one belonging to the standard population and one comprising young people who have been subject to correctional measures. In order to evaluate the variables involved, use was made of the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Psychopathology in Adolescence (Q-PAD. The results obtained show that both groups display significant differences in all the variables considered in the Questionnaire, with the exception of those relating to body dissatisfaction and family conflicts. Succinctly, it emerged that the juvenile offenders had emotional and interpersonal problems and were at risk of psychological disturbance. They demonstrated uncertainty about the future, liability to substance abuse, and issues of self-esteem. These results suggest the need for prevention and intervention programmes which specifically take into account these variables.

  6. Factors Related to Co-Offending and Coerced Offending Among Female Sex Offenders: The Role of Childhood and Adult Trauma Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comartin, Erin B; Burgess-Proctor, Amanda; Kubiak, Sheryl; Kernsmith, Poco

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests two important domains of women's sexual offending: co-offending, in which additional perpetrators are present with the woman during the crime, and coerced offending, in which the woman feels pressured by someone else to commit the crime. This exploratory analysis examines these 2 domains using self-report data from 60 incarcerated female sex offenders (FSOs) in a Midwestern state. In addition to indicating whether a co-offender was present and whether they felt pressure to commit the sex offense for which they were incarcerated, participants provided demographic information about themselves, the victim, and the offense, as well as about their own trauma, substance abuse, and mental illness histories. Results indicate that childhood and adult trauma histories are related to both co-offending and coerced offending among FSOs. Implications for theory, policy and practice, and future research are discussed.

  7. Incarceration and Black-White inequality in Homeownership: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Turney, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Rising incarceration rates in the United States, as well as the concentration of incarceration among already marginalized individuals, has led some scholars to suggest that incarceration increases economic inequality among American men. But little is known about the consequences of incarceration for wealth, about incarceration's contribution to Black-White disparities in wealth, or about the broader effects of incarceration on communities. In this article, we use state-level panel data (from 1985 to 2005) to examine the relationship between incarceration rates and the Black-White gap in homeownership, a distinct and important measure of wealth. Results, which are robust to an array of model specifications and robustness checks, show that incarceration rates diminish homeownership rates among Blacks and, in doing so, widen Black-White inequalities in homeownership. Therefore, the findings suggest that the consequences of incarceration extend beyond the offender and may increase inequality in household wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leisure Worlds: Situations, Motivations and Young People's Encounters with Offending and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Julian; Asbridge, Mark; Wortley, Scot

    2015-01-01

    With information supplied by a large (n = 3393) sample of high school students from Toronto, this paper tests the assumption that three forms of leisure activity--peer, risky, and self-improving leisure--have a relatively independent impact upon patterns of offending and victimization. Although we find significant support for this proposition, we…

  9. Questioning fairness: the relationship of mental health and psychopathic characteristics with young offenders' perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Erika K; Shaffer, Catherine S; Viljoen, Jodi L

    2017-10-01

    Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to perceive it as legitimate and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, when individuals come into contact with the legal system, they are not blank slates - they have beliefs and personality characteristics that may systematically influence such perceptions. Our aim was to establish the extent to which demographic characteristics, legal history and clinical features, including personality characteristics, systematically influenced the degree to which young people experience the justice system as fair and legitimate. Self-report, file and interview data were collected from ninety-two 12 to 17-year-olds on probation in Western Canada. Substance use and traumatic experiences were inversely correlated with perceptions of procedural justice and legal legitimacy. Young people with higher scores on interpersonal, lifestyle and antisocial facets of the psychopathy checklist: youth version believed less strongly in the legitimacy of the law, but regression analyses confirmed that only history of trauma was independently associated with perceived procedural justice and legitimacy. Those in the youngest age group were more likely to have positive perceptions of justice than older youths, but demographics and legal history otherwise did not relate to outcomes. Our findings suggest that examining the relationship between procedural justice, legitimacy and offending without taking intra-individual variables into account may neglect important influences on those relationships. Other research has begun to show that young people who do not accept the law as legitimate or the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to offend. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Learning Handicapped and Nonlearning Handicapped Female Juvenile Offenders: Educational and Criminal Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy E.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews with 30 female juvenile offenders were conducted to (1) describe their educational and criminal backgrounds and (2) describe a subgroup of learning handicapped juvenile female offenders. Nearly one third had received special education services prior to their incarceration with additional offenders diagnosed as handicapped upon entry…

  11. Sexual Murderers: Sex Offender, Murderer, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; DeLisi, Matt; Hewitt, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    Sexual murderers perpetrate homicide and rape/sexual abuse, but it is unclear whether they should primarily be considered homicide offenders, sexual offenders, or both. Most studies have merged together different types of non-homicidal sex offenders (NHSOs), neglecting to consider the potential differences between the nonviolent and violent sex offenders. Here, we suggest it is important to isolate those violent sex offenders who inflict severe physical injuries that could potentially lead to a lethal outcome. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to compare different measures of the criminal career on three groups of sex offenders: NHSOs, violent NHSOs, and sexual homicide offenders (SHOs) using data from 616 incarcerated male sex offenders in a Federal penitentiary in Canada. Interestingly, the group of sex offenders with the worst criminal career profile was not the SHOs, but the violent NHSOs. Violent NHSOs had the greatest number of prior convictions and the most varied and versatile criminal career. Therefore, we suggest that based on their criminal career, SHOs should be considered more as murderers than sex offenders. However, to fully answer this question, future studies should include a group of non-sexual homicide offenders.

  12. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  13. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  14. Psychosocial health among young victims and offenders of direct and indirect bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Marcel F; de Wit, Cees A M; Hirasing, Remy A

    2003-06-01

    To assess the association between bullying (both directly and indirectly) and indicators of psychosocial health for boys and girls separately. A school-based questionnaire survey of bullying, depression, suicidal ideation, and delinquent behavior. Primary schools in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 4811 children aged 9 to 13. Depression and suicidal ideation are common outcomes of being bullied in both boys and girls. These associations are stronger for indirect than direct bullying. After correction, direct bullying had a significant effect on depression and suicidal ideation in girls, but not in boys. Boy and girl offenders of bullying far more often reported delinquent behavior. Bullying others directly is a much greater risk factor for delinquent behavior than bullying others indirectly. This was true for both boys and girls. Boy and girl offenders of bullying also more often reported depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. However, after correction for both sexes only a significant association still existed between bullying others directly and suicidal ideation. The association between bullying and psychosocial health differs notably between girls and boys as well as between direct and indirect forms of bullying. Interventions to stop bullying must pay attention to these differences to enhance effectiveness.

  15. The mental health needs of incarcerated youth in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretton, Heather M; Clift, Robert J W

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current prevalence of mental disorders and mental health needs among incarcerated male and female youths in Canada, and to present these data in the context of rates found in other jurisdictions. One hundred forty male and 65 female incarcerated young offenders in British Columbia were screened with the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument Version 2 (MAYSI-2); provisional psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV); abuse history and aggressive symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD) were coded from file information. Nearly all youths (91.9% of males and 100% of females) met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Substance abuse and dependence disorders were highly prevalent (85.5% of males and 100% of females). Aggressive forms of CD were common (72.9% of males and 84.3% of females), as were exposure to physical abuse (60.8% of males and 54.3% of females) and sexual abuse (21.2% of males and 42.4% of females). Female youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with: (1) substance abuse/dependence disorders; (2) current suicide ideation; (3) sexual abuse; (4) PTSD; (5) symptoms of depression and anxiety; (6) Oppositional Defiant Disorder; and (7) multiple mental disorder diagnoses. Male youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with aggressive symptoms of CD. Overall, rates of mental disorder among this sample of serious and violent young offenders were higher than rates previously reported for incarcerated youths - both in Canada and in other jurisdictions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. More or Less Likely to Offend? Young Adults with a History of Identified Developmental Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Maxine; Webb, Roger T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is now substantial literature demonstrating that a disproportionate number of young people who come into contact with youth justice services evidence unidentified language difficulties. These young people, therefore, have received little or no professional input in this area. Conversely, there is a dearth of research pertaining…

  17. Ghosts in the Machine: Incarcerated Students and the Digital University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Providing higher education to offenders in custody has become an increasingly complex business in the age of digital learning. Most Australian prisoners still have no direct access to the internet and relatively unreliable access to information technology. As incarceration is now a business, prisons, like universities, are increasingly subject to…

  18. “You Think You’re Helping Them, But They’re Helping You Too”: Experiences of Scottish Male Young Offenders Participating in a Dog Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Interaction with animals can be beneficial to humans and animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) are increasingly popular in a range of contexts. Dog training programs (DTPs) are the most popular form of AAI in custodial contexts; prisoners often have multiple needs and DTPs seem to facilitate a diverse range of positive outcomes, including improvements in well-being, behavior, and offending behavior. However, evidence on the efficacy of prison-based DTPs is still limited and these evaluations often lack detail or methodological rigor. We examined the experiences of male young offenders (N = 70) using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted following completion of a DTP. The themes that emerged indicated a broad range of inter-related experiences and positive outcomes. The most prevalent theme related to their experiences with Dogs (including feelings and attitudes), and there were perceived improvements categorized as: Positive Effects (including mood and well-being), Motivation, Charitable Purpose, Self-Efficacy, Improved Skills, Impulsivity, and Emotional Management. These themes mapped well onto outcomes previously identified in research on DTPs, and to the program’s core aims of improving behavior, educational engagement, employability, and well-being. The diversity and nature of these themes indicates that DTPs have considerable potential to engage and benefit those individuals with multiple needs, such as young offenders, and ultimately to achieve positive long-term outcomes with significant social, health, and economic impact. PMID:28829389

  19. "You Think You're Helping Them, But They're Helping You Too": Experiences of Scottish Male Young Offenders Participating in a Dog Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rebecca J; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; McIvor, Gill; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2017-08-22

    Interaction with animals can be beneficial to humans and animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) are increasingly popular in a range of contexts. Dog training programs (DTPs) are the most popular form of AAI in custodial contexts; prisoners often have multiple needs and DTPs seem to facilitate a diverse range of positive outcomes, including improvements in well-being, behavior, and offending behavior. However, evidence on the efficacy of prison-based DTPs is still limited and these evaluations often lack detail or methodological rigor. We examined the experiences of male young offenders (N = 70) using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted following completion of a DTP. The themes that emerged indicated a broad range of inter-related experiences and positive outcomes. The most prevalent theme related to their experiences with Dogs (including feelings and attitudes), and there were perceived improvements categorized as: Positive Effects (including mood and well-being), Motivation, Charitable Purpose, Self-Efficacy, Improved Skills, Impulsivity, and Emotional Management. These themes mapped well onto outcomes previously identified in research on DTPs, and to the program's core aims of improving behavior, educational engagement, employability, and well-being. The diversity and nature of these themes indicates that DTPs have considerable potential to engage and benefit those individuals with multiple needs, such as young offenders, and ultimately to achieve positive long-term outcomes with significant social, health, and economic impact.

  20. “You Think You’re Helping Them, But They’re Helping You Too”: Experiences of Scottish Male Young Offenders Participating in a Dog Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Leonardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interaction with animals can be beneficial to humans and animal-assisted interventions (AAIs are increasingly popular in a range of contexts. Dog training programs (DTPs are the most popular form of AAI in custodial contexts; prisoners often have multiple needs and DTPs seem to facilitate a diverse range of positive outcomes, including improvements in well-being, behavior, and offending behavior. However, evidence on the efficacy of prison-based DTPs is still limited and these evaluations often lack detail or methodological rigor. We examined the experiences of male young offenders (N = 70 using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted following completion of a DTP. The themes that emerged indicated a broad range of inter-related experiences and positive outcomes. The most prevalent theme related to their experiences with Dogs (including feelings and attitudes, and there were perceived improvements categorized as: Positive Effects (including mood and well-being, Motivation, Charitable Purpose, Self-Efficacy, Improved Skills, Impulsivity, and Emotional Management. These themes mapped well onto outcomes previously identified in research on DTPs, and to the program’s core aims of improving behavior, educational engagement, employability, and well-being. The diversity and nature of these themes indicates that DTPs have considerable potential to engage and benefit those individuals with multiple needs, such as young offenders, and ultimately to achieve positive long-term outcomes with significant social, health, and economic impact.

  1. Restorative Justice Conferencing, Oral Language Competence, and Young Offenders: Are These High-Risk Conversations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with the oral language demands (both talking and listening) associated with restorative justice conferencing--an inherently highly verbal and conversational process. Many vulnerable young people (e.g., those in the youth justice system) have significant, yet unidentified language impairments, and these could compromise…

  2. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  3. Incarceration in the household: academic outcomes of adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker

    2012-11-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration.

  4. An Exploration of Factors Reducing Recidivism Rates of Formerly Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities Participating in a Re-Entry Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…

  5. Incarceration in fragile families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Western, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s the U.S. imprisonment rate has increased roughly fivefold. As Christopher Wildeman and Bruce Western explain, the effects of this sea change in the imprisonment rate--commonly called mass imprisonment or the prison boom--have been concentrated among those most likely to form fragile families: poor and minority men with little schooling. Imprisonment diminishes the earnings of adult men, compromises their health, reduces familial resources, and contributes to family breakup. It also adds to the deficits of poor children, thus ensuring that the effects of imprisonment on inequality are transferred intergenerationally. Perversely, incarceration has its most corrosive effects on families whose fathers were involved in neither domestic violence nor violent crime before being imprisoned. Because having a parent go to prison is now so common for poor, minority children and so negatively affects them, the authors argue that mass imprisonment may increase future racial and class inequality--and may even lead to more crime in the long-term, thereby undoing any benefits of the prison boom. U.S. crime policy has thus, in the name of public safety, produced more vulnerable families and reduced the life chances of their children. Wildeman and Western advocate several policy reforms, such as limiting prison time for drug offenders and for parolees who violate the technical conditions of their parole, reconsidering sentence enhancements for repeat offenders, and expanding supports for prisoners and ex-prisoners. But Wildeman and Western argue that criminal justice reform alone will not solve the problems of school failure, joblessness, untreated addiction, and mental illness that pave the way to prison. In fact, focusing solely on criminal justice reforms would repeat the mistakes the nation made during the prison boom: trying to solve deep social problems with criminal justice policies. Addressing those broad problems, they say, requires a greater social

  6. PRE-TRIAL SUPPORT OF YOUNG OFFENDERS (EFFECTIVENESS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN ARKHANGELSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Korneeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophisticated criminal situation with juvenile delinquency in Arkhangelsk region has prompted practitioners to find new ways to counteract. The basis for the acquisition of new knowledge in the field of prevention of juvenile delinquency was the phased introduction of social support for the pre-trial juvenile in conflict with the law. Based on the survey of investigators, investigators, judges and social workers involved in the experiment, the analysis of materials of criminal cases involving young offender’s conclusions about the positive results of the experiment revealed the difficulties and challenges faced by law enforcers. The article provides suggestions for optimizing the procedure of pre-trial support.

  7. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  8. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2018-02-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  9. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  10. The Young Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Hinson

    1979-01-01

    Looks at delinquency from the viewpoint of a training school chaplain and outlines factors believed to contribute to the development of delinquent behavior. Signs of maladjustment include overactivity, acute anxiety and fear, depression, psychosomatic disorders, unusual behavior, negative attitudes toward others and themselves, and resistance to…

  11. Sex Offenders in Prison: Are They Socially Isolated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, C.J.W.; Beijersbergen, K.A.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical literature has revealed that social isolation can affect the rehabilitation of sex offenders after serving their sentence. This process of social isolation can already start during incarceration due to strained relationships with fellow prisoners and correctional staff. The current study

  12. Personalidade psicopática em uma amostra de adolescentes infratores brasileiros Psychopathy personality in a sample of young Brazilian offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências apontam que adolescentes infratores graves (autores de homicídio, estupro e latrocínio possuem personalidade psicopática e risco aumentado de reincidência criminal, mas não apresentam maior prevalência de história de abuso na infância do que outros adolescentes infratores. OBJETIVO: Comparar a psicopatia, a reincidência criminal e a história de maus-tratos entre adolescentes infratores versus a vida e outros adolescentes infratores. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, controlado, utilizando a escala Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R para avaliação de psicopatia em uma amostra de adolescentes cumprindo medida socioeducativa em decorrência da prática de ato infracional. RESULTADOS: Os adolescentes que cometeram crimes contra a vida apresentaram prevalência de psicopatia maior do que outros adolescentes infratores - RP = 2,86 (IC95% 1,49-5,47. A reincidência criminal foi mais prevalente entre os adolescentes que possuíam psicopatia e história de crimes contra a vida - RP = 2,96 (IC95% 1,32-6,60. O estudo não conseguiu demonstrar prevalência significativa de história de abuso na infância entre os adolescentes com psicopatia em comparação ao grupo-controle - RP = 0,88 (IC95% 0,66-1,15. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem prevalência aumentada de personalidade psicopática e reincidência criminal entre os adolescentes autores de crimes contra a vida quando comparados a outros adolescentes infratores.BACKGROUND: Evidences point out that the young offenders involved with major crimes (such as homicide, rape and violent robbery have psychopathic personality, with greater risk of recidivism but do not have a higher prevalence of childhood abuse history compared to other young delinquents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychopathy, criminal recidivism. However, incidence of childhood abuse is similar to other young delinquents groups. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, controlled, using the Hare's Psychopathy

  13. Comportamentos de risco para a saúde entre adolescentes em conflito com a lei Health risk behavior among young offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alves de Sena

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as condutas de saúde entre adolescentes em conflito com a lei, internos em instituição de atendimento sócio-educativo em município da região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por 241 jovens do sexo masculino, de 12 a 18 anos de idade. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se uma versão reduzida do questionário de autopreenchimento utilizado pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention dos Estados Unidos, traduzido e adaptado para jovens brasileiros. Entre os jovens pesquisados, 79,7% afirmaram ter portado arma, assim como 52,7% estiveram envolvidos em briga com agressão física nos últimos 12 meses. Verificou-se que a maioria dos jovens pesquisados era usuário de tabaco (87,6% e álcool (64,7%. Grande parte dos jovens afirmou já ter experimentado algum produto inalante na vida (68,9% e ter feito uso de maconha (81,3%. A maioria dos jovens (95,4% já tinha tido relação sexual, em geral com mais de um parceiro. Os jovens em situação de conflito com a lei apresentaram vários comportamentos de risco à saúde em percentuais elevados.The objective of this study was to investigate health risk behavior among teenage offenders committed to a social-educational institution in a city in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The sample included 241 males 12-18 years of age. Data were collected with a brief self-completed questionnaire used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, translated and adapted for young Brazilians. 79.7% of subjects reported having carried a gun and 52.7% had been in fights involving physical aggression in the previous 12 months. Most of the young offenders smoked cigarettes (87.6% and consumed alcohol (64.7%. The majority reported having sniffed inhalants (68.9%, and 81.3% had smoked marijuana. The vast majority (95.4% reported being sexually initiated, most having had sex with more than one partner. Young offenders

  14. Incarcerated Pediatric Hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhai, Sophia A; Glenn, Ian C; Ponsky, Todd A

    2017-02-01

    Indirect inguinal hernias are the most commonly incarcerated hernias in children, with a higher incidence in low birth weight and premature infants. Contralateral groin exploration to evaluate for a patent processus vaginalis or subclinical hernia is controversial, given that most never progress to clinical hernias. Most indirect inguinal hernias can be reduced nonoperatively. It is recommended to repair them in a timely fashion, even in premature infants. Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair is considered a safe and effective alternative to conventional open herniorrhaphy. Other incarcerated pediatric hernias are extremely rare and may be managed effectively with laparoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  17. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  18. Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers: How their Absences Disrupt Children’s High School Graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh- Luu Huynh- Hohnbaum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The United States is faced with a growing number of children who have incarcerated parents and nearly one quarter of children who fail to complete high school. It has been shown that parental incarceration negatively impacts academic outcomes. This study examined whether parental incarceration affects children’s high school graduation. Data on 12,418 young adults was drawn from the Add Health Wave IV dataset. Logistic regression analyses examined differences between maternal and paternal incarceration and the effects of chronicity of incarceration. Whereas both were found to reduce the likelihood that children will complete high school, maternal incarceration had a greater impact. This study fills gaps in the literature examining differences in parental incarceration. Practice and policy implications are discussed.

  19. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.

  20. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  1. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charlene Wear

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

  2. Alternatives to criminal procedure against juvenile and young adult offenders and alternative to criminal procedure in the cases of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetko Božica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the author is analyzing the Act on juvenile courts of the Republic of Croatia, which foresees a broad possibility of implementing the principle of opportunity in the pre-trial, i.e. reinvestigation phase of the procedure in terms of the decision of the public prosecutor about the criminal charge against these persons, including the implementation of particular obligations as informal sanctions. Particular attention is paid to the special obligation called off-court agreement. The aim of the off-court agreement is “reconciliation between the juvenile or young adult offender and the victim of the crime, and establishment of the social peace”. Similar project and the implementation of the principle of opportunity is used in the cases of the criminal offence of domestic violence. The main aim of these obligations is to offer professional assistance to the families which are in crisis and have difficulties related to the violent behavior of one family member - mostly the father. Such an approach is more efficient than the long lasting criminal procedure, testifying and strengthening the crisis in the family. This paper gives also an insight into the legal provisions concerning this measure and its implementation in practice.

  3. Mortality of young offenders: a national register-based follow-up study of 15- to 19-year-old Finnish delinquents referred for forensic psychiatric examination between 1980 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Miettunen, Jouko; Heiskala, Anni; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2017-01-01

    The mortality rate of young offenders is high. Furthermore, mortality in young offenders is associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders. The primary aim of this national register-based follow-up study was to investigate the mortality rate of Finnish delinquents who underwent a forensic psychiatric examination between 1980 and 2010. As delinquency is not a solid entity, we further aimed to compare the risk of premature death among different subgroups of the delinquents; violent versus non-violent offenders, offenders with alcohol use disorders versus those with no such diagnoses, offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders versus conduct- and personality-disordered offenders, under-aged versus young adult offenders, and, finally, boys versus girls. We collected the forensic psychiatric examination reports of all 15- to 19-year-old offenders who were born in Finland and had undergone the examination between 1.1.1980 and 31.12.2010 (n = 606) from the archives of the National Institute of Health and Welfare and retrospectively reviewed them. For each delinquent, four age-, gender- and place of birth-matched controls were randomly selected from the Central Population Register (n = 2424). The delinquents and their controls were followed until the end of 2015. The median follow-up time was 23.9 years (interquartile range 15.3-29.5). We obtained the mortality data from the causes of death register. Deaths attributable to a disease or an occupational disease were considered natural, and those attributable to an accident, suicide or homicide were considered unnatural. By the end of the follow-up period, 22.1% (n = 134) of the delinquents and 3.4% (n = 82) of their controls had died (OR 8.11, 95% CI 6.05-10.86, p delinquents and 3.7% (n = 81) of the controls had died (OR 7.38, 95% CI 5.46-9.95, p delinquents' risk of unnatural death was almost 11-fold, of natural death more than twofold, and of unclear death more than fourfold compared to that of

  4. Incarcerated umbilical hernia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdan, L B; Uba, A F; Kidmas, A T

    2006-02-01

    Umbilical hernia is common in children. Complications from umbilical hernias are thought to be rare and the natural history is spontaneous closure within 5 years. A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of a series of 23 children who presented with incarcerated umbilical hernias at our institution over an 8-year period. Fifty-two children with umbilical hernias were seen in the hospital over the period. Twenty-three (44.2%) had incarceration. Seventeen (32.7%) had acute incarceration while 6 (11.5%) had recurrent incarceration. There were 16 girls and 7 boys. The ages of the children with acute incarceration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 years (median 4 years), while the ages of those with recurrent incarceration ranged from 3-15 years (median 8.5 years). Incarceration occurred in hernias of more than 1.5 cm in diameter (in those whose defect size was measured). Twenty-one children (15 with acute and all six with recurrent incarceration) underwent repair of the umbilical hernia using standard methods. The parents of two children with acute incarceration declined surgery after spontaneous reduction of the hernia in one and taxis in the other. One boy had gangrenous bowel containing Meckel's diverticulum inside the sac, for which bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis was done. Operation led to disappearance of pain in all 6 children with recurrent incarceration. Superficial wound infection occurred in one child. There was no mortality. Incarcerated umbilical hernia is not as uncommon as thought. Active observation of children with umbilical hernia is necessary to prevent morbidity from incarceration.

  5. Substance use, substance use disorders, and comorbidity patterns in a representative sample of incarcerated male Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Coby; van den Brink, Wim; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) among incarcerated boys, and comorbidity patterns and the relationship between SUDs and violent offending and criminal recidivism. The presence of SUDs and other psychiatric disorders was

  6. Tried as an adult, housed as a juvenile: a tale of youth from two courts incarcerated together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Research has questioned the wisdom of housing juveniles who are convicted in criminal court in facilities with adult offenders. It is argued that minors transferred to criminal court should not be incarcerated with adults, due to a greater likelihood of developing criminal skills, being victimized, and attempting suicide. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the other option, housing these youth with minors who have committed less serious crimes and who are therefore adjudicated in juvenile courts, might have unintended consequences for juvenile court youth. The present study utilizes a sample of youth incarcerated in one secure juvenile facility, with some offenders processed in juvenile court (n = 261) and others processed in adult court (n = 103). We investigate whether youth transferred to adult court engage in more institutional offending (in particular, violence) and experience less victimization than their juvenile court counterparts. Results indicate that although adult court youth had a greater likelihood of being convicted of violent commitment offenses than juvenile court youth, the former engaged in less offending during incarceration than the latter. In addition, no significant differences in victimization were observed. These findings suggest that the concern about the need for separate housing for adult court youth is unfounded; when incarcerated together, those tried in adult court do not engage in more institutional violence than juvenile court youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  8. Violent offenders respond to provocations with high amygdala and striatal reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Fisher, Patrick M.; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær

    2017-01-01

    magnetic resonance imaging point-subtraction aggression paradigm in 44 men, of whom 18 were incarcerated violent offenders and 26 were control non-offenders. We measured brain activation following provocations (monetary subtractions), while the subjects had the possibility to behave aggressively or pursue...... monetary rewards. The violent offenders behaved more aggressively than controls (aggression frequency 150 us 84, P = 0.03) and showed significantly higher brain reactivity to provocations within the amygdala and striatum, as well as reduced amygdala-prefrontal and striato-prefrontal connectivity. Amygdala...

  9. Portraits of Dysfunction: Criminal, Education, and Family Profiles of Juvenile Female Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 40 incarcerated juvenile female offenders found they typically reported failing 1 or more grades; more than having serious arrest; using drugs prior to crimes and as part of their lifestyle; and acting intentionally, and most often with others, to commit crimes. Critical factors included academic deficiencies, siblings who were…

  10. Applying Theory of Mind Concepts When Designing Interventions Targeting Social Cognition among Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Kristine K.; Westby, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a multiple baseline, across-participants, single-subject design to investigate the feasibility of an individual, narrative-based, social problem-solving intervention on the social problem-solving, narrative, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities of 3 incarcerated adolescent youth offenders identified as having emotional…

  11. Self-Esteem and Institutionalized Delinquent Offenders: The Role of Background Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, B. Jerome; Bersani, Carl A.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis studied was derived from the work of control theorists: that self-esteem would be higher for offenders "removed" from conventional ties, lower for those maintaining conventional attachments. Family background and self-esteem scores of 75 male delinquents strongly supported this hypothesis. Implications for incarceration are drawn.…

  12. A escola como fator de proteção à conduta infracional de adolescentes Young offenders: the school as a protective factor for criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Eduardo Gallo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo traçou o perfil de adolescentes submetidos a medidas socioeducativas em uma cidade do interior de São Paulo, mediante exame de 123 prontuários de atendimento, em 2002. A análise das informações indicou que o fato de o adolescente não freqüentar a escola foi associado ao número crescente de reincidências, ao uso de entorpecentes e, também, ao emprego de armas. Adicionalmente, constatou-se que os participantes com nível educacional mais alto viviam com ambos os pais, enquanto aqueles com escolaridade mais baixa viviam em famílias monoparentais. Considerando que a freqüência à escola reduziu a severidade do ato infracional, o uso de armas e o emprego de drogas, muito pode ser feito para enfrentar os desafios de acolher tais adolescentes no sistema educacional, ao invés de expulsá-los.This study characterized adolescents who attended programs for young offenders in a city located at São Paulo state. A total of 123 protocols pertaining to the year 2002 were analyzed. Cross-data analysis showed that not attending school was related to increasing numbers of criminal re-incidence, use of drugs and of weapons. In addition, participants with higher educational level lived with both parents, while low schooling adolescents lived with single-parent families. Considering that school attendance reduced the severity of delinquent acts as well as the use of weapons and drugs, it is important to face the challenge of keeping these adolescents within the school system, instead of forcing them out.

  13. Offenders' risk-taking attitude inside and outside the prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rolison, Jonathan J

    2014-10-01

    It has long been assumed that risk taking is closely associated with criminal behavior. One reason for placing criminals behind bars--aside from punishment and protecting the public--is to prevent them from engaging in further risky criminal activities. Limited attention has been paid to whether being inside or outside prison affects offenders' risk-taking behaviors and attitudes. We compared risk-taking behaviors and attitudes in five risk domains (ethical, financial, health/safety, recreational, social) among 75 incarcerated offenders (i.e., offenders who are currently in prison) and 45 ex-offenders (i.e., offenders who have just been released from prison). Ex-offenders reported higher likelihood of engaging in risky behavior, driven largely by a willingness to take more risks in the recreational and ethical domains. Benefits attributed to risk taking as well as risk perception did not differ between incarcerated and ex-offenders, indicating that the opportunity to take risks might underlie behavioral risk intentions. Our results also indicate that risk-taking activities are better predicted by the expected benefits rather than by risk perception, aside from the health/safety domain. These results highlight the importance of studying the person and the environment and examining risk taking in a number of content domains. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Shock Incarceration: Rehabilitation or Retribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Doris Layton; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews Louisiana's shock incarceration program used as alternative to standard prison incarceration. Program involves short period of imprisonment in a "boot camp" type atmosphere followed by three phases of intensive parole supervision. Examines the program in regard to its rehabilitative potential and compares program elements to…

  16. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending.

  17. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  18. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-09-06

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.

  19. Relationship processes and resilience in children with incarcerated parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Eddy, J Mark; Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Myers, Barbara J; Mackintosh, Virginia; Kuznetsova, Maria I; Lotze, Geri M; Best, Al M; Ravindran, Neeraja; Loper, Ann Booker; Clarke, Caitlin Novero; McHale, James P; Salman, Selin; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn K; Martinez, Charles R; Burraston, Bert

    2013-06-01

    Children with incarcerated parents are at risk for a variety of problematic outcomes, yet research has rarely examined protective factors or resilience processes that might mitigate such risk in this population. In this volume, we present findings from five new studies that focus on child- or family-level resilience processes in children with parents currently or recently incarcerated in jail or prison. In the first study, empathic responding is examined as a protective factor against aggressive peer relations for 210 elementary school age children of incarcerated parents. The second study further examines socially aggressive behaviors with peers, with a focus on teasing and bullying, in a sample of 61 children of incarcerated mothers. Emotion regulation is examined as a possible protective factor. The third study contrasts children's placement with maternal grandmothers versus other caregivers in a sample of 138 mothers incarcerated in a medium security state prison. The relation between a history of positive attachments between mothers and grandmothers and the current cocaregiving alliance are of particular interest. The fourth study examines coparenting communication in depth on the basis of observations of 13 families with young children whose mothers were recently released from jail. Finally, in the fifth study, the proximal impacts of a parent management training intervention on individual functioning and family relationships are investigated in a diverse sample of 359 imprisoned mothers and fathers. Taken together, these studies further our understanding of resilience processes in children of incarcerated parents and their families and set the groundwork for further research on child development and family resilience within the context of parental involvement in the criminal justice system.

  20. Lifetime criminal history of sex offenders seen for psychological assessment in five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    A sample of 2,190 sex offenders seen between 1966 and 2009 was compared on lifetime sexual and all offending, using charges, convictions, court appearances, and self-report as criteria. Of these various criteria, between 47.4% and 81.1% reoffended. Canadian child abuse reporting laws, which came into effect in the 1980s, were associated with increased charges and convictions for offenders, who victimized children, and with a reduction in their longer term reoffense rates. Immigration and population mobility, use of aliases, study follow-up time, and self-reported undetected sex crimes influenced reoffense rates. Results indicate that sex offenders continued to have short prison sentences and/or spend little or no time incarcerated during the latter part of the 20th century.

  1. The differences between sex offenders who victimise older women and sex offenders who offend against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K D; Hines, Morag; Tully, Ruth J

    2018-01-01

    Within the literature on sex offending, much attention is paid to the distinction between those sex offenders who offend against adults and those who offend against children. In contrast, there is a paucity of research into sex offenders who offend specifically against elderly or older victims. A detailed interview and psychometric tests were conducted with a sample of 28 sex offenders who had been convicted of a sexually motivated offence against an older female. These data were compared to a sample of 23 child sex offenders. Results indicate that amongst other significant differences between these sub-groups, men who offend against older women are generally younger, are more violent, and are more likely to use a weapon and cause injury and death compared to child sex offenders. The men who offended against children were more likely to think about and plan their offending, spend more time with the victim pre and post offence, admit sexual arousal during the offence, and admit to a sexual motivation for the offence. This study suggests that men who sexually offend against older women and men who sexually offend against children are distinct groups. Treatment and risk management strategies should take this into account. Further exploration of this sub-group of offenders is recommended to help inform treatment and risk management strategies for sex offenders who offend against older people.

  2. Criminal social identity and suicide ideation among Pakistani young prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagufta, Sonia; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola-Palmer, Derrol

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a common in prisoners, yet little is known about the factors that may protect against thoughts of ending one's life. The purpose of this paper is to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationship between three criminal social identity (CSI) dimensions (in-group affect, in-group ties, and cognitive centrality) and suicide ideation while controlling for period of confinement, age, criminal friends, and offense type (violent vs non-violent). Participants were 415 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A structural model was specified and tested using Mplus to examine the relationships between the three factors of CSI and suicidal thoughts, while controlling for age, offender type, period of confinement, and substance dependence. The model provided an adequate fit for the data, explaining 22 per cent of variance in suicidal thoughts. In-group affect (the level of personal bonding with other criminals) was found to exert a strong protective effect against suicide ideation. The research contributes important information on suicide ideation in Pakistan, an Islamic country in which suicide is considered a sin and subsequently a criminal offence. Results indicate that Juvenile offenders' sense of shared identity may help to prevent the development of thoughts of death by suicide. Consequently, separating and isolating young prisoners may be ill advised.

  3. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  4. Addressing the Needs of Children of Offenders: The 4-H LIFE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynna J. Lawson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 4-H LIFE represents a promising approach to addressing the needs of children of offenders and their caregivers. The 4-H Living Interactive Family Education (LIFE Program was established in 1999 at the Potosi Correctional Center, a maximum security prison. 4-H LIFE is an enhanced or therapeutic visitation program with three key components: 1. parent engagement; 2. parent education; 3. 4-H activities for children of offenders, led by the incarcerated parents. Since inception, 141 youths between the ages of 5 and 18 have participated; 59 incarcerated fathers and 106 caregivers have also been engaged at PCC. Program evaluations suggest that parent-child outcomes improved. In 2005, 4-H LIFE received the Annie E. Casey Foundation Family Strengthening Award.

  5. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne

    2003-01-01

    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  6. Sex offender punishment and the persistence of penal harm in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Chrysanthi S

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically revised its approach to punishment in the last several decades. In particular, people convicted of sex crimes have experienced a remarkable expansion in social control through a wide-range of post-conviction interventions. While this expansion may be largely explained by general punishment trends, there appear to be unique factors that have prevented other penal reforms from similarly modulating sex offender punishment. In part, this continuation of a "penal harm" approach to sex offenders relates to the past under-valuing of sexual victimization. In the "bad old days," the law and its agents sent mixed messages about sexual violence and sexual offending. Some sexual offending was mere nuisance, some was treatable, and a fraction "deserved" punishment equivalent to other serious criminal offending. In contrast, today's sex offender punishment schemes rarely distinguish formally among gradations of harm or dangerousness. After examining incarceration trends, this article explores the historical context of the current broad brush approach and reviews the unintended consequences. Altogether, this article reinforces the need to return to differentiation among sex offenders, but differentiation based on science and on the experience-based, guided discretion of experts in law enforcement, corrections, and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining the Role of Familial Support During Prison and After Release on Post-Incarceration Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Danielle; Fahmy, Chantal; Cotton, Lindsy; Jimmons, Charis; McKay, Rachel; Stoffer, Sidney; Syed, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of prisoners experience mental health problems, and adequate social support is one way that facilitates better mental health. Yet, by being incarcerated, social support, particularly family support, is likely to be strained or even negative. In this study, we examine whether familial support--either positive or negative--in-prison and after release affects mental health outcomes post-release. Using the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) dataset, we regress post-release mental health on in-prison familial support, post-incarceration familial support, and changes in familial support. We find that while in-prison family support does not affect mental health, post-release familial support does. Also, experiencing an increase in negative familial support is associated with lower post-incarceration mental health. We conclude with a discussion of policies which may facilitate better familial support environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. How Individual and Contextual Factors Affects Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors: A Comparison between Young Offenders, Adolescents at Risk of Social Exclusion, and a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Duran-Bonavila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems associated with violence during adolescence have been on the rise in recent decades. Many studies have focused only on environmental causes or individual causes of violence, although a combination of both variables would seem to be the best option for prediction. The current study aims to assess the relevance of individual characteristics (personality traits, intelligence, and historical and clinical factors linked to the risk of violence, contextual risk factors and protective factors in explaining antisocial and delinquent behaviors in adolescence by comparing three different samples: a community sample, a sample at risk of social exclusion, and a sample of juvenile offenders. The results show that the samples at risk of social exclusion and the sample of juvenile offenders have a very similar profile in terms of personality traits and intelligence, although they differ from the community sample. However, these two samples do differ in such contextual variables as peer delinquency, poor parental management, community disorganization, or early caregiver disruption.

  9. Everyday life in UK Probation Approved Premises for sex offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This international edited volume of cutting-edge critical prison research explores key themes of deprivations, stigma, power, culture and vulnerability in a breadth of penal settings and prisoner populations. Ranging across North America and Canada, Western, Central and Eastern Europe, Australia, this research considers: young offenders and juvenile institutions; sex offenders; therapeutic environments; wrongfully convicted prisoners; female prisons and prisoners; parents in prison; post-rele...

  10. Offender diversion into substance use disorder treatment: the economic impact of California's proposition 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, M Douglas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Jaffe, Adi; Urada, Darren; Evans, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    We determined the costs and savings attributable to the California Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act (SACPA), which mandated probation or continued parole with substance abuse treatment in lieu of incarceration for adult offenders convicted of nonviolent drug offenses and probation and parole violators. We used individually linked, population-level administrative data to define intervention and control cohorts of offenders meeting SACPA eligibility criteria. Using multivariate difference-in-differences analysis, we estimated the effect of SACPA implementation on the total and domain-specific costs to state and county governments, controlling for fixed individual and county characteristics and changes in crime at the county level. The additional costs of treatment were more than offset by savings in other domains, primarily in the costs of incarceration. We estimated the statewide policy effect as an adjusted savings of $2317 (95% confidence interval = $1905, $2730) per offender over a 30-month postconviction period. SACPA implementation resulted in greater incremental cost savings for Blacks and Hispanics, who had markedly higher rates of conviction and incarceration. The monetary benefits to government exceeded the additional costs of SACPA implementation and provision of treatment.

  11. Monoamine oxidase A gene promoter methylation and transcriptional downregulation in an offender population with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checknita, D; Maussion, G; Labonté, B; Comai, S; Tremblay, R E; Vitaro, F; Turecki, N; Bertazzo, A; Gobbi, G; Côté, G; Turecki, G

    2015-03-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by elevated impulsive aggression and increased risk for criminal behaviour and incarceration. Deficient activity of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene is suggested to contribute to serotonergic system dysregulation strongly associated with impulsive aggression and antisocial criminality. To elucidate the role of epigenetic processes in altered MAOA expression and serotonin regulation in a population of incarcerated offenders with ASPD compared with a healthy non-incarcerated control population. Participants were 86 incarcerated participants with ASPD and 73 healthy controls. MAOA promoter methylation was compared between case and control groups. We explored the functional impact of MAOA promoter methylation on gene expression in vitro and blood 5-HT levels in a subset of the case group. Results suggest that MAOA promoter hypermethylation is associated with ASPD and may contribute to downregulation of MAOA gene expression, as indicated by functional assays in vitro, and regression analysis with whole-blood serotonin levels in offenders with ASPD. These results are consistent with prior literature suggesting MAOA and serotonergic dysregulation in antisocial populations. Our results offer the first evidence suggesting epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to MAOA dysregulation in antisocial offenders. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  12. Psychological treatment and therapeutic change in incarcerated rapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martínez-Catena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most Spanish prisons provide specialised treatment for incarcerated sex offenders, both rapists and child molesters. This treatment is a cognitive-behavioural intervention that has shown relative effectiveness in previous research. With regard to offenders’ rehabilitation, recidivism assessments are necessary as a final measure of treatment effectiveness. However, the evaluation of recidivism by itself does not provide sufficient information on the treatment process and the specific effects that treated subjects could undergo. This paper aims to analyse the therapeutic effectiveness of psychological treatment provided to rapists (in general, males sentenced for committing a sexual offence against women. To this aim, a group of treated rapists (N=153 serving a sentence in prison was analysed. Using a specially designed scale (PASSO, the global therapeutic change and ten specific variables (including assertiveness, readiness to change, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, etc. were assessed. The within-subjects comparison showed that treated sex offenders improved, in therapeutic terms, globally as well as in most of the specific variables assessed (improvements not experimented by the control group. Also, different therapeutic subscales showed relevant associations between them. The findings regarding treatment effectiveness are discussed.

  13. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Kongerslev, Mickey; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routin......Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time...... in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS) for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after......, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting...

  14. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. Attention, reward, and inhibition: symptomatic features of ADHD and issues for offenders in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    2017-03-01

    Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system. Symptoms of ADHD, specifically reward deficiency, behavioral inhibition, and attention deficits, may affect whether individuals will be successful in their experiences in court, with probation, and during incarceration. This is especially true for individuals whose ADHD diagnoses are unknown to the criminal justice system or have never been formally diagnosed. Actors in the criminal justice need to be aware of the symptomatic features and behavioral patterns of offenders with ADHD in order to recognize and identify these offenders, and correspondingly, to refer them to mental health services. Recognizing that at least some of an offender's behavior may be related to symptoms of ADHD will help the criminal justice system better provide recommendations regarding sentencing, probation, and treatment provisions, as well as better ensure that offenders with ADHD have a more successful and just experience in their interactions with the criminal justice system.

  16. Self-reports of faulty parental attachments in childhood and criminal psychopathy in an adult-incarcerated population: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C; Shelton, D

    2014-05-01

    This study examined self-reports of psychopathic offenders' childhood interactions with their parents to better understand what variables influence adult criminal psychopathy. The findings showed that childhood separations, physical abuse and indifferent parenting styles were more prominent in self-reports of incarcerated male psychopaths than with incarcerated males who were not psychopathic. To better understand the worldview of the criminal psychopath, and the trajectory of psychopathy, there is a need for more studies that examine childhood interactions with parental figures as reported by the adult criminal psychopath. Despite the high percentage of incarcerated psychopaths, few studies attempt to assess the past parent-child bonds of these individuals by asking them to report childhood attachments with their parents. Currently, there is limited data regarding common variables that contribute to a break in parent-child attachment and later adult criminal psychopathy. The data that presently exist concentrate on juvenile or community samples and do not explore the attachment variables that continue into adult criminal psychopathy. This paper presents the current literature regarding self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult psychopaths compared with self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult non-psychopaths. Variables that influence a break in attachment between the offenders and their parents and suggestions for future clinical research are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  18. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  19. Addressing Social Anxiety Concurrently With Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment: A Case of Individual Needs in an Era of Manualized Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, Michael P; Webb, Jon R; Stinson, Jill D; Cantrell, Peggy J

    2017-07-01

    Emotional regulation may be an underaddressed therapeutic target in sex offender treatment. This article presents a case report of "Adam," a Caucasian male referred to a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Adam's social anxiety was recognized as an antecendent to his sexual offending, and treatment of such, as a critical adjunct to sex offender treatment, is discussed herein. Adam's individualized treatment included aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy and time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. Adam showed an increased understanding of his anxiety and improvement in his social interactions, both in the context of treatment groups and with female staff, and was willing to continue follow-up care in the community. This case provides support for the individualized treatment of incarcerated offenders as opposed to exclusively utilizing manualized psychoeducational interventions.

  20. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  1. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: A DETAILED CONSIDERATION OF SECTION 68 AS POINT OF DEPARTURE WITH RESPECT TO THE SENTENCING OF YOUNG OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Terblanche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 establishes a criminal justice system for child accused, separate from the criminal justice system which continues to apply for adult accused in South Africa. The Act aims to keep children out of detention and away from the formal criminal justice system, mainly through diversion. When these interventions would be inadequate or unsuccessful, the Act provides for child offenders to the tried and sentenced in child justice courts. Until now there has been little discussion of the details of the provisions dealing with sentencing.Sentencing in a child justice court is regulated by chapter 10 of the Act and section 68 is the first section in this chapter. This section effectively amounts to the “jurisdictional” provision of the new child sentencing system: it not only mandates child justice courts to impose their sentences in terms of the Act, but also provides the first set of boundaries (or the first part of the framework within which sentencing should take place. Despite its brevity, section 68 is not without interpretative challenges. Of course, it has to be interpreted within the context of the entire Act. Explaining this context is the first function of this article. The various aspects of section 68 are further critically explored and discussed.

  2. Relationship between parenting and cognitive schemas in a group of male adult offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica ePellerone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the experimental group, aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group, aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily.The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ. The preliminary analysis showed an high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father’s control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders.

  3. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders.

  4. Individual cybercrime offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weulen Kranenbarg, Marleen; van der Laan, André; de Poot, C.J.; Verhoeven, Maite; van der Wagen, Wytske; Weijters, Gijs; Leukfeldt, Rutger

    2017-01-01

    Weulen Kranenbarg, M., Laan, A. van der, Poot, C. de, Verhoeven, M., Wagen, W. van der, Weijters, G. (2017). Individual Cybercrime Offenders. In E.R. Leukfeldt (Ed.), Research Agenda: The Human Factor in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity. Den Haag: Eleven International Publishing.

  5. Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…

  6. Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Child Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452

  7. Exploring alternative terrain in the rehabilitation and treatment of offenders: findings from a prison-based music project

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, L.S; Wilkinson, D.J; Wilson, D

    2016-01-01

    The arts in prison settings have provided an alternative or complimentary component to rehabilitation. Despite increased interest, studies capturing the voice of offenders participating in projects and the long-term impact are limited. Data from semistructured interviews with 18 men who had taken part in a music-based project while incarcerated, including one group of five participants who were tracked for 18 months with supplemented data from correctional staff and official documentation, is...

  8. Federal policy on criminal offenders who have substance use disorders: how can we maximize public health and public safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The Obama Administration is striving to promote both public health and public safety by improving the public policy response to criminal offenders who have substance use disorders. This includes supporting drug courts, evidence-based probation and parole programs, addiction treatment and re-entry programs. Scientists and clinicians in the addiction field have a critical role to play in this much-needed effort to break the cycle of addiction, crime and incarceration.

  9. Risky business: focus-group analysis of sexual behaviors, drug use and victimization among incarcerated women in St. Louis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millay, Tamara A; Satyanarayana, Veena A; O'Leary, Catina C; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-09-01

    Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release.

  10. The evaluation of violent thinking in adult offenders and non-offenders using the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Julian; Bowes, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) was designed to measure explicit rules and beliefs associated with violence. Previous studies with young people and offenders with mental disorder found the MVQ to be a valid and reliable measure of violent thinking. This study explores the use of the MVQ with a 'normal' (non-offender) population and an offender population without mental illness in order to evaluate how the MVQ's subscales related to violence within these groups. The MVQ was given to 78 adult male participants along with a measure of self-reported violence; demographic information and criminal history were also recorded. Thirty-five of the participants were convicted adult male offenders resident of an adult male closed prison in South Wales; 43 were volunteers from the staff group in the same prison. The MVQ factors were compared with self-reported violence and with officially recorded violent convictions. Although both subscales of the MVQ related to self-reported violence, 'Machismo' showed a stronger relationship to both self-reported and officially recorded violence. Violent thinking, specifically beliefs measured by the Machismo subscale of the MVQ, was robustly associated with self-reported and officially recorded violence in this study with offender and non-offender adults. The MVQ is a valid and feasible measure for use with adult populations. Violent thinking (specifically Machismo thinking styles) should be included in the assessments of violent offenders. Work on violent thinking and reducing 'macho' thinking could be a useful adjunct to anger management work with violent offenders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The development of a parenting program for incarcerated mothers in Australia: a review of prison-based parenting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.

  12. Accounts, excuses and apologies of juvenile sexual offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excuses of the offenders for their abusive behaviour hinged on unfulfilled sexual needs, drug influence, ignorance of the law, impulse disorder, alcohol, senility, the urge to feel in control and powerful or the identification with young children as a result of arrested emotional development. The study concludes that the ...

  13. Paternal Incarceration and Father–Child Contact in Fragile Families

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child We...

  14. Substance involvement among juvenile murderers: comparisons with older offenders based on interviews with prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, M; Mackesy-Amiti, M E; Goldstein, P; Spunt, B; Brownstein, H

    1995-09-01

    We evaluated substance involvement among incarcerated juvenile offenders convicted of murder of manslaughter. Patterns of substance involvement among juvenile offenders were compared with patterns found in older offenders. Irrespective of age group, close to one-third of all homicide perpetrators reported that they were affected by alcohol prior to the offense. In every age group, alcohol was the substance showing the highest rate of "regular" lifetime use and the highest rate of ingestion in the week preceding the homicide. In many respects, the reported substance use patterns in the 16-17-year-old age group were closer to the patterns demonstrated by the oldest (36+) age group than they were to the adjacent 18-20-year-old group. Juvenile offenders were generally less substance involved than all but the oldest group of offenders. Almost all of the juveniles who were substance involved prior to the homicide attributed the homicide to the effects of those substances. Narrative accounts suggest that substances (almost always alcohol) escalated impulsive, spontaneous violent outbursts. Implications for the interpretation of self-reports about substance use provided by murderers are also discussed.

  15. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in juvenile offenders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Thomas J; Frost, R Brock; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adult populations demonstrate that such injuries can lead to aggressive behaviors. Related findings suggest that incarcerated individuals have high rates of brain injuries. Such studies suggest that traumatic brain injury may be related to the etiology and recidivism of criminal behavior. Relatively few studies have examined the prevalence of TBI using a delinquent juvenile sample. In order to assess the relationship between TBI and juvenile offender status, the current study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the odds of having a TBI among juvenile offenders. Across 9 studies, we found that approximately 30% of juvenile offenders have sustained a previous brain injury. Across 5 studies that used a control group, a calculated summary odds ratio of 3.37 suggests that juvenile offenders are significantly more likely to have a TBI compared to controls. Results suggest that the rate of TBIs within the juvenile offender population is significant and that there may be a relationship between TBIs and juvenile criminal behavior.

  16. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  17. Relationships between incarcerated women. Moving beyond stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Holly M

    2004-01-01

    1. Described as one of the "pains of imprisonment," separation may be particularly difficult for women in prison because most functioned in multiple relational roles, including mother, wife, girlfriend, daughter, sister, and friend, before incarceration. 2. In the absence of consistent contact with family, friends, and other loved ones outside prison, incarcerated women may seek to develop connections with other inmates as a way to adapt to life in prison. 3. Positive adaptation may allow incarcerated women to take advantage of educational/vocational, parenting, and drug treatment programs offered in prison, thus facilitating their adaptation after release.

  18. Strengthening Incarcerated Families: Evaluating a Pilot Program for Children of Incarcerated Parents and Their Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alison L.; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea

    2013-01-01

    Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP...

  19. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Health of children and young people in secure settings

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Ann; Statham, J.; Storey, P.

    2007-01-01

    This small-scale descriptive study was commissioned by the Children and Young People's Public Health team within the Department of Health, in partnership with Offender Health, in order to inform preparation and implementation of an Offender Health Strategy document for children and young people. The overall aim was to review what is currently known about healthcare for children and young people in the secure estate, covering all three types of settings (Young Offender Institution, Secure Trai...

  1. Implications of Trauma among Male and Female Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora I. Matheson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Criminal behaviour is believed to arise from a multiplicity of factors, including unemployment and poverty [1,2], low self-control [3], psychological issues [4,5], early conduct problems [6], childhood physical and sexual abuse disorder [5], and social bonding in child- and adulthood [7]. Social-structural influences like family conflict/disruption, financial resources, child-parent and school/peer attachment and abuse and neglect in childhood have lasting impressions, leading to multiple problems including delinquency and later criminal activity, substance use/abuse, mental illness and poor self-rated health [8-12]. The consequences of such behaviour include financial losses, injury, and death that together have significant personal and societal costs. Society also bears the burden of incarcerating and rehabilitating offenders; a burden that is not trivial. Direct costs of imprisonment in Canada approach $3.5 billion annually; in the US the cost is substantially higher, approaching $74 billion [13]. [...

  2. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  3. Tennessee Offender Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Tim

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the integration of a knowledge-based system with a large COBOL-DB2-based offender management system. The knowledge-based application, developed for the purpose of offender sentence calculation, is shown to provide several benefits, including a shortened development cycle, simplified maintenance, and improved accuracy over a previous COBOL-based application.

  4. Paternal Incarceration and Father-Child Contact in Fragile Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father-child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father-child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated-between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release.

  5. Gender Comparison of Young People Charged With Murder in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, F Jeane; Browne, Kevin D; Whitfield, Kate C

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated gender differences regarding young people charged with murder in England and Wales. A sample of 318 cases was collected from the Home Office's Homicide Index and analysed. Of these cases, 93% of the offenders were male and 7% female. The analyses explored gender differences in terms of the offender's race, offender's age, victim's age, victim's gender, weapon used, offender-victim relationship, and circumstances of the offence. The study found that a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a family member than a male offender, and a male offender was significantly more likely to murder a stranger than a female offender. In addition, a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a victim below the age of 5 than a male offender. Implications for interventions with young people who are charged with murder are discussed.

  6. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with constant integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Démuthová Slávka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the typical psychological, demographic, socio-economical, educational, health, and criminological characteristics of juvenile delinquents who tend to continue in their criminal career to adulthood and therefore obstruct the possibility of successful, non-offending integration to society. Subjects of research were young male prisoners jailed in the Juvenile imprisonment house that completed the test battery. By ex-post analysis after a period of five years, the differences between offenders and non-offenders were identified. Results show significant differences in the age of prisoners, length of imprisonment, presence of violent offence (esp. robbery in the criminal history, number of previous offences recorded, differences in factors i, h, and q1 from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, responses within the Hand test characteristic (affection, dependence, and communication, and in several signs of the drawings in a Draw-A-Person test. The importance and influence of listed factors is discussed.

  7. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, L.M.; Leenarts, L.E.W.; Born, M.P.; Oosterveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the

  8. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  9. The Dynamics of Intra-Family Relationships During Incarceration and the Implications for Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyojong; Woo, Youngki; Lee, Heeuk D; Cochran, John K

    2018-02-01

    The current study examines effects of changes in intra-family relationships after parental incarceration on internalizing behaviors of the children of incarcerated parents. Using data from a sample of 249 incarcerated parents with minor children in South Korea, the present study found that perceived degradation of family relationships among inmate parents, their non-incarcerated spouses, and children was a significant risk factor of internalizing behaviors of children of incarcerated parents. The current study also found that inmate parents who had more frequent family contact were more likely to perceive improvements of all forms of intra-family relationships during incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonel C; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J E

    2016-04-06

    Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners' mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms. Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data. Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners' mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables. The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners' mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners' mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental

  11. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Paternal Incarceration and Father–Child Contact in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father–child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father–child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated—between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release. PMID:24839304

  13. Invited address: Street killings: prediction of homicide offenders and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Ahonen, Lia

    2013-11-01

    The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7–11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early intervention and for interventions with high-risk offenders.

  14. Invited Address: Street Killings: Prediction of Homicide Offenders and Their Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Ahonen, Lia

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7–11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early intervention and for interventions with high-risk offenders. PMID:24122366

  15. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women

    OpenAIRE

    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

    2010-01-01

    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: f...

  16. Mental health of adolescents with currently and formerly incarcerated parents

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compar...

  17. Teachers' Experiences with and Expectations of Children with Incarcerated Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Children with incarcerated parents, and mothers in particular, are at increased risk for academic failure and school dropout. In two studies, we examined teachers' experiences with children with incarcerated parents and their expectations for competence of children with incarcerated mothers. In Study 1, a descriptive, qualitative study, teachers…

  18. Comparing the constructs of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C

    2006-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Strengthening Incarcerated Families: Evaluating a Pilot Program for Children of Incarcerated Parents and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea

    2013-10-01

    Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP). Process evaluation indicated high implementation fidelity, satisfaction, engagement, and attendance. Outcome evaluation results indicated positive changes in family-level functioning, caregivers' positive parenting, and caregiver depression symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with some changes retained at follow-up 4 months later. Implications for preventive interventions with children of incarcerated parents, and their caregivers, are discussed.

  20. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2011-02-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  1. Alcohol and Sex Offending: What Do Child Sex Offenders Think about Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…

  2. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  3. Temporality, trauma and care of repeat adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, Solenn; Mougli, Khaddouj

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the matter of repeat young offenders has raised questions for and bewildered the institutions caring for them. The temporality of these youngsters is ingrained in the current and urgent moment, and in the repetition of acts of delinquency, which preclude them from having a linear perception of time. This study reflects on the different temporalities with which institutions need to work and on how the judicial, educational, and psychological times can, by building bridges between the present and the past, help piece together the story of adolescents' lives. The personal history of each young offender contributes to explain his/her misbehavior. Acting out can symbolize childhood abuse. Thus, repetitive acts of delinquency should not be considered and treated as isolated acts of violence, which each time cause a rupture, but should be seen and as a whole. Repetition of acts of delinquency should prompt questioning about the past of young offenders-a past which is buried and which distorts their perception of present time, preventing them from projecting themselves into and making plans for the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Factor for felons: how can we provide haemophilia care to the incarcerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambing, A; Kachalsky, E; Mueller, L M; Kuriakose, P

    2015-11-01

    In 2011, 6.98-million offenders were documented in the adult correctional system, with state operating costs designated 12% towards medical care ($11.97 day per inmate) for the general population. Common co-existing health problems identified are: arthritis (13%), hypertension (11%), asthma (10%) and heart problems (6%). Less than 5% of inmates have health issues related to cancer, diabetes, liver or renal problems and communicable diseases. The leading cause of death is suicide (33.2%), followed by heart disease (26.1%). Despite these statistics quality is lacking. Given these statistics, one would expect that a small proportion of patients from Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) will spend some time within the justice system. Currently there are no data addressing haemophilia care needs while incarcerated. This article will review the current health care issues in the adult correctional system. Additionally, six case reports of incarcerated haemophiliacs will be highlighted exploring the successes and challenges with maintaining haemophilia care addressing the priority of meeting the haemophilia care needs verses the penal system regulations. It can be expected that at some point, the HTC will experience a patient incarcerated for some period of time. The HTC will continue to advocate for their patient within this system, despite the many challenges faced. Despite the challenges outlined, ongoing communication and education with the correctional system, education of the medical personnel and prison personnel remains the priority as we advocate for our patients. Continued strategies in these areas are paramount. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    diseases, Liver diseases, Cerebrovascular accident , non-Illnesses, and finally AIDS. 30% of inmates incarcerated in the WDOC die from Cancer while it is...are higher among WDOC inmates than the general U.S. population; while Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) are lower among WDOC inmates than the general

  6. Parental Incarceration and Child Mortality in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916

  7. Incarcerated women's HPV awareness, beliefs, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, Tyson; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore incarcerated women's awareness, beliefs, and experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination. Researchers conducted focus groups with 45 incarcerated women in an urban Midwestern US jail to assess how women talked about their Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening and abnormal Pap test follow-up experiences. Some focus group questions specifically assessed individual awareness, beliefs, and experiences with HPV infection and vaccination. Based on these data, the authors described participants' awareness of HPV, as well as used open coding to ultimately extract themes related to beliefs and experiences with HPV infection and vaccine. While all 45 participants reported experiencing an abnormal Pap test event within the last five years, only two-thirds of participants (n=30) reported having heard of the HPV infection. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the women's beliefs about cause and severity of HPV; frustration with age requirements of the vaccine; varied experiences with vaccinations for themselves and their children; the impact of media exposure on knowledge; and desire for more HPV infection and vaccine information. Incarcerated women's awareness and limited experiences with HPV infection and vaccination may be a barrier to adequate screening and cervical cancer prevention. This study has implications for the development of cervical health education for this high-risk group of women, who are four to five times as likely to have cervical cancer as non-incarcerated women.

  8. Legal status and source of offenders' firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-02-01

    Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.

  9. The intergenerational transmission of violent offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the intergenerational transmission and concentration of violent offending using conviction data of 3,440 persons from three consecutive generations from the Dutch Transfive study. Violent offending is more concentrated within nuclear families than non-violent offending,

  10. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-01-01

    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  12. Low Self-Control and the Victim-Offender Overlap: A Gendered Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexon, Jamie L; Meldrum, Ryan C; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    The overlap between victimization and offending is well documented. Yet, there have been fewer investigations of the reasons underlying this relationship. One possible, but understudied, explanation lies with Gottfredson and Hirschi's arguments regarding self-control. The current study adds to this line of inquiry by assessing whether low self-control accounts for the victim-offender overlap in a sample of young adults and whether self-control accounts for the observed overlap similarly across gender. Results from a series of bivariate probit regression models indicate that low self-control is positively related to both victimization and offending. However, only among males does low self-control account for a substantive portion of the victim-offender overlap. Limitations of the study and implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Reducing Ex-offender Health Disparities through the Affordable Care Act: Fostering Improved Health Care Access and Linkages to Integrated Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacreisha Ejike-King

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite steadily declining incarceration rates overall, racial and ethnic minorities, namely African Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, continue to be disproportionately represented in the justice system. Ex-offenders commonly reenter communities with pressing health conditions but encounter obstacles to accessing care and remaining in care. The lack of health insurance coverage and medical treatment emerge as the some of the most reported reentry health needs and may contribute to observed health disparities. Linking ex-offenders to care and services upon release increases the likelihood that they will remain in care and practice successful disease management. The Affordable Care Act (ACA offers opportunities to address health disparities experienced by the reentry population that places them at risk for negative health outcomes and recidivism. Coordinated efforts to link ex-offenders with these newly available opportunities may result in a trajectory for positive health and overall well-being as they reintegrate into society.

  14. Dysfunctional error-related processing in incarcerated youth with elevated psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J. Michael; Steele, Vaughn R.; Cope, Lora M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Stephen, Julia M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2016-01-01

    Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude. PMID:26930170

  15. Self-Reported Health Among Recently Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.

  16. Narcissism dimensions differentially moderate selective attention to evaluative stimuli in incarcerated offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Christopher; Newman, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder is associated with distinguishing traits including self-enhancement, arrogance and intense reactivity to ego threat. Theoretical accounts of narcissism suggest these heterogeneous behaviors reflect a defensive motivational style that functions to both uphold and protect the self-concept. However, the notion that narcissism can be characterized by grandiose and vulnerable dimensions raises the possibility that these diverse behaviors represent distinct express...

  17. Mass Incarceration, Parental Imprisonment, and the Great Recession: Intergenerational Sources of Severe Deprivation in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hagan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.

  18. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Offending prior to first psychiatric contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, H; Agerbo, E; Dean, K

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non-psychot......-psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between mental disorder and offending is present prior to illness onset in psychotic and non-psychotic disorders.......There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non...

  20. Predictive Accuracy of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version Risk and Change Scores in Treated Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.

  1. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    OpenAIRE

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and chil...

  2. Using mobile phone technology to provide recovery support for women offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christy K; Johnson, Kimberly; Dennis, Michael L

    2013-10-01

    Mobile technology holds promise as a recovery tool for people with substance use disorders. However, some populations who may benefit the most may not have access to or experience with mobile phones. Incarcerated women represent a group at high risk for recidivism and relapse to substance abuse. Cost-effective mechanisms must be in place to support their recovery upon release. This study explores using mobile technology as a recovery management tool for women offenders residing in the community following release from jail. This study surveyed 325 minority women offenders with substance use disorders to determine whether or not they use cell phones, their comfort with texting and search features, and the social networks that they access from mobile phones. We found that 83% of survey subjects had cell phones; 30% of those were smartphones. Seventy-seven percent of the women reported access to supportive friends, and 88% had close family members they contacted regularly using mobile technology. Results indicated that most of the women were comfortable using a mobile phone, although the majority of them had prepaid minutes rather than plans, and most did currently use smartphones or have the capability to download applications or access social networks via their phones. Most women reported that they would be comfortable using a mobile phone to text, e-mail, and answer surveys. The high rate of adoption of mobile technology by women offenders makes them a promising target for recovery support delivered via mobile phone.

  3. Identifying Gender Differences in an Australian Youth Offender Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane M. Shepherd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined gender differences in risk factors for violence in a sample of 213 male and female youths held in Youth Justice Centres in Victoria, Australia. Although violence risk factors are considered to be commensurate across gender, a growing body of international literature is categorizing gender-specific criminal trajectories. The study aimed to investigate this concept in an Australian juvenile context. Through the use of a widely validated youth violence risk assessment inventory, the prevalence of salient risk items was compared across gender. Young female offenders were found to present with higher levels of family dysfunction, peer rejection and self-injurious behavior reflecting international female offending pathways literature.

  4. PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The psychological assessment of offenders throughout the different stages in the juvenile justice system is essential. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests of psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a personological, i.e. generic tools, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b clinical, i.e. tools whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (which appears in this same issue. The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group.

  5. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  6. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  7. Substance Use among Youth with Currently and Formerly Incarcerated Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Parental incarceration impacts millions of children in the U.S. and has important consequences for youths’ adjustment. Children of incarcerated parents are at risk for a host of negative psychosocial outcomes, including substance abuse problems. Using data from a statewide survey of youth behavior, the effect of both present and past parental incarceration on youths’ report of their substance use behaviors was examined. Both present and past parental incarceration was significantly associated with use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription drugs, as well as substance abuse and dependence. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:29170570

  8. Colonial Discourse Surrounding the Incarceration of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... punishment as the ideal form of punishment for African offenders. On the one ..... useless nature of the work performed (i.e. stone breaking) was also seen as having a .... by training and educating him in habits of industry.

  9. Promoting Educational Resiliency in Youth with Incarcerated Parents: The Impact of Parental Incarceration, School Characteristics, and Connectedness on School Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.

  10. Parental Incarceration and Child Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Goldman, Alyssa W; Turney, Kristin

    2018-04-07

    Mass incarceration has profoundly restructured the life courses of not only marginalized adult men for whom this event is now so prevalent but also their families. We examined research published from 2000 to 2017 on the consequences of parental incarceration for child health in the United States. In addition to focusing on specific health outcomes, we also considered broader indicators of child well-being because there has been little research on the association between parental incarceration and objectively measured child health outcomes. Our findings support 4 conclusions. First, paternal incarceration is negatively associated-possibly causally so-with a range of child health and well-being indicators. Second, although some research has suggested a negative association between maternal incarceration and child health, the evidence on this front is mixed. Third, although the evidence for average effects of paternal incarceration on child health and well-being is strong, research has also suggested that some key factors moderate the association between paternal incarceration and child health and well-being. Finally, because of the unequal concentration of parental incarceration and the negative consequences this event has for children, mass incarceration has increased both intracountry inequality in child health in the United States and intercountry inequality in child health between the United States and other developed democracies. In light of these important findings, investment in data infrastructure-with emphasis on data sets that include reliable measures of parental incarceration and child health and data sets that facilitate causal inferences-is needed to understand the child health effects of parental incarceration.

  11. Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, K M; Seto, M C; Sariaslan, A; Lichtenstein, P; Fazel, S; Långström, N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.

  12. “All in the family?” : The Relationship Between Sibling Offending and Offending Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J.E.H.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between criminality of family members and individual offending. The main focus is on investigating the extent to which criminal offending by siblings is associated with individual offending, as well as the extent to which parental

  13. All in the family?” The relationship between sibling offending and offending risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J.; Bijleveld, C.; van de Weijer, S.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between criminality of family members and individual offending. The main focus is on investigating the extent to which criminal offending by siblings is associated with individual offending, as well as the extent to which parental

  14. "The Effects of Mixing Offenders with Non-Offenders: Findings from a Danish Quasi Experiment"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of mixing offenders with nonoffenders at Skejby half-way house in Denmark. Skejby halfway house constitutes an outstanding social experiment, as offenders are deliberately mixed with non-offenders in order to reduce their risk of recidivism. The treatment group...

  15. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  16. Effective Resources Supporting Healthy Sexual Behavior in Formerly Incarcerated Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…

  17. Falling Behind? Children's Early Grade Retention after Paternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Haskins, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature documents the myriad penalties for children of incarcerated fathers, but relatively little is known about how paternal incarceration contributes to educational outcomes in early and middle childhood. In this article, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide the first estimates of the…

  18. Paternal Incarceration and Support for Children in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Amanda; Garfinkel, Irwin; Western, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    High U.S. incarceration rates have motivated recent research on the negative effects of imprisonment on later employment, earnings, and family relationships. Because most men in jail and prison are fathers, a large number of children may be placed at considerable risk by policies of incarceration. This article examines one dimension of the economic risk faced by children of incarcerated fathers: the reduction in the financial support that they receive. We use a population-based sample of urban children to examine the effects of incarceration on this support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions indicate that formerly incarcerated men are less likely to contribute to their families, and those who do contribute provide significantly less. The negative effects of incarceration on fathers’ financial support are due not only to the low earnings of formerly incarcerated men but also to their increased likelihood to live apart from their children. Men contribute far less through child support (formal or informal) than they do when they share their earnings within their household, suggesting that the destabilizing effects of incarceration on family relationships place children at significant economic disadvantage. PMID:21318455

  19. Children of Incarcerated Parents: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsch, Priscilla; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent increase in prison populations has given rise to an unprecedented number of children in the school system with incarcerated parents. To cope with stressors before, during, or after parents' incarceration, children can exhibit a range of problematic and maladaptive behaviors. This article explores the negative behaviors these children…

  20. Children with Incarcerated Mothers: Developmental Outcomes, Special Challenges and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2007-01-01

    Incarcerated mothers represent a rapidly growing sector of the prison population. This review of the literature presents research examining the psychological and socio-emotional well-being of children with an incarcerated mother, highlighting risk and protective factors at different stages of children's development. Child outcomes are reviewed…

  1. Rights and Needs of Children of Incarcerated Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Cynthia L.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of witnessing and living with the arrest and incarceration of a parent is overwhelming for children and families. Numerous efforts have recently begun to assist youth who have a parent in prison. This article discusses two of them: the Children of Promise--Mentors of Hope mentoring program, and "The Children of Incarcerated Parents: A…

  2. Children's Contact with Their Incarcerated Parents: Research Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children,…

  3. Mental health of adolescents with currently and formerly incarcerated parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compared adolescents with a currently incarcerated parent to those with a formerly incarcerated parent and those with no history of parental incarceration on self-reported indicators of mental health, and examined whether strong parent-child relationships were protective against mental health concerns. Results indicate that adolescents with incarcerated parents are at elevated risk for mental health problems, and strong parent-child relationships partially buffer children from risk. Findings underscore the need for more investment in effective early interventions for adolescents in highly adverse contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.

  5. [Drug abuse in adolescent offenders: analysis of the psychosocial variables involved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Lourdes; Molina Banqueri, Virginia; Cano Lozano, Ma Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that drugs and delinquency are frequently linked, the abuse of various types of substance being a widespread practice among young offenders. At the same time, some psychosocial characteristics are associated with both drug abuse and criminal/antisocial behavior. To help us explore the relationship between young offenders' drug abuse and certain psychosocial variables, we examined closed judicial files on young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service in Jaen (Spain) corresponding to the period 2001 to 2010. From the contents of these judicial files we analyzed demographic variables such as gender and age, as well as psychosocial variables such as drug abuse, peer group, violent behavior, self-control, tolerance to frustration and attributional style. The results show that most of the young offenders use some type of drug, as well as revealing differential patterns of use according to gender. Also observed is a link between drug abuse and deviant peer group, violent behavior and the above-mentioned psychological variables. Finally, we found some differences in these psychological variables depending on the type of drug used.

  6. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  7. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

    2011-01-01

    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

  8. Analgesia and sedation practices for incarcerated inguinal hernias in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Khalid; Sulowski, Christopher; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2008-10-01

    In this study, the use of medications for analgesia and/or sedation for incarcerated inguinal hernia reductions in the emergency department was analyzed. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department with incarcerated inguinal hernia from 2002 to 2005. A total of 99 children presented with incarcerated hernias during the study period. The median age was 11 months. Forty-four percent of children received medication for the procedure, of them 75% received parenteral and 25% oral or intranasal medications. Forty-five percent of children who received medication went through at least 1 hernia reduction attempt initially without medications. More than half the children with incarcerated inguinal hernias did not receive any medication for pain and/or sedation prior to hernia reduction. Guidelines for medication use for children with incarcerated inguinal hernias need to be developed.

  9. Children’s Contact With Their Incarcerated Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children, incarcerated parents, caregivers, and professionals, parent– child contact during the imprisonment period is a key issue. In this article, we present a conceptual model to provide a framework within which to interpret findings about parent– child contact when parents are incarcerated. We then summarize recent research examining parent–child contact in context. On the basis of the research reviewed, we present initial recommendations for children’s contact with incarcerated parents and also suggest areas for future intervention and research with this vulnerable population. PMID:20822198

  10. An attachment perspective on incarcerated parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Poehlmann, Julie; Shaver, Phillip R

    2010-07-01

    The United States now incarcerates more people than any other country in the world (Pew Charitable Trust, 2008), and most of these incarcerated individuals have one or more children 18 years of age or younger (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Although the actual number is not known because the information is not systematically collected by jails, prisons, schools, child welfare agencies, or other organizations or institutions, a conservative estimate is that more than three million children are affected (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008; Western & Wildeman, 2009). In editing this special issue we had two major goals: (1) to introduce the many issues raised by parental incarceration to readers already grounded in attachment theory and research and (2) to highlight the importance of an attachment perspective to those who study and work with incarcerated parents. The contributors to this special issue present conceptual and empirical articles focusing on attachment issues related to incarcerated parents and their children. This introduction provides an overview of these contributions.

  11. Incarceration as forced migration: effects on selected community health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    We estimated the effects of high incarceration rates on rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies. We calculated correlations between rates of incarceration in state prisons and county jails and rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies for each of the 100 counties in North Carolina during 1995 to 2002. We also estimated increases in negative health outcomes associated with increases in incarceration rates using negative binomial regression analyses. Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies, adjusted for age, race, and poverty distributions by county, consistently increased with increasing incarceration rates. In the most extreme case, teenage pregnancies exhibited an increase of 71.61 per 100000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]=41.88, 101.35) in 1996 after an increase in the prison population rate from 223.31 to 468.58 per 100000 population in 1995. High rates of incarceration can have the unintended consequence of destabilizing communities and contributing to adverse health outcomes.

  12. Baby Elmo Leads Dads Back to the Nursery: How a Relationship-Based Intervention for Incarcerated Fathers Enhances Father and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeda, Benjamin; Smith, Kelly; Perkins, Emily; Simmons, Sydney; Cowan, Philip; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Although children's contact with involved, committed, nonresidential fathers can improve social, emotional, cognitive, and academic outcomes, fathers have largely been absent from parenting interventions that overlook men's role as a critical parenting partner. This article details research showing that young incarcerated fathers' attitudes…

  13. Incarcerated umbilical cord hernia containing the gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Kulungowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 16 day-old boy infant with an umbilical mass underwent operative exploration of the umbilicus. The mass proved to be a gallbladder incarcerated in a hernia of the umbilical cord. Distinguishing an omphalocele from an umbilical cord hernia is not obvious and can be arbitrary. Morphologically, the two terms both describe congenital abdominal wall defects covered by a membrane, typically containing abdominal organs. Subtle differences and clinical features between omphalocele and umbilical cord hernia are highlighted in this report.

  14. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  15. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692

  16. Parenting Styles, Prosocial, and Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Emotions in Offender and Non-offender Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Llorca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyse the parenting styles effects (acceptance, negative control and negligence on prosociality and aggressive behavior in adolescents through the mediator variables empathy and emotional instability, and also, if this model fits to the same extent when we study adolescents institutionalized due to problems with the law and adolescents from the general population, and at the same time, if the values of the different analyzed variables are similar in both groups of adolescents. We carried out a cross-sectional study. 220 participants from schools in the metropolitan area of Valencia took part in the study. Also, 220 young offenders took part recruited from four Youth Detention Centres of Valencia, in which they were carrying out court sentences. The age of the subjects range from 15-18 years. The results indicate that the emotional variables act as mediators in general, in the non-offender adolescents, but it has been observed, in the offender adolescents, a direct effect of support on aggressive behavior in a negative way and on prosociality in a positive way; and of negligence on aggressive behavior and of permissiveness on prosociality in a negative way.

  17. "How Can You Live without Your Kids?": Distancing from and Embracing the Stigma of "Incarcerated Mother."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Brittnie; McQueeny, Krista

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers.…

  18. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621

  19. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Nori J.

    1992-01-01

    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  20. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  1. Antisocial personalities: Measuring prevalence among offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...

  2. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  3. Removing the Ex-Offenders' Catch-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Timothy

    1975-01-01

    Describes problems persons with a criminal record encounter in attempting to locate a job. Describes the National Clearinghouse on Offender Employment Restrictions established in 1971 and the steps it is taking to change laws to make it easier for ex-offenders to obtain jobs. (EJT)

  4. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  5. Parental Incarceration and Child Sleep and Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether parental incarceration is significantly associated with a number of sleep and eating behaviors among offspring during early childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an at-risk sample of parents and their offspring, were employed to test this possibility. Both maternal and paternal incarceration history were examined as predictors of whether children manifested high levels of the following 7 health behaviors: sleep problems, short sleep duration, salty snack consumption, starch consumption, sweets consumption, soda consumption, and fast food consumption. Logistic regression techniques were used to carry out the analyses. Both maternal and paternal incarceration significantly increased the odds of a number of risky sleep and eating behaviors during childhood. Ancillary analysis also revealed that the predicted probability of exhibiting multiple risky behaviors across the sleep and eating domains was twice as large among children whose parents had both been incarcerated, relative to children whose parents had not been incarcerated. Parental incarceration may have important implications for the sleep and eating behaviors of offspring. Both scholars and practitioners may, therefore, want to consider the possible negative repercussions of parental incarceration for the sleep and eating behaviors of children, and the potential for these high-risk health behaviors to compromise the health and well-being of children as they age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  7. Children with Disabilities in Poor Households: Association with Juvenile and Adult Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Karen M Matta; Huang, Jin; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2010-06-01

    Disabled youths are arrested, adjudicated, and recidivate at higher rates than their nondisabled peers. Although multiple theories have been offered to explain the relationship between disability and delinquency, the empirical evidence is limited and contradictory. Little is known about how disability may be associated with offending once poverty and family risks like maltreatment are controlled for. Using administrative data from a Midwest state, this article discusses results from a Cox regression of juvenile and young adult offending outcomes for low income disabled compared with nondisabled youths (N = 1,568). Youths with disabilities had higher rates of juvenile court petitions than similarly low-income peers. In models of adult offending, there was no relationship between disability status and adult arrest, but youths who had received educational services for emotional disturbance or other categories of health impairment had higher risk of entering adult corrections.

  8. Phosphorous and proton spectroscopy in relation to near incarceration and incarceration of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, K.; Mortensen, A.C.; Toft, P.B.; Soerensen, M.B.; Madsen, F.F.; Henriksen, O.

    1994-01-01

    We report 3 cases of 31 P and 1 H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1 H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31 P-spectra were obtained using the chemical shift imaging technique. Medical treatment including controlled ventilation and sedation of the patients was carried out during the examination. The first patient was evaluated on days 6 and 10 after evacuation of an acute subdural haematoma. An intracranial pressure of 35 mm Hg was registered during the first examination. The 2nd patient had suffered a spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage and showed clinical signs of imminent incarceration during the examination. The 3rd patient showed clinical signs of incarceration just prior to the examination. In the 1st patient 1 H-MRS showed a 3-fold increase in the concentration of choline-containing compounds and a small decrease in N-acetyl aspartate from the 1st to the 2nd examination, which we interpret as a loss of neurones. In case 2 only small changes in metabolism could be detected, indicating that, despite signs of imminent clinical incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1 H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31 P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death. (orig.)

  9. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihad Tatar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection

  10. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J Mark

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents ( N =357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed.

  11. Detained Male Adolescent Offender's Emotional, Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Profiles and Their Associations to Psychiatric Disorders and Criminal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.

  12. Specialization in and within sexual offending in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip D; Barnett, Georgia D; Mann, Ruth E

    2014-06-01

    Existing evidence suggests that offenders tend not to specialize in sexual offending in general but that there is some specialization in particular types of sexual offending. This study examined the sexual histories and reoffending of a large, national data set of offenders convicted of a sexual offense and managed in England and Wales by the National Offender Management Service (N = 14,804). The study found that specialization in sexual offending compared to nonsexual offending was most evident for offenders with convictions for accessing indecent images. We also found considerable evidence of specialization within sexual offending, most notably for noncontact offenders, especially again indecent images offenders. Crossover between sexual offense types was very rare for those with contact adult offenses and for noncontact offenders although those with child contact offenses sometimes crossed over to indecent images reoffending. If specialization within sexual offending exists, the use of single risk assessment instruments to predict all types of sexual recidivism may be less effective than previously assumed. A comparison of different prediction models indicated that some items presently used in one-size-fits-all risk tools to predict any sexual reoffending only effectively predict certain subtypes of sexual offending. Statistically there appear to be some potential benefits to creating specialist risk predictors for different subtypes of offending, but further work is needed to justify the implementation demands that would be caused by abandoning one-size-fits-all tools.

  13. Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Becky L; Astemborski, Jacquie; Vlahov, David; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H

    2015-07-01

    There is limited longitudinal research examining incarceration and subsequent changes in drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. The objective of the current study was to characterize the frequency of incarceration and estimate the association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use among current and former PWIDs in one US city. ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) is a prospective cohort study of current and former PWIDs, with semi-annual follow-up occurring since 1988. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A total of 3245 participants with 48 738 study visits were included. Participants enrolled from 1988 to 2012 with a median of 13 follow-up visits per participant (Interquartile range = 7-25). Incarcerations were defined as any self-reported jail or prison stays in the previous 6 months that were ≥7 days or longer. The primary outcome was defined as any self-reported injection drug use in the previous 6 months. At baseline, 29% were female, 90% African American and 33% HIV-positive. Fifty-seven per cent of participants experienced at least one incarceration episode. After adjusting for confounders, there was a positive association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.59]; however, stratified analysis showed that the effect was restricted to those who were not injecting at the time of incarceration (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.88-2.37). In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847

  15. The Unequal Consequences of Mass Incarceration for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-02-01

    A growing literature has documented the mostly deleterious intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration, but less research has considered heterogeneity in these relationships. In this article, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,065) to estimate the heterogeneous relationship between paternal incarceration and children's problem behaviors (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and early juvenile delinquency) and cognitive skills (reading comprehension, math comprehension, and verbal ability) in middle childhood. Taking into account children's risk of experiencing paternal incarceration, measured by the social contexts in which children are embedded (e.g., father's residential status, poverty, neighborhood disadvantage) reveals that the consequences-across all outcomes except early juvenile delinquency-are more deleterious for children with relatively low risks of exposure to paternal incarceration than for children with relatively high risks of exposure to paternal incarceration. These findings suggest that the intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration are more complicated than documented in previous research and, more generally, suggest that research on family inequality consider both differential selection into treatments and differential responses to treatments.

  16. Controlling young people through treatment and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2015-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how both treatment and punishment is part of controlling young people involved in crime in the Danish welfare state. Lately there has been an increase in the use of confinement in young offenders institutions and thus a turn towards stricter punishments for crime. However......, treatment aiming at rehabilitation is still an integrated part of the system and the organization of the young offenders institutions. For the young people subjected to control both treatment and punishment are regarded as effective means of risk-control but there are also limitations and unintended results...

  17. Socialization Processes and Clergy Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.

  18. Restorative Justice conferencing and the youth offender: exploring the role of oral language competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela C; Sanger, Dixie D

    2011-01-01

    Restorative Justice is an approach to responding to youth offending that aims to be collaborative and conciliatory rather than adversarial. In this respect, it is a welcome innovation in justice, welfare, and educational settings, and is gaining favour around the world. To date, however, the Restorative Justice literature has not considered the possible implications of unidentified language impairment in the young offenders who are asked to participate in face-to-face conferences with their victim(s). The aims of this paper are (1) to bring two paradigms together: Restorative Justice on the one hand, and the literature on language and social cognition impairments in vulnerable and socially marginalized young people on the other; (2) to stimulate awareness and interest in this aspect of public policy and practice by speech-language pathologists; and (3) to suggest some research questions that need to be tackled from an oral language competence perspective. A narrative review of the relevant literature pertaining to both Restorative Justice and oral language competence in vulnerable young people was conducted, with particular emphasis on the implications of the undetected language impairments as a source of possible unintended harm to both victims and offenders in Restorative Justice conferences. This is the first paper that specifically addresses the oral language skills of vulnerable and socially marginalized young people with respect to their capacity to participate in Restorative Justice conferences. It is important that speech-language pathologists contribute their specialized knowledge and clinical skills to public policy-making and debate, and practice that pertains to marginalized young people who may have undetected oral language impairments. Speech-language pathology as a profession is well positioned to plan and execute important programmes of research on this growing approach to dealing with youth offending and reducing recidivism. © 2010 Royal College

  19. Child incarceration and long-term adult health outcomes: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Laura S; Tesema, Lello; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Nelson, Bergen B; Coker, Tumaini; Bath, Eraka; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J

    2018-03-12

    Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated. Findings Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated. Research limitations/implications Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population. Practical implications Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children's health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed. Social implications Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children. Originality/value No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.

  20. Locus of Control in Offenders and Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wendy; Leggett, Janice; Garrett, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Locus of control can be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders from the general population. However, there is little information regarding locus of control and offenders with learning disabilities. Existing measures of locus of control use complex language and abstract ideas that may not be accessible to individuals in this group. A…

  1. How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in Selected Police Cells and the Central Prison in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Regarding punishment, some respondents expressed a preference for the handling of rape cases within the community, suggesting that the sanctions for those cases were less severe than ...

  2. From B. F. Skinner to Spiderman to Martha Stewart: The Past, Present and Future of Electronic Monitoring of Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, William D.; Gable, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic monitoring was originally designed as a system to facilitate the rehabilitation of young adult offenders. The concept was not well-received, and the first judicially sanctioned program was not initiated until 20 years later. Adoption of the technology then spread rapidly. The primary use of monitoring has evolved from being an adjunct…

  3. The role of self-control and self-esteem and the impact of early risk factors among violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Gunda; Schneider, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Research on the role of self-esteem and self-control among violent offenders has so far yielded inconsistent findings. Certain factors, such as an adverse upbringing, foster development of delinquent behaviour, but it is less clear how this is mediated. Little is known about the interrelationship between self-control and self-esteem or factors that influence them. AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to examine the relevance of self-esteem and self-control as distinct characteristics of violent offenders, and of their interrelationship with biographical risk factors for violence. Data were obtained from interviews and psychological testing with 101 incarcerated violent male offenders. These violent men showed higher body-related self-esteem compared with a general population sample. There were no offence-specific differences for self-control. Self-esteem was associated with self-control on binary testing, but, when entered into a regression analysis with attention and cognitive factors together with established early childhood risk factors, only the variable 'family problems' was independently related to self-control. The findings stress the complex interrelation between self-control, self-esteem and early childhood risk factors for antisocial behaviour. The combination of low social self-esteem, high body-related self-esteem and history of parenting problems characterising the violent offenders raises testable questions about whether high body-related self-esteem and violence are means of compensating for low social self-esteem with origins in parental neglect, inconsistent or harsh discipline. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318

  5. Resiliency Programming for Adult Offenders in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, E. Frances

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resiliency programming as an alternative approach to program development for incarcerated adults, and describes a pilot project in a Georgia prison, Leadership Development, that uses the concept of resiliency to frame inmate education. Discusses implications of this model of correctional education. (SLD)

  6. Association of Cumulative Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Violent Offending With Suicide in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2018-02-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with an increased risk of suicide in young adulthood that might be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. Although adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, little is known about its role in the association between CA and suicide. To examine whether adolescent violent offending mediates the association between CA and suicide in early adulthood. This population-based, longitudinal cohort study with a follow-up time spanning 5 to 9 years included 476 103 individuals born in Sweden between 1984 and 1988. The study population was prospectively followed up from 20 years of age until December 31, 2013, with respect to suicide. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2013. Register-based CAs included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, parental criminal offending, parental separation, public assistance recipiency, child welfare intervention, and residential instability. Adolescent violent offending was defined as being convicted of a violent crime between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Estimates of risk of suicide after 20 years of age (from 2004 if born in 1984 and from 2008 if born in 1988) until the end of 2013 were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression analysis. Adjustments were made for demographics and psychiatric disorder. In addition, binary mediation analysis with logistic regression was used. A total of 476 103 individuals (231 699 [48.7%] female) were included in the study. Those with a conviction for violent offending had been exposed to all CAs to a greater extent than those with no violent offending. Cumulative CA was associated with risk of suicide in nonconvicted (adjusted IRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.9) and convicted youths, who had a higher risk of suicide (adjusted IRR, 8.5; 95% CI, 4.6-15.7). Adolescent violent offending partly mediated the association between CA and suicide. Individuals

  7. Incarceration and Women's Health: The Utility of Effective Health Education Programming--A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-James, Candace; Nunez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The health and well-being of incarcerated women is a significant public health concern. Compared with non-incarcerated women, incarcerated women in the United States are more often from minority populations, younger (between the ages of 18 and 34 years), of low socioeconomic status, unemployed and mothers to children under 18 years of age. More…

  8. 38 CFR 3.665 - Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the DIC not paid to an incarcerated surviving spouse or other children not in the surviving spouse... incarcerated child may be apportioned to the surviving spouse or other children. These apportionments shall be... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incarcerated...

  9. Saturday Morning at the Jail: Implications of Incarceration for Families and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditti, Joyce A.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer; Joest, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework that acknowledges the losses associated with a parent's incarceration, 56 caregivers visiting an incarcerated family member during children's visiting hours were interviewed. Problems believed to be created by incarceration included parenting strain, emotional stress, and concerns about children's loss of involvement…

  10. Evaluating the School Performance of Elementary and Middle School Children of Incarcerated Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Melissa F.

    2009-01-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are at significantly increased risk of negative long-term outcomes. With about 1% of the adult population incarcerated, the United States has millions of children at risk for these negative outcomes. Research on this population is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether children of incarcerated parents are…

  11. Understanding Unique Effects of Parental Incarceration on Children: Challenges, Progress, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Growth in U.S. incarceration rates during the 1980s and 1990s prompted a body of research focused on understanding the diverse effects of incarceration on individuals, families, and communities. An area of particular interest has been how the incarceration of a parent may affect child well-being. Despite what appears to be converging evidence that…

  12. Children's Antisocial Behavior, Mental Health, Drug Use, and Educational Performance After Parental Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P.; Sekol, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730

  13. Penitentiary Diagnosis of Crime Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiola Friedrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic standards of serving the punishment of imprisonment is its individualization, which means varying interactions consisting in adjusting them to the personality of the offender and the purposes of executing the sentence. A properly served psychological diagnosis, especially the penitentiary diagnosis, should describe the studied phenomenon well. The content of the penitentiary diagnosis should include a description of the clinical picture of an imprisoned person and basic social rehabilitation indications. The paper was written on the basis of literature on the subject, legislation and available research results. The aim of this paper is to characterize the diagnosis performed for the needs of justice, which is continuous and should be performed at every stage of imprisonment. The effect of a properly formed psychological and penitentiary decision should be the placement of a prisoner in a suitable type, kind of prison and appropriate system of serving imprisonment, followed by the correct selection of educational measures which may imply the efficiency and effectiveness of the punishment of imprisonment.

  14. Physical (Surgical) Castration as Treatment of Male Sex Offenders?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvain, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0026-9301 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : sex offenders * treatment of sex offenders * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2014

  15. Treatment of Male Sexual Offenders in a Correctional Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background and treatment perspectives for counselors and psychologists who treat or contemplate treatment of adult male sexual offenders in prison settings. Discusses identification, assessment, amenability to treatment, assessment instruments, and treatment of sexual offenders. (ABL)

  16. Laparoscopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mete; Hückstedt, Thomas; Schier, Felix

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the laparoscopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. After unsuccessful manual reduction, 29 patients (aged 3 weeks to 7 years; median, 10 weeks; 44 boys, 15 girls) with incarcerated inguinal hernia underwent immediate laparoscopy. The hernial content was reduced in a combined technique of external manual pressure and internal pulling by forceps. The bowel was inspected, and the hernia was repaired. In all patients, the procedure was successful. No conversion to the open approach was required. Immediate laparoscopic herniorrhaphy in the same session was added. No complications occurred. Laparoscopy allowed for simultaneous reduction under direct visual control, inspection of the incarcerated organ, and definitive repair of the hernia. Technically, it appears easier than the conventional approach because of the internal inguinal ring being widened by intraabdominal carbon dioxide insufflation. The hospital stay is shorter.

  17. Homelessness as viewed by incarcerated women: participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.

  18. Personal aspirations and concerns inventory for offenders: developments in the measurement of offenders' motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacqui; Sellen, Joselyn L; McMurran, Mary

    2010-04-01

    It is important to attend to offenders' motivation for treatment and behaviour change, either as a treatment selection criterion or a pre-treatment need. One measure of motivation that has been used with forensic populations is the Personal Concerns Inventory (PCI) and a PCI-Offender Adaptation (PCI-OA). As well as demonstrating promise in measuring offenders' motivation, the administration of the PCI and PCI-OA shows potential as a motivation enhancer. However, a number of potentially useful changes to the PCI-OA that may maximise its potential have been identified. These are described here. The rationale and process of abridgement and further development of the PCI-OA into the Personal Aspirations and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACI-O) are described. Results of a pilot study with 22 prisoners are reported. The pilot study aimed to assess the acceptability of the PACI-O with an offender population. Findings demonstrated that the interview took less time, although similar concerns were still identified, consistent with the previous PCI-OA. Consistency with previous evidence, together with positive feedback, suggests that the PACI-O was acceptable with an offender population. Future research is required to assess the psychometric properties of the PACI-O, and to evaluate its potential as an assessment of offender motivation.

  19. Personality and Background Characteristics of Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Edward E., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined personality and background characteristics of adolescent sexual offenders (n=21) and oppositional defiant adolescents (n=17) who completed High School Personality Questionnaire. Findings revealed no significant difference between offenders and oppositional defiant adolescents using multiple analysis of variance. Sex offenders tended to be…

  20. Effects of House Arrest with Electronic Monitoring on DUI Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…

  1. Health issues of incarcerated women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Mignon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world.

  2. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  3. Self-conscious emotions and criminal offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Stephen G

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the relation of personality traits--shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and pride--on offending behavior. Using survey data from a sample of 224 college students, the construct and criterion-related validity of scales of the Shame Proneness Scale, the Test of Self-conscious Affect, and the Personality Feelings Questionnaire-2 were assessed. Regression analyses showed that self-conscious emotions are important in the etiology of criminal offending. Specifically, rated pride was positively correlated with self-reported criminal activity, whereas ratings of guilt were negatively associated with offending. The relation of shame with criminality varied depending on the type of measure used to indicate proneness to shame.

  4. A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; Van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-02-01

    There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk.

  5. Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi; Kanters, Steve; Druyts, Eric; Toor, Kabirraaj; Muldoon, Katherine A; Farquhar, John W; Mills, Edward J

    2014-06-11

    Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated "years of life lost to incarceration" for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8-1443.4). The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.

  6. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  7. Beyond Boys’ Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children’s cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys’ behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented. PMID:28579646

  8. Parental Incarceration as a Risk Factor for Children in Homeless Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin C.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Masten, Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of children of incarcerated parents (COIP) in a sample of homeless/highly mobile children, examine the relationship between parental incarceration and other risk factors, and investigate the effect of parental incarceration on child academic and mental health outcomes. The authors compared COIP (n = 45) to children whose parents were never incarcerated (n = 93) within a sample of 138, 4- to 7-year-old ethnically diverse children residing in emergency homeless shelters. Children's caregivers provided information about children's history of parental incarceration and other family experiences. Children's teachers reported academic and mental health outcomes in the subsequent school year. Compared to children with no history of parental incarceration, COIP experienced more negative life events. Regression models revealed that a history of parental incarceration was a significant predictor of teacher-reported internalizing problems. These results have implications for the identification and treatment of the highest risk homeless/highly mobile children. PMID:26478648

  9. Hip Hop Voices in the era of Mass Incarceration: An examination of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Salmons, Patrick Jeremiah

    2017-01-01

    The United States has many problems currently, the most persistent of which is the issue of race, and the problem of Mass Incarceration. This thesis addresses what Mass Incarceration is, as well as developing a theoretical understanding of how to overcome Mass Incarceration through the music of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement. This thesis presents the questions: What is the era of Mass Incarceration? How does Kendrick Lamar's music inform the problems of Mass Incarceration?...

  10. Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…

  11. Group climate and empathy in a sample of incarcerated boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Stel, J.C.; van Langen, M.A.M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour and may therefore be vital for successful

  12. Evaluation of an Anger Therapy Intervention for Incarcerated Adult Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoy, Steven D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    An anger therapy intervention was developed for incarcerated adult males. The therapy was an extension of cognitive-behavioral approaches, incorporating principles and practices drawn from Buddhist psychology. Adult males from a Midwestern low-security prison were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (n= 16) or a waiting list control…

  13. Group climate and empathy in a sample of incarcerated boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer van der Helm PhD; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.C. van der Stel; M.A.M. van Langen; P.H. van der Laan

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour, and may therefore be vital for

  14. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated ...

  15. Psychological wellbeing of Dutch incarcerated women: importation or deprivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Menting, B.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates' psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive

  16. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  17. Idle Hands: Community Employment Experiences of Formerly Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the facility-to-community transition experiences--focusing specifically on employment--of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system. They gathered data on the sample while these youth were still in custody and then every 6 months through phone interviews to…

  18. Children's Family Environments and Intellectual Outcomes during Maternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers'…

  19. Representations of Attachment Relationships in Children of Incarcerated Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable…

  20. Attributions for Pride, Anger, and Guilt among Incarcerated Minority Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudley-Paul, Cynthia A.

    Two studies investigate causal attributions among minority adolescents. The first investigates attributions for the emotions of anger, pride, and guilt among 26 incarcerated male adolescents. Relatively few causes are found for anger and guilt, and a larger variety of causes are cited for pride. A follow-up study then compares causal attributions…

  1. Strategic Approach to Group Anger Management with Incarcerated Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Susan; Brown, Lillian G.

    1991-01-01

    Incarcerated male murderers manifested consistent changes in attitudes toward treatment efficacy and their culpability as function of participating in 12-week anger management groups. Four qualitatively different stages were evident during treatment as prisoners' resistive responses were actively encouraged: initial apathy, emerging interest in…

  2. Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan

    2018-04-23

    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Preliminary Findings on Men's Sexual Self-Schema and Sexual Offending: Differences Between Subtypes of Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.

  4. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group.

  5. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and simulated driving in DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-06-01

    The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured by using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. The systematic study of candidate cognitive deficits in DUI offenders will provide important

  6. Private vs. Public Care for Juvenile Offenders: A Qualitative Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of methods used by public and private institutions' handling of incarcerated delinquents. Concluded that organizational culture is key concept in delivery of services to incarcerated children and youth; that private sector provides alternative to public in delivery of services; that alcohol and drug treatment programs are…

  7. Individual, family and offence characteristics of high risk childhood offenders: comparing non-offending, one-time offending and re-offending Dutch-Moroccan migrant children in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Gonneke WJM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood offenders are at an increased risk for developing mental health, social and educational problems later in life. An early onset of offending is a strong predictor for future persistent offending. Childhood offenders from ethnic minority groups are a vulnerable at-risk group. However, up until now, no studies have focused on them. Aims To investigate which risk factors are associated with (re-offending of childhood offenders from an ethnic minority. Method Dutch-Moroccan boys, who were registered by the police in the year 2006-2007, and their parents as well as a control group (n = 40 were interviewed regarding their individual and family characteristics. Two years later a follow-up analysis of police data was conducted to identify one-time offenders (n = 65 and re-offenders (n = 35. Results All groups, including the controls, showed substantial problems. Single parenthood (OR 6.0 and financial problems (OR 3.9 distinguished one-time offenders from controls. Reading problems (OR 3.8, having an older brother (OR 5.5 and a parent having Dutch friends (OR 4.3 distinguished re-offenders from one-time offenders. First offence characteristics were not predictive for re-offending. The control group reported high levels of emotional problems (33.3%. Parents reported not needing help for their children but half of the re-offender's families were known to the Child Welfare Agency, mostly in a juridical framework. Conclusion The Moroccan subgroup of childhood offenders has substantial problems that might hamper healthy development. Interventions should focus on reaching these families tailored to their needs and expectations using a multi-system approach.

  8. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  9. Strategies of Intervention with Public Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaneles, Sol, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews intervention strategies with public offenders, including learning therapy, education, group assertive training, and the use of volunteers. The l0 articles deal with inmates' rights in terms of health care and psychotherapy, and evaluation of social programs, and a psychodrama program description/model. (JAC)

  10. Is Coersive Treatment of Offenders Morally Acceptable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable to instigate criminal offenders to participate in rehabilitative treatment by offering treatment in return for early release from prison? Some theorists have supported such treatment schemes by pointing to the beneficial consequences that follow from the treatment. Others...

  11. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background: By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures...

  12. Creating Hope for Life-Sentenced Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Rick; Broom, Ian; Young, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Offenders sentenced to terms of life imprisonment pose special challenges for correctional systems. The Correctional Service of Canada collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to develop programmatic interventions to better prepare this population to survive their prison sentences and transition to the community. This study describes the…

  13. The Mentally Retarded Offender and Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamour, Miles; West, Bernadette

    The booklet provides an overview of the issues involved in correctional rehabilitation for the mentally retarded offender. Reviewed are clinical and legal definitions of criminal behavior and retardation, and discussed are such issues as law enforcement and court proceedings problems, pros and cons of special facilities, labeling, normalization,…

  14. Assessment of implicit sexual associations in non-incarcerated pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Matthijs L; van Baaren, Rick B; Chakhssi, Farid; Loonen, Marijke G M; Lippman, Maarten; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2013-11-01

    Offences committed by pedophiles are crimes that evoke serious public concern and outrage. Although recent research using implicit measures has shown promise in detecting deviant sexual associations, the discriminatory and predictive quality of implicit tasks has not yet surpassed traditional assessment methods such as questionnaires and phallometry. The current research extended previous findings by examining whether a combination of two implicit tasks, the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Picture Association Task (PAT), was capable of differentiating pedophiles from non-pedophiles, and whether the PAT, which allows separate analysis for male, female, boy and girl stimulus categories, was more sensitive to specific sexual associations in pedophiles than the IAT. A total of 20 male self-reported pedophiles (10 offender and 10 non-offenders) and 20 male self-reported heterosexual controls completed the two implicit measures. Results indicated that the combination of both tasks produced the strongest results to date in detecting implicit pedophilic preferences (AUC = .97). Additionally, the PAT showed promise in decomposing the sexual associations in pedophiles. Interestingly, as there was an equal distribution of offenders and non-offenders in the pedophile group, it was possible to test for implicit association differences between these groups. This comparison showed no clear link between having these implicit sexual associations and actual offending.

  15. Atuação do psicólogo com adolescentes em conflito com a lei: a experiência do Canadá El trabajo del psicólogo con adolescentes en conflicto con la Ley: la experiencia del Canadá Psychologist' work with young offenders: the experience of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Eduardo Gallo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta o relato de experiência da atuação do psicólogo no sistema de justiça canadense, especialmente no caso de adolescentes em conflito com a lei. É apresentada uma comparação entre o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente e leis semelhantes do Canadá, intituladas Youth Criminal Justice Act. São apresentados os procedimentos de avaliação biopsicossocial do adolescente, assim como a execução das medidas socioeducativas chamadas medidas alternativas. Embora a execução das medidas alternativas seja parecida entre os dois países, os índices de violência no Canadá são expressivamente menores do que no Brasil, o que evidencia que não são as medidas de caráter judicial que, isoladamente, reduzem a violência, mas uma série de fatores sociopolíticos, educacionais e culturais envolvidos.El presente artículo expone el relato de una experiencia de actuación del Psicólogo en el sistema judicial canadiense, especialmente en casos de adolescentes en conflicto con la Ley. Es presentada una comparación entre el " Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente" y las leyes semejantes en Canadá, tituladas Youth Criminal Justice Act. Se presentan los procedimientos de evaluación bio-psicosocial del adolescente, así como la ejecución de las medidas socioeducativas, llamadas de medidas alternativas. La ejecución de las medidas alternativas, aunque sea parecida con la brasilera, los índices de violencia en Canadá son expresivamente menores que los de Brasil, lo que evidencia que no son solamente las medias de carácter judicial que reducen la violencia, sino una serie de factores sociopolíticos, educacionales y culturales envolvimos.Current research presents an experience report of a psychologist working within the Canadian justice system with young offenders. A comparison between the Brazilian Child and Adolescent Statute and Canadian similar laws, called Youth Criminal Justice Act is provided. Procedures for the

  16. Offending and Victimization in the Digital Age : Comparing Correlates of Cybercrime and Traditional Offending-Only, Victimization-Only and the Victimization-Offending Overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, Marleen Weulen; Holt, Thomas J.; van Gelder, Jean Louis

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime research suggests that, analogous to traditional crime, victims are more likely to be offenders. This overlap could be caused by shared risk factors, but it is unclear if these are comparable to traditional risk factors. Utilizing a high risk sample of computer-dependent cyber-offenders

  17. An Exploratory Study Examining Risk Communication among Adolescent Children, Their Incarcerated Mothers, and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Alyssa G; Holliday, Rhonda C; DeHart, Dana D; Lewis, Kaleea; Rutherford, Yamisha; Amutah, Ndidi N

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent children of incarcerated mothers (ACIM) are typically left in the care of adults (primary caregivers) who play a crucial role in children's care and guidance, as well as in the facilitation of contact and communication with incarcerated mothers. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of relationships and communication among adolescent children of incarcerated mothers, primary caregivers, and incarcerated mothers using pilot data. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with youth aged 12-17 (n=7) and caregivers (n=6) recruited through a non-profit organization working with incarcerated mothers and their children. Incarcerated mothers and primary caregivers represent an important family unit for ACIMs and may play a role in preventing risk behavior. A conceptual framework is offered for further consideration of mother and caregiver communication with youth and youth risk.

  18. The role of theory in the assessment of sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Ray E

    2003-01-01

    No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system, social service agencies, and other consumers and providers of sex offender assessments be aware of both what is possible to learn about an offender as well as the limitations on that knowledge and its application. Prominent theories that influence the assessment of offenders in North America and Europe are presented and examined. Uses and limitations of each theory are discussed. Several trends emerge which could influence the future of sex offender assessment, treatment, management, and policy.

  19. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim.

  20. Impact of forced separation policy on incarcerated postpartum mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Angelina N

    2009-08-01

    The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies. Qualitative data analysis produced four relational themes: (a) "a love connection," (b) "everything was great until I birthed," (c) "feeling empty and missing a part of me," and (d) "I don't try to think too far in advance." Results of this qualitative study provide information to professionals exploring gender-sensitive prison policies for the growing female population.

  1. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: the conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-07-01

    While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12-19 years; M=15.6; SD=1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased re-conviction rates of DUI offenders with intensive supervision and home confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, William D; Fisher, Virginia; Hynes, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    In some jurisdictions, persons who are convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are allowed to serve some portion of their prison sentence under home confinement as part of Intensive Supervision Programs (ISPs) which include pre-release psycho-education and close post-release supervision. Test the hypothesis that persons convicted of DUI offenses who have spent some portion of their sentence under home confinement, as compared to a historical comparison group, will exhibit a relatively low re-conviction rate. Using administrative data for 1,410 repeat DUI offenders (302 members of the historical comparison group, 948 ISP members, and 160 persons who appear in both groups at different points in time), with a follow-up period of up to 3 years and 10 months, a marginal Cox model was employed to compare conviction rates of persons who experienced intensive supervision and home confinement with historical comparison group members. Persons with ISP + home confinement experience a re-conviction rate that is less than half that observed in the comparison group. Age, ethnicity (white vs. non-white), and gender are also significant predictors of re-conviction. Home confinement, in conjunction with psycho-education and other program elements, is one means of reducing the costs of incarceration. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to cost savings, states may realize a public safety benefit in the form of a reduction in DUI offense rates.

  3. Children’s Contact With Their Incarcerated Parents: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children, incarcerated parents, caregivers, and professionals, parent– child contact during the imprisonment period is a key issue. In this article, we present a concept...

  4. [Non-incarcerated inguinal hernia in children: operation within 7 days not necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, L; Hamming, J F; Oostvogel, H J M

    2005-01-29

    To assess the necessity to operate on non-incarcerated inguinal hernia in children within 7 days of diagnosis. Retrospective. Data on 360 children, 0-10 years old (104 girls and 256 boys) who were operated on for inguinal hernia between 1 January 1993-31 December 2001 at the St. Elisabeth Hospital in Tilburg, the Netherlands, were collected from the medical records. These data included sex, age, interval between diagnosis and repair, recurrence, incarceration, length of hospitalisation and complications. In the group of 113 children 0-1 years old, 137 inguinal hernias were repaired, ofwhich 16 were incarcerated on presentation. The interval between diagnosis and repair was known in 93 of 121 cases: 37 hernias were repaired within 7 days and 56 at a later stage. In the latter group, there was one case of secondary incarceration (1.8%; 95% CI: 0-5.4). The number needed to treat was 56. In the group of 247 children 1-10 years old, 269 inguinal hernias were repaired, of which 8 were primarily incarcerated. The interval between diagnosis and repair was known in 208 of 261 cases: 34 hernias were repaired within 7 days and 174 at a later stage. In the latter group, 3 hernias incarcerated secondarily (1.7%; 95% CI: 0-3.7). The number needed to treat was 58. In the group of non-incarcerated hernias 1 complication occurred, in the group of incarcerated hernias none. The mean length of hospitalisation of children with non-incarcerated hernia was 0.85 days, and of children with incarcerated hernia 2.4 days. In children with a non-incarcerated inguinal hernia who are waiting for an operation, the risk of secondary incarceration and complications is 2% which we do not think is enough reason to carry out an elective hernia-repair procedure within 7 days.

  5. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for life-long neurological decline

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99(73%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adult...

  6. Defining Probability in Sex Offender Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    There is ongoing debate and confusion over using actuarial scales to predict individuals' risk of sexual recidivism. Much of the debate comes from not distinguishing Frequentist from Bayesian definitions of probability. Much of the confusion comes from applying Frequentist probability to individuals' risk. By definition, only Bayesian probability can be applied to the single case. The Bayesian concept of probability resolves most of the confusion and much of the debate in sex offender risk assessment. Although Bayesian probability is well accepted in risk assessment generally, it has not been widely used to assess the risk of sex offenders. I review the two concepts of probability and show how the Bayesian view alone provides a coherent scheme to conceptualize individuals' risk of sexual recidivism.

  7. Incarcerated umbilical hernia leading to small bowel ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2011-09-19

    A 59-year-old male with history of hepatitis C, refractory ascites requiring multiple paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement presented to the emergency department with 2 days of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 104/66 and pulse of 94. The abdomen was remarkable for distention and a tender incarcerated umbilical hernia. The skin overlying the hernia was pale with areas of necrosis. The patient immediately underwent laparotomy which was successful.

  8. Physicians in US Prisons in the Era of Mass Incarceration

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Scott A.; Wakeman, Sarah E.; Cohen, Robert L.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2010-01-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world’s prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve cli...

  9. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the ...

  10. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

  11. Dental triage Hydebank Wood Prison and young offenders centre, Belfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R; Fawcett, T

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to devise and test a triage protocol to prioritise patients' dental needs in a prison environment. Secondary aims were to include in the triage process oral health promotion and information about accessing prison dental services. Also to work collaboratively with the prison staff to improve referrals to the dental services. The triage system was devised to have three strands: (1) an oral health assessment conducted by the dental nurse during the induction process for each new prisoner; (2) a simple oral health examination conducted in monthly screening clinics; (3) the prioritisation of referrals from prison landing staff using the prisons computer system PRISM. The triage was evaluated by assessing the first 100 patients' records with regard to the prioritisation of the triage category at the time of the clinical dental examination. Of the 100 patients triaged 95% were prioritised into the correct triage category. Seventy-two percent of patients were seen in the appropriate timeframe. Referral patterns from prison landing staff were improved along with interdisciplinary working in the prison. All new prisoners were seen within 72 hours of committal and received oral health advice and information on accessing dental services. This is the first triage system to be introduced into Hydebank Wood Prison, facilitating a targeted approach to dental care. It has improved access to the prison dental services; introduced oral health advice and information into the regular prison healthcare structure; and improved the efficiency of the clinical dental sessions. It is hoped to strategically address problems with waiting times and inequity in service utilisation.

  12. Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.

  13. Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD in Incarcerated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillani, Sarah; Patel, Prina; Trestman, Robert; Kamath, Jayesh

    2016-06-01

    Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Evidence suggests that adolescents with ADHD have a higher risk of arrest and incarceration during adulthood. The present report examines evidence related to efficacy of atomoxetine, a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of adolescent ADHD, and presents data from a case series evaluating the effectiveness of atomoxetine for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the Connecticut correctional setting. The results from the case series suggest that atomoxetine is effective for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the context of significant past substance use. In summary, adolescents with ADHD have an elevated risk of incarceration and developing substance use disorders. The present review and pilot case series suggest that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for adolescents with ADHD in the correctional setting. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. Acute testicular ischemia caused by incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert C; Towbin, Alexander J

    2012-02-01

    Acute testicular ischemia caused by an incarcerated inguinal hernia usually affects infants. There are few reports of diagnosis using US, and the effect of long-standing reducible hernias on testicular growth in infants and children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of testicular ischemia secondary to an incarcerated inguinal hernia at scrotal sonography and to determine the effect on testicular size at diagnosis. A hospital database was used to locate scrotal sonography examinations documenting an inguinal hernia, and images were reviewed for signs of testicular ischemia. Testicular volumes were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A total of 147 patients were identified with an inguinal hernia (age 1 day to 23 years, average 6 years). Ten patients (6.8%) had associated testicular ischemia (age 3 weeks to 6 months, average 9 weeks) and showed a statistically significant increase in ipsilateral testicular size compared to the contralateral testicle (P = 0.012). Patients without testicular ischemia did not show a significant difference in testicular size, regardless of patient age. An incarcerated inguinal hernia should be considered as a cause of acute testicular ischemia in infants younger than 6 months of age.

  15. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Haskins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  17. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2014-04-01

    Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  18. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span.

  19. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for life-long neurological decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99(73%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their lifespan. PMID:26788781

  20. Positive, negative, or null? The effects of maternal incarceration on children's behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Turney, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to consider the effects of maternal incarceration on 21 caregiver- and teacher-reported behavioral problems among 9-year-old children. The results suggest three primary conclusions. First, children of incarcerated mothers are a disadvantaged group that exhibit high levels of caregiver- and teacher-reported behavioral problems. Second, after we adjust for selection, the effects of maternal incarceration on children's behavioral problems are consistently null (for 19 of 21 outcomes) and rarely positive (1 of 21) or negative (1 of 21), suggesting that the poor outcomes of these children are driven by disadvantages preceding maternal incarceration rather than incarceration. These effects, however, vary across race/ethnicity, with maternal incarceration diminishing caregiver-reported behavioral problems among non-Hispanic whites. Finally, in models considering both maternal and paternal incarceration, paternal incarceration is associated with more behavioral problems, which is consistent with previous research and suggests that the null effects of maternal incarceration are not artifacts of our sample or analytic decisions.

  1. Fear and Loathing in the News: A Qualitative Analysis of Canadian Print News Coverage of Youthful Offending in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article reports research findings on the representations of youth crime and of young lawbreakers in Canadian print media. The examination of a subset of the sample of news items shows that several themes emerge in the historical discussion of youthful offending in the news. Firstly, the prevailing portrayal of youth crime is that it is to be…

  2. Community Reintegration Outcomes for Formerly Incarcerated Adolescent Fathers and Nonfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Data from the study, Transition Research on Adjudicated Youth in Community Settings, were used to examine community integration outcomes for the subgroup of adolescent fathers. Juvenile offenders who were fathers were found to return to the correctional system at a higher rate than nonfathers, but fathers who remained in the community were…

  3. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-06-01

    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  4. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sociodemographic Predictors of Sex Offender Stigma: How Politics Impact Attitudes, Social Distance, and Perceptions of Sex Offender Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Joseph S; Vaccaro, John; Rudnik, Amalia; Graham, Nicole; Giannicchi, Anna; Yanos, Philip T

    2017-08-01

    Stigma toward general criminal offenders has been found to be particularly salient among community members who identify as politically conservative; however, less is known about how political identification relates to stigma toward sex offenders. This is a particularly important area of inquiry, given that criminal jurisprudence and politics legitimatize stigmatizing labels attributed to sex offenders through laws and policies that apply specifically to this group. A nonrandom sample ( N = 518) of participants living in the United States was recruited for this survey study. Findings indicated that a specific aspect of conservative political ideology-right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)-significantly predicts negative attitudes and intended social distancing behavior toward sex offenders, even when controlling for other important predictors, such as education and prior contact. RWA was found to be the strongest predictor of negative attitudes and estimations of sex offender recidivism, and also significantly predicted intended social distancing behavior. Implications for addressing stigma toward sex offenders are discussed.

  6. SOME METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF THE INDIVIDUAL OFFENDER IN RELATION TO THE CONCEPT OF "OFFENDER"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novichkov Valery Evgenyevich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses traditional and non-traditional, but scientifically sound and valid methodological approaches to the study of the individual offender and the offender in their relationship. In particular, substantiate the position criminological approach to the study of criminal behavior of the person and his personality in connection with the set of its biological, physiological, psychological, genetic, "from the outside coming" and other properties and qualities, and in criminal law the offender is to be regarded as persons subject to criminal liability and to include among the currently known characteristics of the individual offender, only those that are covered by the notion "subject of crime". In General, studying the phenomena of the terms "offender" and "offender" should not ignore the data on the "biologization" and "sociological" man, and passing his brain biochemical processes producing motives, feelings, motives, needs etc.

  7. Parent-child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories. A developmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7–19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending trajectories. Developmental changes in child reports of parent-child joint activities and relationship quality were examined using Latent Growth Curves. Results Five offending trajectories were found: non-offenders, moderate childhood offenders, adolescent-limited offenders, serious childhood offenders, and serious persistent offenders. Non-offenders reported high and stable levels of relationship quality between age 10 and 16. Adolescent-limited offenders reported a similarly high relationship quality as non-offenders at ages 7 and 10, but a lower and decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Compared with non-offenders, serious persistent offenders reported poorer parent-child relationship quality at all ages, and a decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Serious persistent offenders and adolescent-limited offenders reported similar levels and changes in parent-child relationship quality in adolescence. Although serious persistent offenders reported fewer joint activities at age 10 and 13 than non-offenders, a similar linear decrease in joint activities in early to middle adolescence was found for boys in each trajectory. Conclusion Developmental changes in parent-child relationship quality differ for different types of offenders. This finding has scientific and practical implications. PMID:22816682

  8. THE LIFE EXPERIENCES OF ADOLESCENT SEXUAL OFFENDERS: FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OFFENDING BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis

  9. [Studying dysfunctional personality trends among sex offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, M; Bénony, H; Chahraoui, K; Juif, C

    2014-10-01

    A review of the literature reveals a consensus on the high prevalence of personality disorders among sexual offenders. Studies show that there is no unique personality profile for sex offenders. In France, little research has been conducted on this population with standardized assessment tools. The objective of the present study is to identify the distribution of personality disorders among sexual offenders using a new French questionnaire, i.e. the TD12. In view of the literature, we postulate that this tool will identify the diversity of personality disorders observed by various authors, but with a higher proportion of cluster B disorders. This study was conducted among 56 men, including 28 sex offenders aged from 21 to 70 years old, and a control group of 28 men without psychiatric disorders. The sex offenders in this study are men convicted or charged with sex offenses of various kinds: exhibitionism, the recording, distribution and possession of pornography depicting minors, aggravated corruption of a minor, sexual assault of a minor, or rape of a minor. They were examined using an inventory of dysfunctional trends recently developed by Rolland and Pichot with the aim of assessing dysfunctional personality styles. The TD-12 questionnaire is composed of 140 items describing thoughts, feelings and behaviors. It is based on the diagnostic criteria of Axis II of DSM IV-TR and consists of twelve scales that match the personality disorders described in this diagnostic manual (ten officially recognized disorders and two additional disorders). From a categorical viewpoint, results indicate rigid dysfunctional trends with regard to avoidant personality disorder in sex offenders compared to the control group (Chi(2)=9.16; P=0.005). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the number of rigid dysfunctional trends. Potentially controllable dysfunctional personality trends are identified for the dependent personality (Chi(2

  10. Sexual risk behaviours associated with unlicensed driving among young adults in Miami's electronic dance music nightclub scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Paul, Roddia J

    2017-11-01

    Literature indicates that unlicensed driving (UD) offenders report substance use risk behaviours, yet data related to sexual risk behaviours is unknown. This study examined sexual and other risk behaviours among young adults in Miami, Florida, comparing UD and non-UD offenders (n=498). Compared with others, UD offenders were more likely to report group sex history, being high for sex half the time or more, purchasing sex and sexually transmissible infection history. Results suggest that locating sexual risk reduction interventions inside of the justice system would benefit UD offenders.

  11. Clarifying associations between psychopathy facets and personality disorders among offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klipfel, Kristen M.; Garofalo, C.; Kosson, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study examined bivariate, unique, and multivariate associations between psychopathy facets and other Personality Disorders (PDs). Method 76 incarcerated males were assessed with clinical interviews measuring psychopathy and DSM-5 PDs. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was used to

  12. Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

  13. Toward a quantitative typology of burglars: a latent profile analysis of career offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Beaver, Kevin M; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-11-01

    Burglary is a serious, costly, and prevalent crime but prior typologies of burglars are mostly speculative and based on qualitative data. Using a sample of 456 adult career criminals, the current study used latent profile analysis to construct a methodologically rigorous quantitative typology. Four classes of burglars emerged: young versatile, vagrant, drug-oriented, and sexual predators. All groups demonstrated significant involvement in varied forms of crime, but the sexual predator group was the most violent and had the most serious criminal careers. Connections to the criminal career literature are offered and suggestions for further empirical study of offender typologies are discussed.

  14. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  15. Alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sanders, T.

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the focus on sex offending in recent years. This has occurred in both the academic and the public spheres. In attempting to understand sexual offending, this collection recognizes two different discourses that currently operate in relation to sex crime. At

  16. Effects of Psychoeducation for Offenders in a Community Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Albert K.; Shively, Randy; Horn, Mary; Landau, Jennifer; Barriga, Alvaro; Gibbs, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study provided a randomized outcome evaluation of the psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program. The psychoeducational curriculum was implemented in a community correctional facility for adult felony offenders. The psychoeducational curriculum is designed to remedy offenders' delays in moral judgment maturity, social cognitive…

  17. A critical review of objective personality inventories with sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P

    2010-12-01

    This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  19. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  20. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities : Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present

  1. Children of Incarcerated Parents: Cumulative Risk and Children's Living Arrangements. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth Inez; Waldfogel, Jane

    This paper examines risk factors that exist in the lives of incarcerated parents and their children, focusing on the living arrangements of the children. It uses data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities to address three issues: risk factors present in the lives of incarcerated parents and their children,…

  2. Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers: A Comparison of Risks for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigates differences between inmate mothers' and fathers' reported rates of incarceration for family members, adult children, predictors of adult children's incarceration, and living situations of minor children. Participants included 6,146 inmates who participated in the U.S. Department of Justice Survey of Inmates in State…

  3. Children of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Caregivers: Factors Affecting the Quality of Their Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.; Kennon, Suzanne S.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the quality of the relationship between children of incarcerated mothers and their kinship caregivers, to investigate whether perceived levels of warmth and acceptance were related to assessments of the children's behaviors. The sample consisted of 69 children (6 to 12 years) with currently incarcerated mothers who attended a…

  4. The well-being of children of incarcerated mothers: An exploratory study for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hissel, S.C.E.M.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Kruttschnitt, C.

    2011-01-01

    Little empirical research exists on children whose mothers are incarcerated. We examined Dutch children's experiences regarding their mother's incarceration, using a mixed methods approach. We found that, although children stay in various care-giving situations, a large proportion of them were

  5. Parental Incarceration and Multiple Risk Experiences: Effects on Family Dynamics and Children's Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2010-01-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental…

  6. Arrested motherhood : Parenting, cognitive distortions, and depressive symptoms in mothers being released from incarceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, A.T.A.; Orobio De Castro, B.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The present study examines cognitive and emotional problems in mothers being released from incarceration. Design. Participants were 98 mothers who were about to be released or had just been released from incarceration, and 63 comparison mothers from disadvantaged areas with low

  7. Mentoring Children with Incarcerated Parents: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie; Coffino, Brianna; Hanneman, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children and families who were participating in a mentoring program targeting children with incarcerated parents. Using multiple methods and informants, we explored the development of the mentoring relationship, challenges and benefits of mentoring children with incarcerated parents, and match termination in 57 mentor-child dyads.…

  8. As fathers and felons: explaining the effects of current and recent incarceration on major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher; Schnittker, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic increases in the American imprisonment rate since the mid-1970s have important implications for the life chances of minority men with low educational attainment, including for their health. Although a large literature has considered the collateral consequences of incarceration for a variety of outcomes, studies concerned with health have several limitations: Most focus exclusively on physical health; those concerned with mental health only consider current incarceration or previous incarceration, but never both; some are cross-sectional; many fail to consider mechanisms; and virtually all neglect the role of family processes, thereby overlooking the social roles current and former prisoners inhabit. In this article, we use stress process theory to extend this research by first considering the association between incarceration and major depression and then considering potential mechanisms that explain this association. Results from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,107) show current and recent incarceration are substantially associated with the risk of major depression, suggesting both immediate and short-term implications. In addition, consistent with stress proliferation theory, the results show the well-known consequences of incarceration for socioeconomic status and family functioning partly explain these associations, suggesting the link between incarceration and depression depends heavily on the consequences of incarceration for economic and social reintegration, not only the direct psychological consequences of confinement.

  9. Misidentifying the Effects of Parental Incarceration? A Comment on Johnson and Easterling (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Wakefield, Sara; Turney, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In a recent "Journal of Marriage and Family" article, Johnson and Easterling (2012) reviewed research on the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being, focusing on the various conceptual frameworks linking parental incarceration and child well-being and the "important methodological and conceptual challenges related to selection bias"…

  10. The Prison Is Another Country: Incarcerated Students and (Im)Mobility in Australian Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…

  11. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…

  12. Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: effects on family dynamics and children's delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H

    2010-12-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.

  13. The Political Construction of Alternative Dispute Resolution and Alternatives to Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Dennis J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of evaluations of mediation programs at seven sites and of shock incarceration and home arrest focuses on the similarities in the interpretations of alternative dispute-resolution programs to interpretations of alternatives to incarceration programs. The political construction of the two approaches, which are both designed to…

  14. A Prisoners' Island: Teaching Australian Incarcerated Students in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Susan; Farley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    While incarcerated students have always faced many obstacles to full and effective participation in university study, the global shift toward paperless e-learning environments has created new challenges for prisoners without direct internet access. Based on prison focus groups with Australian incarcerated students and direct participant…

  15. Stroop tasks reveal abnormal selective attention among psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Kristina D; Schmitt, William A; Newman, Joseph P

    2004-01-01

    Selective attention among offenders with psychopathy was investigated using 3 Stroop paradigms: a standard color-word (CW) Stroop, a picture-word (PW) Stroop, and a color-word Stroop in which the word and color were spatially separated (separated CW). Consistent with "overselective" attention, offenders with psychopathy displayed reduced Stroop interference on the separated CW and PW tasks relative to offenders who were not psychopathic. However, offenders with psychopathy displayed normal Stroop interference on the standard CW Stroop. Further, the reduced interference of offenders with psychopathy on the separated CW Stroop was accompanied by normal facilitation. These findings suggest a circumscribed attentional deficit in psychopathy that hinders the use of unattended information that is (a) not integrated with deliberately attended information and (b) not compatible with current goal-directed behavior. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  16. Isolation, gratification, justification: offenders' explanations of child molesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Louanne

    2003-01-01

    Child sexual abusers' descriptions of their thoughts, behaviors, and relationships were identified by reviewing qualitative research studies published between 1982 and 2001. Offenders used cognitive distortions to meet personal needs, protect themselves from aversive self-awareness, and overcome internal inhibitions against engaging children in sexual activity. Offenders carefully groomed their victims by systematically separating them from their families and peers and socializing them into sexual relationships. Specific cognitive and behavioral processes were used to translate sexual arousal into offending behavior. Offenders justified the abuse by making excuses and redefining their actions as love and mutuality. Throughout the process, offenders exploited the power imbalance inherent in all adult-child relationships. The participants in these studies provided a unique perspective on child sexual abuse that can be used to help victims cope, guide treatment development and evaluation, and suggest new questions for future research.

  17. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  18. Effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M M; Ryan, J G; Briscoe, V S; Shadle, K M

    1996-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a critical problem among the incarcerated population, with rates as high as 17% being reported for prison systems in New York. The literature suggests that stressful living conditions and inherent defects in the immune system associated with HIV infection make prison populations more susceptible to a disproportionate decrease in their CD4 counts. To determine the effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals, the charts of 800 inmates were reviewed. Baseline (draw 1), 2- to 5-month (draw 2), and 6- to 12-month (draw 3) CD4 cell counts were obtained. Mean cell counts were calculated, and paired t-tests were used to identify differences. The group receiving antiretrovirals throughout showed no difference in mean CD4 cell count between draws 1 and 2 or between draws 1 and 3. The group not receiving HIV medications did not show a significant difference in CD4 cell counts between draws 1 and 2, but did show a significant difference between draws 1 and 3. For this group, the rate of decline in CD4 cells was greater than among an outpatient setting. The subsample of subjects initiating therapy prior to the second blood draw showed a significant increase in mean CD4 cell counts at draw 1 versus draw 2, but did not show a significant change when comparing draw 1 to draw 3. When examining subjects based on their antiviral status, the mean CD4 cell count at each of the draws was statistically associated with subjects' antiviral status. We conclude that incarceration causes a more rapid decrease in CD4 cells compared with an outpatient population, causing clinical significance on the normal course of HIV disease.

  19. Prognostic Factors of Orbital Fractures with Muscle Incarceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chan Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Among the various signs and symptoms of orbital fractures, certain clinical findings warrant immediate surgical exploration, including gaze restriction, computed tomographic (CT evidence of entrapment, and prolonged oculocardiac reflex. Despite proper surgical reconstruction, prolonged complications such as diplopia and gaze restriction can occur. This article evaluated the prognostic factors associated with prolonged complications of orbital fractures with muscle incarceration. Methods The medical records of 37 patients (37 orbits with an orbital fracture with muscle incarceration from January 2001 to January 2015 were reviewed. The presence of Incarcerated muscle was confirmed via CT, as well as by intraoperative findings. Various factors potentially contributing to complications lasting for over 1 year after the injury were categorized and analyzed, including age, cause of injury, injury-to-operation time, operative time, fracture type, nausea, vomiting and other concomitant symptoms and injuries. Results All patients who presented with extraocular muscle limitations, positive CT findings, and/or a positive forced duction test underwent surgery. Of the 37 patients, 9 (24% exhibited lasting complications, such as diplopia and gaze restriction. The mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (range, 1–108 months, while that of patients who experienced prolonged complications was 30.1 months (range, 13–36 months. Two factors were significantly associated with prolonged complications: injury-to-operation time and nausea/vomiting. Loss of vision, worsening of motility, and implant complication did not occur. Conclusions Patients who present with gaze limitations, with or without other signs of a blow-out fracture, require a thorough evaluation and emergent surgery. A better prognosis is expected with a shorter injury-to-operation time and lack of nausea and vomiting at the initial presentation.

  20. [Incarcerated epitrochlear fracture with a cubital nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moril-Peñalver, L; Pellicer-Garcia, V; Gutierrez-Carbonell, P

    2013-01-01

    Injuries of the medial epicondyle are relatively common, mostly affecting children between 7 and 15 years. The anatomical characteristics of this apophysis can make diagnosis difficult in minimally displaced fractures. In a small percentage of cases, the fractured fragment may occupy the retroepitrochlear groove. The presence of dysesthesias in the territory of the ulnar nerve requires urgent open reduction of the incarcerated fragment. A case of a seven-year-old male patient is presented, who required surgical revision due to a displaced medial epicondyle fracture associated with ulnar nerve injury. A review of the literature is also made. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicians in US Prisons in the Era of Mass Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Wakeman, Sarah E; Cohen, Robert L; Rich, Josiah D

    2010-12-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world's prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve clinical care for prisoners, physicians have an opportunity and an obligation to advocate for reform in the system of corrections when it conflicts with patient well-being.

  2. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  3. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  4. Differences between Homicides Committed by Lone and Multiple Offenders in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Cho, Joon Tag

    2018-05-16

    The aim of this study was to differentiate between homicides committed by multiple offenders and homicides committed by lone offenders. Using data on homicide incidents that occurred in South Korea between 1985 and 2008, we compared 134 homicides committed by multiple offenders, with 369 homicides committed by lone offenders. A greater proportion of homicides committed by multiple offenders involved injuries to the victim's head compared to homicides by lone offenders. Homicides committed by multiple offenders were more likely to involve blunt instruments and ligatures, whereas homicides by lone offenders were more likely to involve sharp instruments. In addition, a majority of the homicides committed by multiple offenders were planned. The results of this study have practical implications for homicide investigations, as well as theoretical implications for homicide research on the difference in offense behaviors based on the number of offenders. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  6. Predictors of emotional and physical dating violence in a sample of serious juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Larson, Matthew; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood. We then estimate multinomial logistic regression models to identify theoretically motivated risk factors that predict membership in these groups. We identified three developmental patterns of emotional dating violence: none (33%), low-level (59%) and high-level decreasing (8%). The best-fitting model for physical dating violence also had three groups: none (73%), low-level (24%) and high-level (3%). Race/ethnicity, family and psychosocial variables were among the strongest predictors of both emotional and physical dating violence. In addition, delinquency history variables predicted emotional dating violence and relationship variables predicted physical dating violence. Dating violence is quite prevalent in young adulthood among serious juvenile offenders. Numerous predictors distinguish between chronic dating violence perpetrators and other groups. These may suggest points of intervention for reducing future violence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders in German outpatient treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Gregório Hertz, Priscilla; Sauter, Julia; Briken, Peer; Rettenberger, Martin

    2018-05-04

    In Germany, depending on a sexual offender's culpability and the severity of the offence, he/she can be placed either in the forensic-psychiatric or the correctional system. Numbers related to the pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders for the correctional system are missing so far. In sexual offenders, the pharmacological treatment of paraphilic disorders is of special importance. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of pharmacological sexual offender treatment in German outpatient treatment centers supervising mainly clients from the correctional sector. An online questionnaire was sent to 112 outpatient treatment centers and 21 provided data relevant for the present study. The included institutions reported about a total of 813 sexual offenders, of whom 200 (24.6%) were treated with pharmacological agents, most frequently antipsychotics (14.8%) and selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (7.1%). Of the total sample, 26.7% of sexual offenders were diagnosed with a paraphilic - mainly with a pedophilic - disorder. Only 2% were treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Compared with forensic-psychiatric institutions, only a minority of sexual offenders are treated with medication specifically addressing paraphilic symptomatology. However, the prevalence of paraphilic disorders found in the present study suggests that pharmacological treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors could be of great importance in the correctional sector as well.

  9. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotional Intelligence and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Incarcerated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-12-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.

  11. Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder Display More Impairments in Mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.

  12. Vaginal prolapse with urinary bladder incarceration and consecutive irreducible rectal prolapse in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Ciprian-Andrei; Peștean, Cosmin Petru; Bel, Lucia Victoria; Taulescu, Marian; Cătoi, Cornel; Bogdan, Sidonia; Milgram, Joshua; Schwarz, Guenter; Oana, Liviu Ioan

    2016-09-22

    True vaginal prolapse is a rare condition in dogs and it is occasionally observed in animals with constipation, dystocia, or forced separation during breeding. If a true prolapse occurs, the bladder, the uterine body and/or distal part of the colon, may be present in the prolapse. A 2-year-old intact non pregnant Central Asian Shepherd dog in moderate condition, was presented for a true vaginal and rectal prolapse. The prolapses were confirmed by physical examination and ultrasonography. Herniation of the urinary bladder was identified within the vaginal prolapse. The necrotic vaginal wall was resected, the urinary bladder was reduced surgically and fixed to the right abdominal wall to prevent recurrence. Rectal resection and anastomosis was necessary to correct the rectal prolapse. Recurrence of the prolapses was not observed and the dog recovered completely after the surgical treatment. In our opinion, extreme tenesmus arising from constipation may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse with bladder incarceration and secondarily to rectal prolapse. In the young female dog, true vaginal prolapse with secondary involvement of the urinary bladder and irreducible rectal prolapse is an exceptionally rare condition.

  13. Recidivistic offending and mortality in alcoholic violent offenders: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-06-30

    Predictive data supporting prevention of violent criminality are scarce. We examined risk factors for recidivism and mortality among non-psychotic alcoholic violent offenders, the majority having antisocial or borderline personality disorders, or both, which is a group that commits the majority of violent offences in Finland. Criminal records and mortality data on 242 male alcoholic violent offenders were analysed after a 7- to 15-year follow-up, and compared between themselves and with those of 1210 age-, sex- and municipality-matched controls. Recidivism and mortality rates were high. The risk of recidivistic violence was increased by antisocial or borderline personality disorder, or both, childhood maltreatment, and a combination of these. A combination of borderline personality disorder and childhood maltreatment was particularly noxious, suggesting an additive risk increase for a poor outcome. Accurate diagnosis and careful childhood interview may help to predict recidivism and premature death.

  14. Sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Judith; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas; Briken, Peer

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and "psychopathy" in homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders and to investigate the specificity of previous studies on psychiatric morbidity of a sample of sexual murderers. Information from court reports of 166 homicidal and 56 nonhomicidal sex offenders was evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R) and classification systems (DSM-IV). Sexual murderers were diagnosed more often with a personality disorder (80.1% vs. 50%; p murderers have more and a greater variety of psychiatric disorders when compared to nonhomicidal sex offenders. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Genotype distribution and treatment response among incarcerated drug-dependent patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Cheng

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is disproportionately high among prisoners, especially among those who are drug-dependent. However, current screening and treatment recommendations are inconsistent for this population, and appropriate care is not reliably provided. To address these problems, the present study aimed to identify unique characteristics and clinical manifestations of incarcerated patients with HCV infection. We included incarcerated patients who received treatment with pegylated-interferon combined with ribavirin at Mackay Memorial Hospital in Taitung and were serving sentences at either the Taiyuan Skill Training Institute or the Yanwan Training Institute. HCV genotypes 1 (41.4%, 3 (25.9%, and 6 (24.1% were the most prevalent in the incarcerated patients. During the study period, we analyzed treatment response among 58 incarcerated patients and compared obtained results with treatment response among 52 patients who were living in the community. Higher sustained virological response rate was observed among patients with incarceration and HCV genotype other than 1. The odds ratios (corresponding 95% confidence intervals for incarceration and genotype 1 were 2.75 (1.06-7.11 and 0.37 (0.14-0.99, respectively. Better treatment compliance among incarcerated patients might partially explain these results. The results of this study suggest that treatment of prisoners with HCV infection is feasible and effective. More appropriate and timely methods are needed to prevent HCV transmission among injection drug users inside prisons.

  16. Evidence for superior neurobiological and behavioral inhibitory control abilities in non-offending as compared to offending pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. From child pornography offending to child sexual abuse : A review of child pornography offender characteristics and risks for cross-over

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, J.A.B.M.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, concrete directions are provided for individual risk assessment, treatment planning, and future research on child pornography offending. First, based on reviewing offender characteristics, including demographics, socio-affective difficulties, cognitive distortions and psychosexual

  18. My Brother's Keeper: Nurturing In-School Relationships for Young Men of Color in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Paul; Klevan, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Black and Latino men pay a heavy price for the structural inequities they face, such as higher rates of poverty, incarceration, and unemployment. New York City's Young Men's Initiative, a combination of new programs and policy reforms, seeks to mitigate some of the effects of these inequitable conditions on young men of color. The educational…

  19. [Phalloplethysmography findings in pedophilia and exhibitionism offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, P

    1996-08-21

    Exhibitionist behaviour focused on children (usually girls) is one of the most frequent forms of sexual child abuse. Exposure in the presence of children signalizes possible pedophil inclinations of the offender. The present paper presents the results of PPG examinations of these offenders with special attention to assessment how often these men have an objective phallographic pedophil orientation. The results of PPG examinations in this group of sexual delinquents are also compared with the findings in a control group of men who report a heterosexual orientation and preference of objects of suitable age. Using an electrocapacitance phalloplythysmographic apparatus the authors examined 50 men (mean age 36.3 years, range 17-67 years) who committed exhibitionist activities in the presence of girls under 12 years. The PPG examination was made under standard conditions; all examined subjects were shown sets of coloured slides with adult and child objects of hetero and homosexual character. In the same way a control group was examined formed by 50 male volunteers of similar age and social background. The men in the control group responded more frequently and more merkedly by positive vasomotor reactions to adult heterosexual objects than subjects who committed pedophil exhibitionist offences. The latter reacted significantly more often to child objects of both sexes. In more than half the delinquent group (in 26 men) there was an undefined differentiation of age as regards objects of female sex and 6 (12%) men of this group had preference for heterosexual child objects, i.e. an obvious pedophil orientation. In men of the control group only in one case there was an indication of an ill defined differentiation of age, in all the others an unequivocal or clearly indicated preference of heterosexual objects was found. PPG examinations confirmed that only a minor part of subjects committing pedophil exhibitionist offences have a deviant orientation. It was revealed that the

  20. A longitudinal examination of offending and specialization among a sample of Massachusetts domestic violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Jennings, Wesley G; Tomsich, Elizabeth A; Gover, Angela R

    2013-02-01

    A paucity of existing research focuses on longitudinal examinations of criminal trajectories among reoffenses committed by domestic violence offenders. Specifically, few studies have longitudinally assessed whether domestic violence offenders specialize, recidivating in domestic violence assault, or generalize, committing a range of personal and property crimes. Acknowledging these research deficiencies, the current study uses longitudinal data from a cohort of 317 batterers who were processed in a domestic violence court to investigate the trajectories of domestic violence arrests and nondomestic violence arrests over a 10-year period. The degree of overlap between domestic and nondomestic violence arrest trajectory groups is examined through a cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis. Logistic and multinomial regression models are applied to identify risk factors that distinguish trajectory groups. A PROC TRAJ procedure identifies two trajectory groups for domestic violence arrests (low and high rate) and three trajectory groups for nondomestic violence arrests (very low, low, and high rate). Results indicate that specialization among domestic violence offenders is rare-prior alcohol and drug crimes predict membership in the high-rate domestic violence arrest trajectory group and prior domestic violence arrests predict membership in both the low-rate and high-rate nondomestic violence arrest trajectories. Implications for future research and policy are discussed in this article.

  1. An innovative surgical technique for treating penile incarceration injury caused by heavy metallic ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S J Baruah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V. We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.

  2. A qualitative study of incarcerated mothers' perceptions of the impact of separation on their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Jerry Jo M

    2012-01-01

    Many incarcerated women are mothers, and their children exhibit various responses to the separation that incarceration commands. This exploratory qualitative study examines incarcerated women's perceptions of the consequences of their illegal activity, confinement, and separation from their children on their offspring. The results indicate that although mothers are concerned about their children, they are typically unable to recognize the negative consequences of their actions on their children and their relationship with their children until beginning intensive treatment. Effective treatment must focus on the woman's personal issues along with their parenting abilities and skills to repair these relationships and promote healthy family functioning.

  3. CT and US findings of ovarian torsion within an incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Park Mee; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Yul; Yang, Ik; Yang, Dae Hyun; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal hernia is relatively common in children. Although inguinal hernia is not frequently encountered in girls in comparison to boys, there are occasional cases of uterine or ovarian herniation in female indirect inguinal hernia. Incarcerated ovary in hernia sac has the risk of torsion and strangulation. We present an 8-year-old girl with painful mass in her left groin. With computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US), we made the diagnosis of ovarian strangulation within an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Since ultrasound is primarily used for evaluation of groin mass, CT findings of an incarcerated inguinal hernia is rarely reported.

  4. The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders diagnosed with epilepsy referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex Observation Unit in terms of section 77 and/or 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977.

  5. Target Selection Models with Preference Variation Between Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Ruiter, Stijn; Bernasco, Wim; White, Gentry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study explores preference variation in location choice strategies of residential burglars. Applying a model of offender target selection that is grounded in assertions of the routine activity approach, rational choice perspective, crime pattern and social disorganization theories,

  6. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  7. The Criminogenic and Noncriminogenic Treatment Needs of Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Radatz, Dana L

    2017-11-01

    The criminogenic needs of general offenders have been empirically studied, but the criminogenic treatment needs of intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders, or how they compare with other violent or nonviolent offenders, have not been as thoroughly explored. Therefore, we examined and compared the criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs of 99 IPV offenders, 233 non-IPV violent offenders, and 103 nonviolent offenders, all of whom were men who had undergone institutional forensic assessment. Results indicated that IPV offenders had more treatment needs than the other two offender groups, including the Central Eight criminogenic needs. These findings support a focus on criminogenic treatment needs in batterer intervention programs for men, consistent with the principles of effective intervention for offenders.

  8. Offer and Acceptance of Apology in Victim-Offender Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhami, MK; Dhami, MK

    2012-01-01

    Past research on restorative justice (RJ) has highlighted the importance of apology for both victims and offenders and the prevalence of apology during the RJ process. The present study moves this work further by examining the nature of the apologies that are offered during victim-offender mediation, as well as the individual-, case-, and mediation-level factors that can affect the offer and acceptance of apology. In addition, we measure the implications that the offer and acceptance of apolo...

  9. Klinefelter’s Syndrome and sexual offending: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Rebecca; Völlm, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Background: Klinefelter’s Syndrome is a sex chromosome abnormality affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males. There have been suggestions that it is associated with a higher than average prevalence of sexual offending but to what extent does research evidence support this assertion?\\ud Aims: To conduct a systematic review of published research to establish the prevalence of sexual offending in males with Klinefelter’s Syndrome.\\ud Method: The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched...

  10. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lee A. Underwood; Frances L.L. Dailey; Carrie Merino; Yolanda Crump

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP) in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1) to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilize...

  11. Diminished fronto-limbic functional connectivity in child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Jonas; Borchardt, Viola; Kärgel, Christian; Sinke, Christopher; Massau, Claudia; Tenbergen, Gilian; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-02-22

    Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach. The focus of this investigation of rs-FC in CSO-P was put on prefrontal and limbic regions highly relevant for emotional and behavioral processing. Results revealed a significant reduction of rs-FC between the right centromedial amygdala and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in child sexual offenders compared to controls. Given that, in the healthy brain, there is a strong top-down inhibitory control of prefrontal over limbic structures, these results suggest that diminished rs-FC between the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may foster sexual deviance and sexual offending. A profound understanding of these concepts should contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of child sexual offending, as well as further development of more differentiated and effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Juvenile Sex Offending Through a Developmental Life Course Criminology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.

  13. Representations of attachment relationships in children of incarcerated mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable caregiving situation, when children reacted to separation from the mother with sadness rather than anger, and when children were older. Common reactions to initial separation included sadness, worry, confusion, anger, loneliness, sleep problems, and developmental regressions. Results highlight need for support in families affected by maternal imprisonment, especially efforts to promote stable, continuous placements for children, in addition to underscoring the importance of longitudinal research with this growing but understudied group.

  14. Documenting Program Outcomes of Relationship Education with Incarcerated Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Taylor Harcourt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined program outcomes for an understudied population of Relationship Education (RE participants: incarcerated men and women. In addition to relationship functioning, we examined a number of individual and parenting outcomes which had not previously been explored. In a sample of 453 adult inmates, we found improvements in (a trust, (b confidence in the relationship, (c intimacy, (d individual empowerment, (e conflict management, (f help-seeking attitudes, (g self-esteem, (h depression, (i global life stress, (j faulty relationship beliefs, and (k parenting efficacy. Tests of moderation by gender and race indicated minimal differences in change patterns between groups; however, we found a significant time by gender interaction on intimacy and a time by race interaction on parenting efficacy. Implications for research and practice are presented

  15. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism. Copyright

  16. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  17. Examining Masculine Norms and Peer Support within a Sample of Incarcerated African American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Perez-Cabello, M Arturo; Brabham-Hollis, Tamika; Lanza, A Stephen; Dyson, William J

    2013-01-01

    The adherence to masculine norms has been suggested to be influenced by social settings and context. Prisons have been described as a context where survival is dependent on adhering to strict masculine norms that may undermine reintegration back into the larger society. This study attempted to examine the relationship between masculine norms, peer support, and an individual's length of incarceration on a sample of 139 African American men taking part in a pre-release community re-entry program. Results indicate that peer support was associated with length of incarceration and the interaction between the endorsement of masculine norms and peer support significantly predicted the length of incarceration for African American men in this sample. Implications for incarcerated African American men and future research directions are discussed.

  18. The Role of Masculine Norms and Informal Support on Mental Health in Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Gordon, Derrick; Oliveros, Arazais; Perez-Cabello, Arturo; Brabham, Tamika; Lanza, Steve; Dyson, William

    2012-07-01

    Mental health problems, in general, and major depression in particular, are prevalent among incarcerated men. It is estimated that 23% of state inmates report experiencing symptoms of major depression. Despite the high rates of depressive symptoms, there is little understanding about the psychosocial factors that are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms of incarcerated men. One factor relevant to the mental health of incarcerated men is their adherence to traditional masculine norms. We investigated the role of masculine norms and informal support on depressive and anxiety symptoms among 123 incarcerated men. The results revealed that adherence to the masculine norm of emotional control were negatively associated with depressive symptoms while heterosexual presentation and informal support were related to both depressive and anxiety symptoms. High levels of reported informal support moderated the effects of heterosexual presentation on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Public health and clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Mothering at a Distance: what incarcerated mothers value about a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Chris; Power, Tamara; Fowler, Cathrine; Jackson, Debra; Hyslop, Deirdre; Dawson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Children with incarcerated mothers experience adverse health, social and emotional circumstances, and are a particularly vulnerable group. Mothers in custody face significant challenges in parenting their children. The study aimed to identify participants' views on impact of a parenting support programme for incarcerated mothers in NSW Australia. The mixed-methods study examined 134 responses to open and closed questions on a questionnaire for programme participants. Participants found the programme worthwhile, engaging and relevant. It enhanced their parenting knowledge and confidence. Open-ended responses highlighted program elements which participants valued, specifically support for their parenting role in complicated circumstances, greater understanding of child development and perspectives, and practical strategies for facilitating connections with their children during their incarceration. The study informs nurses working with women who have experienced incarceration and their children, both in custodial and community settings.

  20. Children of incarcerated parents: how a mentoring program can make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Janice; Nygaard, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the rapid increase in the U.S. prison population, with subsequent increase of parent-prisoners, there are few requirements that social systems serving children take note of a parent's incarceration. Thus the special needs of children of incarcerated parents are almost invisible. Given the multiple risks that these children experience, it is critical to recognize community programs that can help bridge the difficulties children face during their parents' incarceration. This article reports the outcome of a mentoring program specifically targeted to these children. The results show that although mentoring cannot address all of the issues facing these children, it can produce positive outcomes that may mitigate some of the risks associated with being a child of an incarcerated parent.

  1. Intellectual disability in young people in custody in New South Wales, Australia - prevalence and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, L; Indig, D; Moore, E; Gaskin, C

    2014-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is known to be more common in incarcerated groups, especially incarcerated youth. Aboriginal young people have higher rates of ID, and make up half of all youth in juvenile custody in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We aimed to describe the prevalence of possible ID and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) in young people in NSW custody, and to describe the association between possible ID and Aboriginality after adjusting for the inequalities in social disadvantage. Baseline study of all youth in NSW Custodial Centres between August and October 2009, with 18-month follow-up. Using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) cognitive assessments, possible ID was defined as Extremely Low Intellectual Quotient range (Full Scale Intellectual Quotient, FSIQ intellectual functioning (by IQ assessment), and 14% had an IQ in the extremely low range (FSIQ intellectual impairment of those incarcerated from a young age. Aboriginal young people with psychosis are also at high risk of cognitive impairments that might indicate a possible co-morbid ID, and these patients should be diverted at court into community assessment services, rather than incarcerated. These results highlight a need for better and earlier identification of young people (particularly Aboriginal youth) at risk of ID and other co-morbidities in the juvenile justice system. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Calvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2% participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48, non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39, syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32, and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82. Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9% reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4% of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202. Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai

  3. Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Fear and Anger on Criminal Decision Making Among Known Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jeff A

    2015-12-01

    Deterrence represents the central theoretical core of the American criminal justice system, yet relatively little attention has been paid to how emotions like fear and anger may relate to deterrence. Psychological research has debated whether negative emotions each have similar impacts on decision making (valence approaches) or if distinct emotions have unique impacts (appraisal tendency approaches). This study explores the direct and indirect influences of fear and anger on hypothetical drunk driving likelihood, including their impact on cost perceptions. Surveys were administered to 1,013 male and female incarcerated felony offenders in the Southwestern United States. Using a multivariate path model and controlling for a number of other individual factors, current fear related to increased cost perceptions and anger to decreased costs. Anger also maintained a direct influence on drunk driving, whereas fear did not. Despite their shared negative valence, fear and anger appear to have dissimilar influences on cost perceptions and criminal decision making. A better understanding of these processes may lead to improved crime prevention approaches. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of African American males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K Mukku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  5. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of african american males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K

    2012-01-01

    Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  6. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Stress proliferation across generations? Examining the relationship between parental incarceration and childhood health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    Stress proliferation theory suggests that parental incarceration may have deleterious intergenerational health consequences. In this study, I use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to estimate the relationship between parental incarceration and children's fair or poor overall health, a range of physical and mental health conditions, activity limitations, and chronic school absence. Descriptive statistics show that children of incarcerated parents are a vulnerable population who experience disadvantages across an array of health outcomes. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and familial characteristics, I find that parental incarceration is independently associated with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, behavioral or conduct problems, developmental delays, and speech or language problems. Taken together, results suggest that children's health disadvantages are an overlooked and unintended consequence of mass incarceration and that incarceration, given its unequal distribution across the population, may have implications for population-level racial-ethnic and social class inequalities in children's health. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Propensity Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.

  9. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders culpable under the new legislation in Japan: A gender comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takako; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Satoko; Shiina, Akihiro; Iyo, Masaomi; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    2016-02-01

    Although a substantial increase in the number of female offenders has drawn interest towards understanding their unique characteristics, few studies have investigated the characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders in Japan and none since the legislation enacted in 2005 in Japan, which provided for special services for them. The aim of this study is to identify those characteristics of people detained under this legislation, which distinguish the women from the men and may indicate special needs among the women. A retrospective records-based study of all patients admitted to one secure unit in the 8 years since its opening in July 2005 until a census date of 31 October 2013. Thirty-six (15%) of the patients were women. Marriage, mood disorders, past suicide attempts and homicide were more common among the women than the men. Six of the female offender-patients had committed filicides, of which four were infanticides. There appears to be a particularly vulnerable sub-group of women with severe mood disorders, a history of serious suicide attempts and young children at risk of harming those children. Our sample was small and from a single unit so, given the potential importance of improving understanding of who is at risk in such circumstances, extending our study nationally seems indicated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Psychological characteristics of aggressors of young couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Hernández Jiménez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in relationships young people has become in recent years a public health problem of major social. This article, with a view to the prevention, seeks to address the psychological characteristics of the perpetrator of pair in young relations. An initial review of the personality features investigated in previous studies and their influence on violent behaviour was carried out. Following this, an empirical study on a sample of young people was performed. Methods: We conducted a study with 100 young people of Valencia. Of these, 50 are young offenders and 50 couple, young students of compulsory secondary education. Data are obtained and analyzed psychological characteristics differences between groups. Results: The study conducted shows that in general, young offenders have one hand high scores on neuroticism, impulsivity, external locus of control, psychoticism and antisocial behavior. Furthermore show low scores on self-control, empathy, selfesteem and frustration tolerance. Conclusions: The results of this paper make it abundantly clear that violence in young relationships is important enough to be considered from different sectors of society and justifies the need to develop and implement prevention programs adapted adolescents and their characteristics.

  12. Discrimination Fully Mediates the Effects of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M

    2018-04-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.

  13. "How can you live without your kids?": Distancing from and embracing the stigma of “incarcerated mother"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittnie Aiello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers. Utilizing these strategies, women challenged the stigma of convicted felon/bad mother and reinforced the assumptions that motherhood is compulsory and should be reserved for women with enough money and standing to give their children advantages. The implications for understanding motherhood as a mechanism of moral identity and social control are discussed.

  14. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  15. IsTeen Court effective for repeat offenders? A test of the restorative justice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa

    2005-02-01

    Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.

  16. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.

  18. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well as a complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offenses: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  19. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well asa complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offences: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  20. Racial/ethnic disparities in history of incarceration, experiences of victimization, and associated health indicators among transgender women in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.

  1. Policy and Legal Protection for Breastfeeding and Incarcerated Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Martha Jane

    2018-05-01

    Most incarcerated women in Canada are mothers. Because women are the fastest growing population in carceral facilities, protecting the rights of incarcerated women to breastfeed their children is increasingly important. There is considerable evidence that incarcerated women in Canada experience poor physical and mental health, isolation, and barriers to care. Incarcerated women and their children could benefit significantly from breastfeeding. This Insight in Policy explores policy and legal protection for breastfeeding in Canada as it relates to carceral facilities, considers key cases regarding breastfeeding rights among incarcerated women, and presents recommendations for policy development and advocacy. The Canadian Constitution and human rights legislation across Canada prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and includes pregnancy and the possibility of becoming pregnant as a characteristic of gender. Some provinces note that breastfeeding is a characteristic of gender. Women's Wellness Within, a nonprofit organization providing volunteer perinatal support to criminalized women in Nova Scotia, conducted a scan of all provincial and territorial correctional services acts and the federal Corrections and Conditional Release Act: none mention breastfeeding. Protocols for breastfeeding during arrest and lockup by police were not available in any jurisdiction across Canada. International law, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Nelson Mandela Rules, and the Bangkok Rules, have application to the rights of incarcerated breastfeeding women. The Inglis v. British Columbia (Minister of Public Safety) (2013) and Hidalgo v. New Mexico Department of Corrections (2017) decisions are pivotal examples of successful litigation brought forward by incarcerated mothers to advance breastfeeding rights. Improved application and understanding of existent law could advance breastfeeding rights.

  2. Young men in RJ-settings: An offstage performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Ida Helene

    Empirical, qualitative studies in Danish and Norwegian RJ-sessions show, that young men (offenders and victims) are characterised by passive acquiescence, by not expressing opinions, by getting out of their ‘turn to talk’ as quickly as possible and by silence. The way this type of ‘non-acting’ has...

  3. A Tailored Approach for Incarcerated Boys : Q Study into the Needs of Incarcerated Boys in the Interaction with Group Workers in a Juvenile Correctional Institution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie-José Geenen

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral change of incarcerated boys is influenced by the alliance with the group workers who support them. This alliance is partly determined by the extent to which both the needs of group workers and boys are being fulfilled. The objective of this research was to explore the views of

  4. Rehabilitating Ex-Offenders through Non-Formal Education in Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngozwana, Nomazulu

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the rehabilitation of ex-offenders through non-formal education. It examines how non-formal education has addressed the ex-offenders' adaptive and transformative needs. Using an interpretive paradigm and qualitative approach, individual interviews were conducted with five ex-offenders who were chosen through purposive and…

  5. Vocational Psychology and Ex-Offenders' Reintegration: A Call for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Failure to find steady and rewarding employment and stabilizing economic resources are key contributors to recidivism among ex-offenders. Within 3 years of their release, almost two thirds of ex-offenders return to prison. Ex-offenders face formidable barriers to employment including legal limitations and those specific to their skills, education,…

  6. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  7. The Differential Treatment Model: Empirical Evidence from a Personality Typology of Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Helen M.; Chan, David

    1983-01-01

    Interaction of offender type by treatment program was examined for 100 adult offenders with alcohol and drug problems assigned to a group therapy program and 50 to routine care. Offenders who were classified high in self-image showed greater improvement in the group therapy program. (Author/HLM)

  8. 75 FR 27362 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... posting, pursuant to the KIDS Act, 42 U.S.C. 16915a. (3) Require jurisdictions to have sex offenders...] RIN 1105-AB36 Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice; Proposed guidelines. SUMMARY: The Sex Offender Registration and...

  9. 76 FR 1630 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... posting, pursuant to the KIDS Act, 42 U.S.C. 16915a. (3) Require jurisdictions to have sex offenders... on the sex offender does not have to be disclosed to these entities. B. Internet Identifiers The KIDS...] RIN 1105-AB36 Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification AGENCY...

  10. Group sex offending by juveniles: coercive sex as a group activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Weerman, F.; Looije, D.; Hendriks, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study sex offences carried out by groups of juveniles, focusing on offender characteristics and the interaction patterns within offender groups and between offenders and victims. Using reconstructions of offences from court files as well as information retrieved from personality screenings, we

  11. Black Female Homicide Offenders and Victims: Are They from the Same Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Paula D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the social and environmental characteristics of Black female homicide victims and offenders. Assembled data on 661 Black female homicide victims and 119 Black female homicide offenders. Analyses indicated that Black female homicide victims and offenders exhibit low socioeconomic status and essentially similar behavior patterns. (Author)

  12. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  13. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  14. Attitudes toward Electronic Monitoring among Monitored Offenders and Criminal Justice Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines what 180 students think about electronic monitoring and compares their perceptions to those of 29 electronically-monitored offenders. Results show that students were less supportive of electronic monitoring but when asked about what offenders have to give up, they viewed the sanction more punitively than did offenders. Implications…

  15. Should violent offenders be forced to undergo neurotechnological treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk; Kragh, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    ’s right to freedom of thought. We argue that this objection can be challenged. First, we present some specifications of what a right to freedom of thought might mean. We focus on the recently published views of Jared Craig, and Jan Cristopher Bublitz and Reinhard Merkel. Secondly, we argue that forcing...... violent offenders to undergo certain kinds of NT may not violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought as that right is specified by Craig, and Bublitz and Merkel. Thirdly, even if non-consensual NT is used in a way that does violate freedom of thought, such use can be difficult to abandon without...... inconsistency. For if one is not an abolitionist, and therefore accepts traditional state punishments for violent offenders like imprisonment – which, the evidence shows, often violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought – then, it is argued, one will have reason to accept that violent offenders can...

  16. Stress experiences of family members of registered sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard; Levenson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) have been well established, although little evidence has supported the efficacy of SORN. Based on the belief that family members provide some of the most consistent, important, and intense forms of support for criminal offenders in general and registered sex offenders (RSOs) more specifically, the experiences of sanctions, losses, and stresses of these individuals is examined. Using survey responses from 584 individuals known to visit online support and advocacy groups for RSOs and their loved ones, this study identifies the stress levels and stressors experienced by this population. Findings show that family members of RSOs experience high levels of social isolation, fear, shame, property damage, and forced residential relocation. Perceived stress is significantly higher for those who are of lower economic means, feel isolated, have high levels of fear and shame/embarrassment, or were forced to move. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Underwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1 to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilized. The juvenile sex offenders were randomly assigned to the experimental group for 12 weeks receiving treatment services and a control group receiving care “as usual” in a residential group care program. Participants in the experimental group experienced statistically significant decreases in cognitive distortions related specifically to rape and molestation.The results of this study offer preliminary support of the LSOTP as a best practices alternative to other treatment modalities.

  18. Motives for offending among violent and psychotic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P J

    1985-11-01

    Two hundred and three male remanded prisoners were interviewed with respect to their current offence, mental state, and social and psychiatric histories. All but nine of the sub-group of 121 psychotic men showed active symptoms at the time of committing a criminal offence; 20% of the actively ill psychotics were directly driven to offend by their psychotic symptoms, and a further 26% probably so. If some of the indirect consequences of the psychosis were taken into account, 82% of their offences were probably attributable to the illness. Among the normal and neurotic men, none claimed psychotic motives for offending, but motives suggesting high emotional arousal such as panic or retaliation triggered the greatest violence. Within the psychotic group, those driven to offend by their delusions were most likely to have been seriously violent, and psychotic symptoms probably accounted directly for most of the very violent behaviour.

  19. Profiles in the offending process of nonserial sexual murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Proulx, Jean

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate specific pathways in the offending processes of nonserial sexual murderers and to examine possible relationships with different precrime, per-crime, and postcrime factors. Included in this study were 36 offenders who have committed at least one sexual murder against a female victim and they were classified using cluster analysis. Participants using the sadistic pathway planned their offenses and used physical restraints during the offenses. Furthermore, they mutilated and humiliated their victims. Finally, they hid the bodies of the victims. Participants using the anger pathway had not premeditated the homicide. Mutilation, humiliation, and physical restraints were less predominant with these participants than with those using the sadistic pathway. Moreover, these offenders were more likely to leave the bodies at the crime scenes after the killings occurred. These two profiles are compared with empirical studies addressing sexual homicide.

  20. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657

  1. WOMEN'S HEALTH INCARCERATED: A PROPOSAL FOR INTERVENTION, LOVE AND LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Menezes de Souza Teixeira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identify and understand the situation of incarcerated women and access to health in the prison system. The study was conducted by a health professional (nurse and with the participation of twenty students of the nursing course of a private university. The data were collected in interviews and the written responses and grouped into categories through content analysis, we studied 38 women prisoners in the age group of 18 to 40 years. We identified socioeconomic data, as well as the discourses of women prisoners who revealed the point of view on health care, prevention and promotion received in prison, knowledge about the sexual diseases that affect them, as well as treatment and education in health, opinions on the campaigns and advertisements of the Ministry of Health aimed at women and interests on subjects to be discussed in the next meetings. Este estudo revela à importância de políticas públicas que estabeleçam estratégias de prevenção e promoção a saúde na busca por uma qualidade de vida destas mulheres. This study reveals the importance of public policies that establish prevention strategies and promote health in the quest for a quality of life of these women.

  2. Condom use in incarcerated adolescent males: knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Andrea T; Risser, William L; Cromwell, Polly F

    2006-01-01

    Information is limited on how well adolescents use condoms and where they learn how. The objective of this study was to determine how often incarcerated males used condoms incorrectly and where, how, and from whom they learned condom use. This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey during intake physicals at a juvenile detention center. Results were based on self-report; condom use models were not used. During usual use among 141 males, errors included failure to secure the condom to the penis on withdrawal (37%), loss of erection before condom removal (18%), and failure to leave space at the tip (14%). Learning occurred at home (27%), school (23%), probation/detention facilities (14%), and community programs (3.4%). Subjects learned from educators/counselors (37%), family (27%), and friends (6.9%). Methods of learning included reading the package insert (45%), demonstrations (39%), explanations (33%), and media (19%). These adolescents had relatively few condom errors. Common methods of learning correct condom use included observing a demonstration, reading the package insert, and hearing an explanation. The last 2 methods are easy to implement.

  3. Who are the traffic offenders among ethnic groups and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Wafa; Blank-Gomel, Aharon; Habib-Matar, Caroline; Shiftan, Yoram

    2016-06-01

    Marginalized populations, particularly ethnic minorities, are often at a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes and committing traffic violations. Prominent explanations for this "ethnic traffic risk gap" include cultural and socioeconomic factors, usually measured at an aggregate level. In particular, it has been hypothesized that ethnic minorities commit traffic violations as a form of social resistance to what they perceive to be an oppressing regime. The current study examined the mechanisms underlying traffic violations at the individual level within a single ethnic minority, Israeli-Arabs. The study sample (n=231) included a group of known offenders (n=60) and non-offenders (n=171), all of which completed the Traffic Violation Questionnaire. The results show that offenders and non-offenders tended to have different types of occupations, although these did not translate into significant differences in level of income. Offenders reported significantly lower levels of trust in some hegemonic institutions (the police, government ministries) but not others (parliament, the juridical system). However, offenders displayed remarkably different daily activity patterns, including much higher exposure to traffic (3h/day vs. 0.75) and more complex trip patterns. Our results find little support for the social resistance hypothesis, as it fails to explain the differential treatment of hegemonic institutions. Daily activity patterns stand out as a central mechanism influencing the risk of violations. These results suggest policymakers should adopt a holistic approach for traffic safety interventions but avoid monolithic views of ethnic minorities which may lead to an inefficient use of resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of homicide offenders with Schizophrenia from the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla

    2011-12-01

    It has been suggested that the characteristics of homicides committed by people with schizophrenia from regions with a high total homicide rate differ from the characteristics of homicides by people with schizophrenia from regions with low rates of homicide. Homicide offenders in the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation have been systematically examined for over 30 years. This study reports on a review of the documents from pre-trial psychiatric assessments and legal proceedings of all people charged with homicide offenses between 1981 and 2010 who were found to have schizophrenia. There were 133 people (120 men, 13 women) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia who committed a homicide offense in the 30 years of the study, including 15 repeat homicide offenders and 9 homicides with multiple victims. The odds ratio (OR) for homicide associated with schizophrenia was 13.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) (11.4-16.0). The mean age of the offenders was 34.8 (SD 9.6) and most had the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia (78%). The majority of victims were family members (51%) or acquaintances (43%). Delusions of persecution, auditory hallucinations and other positive symptoms were present in 58% of offenders at the time of the homicide. The remaining 42% exhibited negative symptoms such as emotional deficits, had antisocial attitudes or were regarded as having impaired self-control. Alcohol intoxication was reported at the time of 45% of homicides. Stabbing was the most common method and few of the homicides involved firearms. The characteristics of homicide offenders with schizophrenia from Chuvashia do not appear to differ greatly from those of homicide offenders with schizophrenia from regions with far lower rates of homicide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated risk of incarceration among street-involved youth who initiate drug dealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Hoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth. This study examines the relationship between incarceration and drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Methods Between September 2005 and November 2014, data were collected through the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs, in Vancouver, Canada. An extended Cox model with time-dependent variables was used to examine the relationship between recent incarceration and initiation into drug dealing, controlling for relevant confounders. Results Among 1172 youth enrolled, only 194 (16.6% were drug dealing naïve at baseline and completed at least one additional study visit to facilitate the assessment of drug dealing initiation. Among this sample, 56 (29% subsequently initiated drug dealing. In final multivariable Cox regression analysis, recent incarceration was significantly associated with initiating drug dealing (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21–4.42, after adjusting for potential confounders. Measures of recent incarceration lagged to the prior study follow-up were not found to predict initiation of drug dealing (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95% CI 0.66–3.42. Conclusions These findings suggest that among this study sample, incarceration does not appear to significantly propel youth to initiate drug dealing. However, the initiation of drug dealing among youth coincides

  6. Understanding the Offender/Environment Dynamic for Computer Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew

    2005-01-01

    practices by possiblyhighlighting new areas for safeguard implementation. To help facilitate a greaterunderstanding of the offender/environment dynamic, this paper assesses the feasibilityof applying criminological theory to the IS security context. More specifically, threetheories are advanced, which focus...... on the offender's behaviour in a criminal setting. Drawing on an account of the Barings Bank collapse, events highlighted in the casestudy are used to assess whether concepts central to the theories are supported by thedata. It is noted that while one of the theories is to be found wanting in terms ofconceptual...

  7. Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal Emotion Socialization in Children of Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.

  8. Race and incarceration in an aging cohort of Vietnam veterans in treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.

  9. A fresh start from arrested motherhood: A randomized trial of parent training for mothers being released from incarceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, A.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are considered one of the most at risk populations for delinquency. Parenting may play a key role in this intergenerational transmission of delinquency. The aim of this dissertation was to examine problems faced by families affected by maternal incarceration, and to

  10. The Mediating Role of Self-Regulation between Intrafamilial Violence and Mental Health Adjustment in Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne C.; Cortina, Kai S.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between history of intrafamilial violence and self-regulatory capacity, cognitive processing, and mental health adjustment in incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents were incarcerated at the time of the study for various violent offenses, ranging from persistent delinquency to sexual assault (n = 115). A model…

  11. Educational Attainment, Teacher-Student Ratios, and the Risk of Adult Incarceration among U.S. Birth Cohorts since 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Richard; LaFree, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between school characteristics, such as teacher-student ratios, and the risk of incarceration in adulthood. Educational skeptics argue that investment in schools has little effect on outcomes, such as criminality or the risk of incarceration, because criminal propensities are fixed at an early age and…

  12. Predicting Reoffence in Sexual Offender Subtypes: A Prospective Validation Study of the German Version of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Rettenberger; Reinhard Eher

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of a prospective, longitudinal research project to evaluate the reliability and validity of different recidivism risk assessment methods for sexual offenders under community supervision for scientific and practical use in the German-speaking part of Europe. In this paper we present the German adaptation of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG), a specific risk assessment tool for sexual offenders that was developed and published in 1998 in Canada. We examined int...

  13. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Interpersonal Style on Ruptures and Repairs in the Therapeutic Alliance Between Offenders and Therapists in Sex Offender Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rachael; Thomas, Stuart; Daffern, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The therapeutic relationship is a critical component of psychological treatment. Strain can occur in the relationship, particularly when working with offenders, and more specifically, those offenders with interpersonal difficulties; strain can lead to a rupture, which may affect treatment participation and performance. This study examined ruptures in the therapeutic relationship in sexual offenders participating in offense-focused group treatment. Fifty-four sex offenders rated the therapeutic alliance at the commencement and completion of treatment; at the completion of treatment, they also reported on the occurrence of ruptures and whether they believed these ruptures were repaired. Ruptures were separated by type, according to severity-Each relationship was therefore characterized as experiencing no rupture, a minor rupture, or a major rupture. Offender characteristics including interpersonal style (IPS) and psychopathy were assessed at the commencement of treatment; their relationship with ruptures was examined. Results revealed that more than half of the offenders (approximately 55%) experienced a rupture in the therapeutic alliance, with one in four of these ruptures remaining unresolved. Offenders who did not report a rupture rated the therapeutic alliance significantly higher at the end of treatment compared with those offenders who reported a rupture that was not repaired. Offenders who reported a major rupture in the therapeutic relationship were higher in interpersonal hostility and hostile-dominance. No interpersonal or offense-specific factors affected the likelihood of a rupture repair.

  15. Characteristics of Incarcerated Fathers and Mothers: Implications for Preventive Interventions Targeting Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrand, Jean; Cearley, Jennifer; Eddy, J Mark; Foney, Dana; Martinez, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has grown dramatically in recent years. These children appear to be at risk for various problems, and a number of family-focused preventive efforts have been attempted. The current study examines differences between incarcerated mothers, incarcerated fathers, and their families on factors that might be important to consider when creating the content and process of preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates (54% women; 41% minority) who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years and who parented their children prior to imprisonment. Mothers and fathers were similar on a number of dimensions including age, education-level, number and age of children, and family criminal history, but differences were observed on key variables relevant to outcomes for children and families, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  16. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Motivators for Research Participation Among Individuals Who Are Incarcerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Bridget L; Faulkner, Sherilyn A; Brems, Christiane; Corey, Staci L; Eldridge, Gloria D; Johnson, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Understanding motivations of research participants is crucial for developing ethical research protocols, especially for research with vulnerable populations. Through interviews with 92 institutional review board members, prison administrators, research ethicists, and researchers, we explored key stakeholders' perceptions of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research. Primary motivators identified were a desire to contribute to society, gaining knowledge and health care, acquiring incentives, and obtaining social support. The potential for undue influence or coercion were also identified as motivators. These results highlight the need for careful analysis of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research as part of developing or reviewing ethically permissible and responsible research protocols. Future research should expand this line of inquiry to directly include perspectives of incarcerated individuals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Looking Beyond the Screen: A Critical Review of the Literature on the Online Child Pornography Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Ogloff, James R P; Clough, Jonathan A

    2017-08-01

    This article reviews the current literature pertaining to those who engage in child pornography offending. The basic characteristics of online child pornography offenders (CPOs) and related typologies are briefly presented prior to reviewing the comparative literature pertaining to CPOs and child contact sexual offenders. In general, CPOs have been found to be relatively high functioning and generally pro-social individuals with less extensive and diverse offending histories than contact offenders. CPOs also display high levels of sexual pre-occupation, deviant sexual interests, and deficits in interpersonal and affective domains that surpass those of contact offenders. Although further research is required to replicate and clarify preliminary findings, the available evidence indicates that existing sexual offender risk assessment tools and treatment programs are not suitable for use with CPOs, and thus require revision and empirical evaluation prior to widespread use among this population. The article concludes with implications for clinical practice and directions for future research.

  18. Offending, Adjudication, and Outcome Patterns of Solo Male, Solo Female, and Partnered Mass Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2018-05-01

    Research on mass murder is limited due to differences in definitions (particularly with respect to victim count), as well as categorizations based on motive. These limitations restrict our understanding of the offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns of these offenders and can obscure potential underlying similarities to comparable types of offenders (e.g., lone actors or terrorists). To address some of these limitations, this research study, which includes an international sample of 434 cases (455 total offenders), uses descriptive and empirical analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered mass murderers (teams of two or more) to explore offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns among these different types offenders. While the results from this research study support much previous mass murder research, the findings also emphasize the importance of large international sample sizes, objective categorizations, and the use of empirically based analyses to further advance our understanding of these offenders.

  19. Two-trocar needlescopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Rafik; Shams, Abdul Moniem; Mohamed, Soliman; el-Leathy, Mohamed; Ibrahem, Medhat; Alsaed, Gamal

    2007-07-01

    Many studies described the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopy in the treatment of inguinal hernia in children. Needlescopic techniques have been recently used in repairing inguinal hernias, which made this type of surgery more cosmetic and less invasive. However, few reports have described its role in the treatment of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcome of needlescopy in the treatment of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. A total of 250 children, comprising 190 boys and 60 girls, who presented with incarcerated inguinal hernia were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 6 years (mean age, 2 years). In 170 (68%) cases, manual reduction was successful. One hundred of these patients were subjected to definitive surgery in the same day, whereas the remaining 70 patients were subjected to needlescopy 1 to 3 days later. In 80 (32%) cases, external manual reduction was unsuccessful. These children were subjected to urgent needlescopic reduction and herniorrhaphy. The incarcerated herniae were easily reduced and the contents thoroughly inspected under direct vision. Then the hernia was repaired in the same setting. In all patients, there was no need to convert the procedure to an open approach. Immediate needlescopic herniorrhaphy in the same session was added without significant increase in operative time. The mean operative time is 10 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications. The study showed that needlescopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children is feasible, safe, easy, and preferable to the open surgery. In addition to reduction of incarcerated hernial contents under direct vision, it allows definitive treatment of hernial defect at the same time without significant increase in operative time and hospital stay.

  20. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.