Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).
Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.
Full Text Available Abstract Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world.
Teather, Susan; Evans, Les; Sims, Margaret
Investigated how prison officers view the importance of maintaining relationships between incarcerated mothers and their children. Found that some hold the punishment ethic quite strongly; that women prisoners are often judged to be inadequate, uncaring mothers who use their children to access privileges; and that child visitation, while generally…
Slotboom, A.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Menting, B.
In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates' psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive
Sandoval, Carolyn L.; Baumgartner, Lisa M.; Clark, M. Carolyn
The purpose of this study was to elicit the experiences of women who participated in a gender-responsive program in jail. Through the collection of life history interviews, this article highlights the transformative learning experiences of 13 women participants. Research questions included (1) how did the program foster transformative learning?…
Pinese Carmen SV
Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprisonment may lead to the development of mental illness, especially depression. This study examines the clinical and sociodemographic profiles of imprisoned women, identifies indicative signs of depression, and relates these indicators to other variables. Methods This study took the form of descriptive exploratory research with a psychometric evaluation. A total of 100 of 300 women in a female penitentiary were interviewed. A questionnaire with sociodemographic, clinical and penal situation information was used, along with the Beck Depression Inventory. The authors performed bivariate and multivariate analysis regarding depression. Results In all, 82 women presented signs of depression (light = 33, mild = 29 and severe = 20. Comorbidities, lack of religious practice, absence of visitors and presence of eating disorders were risk factors for depression (P = 0.03, 0.03, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.01. Being older was a protection factor against severe depression; for women over 30, the risk of depression was multiplied by 0.12. The rate of depression among women prisoners was high. Conclusions Comorbidities, the lack of religious practice, not having visitors and eating disorders are significant risk factors for depression, while age is a protective factor, among incarcerated women.
Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.
Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…
Cobbina, Jennifer E.
Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…
Knittel, Andrea; Ti, Angeline; Schear, Sarah; Comfort, Megan
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe standards for evidence-based reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women. Design/methodology/approach The literature on reproductive healthcare in the US criminal justice system and recommendations from professional organizations were reviewed and critical areas of concern were identified. Within these areas, studies and expert opinion were synthesized and policy recommendations were formulated through an iterative process of group discussion and document revision. This brief specifically addresses women's incarceration in the USA, but the recommendations are grounded in a human rights framework with global relevance. Findings Women who are incarcerated have health needs that are distinct from those of men, and there is a clear need for gender-responsive reproductive healthcare within the criminal justice system. This brief identifies five core domains of reproductive healthcare: routine screening, menstruation-related concerns, prenatal and postpartum care, contraception and abortion, and sexually transmitted infections. The recommendations emphasize the continuity between the criminal justice system and the community, as well as the dignity and self-determination of incarcerated women. Originality/value This brief provides a unique synthesis of the available evidence with concrete recommendations for improving the reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women.
Cobbina, Jennifer E.; Bender, Kimberly A.
Research reveals that most incarcerated adults are optimistic about their chances of success after release and believe they will be less likely to reoffend than other prisoners. Moreover, studies suggest that optimism shapes desistance. This raises the interesting question of how and why female inmates maintain an optimistic outlook about their…
Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M
We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.
Kelsey, C M; Medel, Nickole; Mullins, Carson; Dallaire, Danielle; Forestell, Catherine
The number of incarcerated women in the United States has been steadily increasing over the last 30 years. An estimated 6-10% of these women are pregnant at intake. Previous studies on the health needs and care of pregnant incarcerated women have focused mainly on prison settings. Therefore, we examined the pregnancy-related accommodations and health care provided for regional jail populations. The present study is a quantitative survey (administered through phone or email to employees of predominately jail medical facilities) of common practices and policies employed across 53 jail facilities in the United States as a function of geographic region (North vs. South; West vs. Central vs. East). We examined provision of pregnancy screening, special diets, and drug rehabilitation and prohibition of shackling. Strikingly, across all aspects of the care of pregnant incarcerated women there are areas to be improved upon. Notably, only 37.7% of facilities pregnancy test all women upon entry, 45.7% put opioid addicted women through withdrawal protocol, and 56.7% of facilities use restraints on women hours after having a baby. In this first study to examine practices in regional jails nationwide, we found evidence that standards of care guidelines to improve health and well-being of pregnant incarcerated women, set by agencies such as American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, are not being followed in many facilities. Because not following these guidelines could pose major health risks to the mother and developing fetus, better policies, better enforcement of policies, and better common practices are needed to improve the health and welfare of pregnant incarcerated women.
Kuo, Caroline; Johnson, Jennifer; Rosen, Rochelle K; Wechsberg, Wendee; Gobin, Robyn L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Peabody, Marlanea; Zlotnick, Caron
Incarcerated women, in comparison to nonincarcerated women, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and many have experienced interpersonal violence. The psychological construct of emotional dysregulation-which includes heightened intensity of emotions, poor understanding of emotions, negative reactivity to emotion state, inability to control behaviors when experiencing emotional distress, and maladaptive emotion management responses-is a possible pathway to explain the link between interpersonal violence exposure and STI risk. The present study examined maladaptive emotion management responses for emotional dysregulation (i.e., avoidance and numbing, and dissociation) occurring in the context of risky sexual behavior. We collected qualitative data from 4 focus groups with a sample of n = 21 incarcerated women (aged 18+ years) from urban facilities in New England. Qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Findings indicated that incarcerated women reported engaging in a variety of maladaptive responses for emotion management during sexual encounters. These maladaptive responses for emotion management appear to increase sexual risk behaviors and alter women's ability to implement STI protective behaviors, such as sexual negotiation and condom use. Preventive interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors should incorporate strategies to promote emotional regulation among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence.
Harner, Holly M; Budescu, Mia; Gillihan, Seth J; Riley, Suzanne; Foa, Edna B
The majority of women who enter the criminal justice system, most of whom are poor and women of color, have suffered from significant lifetime trauma exposure that can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is essential to identify the prevalence of PTSD among this population in order to identify treatment needs. Most studies on PTSD among incarcerated women have focused on PTSD in jailed populations, including women awaiting trial. Using a cross-sectional study design, we estimated the prevalence of PTSD and comorbid physical and mental health conditions in 387 incarcerated women sentenced to a maximum-security prison in the United States. Almost half (44%) of our sample met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Women with moderate to severe PTSD symptoms were more likely to report several comorbid physical and mental health conditions than were women without PTSD. Women with the most severe symptoms were most likely to report receiving mental health treatment in prison; women with moderate to severe symptoms were less likely to report receiving similar mental health care. Our findings add support to the link between PTSD and comorbid physical and mental health conditions and suggest that many women with PTSD are not receiving mental health treatment that is likely to benefit them. Because prison has become the mental health safety net for some of the nation's most vulnerable women, it is imperative that prisons provide evidence-based PTSD treatment during incarceration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sufrin, Carolyn B; Creinin, Mitchell D; Chang, Judy C
Incarcerated women have had limited access to health care prior to their arrest. Although their incarceration presents an opportunity to provide them with health care, their reproductive health needs have been overlooked. We performed a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 950 correctional health providers who are members of the Academy of Correctional Health Providers. A total of 405 surveys (43%) were returned, and 286 (30%) were eligible for analysis. Most ineligible surveys were from clinicians at male-only facilities. Of eligible respondents, 70% reported some degree of contraception counseling for women at their facilities. Only 11% provided routine counseling prior to release. Seventy percent said that their institution had no formal policy on contraception. Thirty-eight percent of clinicians provided birth control methods at their facilities. Although the most frequently counseled and prescribed method was oral contraceptive pills, only 50% of providers rated their oral contraceptive counseling ability as good or very good. Contraception counseling was associated with working at a juvenile facility, and with screening for sexually transmitted infections. Contraception does not appear to be integrated into the routine delivery of clinical services to incarcerated women. Because the correctional health care system can provide important clinical and public health interventions to traditionally marginalized populations, services for incarcerated women should include access to contraception.
Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…
Nowotny, Kathryn M; Masters, Ryan K; Boardman, Jason D
This paper contributes to research on the education-health association by extending the scope of inquiry to adult inmates. Not only are inmates excluded from most nationally representative studies of health but they also represent a highly select group in terms of both education and health. As such, our study provides new information about the health of incarcerated populations and it extends the generalizability of the education-health association beyond the non-institutionalized population. We use a prison-level fixed-effects regression model with the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (n = 287 facilities) to evaluate the effects of education on a standardized morbidity scale of 11 lifetime and current health conditions among incarcerated men (n = 10,493) and women (n = 2,797). Education prior to incarceration is negatively associated with lifetime health problems for both women and men and the association is stronger among women. Among inmates who enter prison with less than a GED level of education, attaining a GED in prison is associated with better current health outcomes for men, but not women. The generalization of the education-health association among prisoners further highlights the fundamental nature of education as a health promotive resource. Discussed are the implications for the education-health literature in general and health promotion efforts among incarcerated adults specifically.
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth
Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of
Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae
Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.
Santos, Márcia Vieira dos; Alves, Valdecyr Herdy; Pereira, Audrey Vidal; Rodrigues, Diego Pereira; Marchiori, Giovanna Rosário Soanno; Guerra, Juliana Vidal Vieira
ABSTRACT Objective: identifying the factors related to the mental health of women in a prison in the Statey of Rio de Janeiro. Method: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study conducted between October 2014 and January 2015 in a female prison in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Forty (40) incarcerated women were interviewed. The information collected was discussed based on content analysis, using a thematic based modality. Results: the following factors that affect the mental health o...
Nargiso, Jessica E; Kuo, Caroline C; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E
The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well-understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women's social networks, including the strength of support, network characteristics, and types of support provided as well as to determine what aspects of social support may be amenable to change during incarceration and post-release. Study results showed that, on average, women perceived they had moderately supportive individuals in their lives, although more than a quarter of the sample could not identify any regular supporters in their network at baseline. During incarceration, women's social networks significantly increased in general supportiveness, and decreased in network size and percentage of substance users in their networks. Participants maintained positive social support gains post-release in most areas while also significantly increasing the size of their support network post-release. Findings suggest that there are aspects of incarcerated MDD-SUD women's social networks that are amenable to change during incarceration and post-release and provide insight into treatment targets for this vulnerable population.
Stela Nazareth Meneghel
Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.
Stela Nazareth Meneghel; Sandra Regina Martini Vial
This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and ...
Nurses who practice with criminalized women will recognize this group as profoundly marginalized through multiple, intersecting mechanisms. The number of women imprisoned in North America, Latin America, Australia, and Western Europe continues to rise as it has for the past 20 years or more. As a nurse who has practiced almost exclusively with marginalized people, I have met and cared for many women whose health is made vulnerable by race, poverty, homelessness, mental health issues, and other factors. Many of them have been repeatedly incarcerated, experiencing chronically destabilizing cycles of getting arrested, going to jail, getting out, being homeless, getting arrested again, and repeating the cycle. To better understand the implications for nursing with respect to criminalized women, a focused review of the nursing and feminist scholarly literature on incarcerated women was conducted. The predominant themes and trends from both bodies of literature are presented and cross-compared. An analysis of what each body of scholarly work can offer to the other, including implications for nursing practice, concludes the literature review.
Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren
The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soffer, Michal; Ajzenstadt, Mimi
This study re-examined Gresham Sykes's initial conceptualization of "pains of imprisonment" as it applied to women inmates. It contextualized these pains within the women's social experiences both inside and outside the only women's prison in Israel. Semi-structured interviews with 42 female prisoners were conducted. Two counter-themes emerged from our analysis. The first one portrayed prison as punishment, a "painful condition," a stressful event that included deprivation, negative meaning, suffering, and pain. The opposite--and more dominant--theme framed incarceration as a positive experience, during which the prisoners received nurturing, care, and treatment, which they had not been afforded in the outside world. We found that "pains of imprisonment" was a multidimensional and complex phenomena that included contradicting emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. "Pains of imprisonment" was part of a larger group of pains that extended beyond the time and place of prison.
Zust, Barbara L
The number of women in prison in the United States has been growing rapidly over the last 30 years. A large percentage of the incarcerated women have been victimized by violent partners and family members. Some of these women have been forced with threats of violence by their abusers to participate in illegal activities. Most of the women have children and many of the women will never see their children while in prison. Incarcerated women who have experienced intimate partner violence are at risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicide. Recidivism for women prisoners is associated with depression. In spite of the cost of recidivism and the growing overcrowded conditions in women's prisons, there are no known studies in the literature that test the effectiveness of a gender-sensitive intervention to reduce depression in incarcerated women as a means of reducing recidivism. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the need for an effective cognitive therapy program that is designed specifically to reduce women's depression by raising awareness of inherited negative messages, affirmation of self and others, and empowerment through goal setting. The INSIGHT program is introduced as an example of a gender-sensitive program.
... East and North Africa South and Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa The Americas and the Caribbean Questions & Answers Resources Women's Health Research Overview Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women ...
Ginette G. Ferszt
Full Text Available Incarcerated women enter the prison setting with remarkable histories of trauma, mental health and substance abuse issues. Given the stress of incarceration and separation from their children, families, and significant others, it is not surprising that many women experience increased anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. Due to these negative outcomes, it is imperative to find efficient non-pharmacological interventions. This pilot study examined the impact of a 12-week mindfulness based program on the stress, anxiety, depression and sleep of women with a total of 33 completing the study. In one group, women’s perceived stress, anxiety and depression were all significantly lower following the intervention compared to prior to the intervention. Challenges with implementing the pilot study are addressed. Despite challenges and limitations, the low-cost non-pharmacological intervention has potential for a reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Ford, Julian D; Chang, Rocío; Levine, Joan; Zhang, Wanli
Traumatic victimization and associated problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and affect dysregulation are prevalent among incarcerated women, but there is limited evidence to support psychotherapeutic interventions for these problems in this underserved population. A group psychotherapy designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing-Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET)-was compared to a supportive group therapy (SGT) in a randomized clinical trial with 72 incarcerated women with full or partial PTSD. Both interventions achieved statistically significant reductions in PTSD and associated symptom severity and increased self-efficacy. Dropout rates for both interventions were low (women's ability to achieve affective resolution (forgiveness) while also reducing their victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Experiential-focused supportive group therapy also may reduce victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Both group therapy approaches warrant further study with this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Reid, Inez Smith
Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…
Since their creation in the latter part of the nineteenth century, women's colleges in America have undergone many significant changes. In 1960, over 230 women's colleges were in operation; over the next forty years more than 75 percent chose to admit men or shut their doors entirely (Miller-Bernal, 2006a). This chapter will shed light on the…
Full Text Available Very little is known about how women’s experiences with inclusion or exclusion shape their entry into community after they have been incarcerated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine inclusion from the perspective of women entering community after release from a federal prison in Ontario, Canada. This research project combined feminist participatory action research with anti-oppressive theories. Women who had been incarcerated were asked to come together to discuss ideas around inclusion and explore ways to foster a more inclusive environment. As women described the kind of community they experienced before and after incarceration, themes of being pushed out of community, being pulled into community, and negotiating issues of responsibility were evident. At the core of these themes was a powerful sense of difference. Findings suggest that deep societal change is needed for women to truly experience social inclusion upon their release from federal prison. They also suggest a role for community in supporting personal change and growth. We argue that if principles of social justice guided inclusion efforts, there would be dialogue and negotiation aimed at re-imagining social inclusion and creating a space that is hopeful and inclusive for all citizens.
Full Text Available This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers. Utilizing these strategies, women challenged the stigma of convicted felon/bad mother and reinforced the assumptions that motherhood is compulsory and should be reserved for women with enough money and standing to give their children advantages. The implications for understanding motherhood as a mechanism of moral identity and social control are discussed.
Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Ayres, Barbara; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1) and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6); the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2) and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8). Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.
De Ravello, Lori; Abeita, Jessica; Brown, Pam
Incarcerated American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have multiple physical, social, and emotional concerns, many of which may stem from adverse childhood experiences (ACE). We interviewed 36 AI/AN women incarcerated in the New Mexico prison system to determine the relationship between ACE and adult outcomes. ACE assessment included physical neglect, dysfunctional family (e.g., household members who abused substances, were mentally ill or suicidal, or who were incarcerated), violence witnessed in the home, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. The most prevalent ACE was dysfunctional family (75%), followed by witnessing violence (72%), sexual abuse (53%), physical abuse (42%), and physical neglect (22%). ACE scores were positively associated with arrests for violent offenses, lifetime suicide attempt(s), and intimate partner violence.
Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie
Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood vict...
Johnson, Jennifer E; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M
International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system may reduce health burden for these women.
Danilo de Assis Pereira
This is a qualitative study grounded in Social Representations Theory (SRT, with descriptive approach. Objectives: the research aimed to identify the life trajectories of women incarcerated in the Public Jail Women's Votorantim, its prospects and the meanings attributed to prison. The specific objectives were: (1 identify the socio-demographic and clinical data, (2 the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (3 the use, abuse or dependence symptoms in women prisoners. Methods: we interviewed 25 women, trapped interim Chain Public Women's Votorantim. The arrested after signing the Instrument of Consent, responding to a data sheet Sociodemographic and Clinical Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We use the Collective Subject Discourse to present the result of discursive question. For the rest of the specs of sociodemographic and clinical data and the Beck Depression Questionnaire, we chose the descriptive approach. Results: most of the interviewees was arrested for drug trafficking, has fragmented family history, present history of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse, have significant mental health problems, physical and substance abuse; 80% of women who responded to the BDI were identified as having moderate to severe depression, and the items that scored more this index were: loss of libido, sadness, punishment, insomnia. Conclusion: it is vital to ensure the rights of the imprisoned health access. We suggest that every convict follow a process of initial assessment, to be diagnosed soon: substance dependence and depression.
Rogers Jessica D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Perception of neighborhood social environment can influence an individual’s susceptibility to drug dependence. However, this has never been examined with a jailed sample, where frequent transitions between local jails and disadvantaged neighborhoods are common. Understanding these associations could aid in the design of targeted programs to decrease drug dependence and recidivism among the incarcerated. Methods For this study, 596 women and men from three Kansas City jails were surveyed over the course of six months in 2010. Drug dependence was assessed with DSM-IV criteria. Independent variables included fear of one’s neighborhood, perceived level of neighborhood violence, and social capital. All data were self-reported and were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Controlling for gender and age, fear of neighborhood violence was associated with increased odds of having drug dependence (OR = 1.27, CI 1.02, 1.58 and a higher level of social capital prior to incarceration was associated with lower odds of drug dependence (OR = 0.65, CI 0.44, 0.96. Mental health problem diagnosis and past year intimate partner violence were significant mediating factors. Gender and race/ethnicity were significant moderating factors between neighborhood disadvantage and drug dependence. Conclusions Our study suggests that drug dependence programs for women and men who cycle between jails and communities require both individual- and community-level interventions. To be most effective, programs at the community-level should focus on helping specific groups navigate their communities, as well as address individual health needs associated with drug dependence.
Goshin, Lorie S.; Byrne, Mary W.
Correctional facilities are prime targets for nursing interventions to decrease health disparities, but challenges to post-release follow-up limit use of the longitudinal research designs needed to fully examine intervention effects. Using an adapted version of the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, we determined predictors of 1year post-release study retention and subsequent reenrollment an average of 3 years later in 88 mother and child dyads recruited from a state prison nursery. Predisposing characteristics and enabling factors emerged as strong predictors of loss to follow-up. Female research participants can be successfully retained years after release from a correctional facility. Understanding the barriers and facilitators to post-release follow-up supports the creation of theoretically informed strategies to retain formerly incarcerated populations. PMID:22105494
Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C
Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... relevant in addressing the current problems faced by management in providing solutions in addressing their diverse workforce, especially women in leadership positions. Keywords: Organisational Culture, women, managerial positions, Organisational change Gender equality. Gender & Behaviour, 10(2), December 2012 ...
Quinn, Paul C; Conforto, Amanda; Lee, Kang; O'Toole, Alice J; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M
Three- to 4-month-old infants reared by female caregivers display a spontaneous preference for individual adult women's over men's faces. Here we report that this preference extends to prototype girl over boy faces. The findings suggest transfer of gender-diagnostic facial information from individual adult to prototype child faces. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gobin, Robyn L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are similar, but distinct, psychiatric conditions that are common in male and female inmates; a segment of the population with high rates of trauma exposure. It is unclear whether specific types of lifetime trauma are associated with ASPD and psychopathy in incarcerated women and men. Furthermore, the unique roles of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and trauma victimization in antisocial personality disturbance are not well-understood. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study investigated associations between trauma variables (different kinds of traumatic experiences and PTSD) and antisocial personality variables (ASPD and psychopathy) in a sample of incarcerated women and men who participated in a randomized clinical trial for major depressive disorder. In total, 88 incarcerated men and women were assessed for ASPD diagnosis, psychopathy severity, PTSD symptom severity, and history of physical, sexual, and crime-related trauma. Regression analyses predicted ASPD or psychopathy from trauma variables, controlling for gender. Physical trauma was the only form of trauma that was significantly related to psychopathy. Physical trauma and crime-related trauma were associated with ASPD. PTSD symptom severity was not associated with psychopathy or ASPD. There are associations between some kinds of lifetime trauma exposure and current ASPD/psychopathy in the target sample, but these associations do not appear to be mediated through current PTSD symptoms.
Janette Y. Taylor
Full Text Available Objective. To determine if incarcerated women survivors of IPV had a physiological response to the Music and Account-Making for Behavioral-Related Adaptation (MAMBRA intervention, as measured by cortisol levels. Methods. A single-group repeated measures designed exploratory study was used to pilot-test MAMBRA. A convenience sample (n=33 was recruited in a Midwestern women’s correctional facility. Serving as their own control, participants provided demographics and pre-/post-MAMBRA salivary samples while attending four MAMBRA sessions. Baseline data were compared to participants’ data collected over the remaining 3 MAMBRA sessions. Data were analyzed with descriptive and univariate statistics with an alpha of .05 and post-hoc power of .65. Results. Participants were predominantly White (52%, single (80%, and early middle-aged (x-AGE=38.7±9.4, with a history of physical/nonphysical spousal abuse. Using a subsample (n=26, salivary cortisol decreased between the pre-/post-MAMBRA over the sessions (F(3,75=4.59, p<.01. Conclusion. Participants had a physiological response to the MAMBRA intervention as evidenced by the decreased cortisol between the pre-/post-MAMBRA. This is the first step in examining MAMBRA’s clinical utility as an intervention for female IPV survivors. Future longitudinal studies will examine MAMBRA’s effectiveness given this change in cortisol.
Ozturk, Rusen; Taner, Aylin; Guneri, Sezer Er; Yilmaz, Bulent
Background & Objective: Violence against women is a widespread problem and has serious implications on women’s health. Infertility, in many ways, is a very stressful condition that affect social and marital life of a couple; moreover, compared to fertile women, infertile women are twice as vulnerable against violence. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of violence and define the effect of infertility on violence on women receiving infertility treatment. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out 301 infertile women between November 2015 and August 2016 in a state hospital, Izmir. Data were collected as “Sociodemographic Characteristics Form” and “Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale”. Results: The mean age of women was 31.77±5.46 years; the average duration of marriage was 6.93±4.53 years. About 32.5% of women stated that they have suffered from violence throughout their lives and 4.7% of women were still suffering from violence, while 5.0% of women were subjected to violence after infertility was diagnosed. Conclusion: It is an encouraging finding that infertile women have a low exposure to violence. However, despite a low violence rate, there is an increase in violence toward women who have been diagnosed with infertility. PMID:29067064
Tripodi, Stephen J; Pettus-Davis, Carrie
Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to be released from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample, who were both physically and sexually victimized as children, were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons' role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women's trajectories to prison, which disproportionately include childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Schmittel, Emily
Objectives: Approximately 25% of women are pregnant or postpartum when they enter prison. This study assesses a system-level intervention that prevented the separation of mothers and infants at birth, allowing them to reside together in an alternative community setting. Method: Longitudinal analysis of several state-level administrative databases…
Aiello, Brittnie; McQueeny, Krista
This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers.…
Boemer, Magali Roseira; Mariutti, Mariana Gondim
This work aims at revealing the meaning of abortion in the view of women who have experienced it. For this purpose, the author used the Methodology of Phenomenological Investigation, which enabled a comprehensive analysis of the accounts collected. Data were gathered by interviewing twelve hospitalized women. The following questions were used: "What's the meaning of this experience to you? Can you describe it to me? The convergence of their accounts was analyzed and this enabled the creation of thematic categories. Such categories point out the essence of these women's experience and may provide guidelines for the development of assistance policies that would meet their specific needs. The results enlighten important aspects associated with sadness, loss, physiological and existential pain, loneliness, hospitalization discomfort, guilt or fear of being considered guilty, concern with their bodies and the intentionality of their consciences beginning to give importance to contraceptive methods. Their desire to review their own life projects also emerges.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA, aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1 increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2 increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after release; and (3 decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year. They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM and on Motivational Interviewing (MI, an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected
Paola Cañete Gonzalez
Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the gender variable has been investigated in terms of linguistic variation. A number of studies (mainly phonological in nature have been carried out which have generated preliminary conclusions such as women are more conservative and use more standard forms of language than men or that men are more innovative than women (Chambers, 2009; Labov, 1994. Generally, we are aware that new words are created every day which is indicative of the dynamism of languages and the changes taking place in a given society. The study of new lexical entities, called neologisms, allows us to understand how language speakers adapt to social changes. The two issues mentioned above are our main motivation to conduct this investigation which will be based on a linguistic approach with a focus on neology. Hence, this paper focuses on Spanish neological units produced by women and men as found in contemporary newspaper articles and blogs through a qualitative analysis of neologisms used by women and men as well as a qualitative analysis of the formation of these neologisms. Finally, we present a comparison between the results obtained in both types of text.
The objectives of the study were to identify factors that led to the collapse of most women owned micro-enterprises, and the constraints women faced in their businesses in southern Malawi. The study was conducted in Zomba district, where the banking groups such as Malawi Rural Finance Company (MRFC), National ...
Full Text Available ......It all starts with education. Girls must to be encouraged to study science, math and apply for degrees in computer science, economics and business overall. Slowly we are seeing that even big toy manufacturers are moving away from stereotypical dolls for girls that portray women as fashion-loving-make-up adoring creatures and moving into producing dolls that show, Barbie for example, as a scientist. But it’s not enough!...
Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira
The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence.
Marilene Vicente de Jesus
Full Text Available The research aimed to understand the experiences of women with mastectomies in the treatment Assistance Unit for High Complexity - (UNACON a Hospital Midsize High Complexity in the South of Santa Catarina. This is a qualitative study, descriptive and field. We carried out semi-structured interviews with ten women. Data were analyzed using the technique proposed by Minayo categorization.The survey results denote that interferes with mastectomies in activities of daily living, interpersonal relationships, self-esteem and self-image of women. The feelings of despair, fear and anxiety, but also the strength to fight for life were reported by women, beyondthe need to help and support arising from the family. The difficulties faced after mastectomy surgery are related to pain, loss of strength in the arm, need for rest, interfering with daily activities of women. We stress the need for support of the healthcare team to mastectomy for women coping and adaptation to the disease process.
Marilene Vicente de Jesus
Full Text Available The research aimed to understand the experiences of women with mastectomies in the treatment Assistance Unit for High Complexity - (UNACON a Hospital Midsize High Complexity in the South of Santa Catarina. This is a qualitative study, descriptive and field. We carried out semi-structured interviews with ten women. Data were analyzed using the technique proposed by Minayo categorization. The survey results denote that interferes with mastectomies in activities of daily living, interpersonal relationships, self-esteem and self-image of women. The feelings of despair, fear and anxiety, but also the strength to fight for life were reported by women, beyond the need to help and support arising from the family. The difficulties faced after mastectomy surgery are related to pain, loss of strength in the arm, need for rest, interfering with daily activities of women. We stress the need for support of the healthcare team to mastectomy for women coping and adaptation to the disease process.
Quist, Michelle C; Watkins, Christopher D; Smith, Finlay G; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Although men displaying cues of good physical condition possess traits that are desirable in a mate (e.g., good health), these men are also more likely to possess antisocial characteristics that are undesirable in a long-term partner (e.g., aggression and tendency to infidelity). How women resolve this trade-off between the costs and benefits associated with choosing a mate in good physical condition may lead to strategic variation in women's mate preferences. Because the costs of choosing a mate with antisocial personality characteristics are greater in long- than short-term relationships, women's sociosexuality (i.e., the extent to which they are interested in uncommitted sexual relationships) may predict individual differences in their mate preferences. Here we investigated variation in 99 heterosexual women's preferences for facial symmetry, a characteristic that is thought to be an important cue of physical condition. Symmetry preferences were assessed using pairs of symmetrized and original (i.e., relatively asymmetric) versions of 10 male and 10 female faces. Analyses showed that women's sociosexuality, and their sociosexual attitude in particular, predicted their preferences for symmetry in men's, but not women's, faces; women who reported being more interested in short-term, uncommitted relationships demonstrated stronger attraction to symmetric men. Our findings present new evidence for potentially adaptive variation in women's symmetry preferences that is consistent with trade-off theories of attraction.
Gardner, Elizabeth C
While there is concern regarding head, face, and eye injuries in field hockey, prompting some to recommend the use of protective equipment such as goggles and helmets, little has been written about their incidence and mechanism of injury in the modern game of field hockey. The elucidation of this information will better inform the development of maximally effective injury prevention schemes to protect the athlete while maintaining the integrity of the game. To determine the incidence and epidemiology of head, face, and eye injuries in United States collegiate women's field hockey players from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009. Descriptive epidemiological study. All head, face, and eye injuries reported to the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System for collegiate women's field hockey athletes from the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons were analyzed. Data regarding the event type, injury mechanism, body part injured, type of injury, outcome, and time lost were reviewed. The weighted injury incidence per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) was calculated using the exposure data set for the same years; 95% CIs were calculated based on a normal approximation to the Poisson distribution. There were 150 reported traumatic injuries during this time period, with a weighted occurrence of 1587.3 injuries. The overall incidence of head, face, and eye injuries in collegiate women's field hockey was 0.94 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.86-1.19). Injuries to the head or face, other than the mouth, nose, and eye, accounted for 75.3% of these injuries. The incidence of eye injuries was 0.07 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.03-0.12); nose injuries occurred at a rate of 0.10 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.05-0.15). The rate of traumatic dental injuries was 0.06 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 0.04-0.14). Contact with an apparatus caused 72.9% of all injuries; specifically, contact with an elevated ball accounted for 47.9% of all injuries, and contact with an elevated stick caused 21.7% of all injuries
God created men and women differently so we can integrate with each other for the sake of the Earth's inhabitants, and form families that are the fundamental building blocks of healthy and prosperous nations. The world around us is full of many challenges (environment, energy, health, food). Physicists are able to contribute strongly in solving most of these challenges; moreover, physicists can help promote in the welfare and economic development of all nations. Advancing in physics understanding is an exciting intellectual challenge that benefits from the diverse and complementary approaches taken by both women and men. Accordingly, women are needed to change the face of physics. We have to encourage and attract them, beginning with the education of girls, scholarships, help balancing family and career, and positions of influence for women. These measures are discussed.
Jones, Kristen M.
A gender gap still exists in modern science; this is especially evident in the fields of physics and astronomy. The cause of such a gap is the center of debate. Is this discrepancy the result of inherent ability or socialization? Most studies have focused on modern issues and how women are socialized today. The role of historical gender perspectives and social opinions in creating the field of modern science and any discrepancies within it has not yet been explored in depth. This project investigates the obstacles faced by historical women in physics and astronomy that stem from the officialized gender biases that accompanied the establishment of modern science. Such obstacles are both formal and informal. Four women were chosen to span the three hundred year period between the standardization of the field and the modern day: Laura Bassi, Mary Somerville, Lise Meitner, and Jocelyn Bell Burnell. The investigation reveals that formal obstacles significantly decreased over the time period, while informal obstacles eroded more gradually. Obstacles also reflected historical events such as the World Wars and the Enlightenment. Trends in obstacles faced by four prominent women physicists indicate that education, finances, support networks, and social opinion played a large role in determining success in the field. The applicability to modern day physics issues and the gender gap is discussed. Many thanks to the Pathways Scholars Program and the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program for funding for this project.
Wellenreuther, Maren; Otto, Sarah
The face of science has changed. Women now feature alongside men at the forefront of many fields, and this is particularly true in evolutionary biology. This special issue celebrates the outstanding achievements and contributions of women in evolutionary biology, by highlighting a sample of their research and accomplishments. In addition to original research contributions, this collection of articles contains personal reflections to provide perspective and advice on succeeding as a woman in science. By showcasing the diversity and research excellence of women and drawing on their experiences, we wish to enhance the visibility of female scientists and provide inspiration as well as role models. These are exciting times for evolutionary biology, and the field is richer and stronger for the diversity of voices contributing to the field.
Latham, Teaniese P.; Sales, Jessica M.; Renfro, Tiffaney L.; Boyce, Lorin S.; Rose, Eve; Murray, Colleen C.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
This manuscript assesses priorities and challenges of adolescent females by conducting a meeting with teen advisory board (TAB) members to collect information regarding their lives and experiences pre-, during and post-incarceration in a juvenile detention facility. Multiple themes emerged regarding the impact of incarceration on young…
Clark, Nicholas; Dolan, Kate; Farabee, David
Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison. Women with drug problems are twice as likely to have been imprisoned for a drug offence as incarcerated men. Similarly, HIV prevalence is higher among female inmates. Serious attention should be paid to implementation of non-custodial sentences for women, particularly during pregnancy and those with young children.
Pinto, R M; Rahman, R; Williams, A
There is limited knowledge on re-entry initiatives for formerly incarcerated women specifically on building women's advocacy and leadership skills. Our research highlights an empowerment evaluation on ReConnect, a 12-session; innovative advocacy and leadership development program rooted in an integrated framework of empowerment, and transformational leadership theories. Using thematic analysis, we coded three focus groups with 24 graduates, for themes that matched our framework's concepts. ReConnect graduates reported being empowered by the information they received on parental rights, housing, and employment. Participants agreed that ReConnect improved their communication skills, preparing them to advocate for themselves and community members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gender equality has been a topic of discussion throughout my long (now three decade) career. This alone illustrates the complex nature of the issue, and the lack of a simple solution, particularly as many of the daily challenges that women face are institution or discipline-specific. For this reason, I will summarize some of the issues that appear to me to be more general, and therefore ones that may have general solutions. The first and foremost relates to demands on women's time. One way that academic institutions have sought to overcome gender bias has been to require that every university committee have a female member; in departments, schools and faculties where women represent a minority, this necessarily means that women shoulder an inequitable share of the service duties. I have experienced this myself, seen it in promotion files at all levels, and observed it with regard to my female colleagues. Clearly time spent doing service is time not spent doing science. There is also an easy solution to this problem, which is to re-think the underlying assumption that men are necessarily gender-biased if they don't have a woman sitting in the room! Additional time demands can come from informal mentoring of both students and younger colleagues, particularly in cases where senior male colleagues are viewed as too important, or too intimidating, to be consulted on personal issues. Although I suspect that this problem may also be widespread, it is more difficult to quantify, and is therefore more difficult to factor into time allotments of departmental duties. A final thought relates to hiring practices. I have now worked in both the US and UK educational systems, which have very different interview and hiring protocols. I will review both, highlighting components that I think are most likely to promote equitable hiring practices.
Street, Amy E; Vogt, Dawne; Dutra, Lissa
The extent of female service members' involvement in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), in terms of both the number of women deployed and the scope of their involvement, is unprecedented. While many of the mental health readjustment issues of female service members are likely to mirror those of the majority male Veteran population, this newest generation of women Veterans may also face unique threats to their mental health. The goal of this review it to highlight emerging issues relevant to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among women deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan by reviewing the existing literature on gender-relevant issues among this cohort, as well as raising theoretically important issues that are worthy of further empirical investigation. Topics addressed include gender differences in combat experiences and in PTSD following combat exposure; sexual assault, sexual harassment and other interpersonal stressors experienced during deployment; women Veterans' experiences of premilitary trauma exposure; and unique stressors faced by women Veterans during the homecoming readjustment period. Given that most models of the impact of war zone deployment on PTSD are predicated on the experiences of male service members, women's expanding role in combat operations presents both an opportunity and a challenge to adapt these models to more effectively capture the experiences of female service members.
HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an ... of viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...
Li, Michael J; Frank, Heather Guentzel; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Chou, Chih-Ping; Bluthenthal, Ricky N
African-American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are among those most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States, and those who have histories of incarceration are at further risk of infection. The Men in Life Environments (MILE) HIV prevention intervention was developed to provide culturally appropriate skills-based education and support for African-American MSMW with recent histories of incarceration. The MILE's conceptual framework was informed by three theories: Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model, and Empowerment Theory. The theory-based framework posits that improving racial pride is crucial in building self-efficacy and intentions that in turn promote health-protective behaviors. Therefore, our study aimed to assess whether baseline associations between racial pride and condom use self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors among African-American MSMW with histories of incarceration align with our conceptual model. We report data on 212 participants recruited from Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Men's Central Jail and the local community. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two separate models: one with female sexual partners and one with male sexual partners, while stratifying by participant's HIV status. Only among HIV-negative participants was greater racial pride associated with less condomless intercourse with men. In this group, greater self-efficacy and intentions-but not racial pride-predicted less condomless intercourse with women. Our findings suggest that racial pride is an important factor to address in HIV prevention interventions for post-incarcerated African-American MSMW.
Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.
Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of 'face-to-face education' and 'educational movies' on 'knowledge' and 'practice' of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups.
Full Text Available Women as criminals who have received prison sentences have, if certain conditions are met, special rights tied to their reproductive function. This paper highlights the issues which women who have received prison sentences face, considering that there is only one institution in the Republic of Serbia in which women serve prison sentences. Special regard will be given to pregnant women expecting the execution of a prison sentence, their right to have the sentence suspended, as well as their right to be on temporary licence. The subject of this paper will also be what is perhaps the most complex issue: the incarceration of pregnant women.
Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe
In this chapter, we investigate how a face is not a singular, invariable object, but may take on a variety of forms, and how new media has especially created new venues for the moldings of faces. We suggest that faces should be viewed in plural in order to emphasize the many different facial disp...
In response to numerous complaints about frequently sexist and degrading portrayals of women in advertising, the Ontario Status of Women Council sponsored a survey, in 1974 and 1975, designed to provide insights into the sorts of things that women find objectionable in advertising and the most common sources and subjects of offensive ads. This…
Dal Vera, Anne
Drawing from research on fear of failure and anecdotes from personal experience with the first women's expedition to ski to the South Pole, this discussion centers on how fear of failure affects women. Fear of failure leads to procrastination and performance well below one's ability. Women generally express more fear of failure than do men, partly…
Zehr, Mary Ann
It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…
Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe
for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... displays a single person make use of, and how this ‘pool of faces’ carries sociocultural meaning. While the past decades of swift technological development may seem to have diminished the role of face to face contact, the many new media has – on the contrary – established multiple new and innovative arenas...... forward. Especially the teenage girls engage in manipulating their faces into hideous expressions. However, this type of interaction is not random facial displays, but follow an ‘aesthetics of ugliness’. This aesthetics involve specific ways of looking ugly and is primarily performed by girls who have...
Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker
This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.
Tejani, N; Rosenheck, R; Tsai, J; Kasprow, W; McGuire, J F
There is increasing concern that adults with a past history of incarceration are at particular disadvantage in exiting homelessness. Supported housing with case management has emerged as the leading service model for assisting homeless adults; however there has been limited examination of the success of adults with past history of incarceration in obtaining housing within this paradigm. Data were examined on 14,557 veterans who entered a national supported housing program for homeless veterans, the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program (HUD-VASH) during 2008 and 2009, to identify characteristics associated with a history of incarceration and to evaluate whether those with a history of incarceration are less likely to obtain housing and/or more likely to experience delays in the housing attainment process. Veterans who reported no past incarceration were compared with veterans with short incarceration histories (≤ 1 year) and those with long incarceration histories (>1 year). A majority of participants reported history of incarceration; 43 % reported short incarceration histories and 22 % reported long incarceration histories. After adjusting for baseline characteristics and site, history of incarceration did not appear to impede therapeutic alliance, progression through the housing process or obtaining housing. Within a national supported housing program, veterans with a history of incarceration were just as successful at obtaining housing in similar time frames when compared to veterans without any past incarceration. Supported housing programs, like HUD-VASH, appear to be able to overcome impediments faced by formerly incarcerated homeless veterans and therefore should be considered a a good model for housing assistance programs.
... a manager's position.The study shows that although the professional profile of women in management posts differs from that of their male counterparts in schools, women can also effectively lead and manage schools. Key words: aspirations to principalship; female principals; gender discrimination; school management ...
Thiago Pierobom de Avila
Full Text Available This article aims to offer a critical overview of the Brazilian legal framework for confronting domestic violence against women. Intimate partner homicides are epidemic in Brazil: there are four deaths of women per day. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law (MPL introduced integrated polices and transformed criminal procedures to deal with the complexities of gender violence. Reforms included the establishment of The House of Brazilian Women, women-only police stations, specialised courts, intervention orders, interdisciplinary experts, and perpetrator programs. In 2015, a new law created the crime of femicide, designed to prevent ‘honor killings’ defenses in cases of intimate partner homicide and to avoid impunity. Despite law reform, structuring and articulating the network of services remains a challenge. The MPL led to great social change in Brazil regarding awareness of the violence against women, facilitating a broader discussion about gender equality.
Glassenberg, Aaron N; Feinberg, David R; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M
Studies have used manipulated faces to test the preferences of heterosexual individuals for sexually dimorphic facial cues. In contrast to previous studies, which have generally excluded homosexual participants, we directly compared homosexual and heterosexual male and female preferences for manipulated sexual dimorphism in faces (homosexual males: n = 311; heterosexual males: n = 215; homosexual females: n = 159; heterosexual females: n = 218). Prior studies on sexual orientation and preferences for faces that were paired with masculine and feminine behavioral descriptors suggest that homosexual men prefer more masculine men and that homosexual women demonstrate no preference for either masculinity or femininity in women. In our study, we tested for similarities and differences among heterosexual and homosexual males and females with regard to their preferences for a more specific aspect of faces: sexual dimorphism of face shape. Homosexual men demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in male faces than did all of the other groups. Homosexual women demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in female faces than did heterosexual women. These results suggest attractiveness judgments of same-sex faces made by homosexual individuals are not a mirror image of those made by heterosexual individuals of the opposite sex. Our data suggest that face preferences of homosexual individuals reflect a system of biologically and socially guided preferences at least as complex as those found among heterosexual individuals.
Marlow, Elizabeth; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique
Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV-infected cohort in an urban county jail with an active case management program. Fifty-two inmates surveyed in 1999 at the San Francisco County Jail were followed for rearrests through 2006. In follow-up, 73% were re-incarcerated on an average of 6.8 times for 552 days. Risk factors included nonwhite ethnicity, history of homelessness and crack use, common risk factors for incarceration. Less than high school education was associated with recidivism, shorter time to reincarceration, and more incarcerations. HIV-infected inmates spend a high proportion of time in multiple incarcerations, a reflection of the cyclical nature of incarceration despite comprehensive case management. Well-known risk factors for incarceration were associated with recidivism; in addition, lack of high school education played a prominent role. Education should be explored as a way to make further progress on breaking the cycle of incarceration. PMID:18418714
Hopkins, Susan; Farley, Helen
While incarcerated students have always faced many obstacles to full and effective participation in university study, the global shift toward paperless e-learning environments has created new challenges for prisoners without direct internet access. Based on prison focus groups with Australian incarcerated students and direct participant…
Hessian, Renée; Jabagi, Habib; Ngu, Janet M C; Rubens, Fraser D
This review was undertaken to understand the dynamics that have shaped our current treatment of women who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and summarize the current literature on surgical revascularization in women. There has been improved access to CABG over the past several decades. Despite this, compared with men, CABG in women involves fewer grafts and less frequent use of arterial grafts, the latter having improved long-term patency compared with saphenous vein grafts. We attempt to determine whether the adverse clinical profile of women, when referred for CABG is responsible for this finding. Female coronary anatomy and pathophysiology are reviewed and an attempt is made to understand how this might affect decisions of selection and outcome measures post CABG. We review the short-term, long-term, and quality of life outcomes in women. These data are taken from large databases, as well as from more recent publications. Randomized controlled trial data and meta-analytic data are used when available. Differential use of and outcomes of surgical strategies, including off-pump CABG and total arterial revascularization, are contrasted with those in men. This review shows that there continues to be widespread differences in surgical approach to coronary artery disease in female vs male patients. We provide evidence suggestive of the existence of issues specific to women that affect selection for surgical procedures and outcomes in women. More work is required to understand the reason for these differences and how to optimize sex-specific outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lester, Felicia; Benfield, Nerys; Fathalla, Mohamed M F
Women's health is closely linked to a nation's level of development, with the leading causes of death in women in resource-poor nations attributable to preventable causes. Unlike many health problems in rich nations, the cure relies not only on the discovery of new medications or technology but also getting basic services to the people who need them most and addressing underlying injustice. In order to do this, political will and financial resources must be dedicated to developing and evaluating a scaleable approach to strengthen health systems, support community-based programs, and promote widespread campaigns to address gender inequality, including promoting girls' education. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have highlighted the importance of addressing maternal health and promoting gender equality for the overall development strategy of a nation. We must capitalize on the momentum created by this and other international campaigns and continue to advocate for comprehensive strategies to improve global women's health.
This study is a report of a narrative review to explore the challenges facing prisoners and the corrections system in the presence of the death of a significant person to the prisoner. Death of a loved one is an important challenge, amplified for incarcerated men. There are unique aspects of incarceration that prevent prisoners from having access to usual ritual expressions and support structures. A search of the CINAHL, ProQuest Medical, PubMed, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases was conducted for papers published from 1998-2007. The search terms were bereavement and prison nursing. A hand search of material specific to grief and incarceration was also undertaken. A narrative technique involving reading, writing, thinking, interpreting, arguing and justifying was used to synthesize the material and create a convincing and cohesive story. Limited research is available specifically addressing the grief experience of incarcerated individuals or the impact of unresolved grief on recidivism. However, a number of potential challenges to the grieving process in the prison system are identified in the literature, such as the prison culture of toughness and limited options for funeral attendance. Whilst the literature is scant, it is clear that issues of masculinity and culture have a strong impact on the ability of incarcerated men to resolve grief issues. More research is required to understand the impact of this on issues, such as recidivism. In the meantime, prison nurses have an important role to play in supporting prisoners who have lost a loved one during their incarceration.
Carmen Lucia Guimarães de Mattos
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa (MATTOS; ALMEIDA; CASTRO, 2011 que investigou a situação educacional das jovens e mulheres em privação de liberdade e de seus filhos utilizando a abordagem etnográfica de pesquisa. Constituíram-se como loci de estudo duas penitenciárias femininas e uma unidade para jovens cumprindo medidas socioeducativas de internação, todas situadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os registros dos dados realizaram-se com o auxílio de entrevistas etnográficas, vídeos, documentos e fotografias com as análises realizadas pelo método indutivo. Dentre os resultados da pesquisa, apresentam-se, neste artigo, as explicações sobre a situação de vulnerabilidade das jovens e mulheres em privação de liberdade e de seus filhos, com o encarceramento das mães. Além destas, as análises realizadas apontaram para as disparidades socioeducacionais na trajetória de vida das jovens e mulheres, evidenciando que a vulnerabilidade social das mesmas são indicadores de desigualdades que não tem garantido os direitos básicos estabelecidos pelas leis brasileiras e pelos Direitos Humanos.This paper presents results from the research (MATTOS; ALMEIDA; CASTRO, 2011 that investigated the educational situation of incarcerated youths and women and of their children using the ethnographic research approach. The study loci were two female prisons and one female juvenile correctional facility located in Rio de Janeiro State. Data collection took place using ethnographic interviews, videos, documents and photos and the analyses were performed by inductive method. Among the research results, explanations about the vulnerability of incarcerated youths and women and of their children, as a consequence of their mothers’ incarceration are presented in this paper. In addition, the collected data shows that social and educational disparities in the youths and women life course indicates their social vulnerability as a result of
Full Text Available While incarcerated students have always faced many obstacles to full and effective participation in university study, the global shift toward paperless e-learning environments has created new challenges for prisoners without direct internet access. Based on prison focus groups with Australian incarcerated students and direct participant observation while tutoring tertiary students within four Queensland correctional centres, this paper explores the obstacles and constraints faced by incarcerated students in light of the increasing digitisation of materials and methods in higher education. This paper also reviews the outcomes, limitations and challenges of recent Australian projects trialling new internet-independent technologies developed to improve access for incarcerated tertiary students. This paper argues that technology-centred approaches alone will not adequately address the challenges of access for incarcerated students unless such interventions are also informed by an understanding of the sociocultural nature of learning and teaching within correctional centres.
Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Nascimento, Simony Lira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto
To identify, by qualitative and quantitative studies, the psychological aspects considered and/or evaluated during the prenatal care of obese pregnant women, as well as the psychological interventions adopted by health services. Systematic review of literature using a mixed method approach, integrating both quantitative and qualitative studies. We used databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and SciELO) and publications from January 2003 to June 2013 using "Obesity," "Pregnancy," "Psy,*" or "Psychology" as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms). Prospective cohort, cross-sectional, case-control, clinical trial, and qualitative research studies were included. Eight articles are included in this review, three with qualitative and five with quantitative methodology. The majority of the studies demonstrate that emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress are associated with the raising of Body Mass Index (BMI) during pregnancy. The results of the qualitative studies show psychological distress related to humiliation and exposure to stigmas surrounding obesity and its connection with gestation. There is an emotional demand related to obesity during pregnancy, which should be considered by prenatal multidisciplinary care team. There is a need to increasing attention and support provided for obese pregnant women.
Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah
Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.
Fincher, Danielle; VanderEnde, Kristin; Colbert, Kia; Houry, Debra; Smith, L Shakiyla; Yount, Kathryn M
African American women in the United States report intimate partner violence (IPV) more often than the general population of women. Overall, women underreport IPV because of shame, embarrassment, fear of retribution, or low expectation of legal support. African American women may be especially unlikely to report IPV because of poverty, low social support, and past experiences of discrimination. The purpose of this article is to determine the context in which low-income African American women disclose IPV. Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomized to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales-Short Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Women (n = 368) reported high rates of lifetime and prior-year verbal (48%, 34%), physical (12%, 7%), sexual (10%, 7%), and any (49%, 36%) IPV, as well as IPV-related injury (13%, 7%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more lifetime and prior-year negotiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.54, 3.97) and more prior-year verbal (aOR = 2.10), sexual (aOR = 4.31), and any (aOR = 2.02) IPV than CASI-screened women. African American women in a WIC setting disclosed IPV more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. Findings highlight the potential value of face-to-face screening to identify women at risk of IPV. Programs should weigh the costs and benefits of training staff versus using computer-based technologies to screen for IPV in WIC settings. © The Author(s) 2014.
Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad
This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…
Bueno, E M; Diaz-Siso, J R; Pomahac, B
Face transplantation introduces an unprecedented potential to restore form and function in patients with severe facial disfigurement. A successful face transplantation programme requires a sound research protocol, a solid infrastructure, expert personnel and adequate funding. There are only a few active face transplant programmes in the world and interest in the development of new such programmes continues to grow. After 2 years of working on the development of the face transplant programme, in 2009 the team at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) performed the 2nd face transplant in the United States. Since then, the team has continued to evaluate several possible face transplant candidates and performed three additional facial transplants. These experiences have helped refine a highly effective multidisciplinary protocol that carries a patient through recruitment, informed consent, screening, preoperative planning, face transplantation surgery and postoperative long-term follow-up. The members of the BWH face transplantation team responsible for carrying out this protocol include a team leader, a programme manager/coordinator, clinical and rehabilitation specialists, social workers, bioethicists, nurses and administrative staff. The roles of each team member during the various stages of the face transplant process are presented here. Additional insight into the interaction between the face transplant team, the Institutional Review Board and the regional Organ Procurement Organization is given. The BWH team's experience has shown that true collaboration, creativity and a unique approach to each candidate translate into the optimal care of the face transplant patient both before and after surgery. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young
This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Loates, Mandy; Walsh, Christine A
Women confront unique challenges when faced with homelessness, not the least of which is negotiating how to express their sexuality. Research has tended to look at the sexuality of women who are homeless pathologically, yet in housed women a healthy sex life is an important predictor of happiness and well-being. The complex relationship between health and sexuality is significant, yet under-researched for women experiencing poverty and homelessness. This study presents findings from a national study in six Canadian cities: Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver, the goal of which was to identify precedents and guidelines to inform the design of homeless shelters for women. In qualitative interviews, seventy-six women responded to questions about sexual orientation and in doing so described their expression of sexuality and intimate relationships. The participants were diverse in age, sexual orientation and ethnicity and results indicated multiple opinions on relationships, gender separation in shelters, sexual reproduction and definitions of sexual orientation. This paper describes the variability in how women express their sexuality and their understanding of intimate relationships in the context of homelessness and consuming shelter services. Results indicate the need for further research on sexuality to inform practice with women who are homeless.
Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Cai, Huajian; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge; Dixson, Barnaby J; Oana, Gavita A; Kaminski, Gwenaël; Li, Norman P; Lyons, Minna T; Onyishi, Ike E; Prasai, Keshav; Pazhoohi, Farid; Prokop, Pavol; Rosales Cardozo, Sandra L; Sydney, Nicolle; Yong, Jose C; Rantala, Markus J
Both attractiveness judgements and mate preferences vary considerably cross-culturally. We investigated whether men's preference for femininity in women's faces varies between 28 countries with diverse health conditions by analysing responses of 1972 heterosexual participants. Although men in all countries preferred feminized over masculinized female faces, we found substantial differences between countries in the magnitude of men's preferences. Using an average femininity preference for each country, we found men's facial femininity preferences correlated positively with the health of the nation, which explained 50.4% of the variation among countries. The weakest preferences for femininity were found in Nepal and strongest in Japan. As high femininity in women is associated with lower success in competition for resources and lower dominance, it is possible that in harsher environments, men prefer cues to resource holding potential over high fecundity.
DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance
During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…
Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D
The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...
Nayef Saleh Al-Ghamri
Full Text Available Small businesses are considered the backbone of the national economy due to their role in creating job opportunities for young men and women who seek private sector employment. However, a series of obstacles face young Saudi male and female citizens in getting jobs in small businesses sector. The present research focuses on studies which discuss the definitions of small businesses and how they are related to the creation of employment opportunities for young men and women, their effect on improving young adults’ economic and social levels by boosting their morale and kindling their entrepreneurial spirit. The research also sets out the proposed mechanisms for the removal of obstacles faced by young small business would-be entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it endeavors to develop solutions, based on hypotheses and primary assumptions, which may contribute to a better understanding of the employment issue of Saudi young men and women. Solutions are set within a comprehensive strategy framework based on the integration and encouragement of young people to initiate small businesses, raise their standard of living, reduce the unemployment phenomenon and its consequences and repercussions which can result in domestic discord and moral degeneration– which may sometimes lead to misanthropy and suicide, as is the case in some societies such as Japan.
Robertson, Angela A.; Dill, Patricia L.; Husain, Jonelle; Undesser, Cynthia
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated juveniles in Mississippi was examined. A total of 482 adolescents completed a diagnostic questionnaire and a subset (N = 317) was assessed with face-to-face semistructured interview. Most of the study participants met criteria for one mental disorder, 71?85% depending on assessment method,…
Bobst, Cora; Sauter, Sabine; Foppa, Andrina; Lobmaier, Janek S
It has been shown that women's preference for masculinity in male faces changes across the menstrual cycle. Preference for masculinity is stronger when conception probability is high than when it is low. These findings have been linked to cyclic fluctuations of hormone levels. The purpose of the present study is to further investigate the link between gonadal steroids (i.e. testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) and masculinity preference in women, while holding the cycle phase constant. Sixty-two female participants were tested in their early follicular cycle phase, when conception probability is low. Participants were shown face pairs and where asked to choose the more attractive face. Face pairs consisted of a masculinized and feminized version of the same face. For naturally cycling women we found a positive relationship between saliva testosterone levels and masculinity preference, but there was no link between any hormones and masculinity preference for women taking hormonal contraception. We conclude that in naturally cycling women early follicular testosterone levels are associated with masculinity preference. However, these hormonal links were not found for women with artificially modified hormonal levels, that is, for women taking hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khan, M R; Golin, C E; Friedman, S R; Scheidell, J D; Adimora, A A; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, M M; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, K K; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, K P; Wohl, D A
African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months before incarceration, and 9 % tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3 %, gonorrhea: 0.5 %, trichomoniasis: 4.9 %). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 3.79, 95 % CI 1.19-12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis.
Khan, MR; Golin, CE; Friedman, SR; Scheidell, JD; Adimora, AA; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, MM; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, KK; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, KP; Wohl, DA
African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N=207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42%), concurrent partnerships (33%), and buying sex (11%) in the six months before incarceration, and 9% tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3%, gonorrhea: 0.5%, trichomoniasis: 4.9%). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.79, 95% CI: 1.19–12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467
Kordi, Masoumeh; Riyazi, Sahar; Lotfalizade, Marziyeh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Suny, Hoseyn Jafari
Screening of fetal anomalies is assumed as a necessary measurement in antenatal cares. The screening plans aim at empowerment of individuals to make the informed choice. This study was conducted in order to compare the effect of group and face-to-face education and decisional conflicts among the pregnant females regarding screening of fetal abnormalities. This study of the clinical trial was carried out on 240 pregnant women at education course were held in two weekly sessions for intervention groups during two consecutive weeks, and the usual care was conducted for the control group. The rate of informed choice and decisional conflict was measured in pregnant women before education and also at weeks 20-22 of pregnancy in three groups. The data analysis was executed using SPSS statistical software (version 16), and statistical tests were implemented including Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and Tukey's range test. The P education group, 64 members (80%) in group education class, and 20 persons (25%) in control group had the informed choice regarding screening tests, but there was no statistically significant difference between two individual and group education classes. Similarly, during the postintervention phase, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of decisional conflict scale among pregnant women regarding screening tests in three groups ( P = 0.001). With respect to effectiveness of group and face-to-face education methods in increasing the informed choice and reduced decisional conflict in pregnant women regarding screening tests, each of these education methods may be employed according to the clinical environment conditions and requirement to encourage the women for conducting the screening tests.
Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin
External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surg...
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 51-year-old male presents complaining of increasing right groin pain and an enlarging bulge. Symptoms started as a “bubble” 6 weeks prior to presentation. One week prior to presentation, thinking the bulge was an abscess, the patient attempted to “pop” the bulge with a sewing needle, the needle became lodged in the site and he attempted retrieval with a second sewing needle, which also became lodged. No purulent material was obtained. The patient denied any nausea, vomiting or constipation as well as any fevers or urinary symptoms. His abdomen was soft, non-tender, non-distended with active bowel sounds. The groin exam demonstrated an incarcerated right inguinal hernia and cellulitis of the right hemiscrotum with associated induration and tenderness. Significant findings: The AP and lateral pelvis x-rays revealed two sewing needles, 60 mm in length, within the soft tissue over the anterior right lower hemipelvis. In addition, the AP view showed emphysema involving the right hemiscrotum (arrow, concerning for perforated bowel. Discussion: Groin hernias have a lifetime risk of 27% for men and 3% for women and the incidence increases with age.1 Groin hernias can be either direct or indirect, and inguinal or femoral. The distinction is made during surgery. Femoral hernias make up only 5% of groin hernias but are more common in women.1 Concerning complications include incarceration, in which a hernia cannot be reduced, and strangulation in which vascular compromise occurs.1 Incarcerated hernias often present with a painful, tender mass and are difficult to distinguish from strangulation. Patients with strangulation may present with fevers and peritonitis. The overlying skin may also be red.2 The percentage of patients presenting with strangulation varies by region. Western developed countries report only 1%-3% of patients presenting as surgical emergencies whereas in Africa the percentage can be as high as 26
Kordi, Masoumeh; Riyazi, Sahar; Lotfalizade, Marziyeh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Suny, Hoseyn Jafari
BACKGROUND AND GOAL: Screening of fetal anomalies is assumed as a necessary measurement in antenatal cares. The screening plans aim at empowerment of individuals to make the informed choice. This study was conducted in order to compare the effect of group and face-to-face education and decisional conflicts among the pregnant females regarding screening of fetal abnormalities. METHODS: This study of the clinical trial was carried out on 240 pregnant women at pregnancy age in health care medical centers in Mashhad city in 2014. The form of individual-midwifery information and informed choice questionnaire and decisional conflict scale were used as tools for data collection. The face-to-face and group education course were held in two weekly sessions for intervention groups during two consecutive weeks, and the usual care was conducted for the control group. The rate of informed choice and decisional conflict was measured in pregnant women before education and also at weeks 20–22 of pregnancy in three groups. The data analysis was executed using SPSS statistical software (version 16), and statistical tests were implemented including Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Mann–Whitney U-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and Tukey's range test. The P education group, 64 members (80%) in group education class, and 20 persons (25%) in control group had the informed choice regarding screening tests, but there was no statistically significant difference between two individual and group education classes. Similarly, during the postintervention phase, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of decisional conflict scale among pregnant women regarding screening tests in three groups (P = 0.001). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: With respect to effectiveness of group and face-to-face education methods in increasing the informed choice and reduced decisional conflict in pregnant women regarding screening tests, each of these education
Johnson, Sophia Alice
This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the changing nature of support and information-seeking practices for women in the transition to first-time motherhood. In the context of increasing digitalisation, the significance of new virtual spaces for parenting is discussed. The paper demonstrates how women seek out alternative forms of expertise (specifically, non-medical expertise) and social support. The author argues for the importance of 'intimate mothering publics' through which women gather experiential information and practical support. These publics can act as a space for women to 'test' or legitimise their new identity as a mother. Intimate mothering publics are particularly useful for thinking about the meaning-making practices and learning experiences that occur during intimate online and face-to-face interactions. A variety of types of online support may be used during pregnancy. Surreptitious support in particular involves users invisibly receiving advice, information and reassurance that might otherwise be lacking. Access to intimate mothering publics is motivated by a number of factors, including feelings of community or acceptance, the desire to be a good mother or parent, emotional support and the need for practical and experiential advice.
Hinton, Lisa; Dumelow, Carol; Rowe, Rachel; Hollowell, Jennifer
Current clinical guidelines and national policy in England support offering 'low risk' women a choice of birth setting. Options include: home, free-standing midwifery unit (FMU), alongside midwifery unit (AMU) or obstetric unit (OU). This study, which is part of a broader project designed to inform policy on 'choice' in relation to childbirth, aimed to provide evidence on UK women's experiences of choice and decision-making in the period since the publication of the Birthplace findings (2011) and new NICE guidelines (2014). This paper reports on findings relating to women's information needs when making decisions about where to give birth. A qualitative focus group study including 69 women in the last trimester of pregnancy in England in 2015-16. Seven focus groups were conducted online via a bespoke web portal, and one was face-to-face. To explore different aspects of women's experience, each group included women with specific characteristics or options; planning a home birth, living in areas with lots of choice, living in areas with limited choice, first time mothers, living close to a FMU, living in opt-out AMU areas, living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas and planning to give birth in an OU. Focus group transcripts were analysed thematically. Women drew on multiple sources when making choices about where to give birth. Sources included; the Internet, friends' recommendations and experiences, antenatal classes and their own personal experiences. Their midwife was not the main source of information. Women wanted the option to discuss and consider their birth preferences throughout their pregnancy, not at a fixed point. Birthplace choice is informed by many factors. Women may encounter fewer overt obstacles to exercising choice than in the past, but women do not consistently receive information about birthplace options from their midwife at a time and in a manner that they find helpful. Introducing options early in pregnancy, but deferring decision
Forrest, C B; Tambor, E; Riley, A W; Ensminger, M E; Starfield, B
To identify the health needs of adolescent males incarcerated in a juvenile justice facility and to compare their health profiles with those of male adolescents in the community. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of incarcerated (N = 202) and school (N = 379) samples of male youths. Questionnaires were self-administered and completed before admission health screens (incarcerated youth) or in classrooms (school sample). Health status was assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition, using scale and item means and by categorizing each youth's pattern of health into 1 of 13 mutually exclusive health profile types. Compared with school counterparts, incarcerated male youths had significantly worse health status as demonstrated by poorer health and functioning scores in perceived well being, self-esteem, physical discomfort, acute, chronic, and psychosocial disorders, family involvement, physical activity, interpersonal problem-solving, risk behaviors, and academic performance. Three profile types-High Risks, High Risks/Low Resilience, and Worst Health-accounted for patterns of health for 69.8% of incarcerated youth versus 37.3% of an age-matched school sample. Just 6.4% of incarcerated males were in the Excellent/Good Health profile types, which contrasted with 34.2% of the age-matched school sample. The health profiles of incarcerated male youths were worse than those of male youths in school. Our results indicate that rehabilitation programs will need to address incarcerated youth's basic health needs as well as modifying their risk and antisocial behaviors.
use of any substance. Being sexually active and substance use before incarceration significantly (P<0.05) predicted current use of illicit substances while high self esteem and being the first born was protective. Since substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse ...
Full Text Available Drawing on in-depth interviews with incarcerated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers in Western Australia, we report on the women’s use of violence in their relationships with others. Results reinforce that Aboriginal women are overwhelmingly victims of violence; however, many women report also using violence, primarily as a strategy to deal with their own high levels of victimization. The “normalization” of violence in their lives and communities places them at high risk of arrest and incarceration. This is compounded by a widespread distrust of the criminal justice system and associated agencies, and a lack of options for community support.
Mphemelang J. Ketlhoilwe
Full Text Available Access to energy is a challenge to rural communities, especially among women who are the prime household energy users. This article is based on research carried out in the Tswapong villages in Botswana where energy sources particularly wood, are slowly getting depleted while electricity connection costs remain unaffordable for the poor. The article provides constructivist analysis of experiences in real-life situations among women. Data were generated through observations, documents analysis, interviews and focus group discussions. It has emerged from the research that majority of the respondents use firewood as energy source. Firewood and gas are mainly used for cooking while electricity is mainly used for lighting. The demand for firewood has led to firewood commercialisation, the depletion of preferred firewood tree species and increase in the impact of climate change. The article recommends economic diversification and subsidies to empower the majority of the rural poor to connect to the national electric grid and reduce on firewood dependence. These could be complemented by harnessing of solar energy and low-cost, energy-saving technologies. Subsidies to enable women access to energy services would contribute immensely to the decade of Sustainable Energy for All and to the attainment of the post 2015 sustainable development goal on energy.
Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...
Erickson, Bonnie J.; Young, Mark E.
Art therapy is often thought of as an adjunct to counseling; however, because of its unique ability to bypass defenses, in some situations, art therapy may be a treatment of choice to allow clients to discover and express feelings that are often difficult to express verbally. Using art as therapy does not require that the therapist or the client…
Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy
Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544
Wildeman, Christopher; Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent.
... treatment within the criminal justice system. Players in that policy game focused, as we are doing today, on the need to provide criminal offenders with drug abuse treatment as an alternative to incarceration...
Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu
The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. Because prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce…
Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Johnson, Jennifer; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
For women involved in sex trading, both alcohol problems and passage through the criminal justice system are highly prevalent. This study is the first to conduct a focused examination of factors associated with sex trading among hazardously drinking, pretrial, jailed women. Cocaine use, social support for alcohol abstinence, and more days incarcerated in the 90 days leading up to the index incarceration were significantly associated with sex trading involvement among alcoholic women. Helping incarcerated alcoholic women reduce cocaine use and improve sober support networks during and following an incarceration may minimize sex trading after release.
Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard
Background While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. Methods and Findings A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling’s thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers’ insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Conclusions Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and
Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki
This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…
Miller, Alison L.; Weston, Lauren E.; Perryman, Jamie; Horwitz, Talia; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley
Most incarcerated women are mothers. Parenting programs may benefit women, children and families, yet effectively intervening in correctional settings is a challenge. An evidence-based parenting intervention (the Strengthening Families Program) was tailored and implemented with women in a jail setting. Goals were to assess mothers' needs and interests regarding parenting while they were incarcerated, adapt the program to address those needs, and establish intervention delivery and evaluation methods in collaboration with a community-based agency. Women reported wanting to know more about effective communication; how children manage stress; finances; drug and alcohol use; self-care; and stress reduction. They reported high program satisfaction and reported reduced endorsement of corporal punishment after the intervention. Barriers to implementation included unpredictable attendance from session to session due to changing release dates, transfer to other facilities, and jail policies (e.g., lock-down; commissary hours). Implications for sustainable implementation of parenting programs in jail settings are discussed. PMID:26612963
Schmitt, Margaret L; Clatworthy, David; Ratnayake, Ruwan; Klaesener-Metzner, Nicole; Roesch, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Erin; Sommer, Marni
There is a significant gap in empirical evidence on the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) challenges faced by adolescent girls and women in emergency contexts, and on appropriate humanitarian response approaches to meet their needs in diverse emergency contexts. To begin filling the gap in the evidence, we conducted a study in two diverse contexts (Myanmar and Lebanon), exploring the MHM barriers facing girls and women, and the various relevant sectoral responses being conducted (e.g. water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), Protection, Health, Education and Camp Management). Two qualitative assessments were conducted: one in camps for internally displaced populations in Myanmar, and one with refugees living in informal settlements and host communities in Lebanon. Key informant interviews were conducted with emergency response staff in both sites, and focus group discussion and participatory mapping activities conducted with adolescent girls and women. Key findings included that there was insufficient access to safe and private facilities for MHM coupled with displacement induced shifts in menstrual practices by girls and women. Among staff, there was a narrow interpretation of what an MHM response includes, with a focus on supplies; significant interest in understanding what an improved MHM response would include and acknowledgement of limited existing MHM guidance across various sectors; and insufficient consultation with beneficiaries, related to discomfort asking about menstruation, and limited coordination between sectors. There is a significant need for improved guidance across all relevant sectors for improving MHM response in emergency context, along with increased evidence on effective approaches for integrating MHM into existing responses.
Dean, Hazel D; Lansky, Amy; Fleming, Patricia L
In the United States, monitoring the HIV/AIDS epidemic among the incarcerated population is done by (a) conducting a census of persons in prisons and jails reported to be infected with HIV or diagnosed with AIDS, (b) seroprevalence surveys in selected correctional facilities, and (c) population-based HIV/AIDS case surveillance by state health departments. We describe methods for HIV/AIDS case surveillance in correctional settings and present data from the HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS) and the Supplement to HIV and AIDS Surveillance (SHAS) to describe the demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected persons who were incarcerated at the time of diagnosis. HARS data showed a higher proportion of females and a lower proportion of injection drug users for incarcerated persons diagnosed with HIV (not AIDS) compared to those initially diagnosed with AIDS. The SHAS data showed a high prevalence of injection drug use, crack use, alcohol abuse, and exchanging sex for money or drugs. Together, HARS and SHAS collect fairly comprehensive information of risk behaviors from persons with HIV infection and AIDS. Advances in HIV prevention and care for the incarcerated community will require an accurate and timely description of the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in correctional settings. These data are needed to guide programmatic efforts to reduce HIV transmission in prisons and jails and in the general community upon release and ensure needed risk reduction and health care services for incarcerated persons.
Previous research has suggested that adolescent peers influence behavior and provide social support during a critical developmental period, but few studies have addressed the antecedents of adolescent social networks. Research on the collateral consequences of incarceration has explored the implications of parental incarceration for children's behavioral problems, academic achievement, health, and housing stability, but not their social networks. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that adolescents with recently incarcerated fathers are in socially marginal positions in their schools and befriend more-marginal peers than other adolescents: their friends are less advantaged, less academically successful, and more delinquent than other adolescents' friends. Differences in network outcomes are robust to a variety of specifications and are consistent across race and gender subgroups. This study advances the social networks literature by exploring how familial characteristics can shape adolescent social networks and contributes to the collateral consequences of incarceration literature by using network analysis to consider how mass incarceration may promote intergenerational social marginalization.
Goldenberg, Shira M; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Nguyen, Paul; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate
Sex workers (SWs) in sub-Saharan Africa face a disproportionate HIV burden and growing concerns of severe human rights violations. Given the dearth of evidence on the burden and correlates of HIV among SWs in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly within conflict-affected settings, we examined the relationship between structural determinants (eg, war-related abduction, incarceration) and HIV infection among conflict-affected SWs in Northern Uganda. Cross-sectional community-based research study among female SWs in conflict-affected Gulu, Northern Uganda. Interview questionnaires and voluntary HIV testing were conducted with participants recruited through SW/peer-led outreach and time-location sampling from 2011 to 2012. HIV prevalence was calculated, and bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent associations with HIV seroprevalence. Of 400 SWs, 135 (33.75%) were HIV seropositive; of whom one-third were new/previously undiagnosed HIV infections. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age of sex work entry and education, lifetime incarceration (adjusted odds ratio: 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to -3.20) was independently associated with HIV seroprevalence, and history of wartime abduction (adjusted odds ratio: 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 2.63) was marginally associated (P = 0.051). This study documented a high rate of undiagnosed HIV infections and associations between war-related human rights violations, incarceration, and a heavy HIV burden among SWs in conflict-affected Northern Uganda. These findings highlight the serious harms of conflict and criminalization of marginalized women in sub-Saharan African contexts. SW-led interventions that address conflict experiences and policy shifts to promote a rights-based approach to HIV prevention and care remain critically needed.
Sax, Linda J.
We have reached a critical juncture in the history of women and men in higher education. Today--decades after the women's movement started what became monumental gains for female students in terms of access, equity, and opportunity--the popular notion is that gender equity has been achieved. Some higher-education statistics do paint a rosy picture…
Choge, Jepkemboi Ruth
The degree of attention given to women leadership in Education in Kenya has increased considerably in the recent years especially after the government introduced the affirmative action for both girls and women in education and employment in support of Millennium Development Goals, World Conventions, the Kenya Vision 2030 blue print for economic…
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
A Networking Luncheon for Women Scientists; Palisades, New York, 30 April 2010; In recent years the lack of diversity among faculty and research staff in the sciences has gained national importance. Women are especially underrepresented in the physical sciences. According to a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded report (“Why so few? Women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics,” AAUW, 2010), women now earn 35% of doctoral degrees in the Earth sciences (up from 3% in 1966) but continue to be underrepresented in the upper ranks of academic institutions. A report conducted by the University of California, Berkeley (“Staying competitive: Patching America's leaky pipeline in the sciences,” Center for American Progress, 2009) shows that one of the biggest leaks in the pipeline occurs during the postdoctoral years. Research also suggests that networking can play an important role in keeping women in the pipeline.
Stahlkopf, Christina; Males, Mike; Macallair, Daniel
Under incapacitation theory, higher incarceration rates are expected to correlate with accelerated reductions in crime. California's contemporary incarceration patterns offer an opportunity to analyze the validity of this theory, particularly as it applies to young people. This study focuses on California's juvenile incarceration and crime trends…
Rathod, Sujit D; Minnis, Alexandra M; Subbiah, Kalyani; Krishnan, Suneeta
Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) are increasingly used in health research to improve the accuracy of data on sensitive behaviors. However, evidence is limited on its use among low-income populations in countries like India and for measurement of sensitive issues such as domestic violence. We compared reports of domestic violence and three less sensitive behaviors related to household decision making and spousal communication in ACASI and face-to-face interviews (FTFI) among 464 young married women enrolled in a longitudinal study of gender-based power and adverse health outcomes in low-income communities in Bangalore, India. We used a test-retest design. At the 12-month study visit, we elicited responses from each participant through FTFI first, followed by ACASI. At the 24-month visit, we reversed the order, implementing ACASI first, followed by FTFI. Univariable log-linear regression models and kappa statistics were used to examine ACASI's effects on self-reports. Regression results showed significantly lower reporting in ACASI relative to FTFI at both visits, including for domestic violence (12-month risk ratio [RR] = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.73; 24-month RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). Response agreement between interview modes, calculated by kappa scores, was universally low, though highest for domestic violence (12-month κ = 0.45; 24-month κ = 0.48). Older age and greater educational attainment appeared associated with higher response agreement. Greater reporting in FTFI may be due to social desirability bias for the less sensitive questions and perceptions of therapeutic benefit for domestic violence. These results cast doubt on the appropriateness of using ACASI for measurement of sensitive behaviors in India.
Lynde, Charles W; Andriessen, Anneke
Topical dapsone 5% gel for the treatment of mild to moderate acne has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled studies. A total of 101 adult women with mild to moderate facial inflammatory acne participated in a 12-week cohort study to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of dapsone gel 5% in this specific group who often complain of sensitive skin. The women were instructed to apply dapsone 5% gel twice daily after washing their face with a standard noncomedogenic soap-free cleanser. Treatment outcome was evaluated using physician-scored Global Acne Assessment Scale (GAAS) and patient-reported facial skin condition. Ninety-three women completed the study (6 were lost to follow-up and 2 had mild skin irritation). At 12 weeks, significant physician GAAS scores (t55 = 8.85, P = .001) and patient-reported lesion reductions were shown. Treatment success (GAAS 0 or 1) at 12 weeks was achieved in 69.4% (n = 75) of women (t94 = 4.17, P = .001), improving patient-reported quality-of-life aspects. Topical dapsone gel 5% was shown to be safe, minimally irritating, and effective in the treatment of mild to moderate inflammatory facial acne in adult women with sensitive skin.
Full Text Available This essay presents violence against women as a social problem of high magnitude as well as based on gender inequality. The author summarizes both the main discussion issues and the last decades´ Latin American feminist fight. She highlights the conception of violence against women as a public problem, a negation of citizenship rights and as a law matter. Despite the withdrawals and the contradictory character of the relations between the feminist movement and social institutions, there is no doubt that the configuration of a new social practice related to violence perpetrated against women is taking place.
Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others
This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…
Maradiaga, Jeronimo A; Nahvi, Shadi; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Sanchez, Jennifer; Fox, Aaron D
Incarceration is a common experience for individuals with opioid use disorder, including those receiving medication assisted treatments (MAT), such as buprenorphine or methadone. In the United States, MAT is rarely available during incarceration. We were interested in whether challenges with methadone maintenance treatment during incarceration affected subsequent attitudes toward MAT following release. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 formerly incarcerated individuals with opioid use disorder in community substance abuse treatment settings. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Themes that emerged upon iterative readings of transcripts were discussed by the research team. The three main themes relating to methadone were: 1) rapid dose reduction during incarceration; 2) discontinuity of methadone during incarceration; and 3) post incarceration aversion to methadone. Participants who received methadone maintenance treatment prior to incarceration reported severe and prolonged withdrawal symptoms from rapid dose reductions or disruption of their methadone treatment during incarceration. The severe withdrawal during incarceration contributed to a subsequent aversion to methadone and adversely affected future decisions regarding reengagement in MAT. Though MAT is the most efficacious treatment for opioid use disorder, current penal policy, which typically requires cessation of MAT during incarceration, may dissuade individuals with opioid use disorder from considering and engaging in MAT after release from incarceration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Vishal K; Han, Seonghee; Mortal, Sandra C; Silveri, Sabatino Dino; Turban, Daniel B
We examine the glass cliff proposition that female CEOs receive more scrutiny than male CEOs, by investigating whether CEO gender is related to threats from activist investors in public firms. Activist investors are extraorganizational stakeholders who, when dissatisfied with some aspect of the way the firm is being managed, seek to change the strategy or operations of the firm. Although some have argued that women will be viewed more favorably than men in top leadership positions (so-called "female leadership" advantage logic), we build on role congruity theory to hypothesize that female CEOs are significantly more likely than male CEOs to come under threat from activist investors. Results support our predictions, suggesting that female CEOs may face additional challenges not faced by male CEOs. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
This essay presents violence against women as a social problem of high magnitude as well as based on gender inequality. The author summarizes both the main discussion issues and the last decades´ Latin American feminist fight. She highlights the conception of violence against women as a public problem, a negation of citizenship rights and as a law matter. Despite the withdrawals and the contradictory character of the relations between the feminist movement and social institutions, there...
Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Akello, Monica; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Nguyen, Paul; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate
While female sex workers (FSWs) face a high burden of violence and criminalisation, coupled with low access to safe, non-coercive care, little is known about such experiences among FSWs in conflict-affected settings, particularly as they relate to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights. We explored factors associated with lifetime abortions among FSWs in northern Uganda; and separately modelled the independent effect of lifetime exposures to incarceration and living in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps on coerced and unsafe abortions. Analyses are based on a community-based cross-sectional research project in Gulu District, northern Uganda (2011-2012) with The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) Gulu, FSWs, and other community organisations. We conducted questionnaires, sex worker/community-led outreach to sex work venues, and voluntary HIV testing by TASO. Of 400 FSWs, 62 had ever accessed an abortion. In a multivariable model, gendered violence, both childhood mistreatment/or abuse at home [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.99-3.90] and workplace violence by clients (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.31-9.72) were linked to increased experiences of abortion. Lifetime exposure to incarceration retained an independent effect on increased odds of coerced abortion (AOR 5.16; 95% CI 1.39-19.11), and living in IDP camps was positively associated with unsafe abortion (AOR 4.71; 95% CI 1.42-15.61). These results suggest a critical need for removal of legal and social barriers to realising the SRH rights of all women, and ensuring safe, voluntary access to reproductive choice for marginalised and criminalised populations of FSWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of personal and menstrual hygiene management. Girls and women have very less or no knowledge about reproductive tract infections caused due to ignorance of personal hygiene during menstruation time. In rural areas, women do not have access to sanitary products or they know very little about the types and method of using them or are unable to afford such products due to high cost. So, they mostly rely on reusable cloth pads which they wash and use again. Needs and requirements of the adolescent girls and women are ignored despite the fact that there are major developments in the area of water and sanitation. Women manage menstruation differently when they are at home or outside; at homes, they dispose of menstrual products in domestic wastes and in public toilets and they flush them in the toilets without knowing the consequences of choking. So, there should be a need to educate and make them aware about the environmental pollution and health hazards associated with them. Implementation of modern techniques like incineration can help to reduce the waste. Also, awareness should be created to emphasize the use of reusable sanitary products or the natural sanitary products made from materials like banana fibre, bamboo fibre, sea sponges, water hyacinth, and so on.
Kaur, Rajanbir; Kaur, Kanwaljit; Kaur, Rajinder
Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of personal and menstrual hygiene management. Girls and women have very less or no knowledge about reproductive tract infections caused due to ignorance of personal hygiene during menstruation time. In rural areas, women do not have access to sanitary products or they know very little about the types and method of using them or are unable to afford such products due to high cost. So, they mostly rely on reusable cloth pads which they wash and use again. Needs and requirements of the adolescent girls and women are ignored despite the fact that there are major developments in the area of water and sanitation. Women manage menstruation differently when they are at home or outside; at homes, they dispose of menstrual products in domestic wastes and in public toilets and they flush them in the toilets without knowing the consequences of choking. So, there should be a need to educate and make them aware about the environmental pollution and health hazards associated with them. Implementation of modern techniques like incineration can help to reduce the waste. Also, awareness should be created to emphasize the use of reusable sanitary products or the natural sanitary products made from materials like banana fibre, bamboo fibre, sea sponges, water hyacinth, and so on.
Part of the problem appears to be that the police do not have sufficient crime intelligence about house robbers. This article focuses on the value of incarcerated offenders of house robberies as an additional source of crime intelligence to the police on the basis of research conducted by the author in Gauteng in 2007.
EMPEY, LAMAR T.
THIS EXTENSIVE REPORT DISCUSSES VARIOUS CORRECTIONAL PRACTICES FOR ADULT AND JUVENILE OFFENDERS, AND DESCRIBES POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES. ALTERNATIVES TO PRETRIAL INCARCERATION OF ADULT OFFENDERS ARE SUPERVISED RELEASE, DAYTIME RELEASE, RELEASE IN THE CUSTODY OF A THIRD PARTY, SUMMONS INSTEAD OF ARREST, AND REVISED BAIL PROCEDURES. ALTERNATIVES TO…
Treanor, Virginia; Newlon, Betty J.
This document begins by briefly outlining the problems of juveniles incarcerated in correctional institutions, including the problems of overcrowding and recidivism. It asserts that creative art therapy is designed to provide a therapeutic atmosphere for understanding and change and documents the use of creative art therapy techniques with…
the rest of the family is enjoying the breakfast she prepared, she is busy breastfeeding the young baby. By the time everybody is ready and off to...year, the hours lost with maternity leave if we had women would be a minimal difference. Another example is the U.S. Navy case. “As far back as...to get off the hook for prolonged trips. There is no evidence that most women will use their sexuality for personal gain. It will be the
Whaley, Diane E.; Krane, Vikki
Consistent with other sciences (e.g., Kass-Simon, 1993; Tang, 2006), the field of kinesiology has been called a "masculine domain," which has an institutionalized culture biased against women (Brackenridge, Mutrie, & Choi, 2005). This paper represents the second part of a larger project that examined the life histories of eight trailblazing women…
Elmuti, Dean; Jia, Heather; Davis, Henry H.
This study was undertaken to discover working public thoughts about roles of United States women in leadership positions and to test the relationship between managerial leadership styles and organizational effectiveness. A survey of perceptions of leadership roles and effectiveness distributed 700 randomly selected entities from industries in the…
This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through…
El-Bassel, N; Simoni, J M; Cooper, D K; Gilbert, L; Schilling, R F
This study examined the relationship between sex trading and psychological distress among a nonrandom sample of women recruited from 3 methadone maintenance clinics in New York City. Face-to-face interviews with 280 women (M age = 40.7) revealed that 32% had traded sex for money or drugs in the previous year. Compared to other participants, these women reported less education and higher rates of incarceration in the past year, sexually transmitted diseases, childhood sexual abuse, partner abuse, and current regular crack/cocaine and alcohol use. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that sex traders scored 0.41 units higher than non-sex traders on the General Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory after controlling for all relevant covariates. The findings emphasize the need to consider the interrelation of psychological distress, abuse, and addiction in designing public health interventions addressing methadone maintained women.
Kate Taylor Harcourt
Full Text Available The current study examined program outcomes for an understudied population of Relationship Education (RE participants: incarcerated men and women. In addition to relationship functioning, we examined a number of individual and parenting outcomes which had not previously been explored. In a sample of 453 adult inmates, we found improvements in (a trust, (b confidence in the relationship, (c intimacy, (d individual empowerment, (e conflict management, (f help-seeking attitudes, (g self-esteem, (h depression, (i global life stress, (j faulty relationship beliefs, and (k parenting efficacy. Tests of moderation by gender and race indicated minimal differences in change patterns between groups; however, we found a significant time by gender interaction on intimacy and a time by race interaction on parenting efficacy. Implications for research and practice are presented
Chui, Wing Hong
Objectives Caregivers of children with incarcerated parents have received little attention in the literature, though they face unique incarceration-related challenges. General caregiver research has highlighted associations between caregiver distress and children's behavioral problems, even implying that the depressive tendencies of caregivers can be 'transmitted'. The current study investigated the applicability of this notion to caregivers responsible for children of incarcerated fathers. Methods Fifty-four female caregivers of children with incarcerated parents were recruited via collaboration with a non-governmental organization. Their levels of stress and depression were measured using questionnaires, as were the behavioral problems of children under their care. The relationships between the variables were examined. Results The results firstly suggest that these caregivers are vulnerable to psychological distress, with around 57 % of them suffering from borderline to severe depression. Obtained socio-demographic characteristics were not found to have any bearing on the psychosocial functioning of caregivers or children-rather, all psychosocial variables were interlinked, and further analyses revealed that the depression of caregivers mediated the relationship between their perceived stress and internalizing/externalizing behavioral problems of the child (β = .628 and β = .468 respectively), implicating depression as a mechanism via which adversity can be transferred from a caregiver to a child. Conclusions Increasing the focus on a caregiver's mental health may be an efficacious strategy in research and practice, perhaps by providing more support for caregivers and implementing joint caregiver-child interventions to more holistically alleviate problems in families affected by parental incarceration. Limitations of the current study and further recommendations are also discussed.
Full Text Available Globally, violence within the home is universal across culture, religion, class, and ethnicity. Despite its widespread prevalence, such violence is not customarily acknowledged and has remained invisible-a problem thought unworthy of legal or political attention. The social construction of the divide between public and private life underlies the major problem of addressing the hidden nature of domestic violence against women. Legal jurisprudence has historically considered the domain of the house to be within the control and unquestionable authority of the male head of household. Thus, acts of violence against members of the household, whether wife or child, were perceived as discipline and essential for maintaining the rule of authority within the family. Except for sensational cases, the fear of social isolation and inhibition has caused the insidious everyday violence experienced by huge numbers of women to be hidden in the private domain. In this review, we make an attempt towards briefing the legal, social, and medical perspectives of women facing domestic violence.
Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I
Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.
Full Text Available Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.
The survival strategies of migrant women living in urban poverty are embedded in urban food landscapes ('foodscapes') characterized by dynamic social relationships and mobility. Relying on interviews with 31 migrant women in Washington, DC, this paper traces the socio-spatial conditions of their urban foodscapes to show that urban environments inhabited by low-income migrants are dynamic, stretching across multiple neighborhoods as they move throughout the city with social networks to obtain affordable, quality, and culturally appropriate food. Investigating these foodscapes demonstrates the relational nature of food provisioning strategies thus providing a critique of simplistic explanations of hunger that treat food insecure residents as static, ignorant, and individual economic actors. These explanations risk producing equally simplistic and inefficient approaches to addressing food insecurity such as increasing mainstream consumption opportunities in so-called food deserts or focusing on nutrition education and individual choice without considering residents' dynamic urban experiences. As a result, this paper argues that programmatic responses to insecure urban foodscapes should be developed that foster social and physical connectivity while better addressing structural causes of hunger. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Spigelian hernias are rare, making up only 1-2% of all hernias. Like other hernias, they may contain abdominal contents but are more likely to be incarcerated due to the small size of the fascial defect.(1 We describe here the case of a 71-year-old female with a 10-year history of right lower quadrant pain that remained undiagnosed despite multiple imaging studies. Prior to presentation the patient developed a new bulge and increasing pain at this site; an ultrasound revealed the presence of a bowel-containing hernia. The patient was taken urgently to the operating room for a laparoscopic Spigelian hernia repair, and was found to have an incarcerated appendix in the hernia. After the hernia was reduced, an appendectomy was performed and the hernia was repaired with biological mesh. Postoperatively, the patient did well, and her pain resolved.
Shlafer, Rebecca J; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver-child and incarcerated parent-child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children's behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children's behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment.
Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia
Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.
Full Text Available The complexities of navigating pregnancy while living with HIV predispose women to additional stress. Finding ways to minimize psychosocial challenges during the perinatal period may maximize the well-being of mothers living with HIV and their children. The goal of this study was to explore psychosocial challenges experienced by women living with HIV (WLWH during pregnancy and the postpartum. We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 20 WLWH recruited from an HIV treatment cohort study in Mbarara, Uganda as part of a larger study exploring perinatal depression. We conducted content analyses to identify themes related to challenges of WLWH during pregnancy and the postpartum. Participants had a median age of 33 years [IQR: 28-35], a median of 3 living children [IQR: 2-5], and 95% had achieved HIV-RNA suppression. Challenges were organized around the following themes: HIV -related stigma from health professionals, HIV status disclosure dilemma, unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence, HIV and environmental structural barriers and distress and fear related to maternal and child health. Stigma centered on discrimination by health care professionals and personal shame associated with being pregnant as a WLWH. This led to difficulty engaging in HIV care, particularly when coupled with structural barriers, such as lack of transportation to clinic. Participants experienced intimate partner violence and lacked support from their partners and family members. Distress and fear about the health and uncertainty about the future of the unborn baby due to maternal deteriorating physical health was common. The perinatal period is a time of stress for WLWH. Challenges experienced by WLWH may compromise successful engagement in HIV care and may reduce quality of life for women and their children. Strategies aimed at alleviating the challenges of WLWH should involve the larger structural environment including partners, family and community member
Doherty, J P; Norton, E C; Veney, J E
This paper addresses the important issue of the effect of China's one-child policy on prenatal and obstetric care utilization. The paper provides the first detailed empirical approach to this question, exploiting a unique high quality household survey. China officially codified a set of rules and regulations in 1979 governing the approved size of Chinese families, commonly known as the one-child policy. The policy imposed economic and social costs on families failing to adhere to the family size limits. In particular, the policy raised the price of obstetric medical services for unapproved pregnancies in comparison to approved pregnancies and imposed fines on families with unapproved births. Using data from an eight-province longitudinal household survey (The China Health and Nutrition Survey), we investigate whether or not the one-child policy's financial penalties were associated with the avoidance of obstetric care by pregnant Chinese women with unapproved pregnancies. The one-child policy variables of particular interest were a dichotomous measure of the approval status of the pregnancy, a continuous measure of the fine imposed upon families with unapproved births, and a continuous measure of the prices of prenatal care and delivery services net of any subsidy available for approved births. The results partially confirm the hypotheses that the one-child policy's economic and social costs caused women to forego seeking modern obstetric care services. The fine was found to be a significant deterrent to the utilization of prenatal care. Additionally, the unapproved-status of a pregnancy was strongly negatively associated with "the use of obstetric care. However, higher prices were not consistently found to be a significant deterrent to the use of obstetric care.
Frederick, David A; Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Tsong, Yuying
Asian American women experience sociocultural pressures that could place them at increased risk for experiencing body and face dissatisfaction. Asian American and White women completed measures of appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, face satisfaction, face dissatisfaction frequency, perfectionism, surveillance, interdependent and independent self-construal, and perceived sociocultural pressures. In Study 1 (N=182), Asian American women were more likely than White women to report low appearance evaluation (24% vs. 12%; d=-0.50) and to be sometimes-always dissatisfied with the appearance of their eyes (38% vs. 6%; d=0.90) and face overall (59% vs. 34%; d=0.41). In Study 2 (N=488), they were more likely to report low appearance evaluation (36% vs. 23%; d=-0.31) and were less likely to report high eye appearance satisfaction (59% vs. 88%; d=-0.84). The findings highlight the importance of considering ethnic differences when assessing body and face image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.
Garde, K; Mortensen, A C; Toft, P B
incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death....
Adriana Dewes Presser
Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de esclarecer a rota crítica de mulheres do município de São Leopoldo no enfrentamento da violência, por meio da análise das práticas discursivas de um grupo de trabalhadores de instituições sociais. Realizou-se uma seleção intencional de instituições dos setores saúde, educação, policial, jurídico-legal e comunitário e foram entrevistados dois representantes de cada setor. A partir das práticas discursivas dos operadores, percebemos que a violência praticada contra as mulheres é um problema de elevada frequência e baixa resolubilidade institucional. No processo da rota crítica - o caminho percorrido pelas mulheres para romper com a violência - muitas não recebem o acolhimento nos serviços. Apesar da criação do Centro de Referência para Mulheres, ainda há muito a ser feito para efetivar as políticas públicas. Os depoimentos dos trabalhadores sociais foram enunciados a partir da posição institucional que ocupam, e, nesses discursos, eles minimizaram os pedidos de ajuda das mulheres, culpabilizando-as. Os operadores ligados às organizações comunitárias foram os mais solidários e compreensivos. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que não há uma única rota ou itinerário ideal; pelo contrário, a rota percorrida pelas mulheres é longa, dolorosa e nem sempre eficiente. Nem todas as rotas empreendidas pelas mulheres em São Leopoldo puderam ser conhecidas, porém o fato de outros serviços estarem sendo disponibilizados na cidade, certamente possibilitará o traçado de outros caminhos.This article investigates the critical path followed by women facing violence in the city of São Leopoldo through the analysis of discursive practices of a group of workers from social institutions. An intentional selection of institutions was carried out, including the following areas: health, education, police force, law and community. Two representatives of each sector were interviewed. Based on the
Background: In patients with incarcerated inguinal hernia, initial manual reduction, which is not always feasible, rather than immediate surgery, is associated with fewer complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate factors associated with successful manual reduction of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.
Poureslami, Iraj M; MacLean, David R; Spiegel, Jerry; Yassi, Annalee
Background For hundred of years, people in the region encompassed by the Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan borders (AIP region) have been challenged by conflict and political and civil instability, mass displacement, human rights abuses, drought, and famine. It not surprising that health and quality of life of vulnerable groups in this region are among the worst in the world. In general, women and children, in particular girls, in the AIP region have had especially limited access to healthcare. Women and children have dramatically high rates of communicable and non-communicable disease, morbidity, and mortality and a general low life expectancy that is rapidly declining. In spite of national and international efforts to improve health status of vulnerable populations in this region, the key underlying sociocultural determinants of health and disparities (ie, gender, language, ethnicity, residential status, and socioeconomic status) have not been systematically studied, nor have their relationships to environmental challenges been examined. Objectives We set out to summarize existing information regarding the sociocultural, environmental, and traditional determinants of health disparities among different population groups in the AIP region; identify gaps in research regarding the communities' needs in the region; and highlight factors that must be considered in the design and implementation of future health intervention studies in the region. Methods We reviewed current health literature, official documents, and other information (eg, reports of UN agencies) related to the social, cultural, and environmental factors that may influence the health outcomes of subpopulations living in the AIP region. We also interviewed individuals who had recently worked in this region. Results Overall, the health problems faced by this underdeveloped region can be categorized into those resulting from lack of essential supplies and services and those stemming from the existing cultural
Poureslami, Iraj M; MacLean, David R; Spiegel, Jerry; Yassi, Annalee
For hundred of years, people in the region encompassed by the Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan borders (AIP region) have been challenged by conflict and political and civil instability, mass displacement, human rights abuses, drought, and famine. It not surprising that health and quality of life of vulnerable groups in this region are among the worst in the world. In general, women and children, in particular girls, in the AIP region have had especially limited access to healthcare. Women and children have dramatically high rates of communicable and non-communicable disease, morbidity, and mortality and a general low life expectancy that is rapidly declining. In spite of national and international efforts to improve health status of vulnerable populations in this region, the key underlying sociocultural determinants of health and disparities (ie, gender, language, ethnicity, residential status, and socioeconomic status) have not been systematically studied, nor have their relationships to environmental challenges been examined. We set out to summarize existing information regarding the sociocultural, environmental, and traditional determinants of health disparities among different population groups in the AIP region; identify gaps in research regarding the communities' needs in the region; and highlight factors that must be considered in the design and implementation of future health intervention studies in the region. We reviewed current health literature, official documents, and other information (eg, reports of UN agencies) related to the social, cultural, and environmental factors that may influence the health outcomes of subpopulations living in the AIP region. We also interviewed individuals who had recently worked in this region. Overall, the health problems faced by this underdeveloped region can be categorized into those resulting from lack of essential supplies and services and those stemming from the existing cultural practices in the area. The low health
Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Rokhbin, Moslem; Mani, Arash; Maghsoudi, Ahmad
Introduction: Psychological distress is among physical and mental health threats, and health volunteers can play a critical role in empowerment of women. However, evidence has revealed a decline in health volunteers’ activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the challenges faced by health volunteers in empowerment of women. Methods: The participants’ knowledge level was assessed using a written test. Their perceived skills were also measured using Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations by Endler and Parker and Chesney’s Coping Self-efficacy Scale, respectively. The study data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 11.5 and were analyzed using chi-square, sample t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed a considerable increase in the intervention group health volunteers’ knowledge about stress, as well as their self-efficacy. Besides, a significant correlation was observed between self-efficacy and task-oriented strategy scores. However, no significant increase was found in this group’s coping strategies. The results also indicated a significant increase in the intervention group women’s knowledge about stress, but no significant change was observed in other constructs. Some challenging factors, such as managerial, personal, and interpersonal factors, were also detected that might have affected the results. Discussion: This study caused no considerable change in coping with stress, except for increasing the women’s knowledge in this regard. Considering the challenges identified in this study, programs should be developed for researchers and health center managers to improve this condition in future. Creative Commons Attribution License
Rivanda Meira Teixeira
Full Text Available Women have gained more and more space in various professional areas and this development also occurs in the field of entrepreneurship. In Brazil GEM 2013 identified for the first time, that the number of new woman entrepreneurs was higher than male entrepreneurs. However, it is recognized that women entrepreneurs face many difficulties when trying to reconcile their companies with the family. The main objective of this research is to analyse the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs of travel agencies to reconcile the conflict between work and family. This study adopted the multiple cases research strategy and were selected seven women creators and managers of travel agencies in the cities of Aracaju and the Barra dos Coqueiros, in the state of Sergipe (east coast of Brazil. In an attempt to reconcile well the multiple roles these women often face the frustration and guilt. At this moment, it shows the importance of emotional contribution of husband and children. It is noticed that the search for balance between the conflicting demands generate emotional distress and / or physical.
Veen, Violaine C; Stevens, Gonneke Wjm; Doreleijers, Theo Ah; Deković, Maja; Pels, Trees; Vollebergh, Wilma Am
In the Netherlands, youths of Moroccan origin account for a disproportionately large percentage of the population in juvenile justice institutions. Previous research showed that Moroccan adolescents in pre-trial arrest are characterized by less serious offending behavior (i.e., primarily property-based) and lower levels of mental health problems than native Dutch adolescents in pre-trial arrest. To date, little is known about the parent-child relationship of these adolescents. This study examines the mother-son relationships of Moroccan and native Dutch delinquent adolescents and their association with adolescent delinquency. In the present study, differences in the mother-son relationship characteristics between families of incarcerated (N = 129) and non-incarcerated (N = 324) adolescents were examined, and it was analyzed if these differences between incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents were the same for Moroccans and native Dutch. Data collection for the incarcerated sample took place from 2006 to 2008. Comparison data were used of interviews conducted with mothers originating from former larger studies in the general Dutch population. Latent Class Analysis was performed in order to identify types of mother-son relationship. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the relationships between mother-son relationship types, incarceration and ethnicity. A three class model of mother-son relationship types was found: a low-conflict mother-son relationship type, a high-conflict mother-son relationship type, and a neglectful mother-son relationship type. Compared to the native Dutch adolescents, Moroccans (both in the incarcerated and non-incarcerated population) more often showed a neglectful mother-son relationship type. For Moroccans, no differences in mother-son relationship types were found between the incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents, whereas considerable differences occurred between the native Dutch incarcerated and non-incarcerated
Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B
Introduction Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. Methods and analysis A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women’s prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother’s incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. Ethics and dissemination This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia
Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K
Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.
Marotta, Phillip L
Incarcerated populations have high rates of childhood adversities and substance use problems. Moreover, childhood adversities are well-documented predictors of substance misuse. To investigate the impact of childhood sexual and physical abuse, caregiver abuse of drugs or alcohol, and time spent in foster care on several substance misuse outcomes. Data comes from a sample of 16,043 incarcerated men and women in the United States Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Facilities. Bivariate analyses revealed differences by sex in childhood adversities and socioeconomic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses assessed the data for a link between childhood adversities and substance misuse after adjusting for other variables. Analyses were stratified by sex to show differences in predictors of substance misuse between men and women. Childhood adversities increased the risk of many substance misuse outcomes. The prevalence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care, and caretaker abuse of drugs or alcohol were greatest for inmates who reported injecting and sharing drugs. Growing up with a caregiver that used drugs or alcohol was a consistent predictor of increased risk of substance misuse for men and women. However, childhood sexual abuse increased risk for only women. Inmates who experience physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care involvement and caretakers who use drugs and alcohol are at an increased risk of substance misuse, injecting drug use and syringe sharing. Implications suggest correctional HIV prevention and substance misuse programs must address unresolved trauma and important gender differences.
Garde, K.; Mortensen, A.C.; Toft, P.B.; Soerensen, M.B.; Madsen, F.F.; Henriksen, O.
We report 3 cases of 31 P and 1 H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1 H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31 P-spectra were obtained using the chemical shift imaging technique. Medical treatment including controlled ventilation and sedation of the patients was carried out during the examination. The first patient was evaluated on days 6 and 10 after evacuation of an acute subdural haematoma. An intracranial pressure of 35 mm Hg was registered during the first examination. The 2nd patient had suffered a spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage and showed clinical signs of imminent incarceration during the examination. The 3rd patient showed clinical signs of incarceration just prior to the examination. In the 1st patient 1 H-MRS showed a 3-fold increase in the concentration of choline-containing compounds and a small decrease in N-acetyl aspartate from the 1st to the 2nd examination, which we interpret as a loss of neurones. In case 2 only small changes in metabolism could be detected, indicating that, despite signs of imminent clinical incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1 H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31 P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection
Blagov, Pavel S; Patrick, Christopher J; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Powers, Abigail D; Phifer, Justine E; Venables, Noah; Hudak, Marissa; Herres, Daniel J; Lieb, Kate; Leigh, Sophia C Garvin; Cooper, Gabrielle
Advances in the operationalization of psychopathy have led to an increased understanding of the boundaries, structure, and nomological network of this construct, although significant questions remain. The empirical identification of replicable and theoretically meaningful psychopathy subtypes may help to improve the classification and diagnosis of this condition. We conducted a classification study of 91 incarcerated men who met conventional criteria for high levels of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. We expanded on the methodology of previous research on psychopathy subtypes by utilizing a comprehensive personality assessment instrument and a prototype matching approach to classification. The analyses revealed a primary (narcissistic) subtype and a secondary (hostile and dysregulated) subtype that were broadly consistent with the previous literature. External validation analyses, statistical controls, and incremental validity analyses provided substantial support for the primary and secondary subtypes.
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, Wm. Dustin
By some estimates more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach - mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that in order to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the “helper” and the “helped,” and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. PMID:25941214
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, W Dustin
By some estimates, more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders, including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach-mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the "helper" and the "helped," and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ford Foundation, New York, NY.
The problems facing low-income families headed by women and some current and planned Ford Foundation responses are discussed in this paper. The first section presents a general overview of the problem, with special focus on nonpayment of child support and teenage pregnancy. The debate over the Federal welfare program and other attempts to use…
Full Text Available Abstract Most Spanish prisons provide specialised treatment for incarcerated sex offenders, both rapists and child molesters. This treatment is a cognitive-behavioural intervention that has shown relative effectiveness in previous research. With regard to offenders’ rehabilitation, recidivism assessments are necessary as a final measure of treatment effectiveness. However, the evaluation of recidivism by itself does not provide sufficient information on the treatment process and the specific effects that treated subjects could undergo. This paper aims to analyse the therapeutic effectiveness of psychological treatment provided to rapists (in general, males sentenced for committing a sexual offence against women. To this aim, a group of treated rapists (N=153 serving a sentence in prison was analysed. Using a specially designed scale (PASSO, the global therapeutic change and ten specific variables (including assertiveness, readiness to change, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, etc. were assessed. The within-subjects comparison showed that treated sex offenders improved, in therapeutic terms, globally as well as in most of the specific variables assessed (improvements not experimented by the control group. Also, different therapeutic subscales showed relevant associations between them. The findings regarding treatment effectiveness are discussed.
Hosp, Michelle K.; Griller-Clark, Heather; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.
Interviews with 29 incarcerated youth revealed significant differences in their knowledge of their Individualized Education Program transition plans. Those who took career classes had more knowledge about job searching, application, and interviewing. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)
James C. Oleson
Full Text Available In the early twentieth century, the eugenics movement exercised considerable influence over domestic US public policy. Positive eugenics encouraged the reproduction of “fit” human specimens while negative eugenics attempted to reduce the reproduction of “unfit” specimens like the “feebleminded” and the criminal. Although eugenics became a taboo concept after World War II, it did not disappear. It was merely repackaged. Incarceration is no longer related to stated eugenic goals, yet incapacitation in prisons still exerts a prophylactic effect on human reproduction. Because minorities are incarcerated in disproportionately high numbers, the prophylactic effect of incarceration affects them most dramatically. In fact, for black males, the effect of hyper-incarceration might be so great as to depress overall reproduction rates. This article identifies some of the legal and extralegal variables that would be relevant for such an analysis and calls for such an investigation.
Las Mujeres Encarceladas por Tráfico de Drogas en Brasil: las Muchas Caras de la Violencia contra las Mujeres (Women Imprisoned for Drug Trafficking in Brazil: the Many Faces of Violence Against Women
Katie Silene Cáceres Arguello
Full Text Available This article will discuss how the current criminal policy of "drug war" waged in Brazil intensifies the various forms of violence to which women are subjected in a deeply unequal society. The current criminal drug policy has been responsible for the significant increase in the incarceration of women in recent years. The criminal justice system operates selectively, focusing on women in situation of social and economic vulnerability. Poor women are victims of structural violence and gender inequality that puts in a subordinate condition in society, especially in the world of work. With the passage through the prison, they become victims of institutional violence. The suffering in prison is intensified by the condition of the mother, as a woman. We will use the bibliographical research, theoretical analysis of official data and ethnographic data collected in field research conducted in female Prison Piraquara, in the metropolitan region of Curitiba (Brazil, to support this work. En este artículo se analiza como la política criminal actual de "guerra contra las drogas", emprendida en Brasil, intensifica las diversas formas de violencia a las que las mujeres son sometidas en una sociedad profundamente desigual. La actual política criminal de la droga ha sido responsable por el aumento significativo en el encarcelamiento de las mujeres en los últimos años. El sistema de justicia penal opera selectivamente, centrándose en las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad social y económica. Las mujeres pobres son las víctimas de la violencia estructural y de la desigualdad de género, que las coloca en una posición subordinada en la sociedad, especialmente en el lugar de trabajo. Con el paso por la cárcel, se convierten en víctimas de la violencia institucional. El sufrimiento que se padece en prisión es intensificado por la condición de madre y mujer. Vamos a utilizar la literatura teórica, el análisis de los datos oficiales y los datos
Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847
A growing literature has documented the mostly deleterious intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration, but less research has considered heterogeneity in these relationships. In this article, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,065) to estimate the heterogeneous relationship between paternal incarceration and children's problem behaviors (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and early juvenile delinquency) and cognitive skills (reading comprehension, math comprehension, and verbal ability) in middle childhood. Taking into account children's risk of experiencing paternal incarceration, measured by the social contexts in which children are embedded (e.g., father's residential status, poverty, neighborhood disadvantage) reveals that the consequences-across all outcomes except early juvenile delinquency-are more deleterious for children with relatively low risks of exposure to paternal incarceration than for children with relatively high risks of exposure to paternal incarceration. These findings suggest that the intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration are more complicated than documented in previous research and, more generally, suggest that research on family inequality consider both differential selection into treatments and differential responses to treatments.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 10. Turning a New Leaf H. Y. Mohan Ram talks to Sujata Varadarajan. H Y Mohan Ram Sujata Varadarajan. Face to Face Volume 14 Issue 10 October 2009 pp 1003-1017 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Symmetry and Mathematics: Pioneering Insights into the Structure of Physics. Urjit A Yajnik. Face to Face Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 264-276. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend
Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Do We Learn to See? Torsten Wiesel Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataramani. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 88-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Science is Not a Zero-Sum Game. Devendra Mani. Face to Face Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 471-477. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0471-0477. Author Affiliations.
Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Lee, Katharine M. N.; Rodgers, Erica M.; Richey, Christina
Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found support for this hypothesis. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, 40% of women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex, and 28% of women of color reported feeling unsafe as a result of their race. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.
Rajanbir Kaur; Kanwaljit Kaur; Rajinder Kaur
Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of p...
Men continue to outnumber women at the secondary head teacher level. This article reports on some of the preliminary findings of a larger study exploring the ways in which women deputy head teachers, as potential aspirants to headship, perceive the secondary head teacher role. Using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis methodology,…
Full Text Available This paper describes three different service-learning approaches the authors utilized in graduate art education students and incarcerated residents at a municipal jail facility. By situating our experiences within feminist theory, we analyze and unpack the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Through an analysis of teacher and student journal entries we came to see that our level of responsiveness to residents needed to increase as compared to our considerations of the university students. We came to see the significant knowledge that the residents hold about excellence in teaching and created an opportunity for the university students and ourselves to learn from the residents. We also identified three areas, breaking stereotypes, awareness of privilege, and showing empathy, that created change in the university students. We believe that service-learning in pre-service teacher preparation programs allows university students to learn from and with residents, thus helping to create more empathetic future teachers.
Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904
Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B
Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.
... Reintegration Program (IVTP) grants designed to support incarcerated Veterans ``at risk'' of homelessness. These... incarcerated Veterans who are ``at risk'' of homelessness. The full Solicitation for Grant Application is...
Zeng, Cheng; Yu, Lei; Chen, Yu; Bian, Hong-Qiang; Zheng, Kai; Ye, Guo-Gang
To investigate the high-risk factors for neonatal incarcerated hernia with intestinal necrosis by logistic regression analysis. Retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 131 neonates with incarcerated oblique inguinal hernia containing the intestine. Of the 131 cases, 14 suffered from intestinal necrosis. The high risk factors for neonatal incarcerated hernia with intestinal necrosis were determined by logistic regression analysis. Manual reduction after incarceration (>2 times) (χ2 = 69.289, P2 times) (χ2 = 84.731, Pneonatal incarcerated hernia with intestinal necrosis. Intestinal necrosis tends to occur in neonates with incarcerated hernia who have incarceration or received manual reduction more than twice and suffer from mesentery incarceration. Manual reduction is prohibited for these cases, which should be surgically treated immediately.
Eriksson, Lina Elisabeth
This research aims to explore how women and men view and perceive potential barriers to women achieving leadership positions in the humanitarian sector. Female leadership is so far an under-researched area within the humanitarian sector, so it is unknown whether females encounter any barriers in accessing and attaining leadership positions. Three categories were identified; identity, perception and challenges through which the views and barriers are explored. Semi-structured interviews were c...
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong
Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Sweigart, Amy N
Full Text Available Uterine incarceration is an uncommon but serious presentation in the emergency department that requires early recognition to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.Case: A 29-year-old female, at 12 weeks gestation, presented to the emergency department (ED with complaints of fever, sacral pain and urgency. Based on history and physical examination, she was found to have a retroverted, incarcerated uterus. After a failed attempt at reduction in the ED, her uterus was successfully reduced under general anesthesia.Discussion: Pain and urinary difficulties, such as retention and hesitancy, are frequent in pregnancy, yet incarcerated uterus is an uncommon emergency department diagnosis that often presents with these symptoms. Clues to the diagnosis include a retroverted uterus, urinary retention, and pain in a patient presenting in the third to fourth months of gestation. Treatment is by manual reduction of the uterus. Complications range from spontaneous abortion to uterine rupture.[WestJEM. 2008;9:232-234.
Robinson, Marvin; Zalut, Lauren
In an effort to humanize the issues surrounding mass incarceration, and to foster empathy in historic site visitors, Eastern State Penitentiary Historic Site launched a pilot tour program that hired formerly incarcerated people to give tours of the building. These 15-minute tours allowed visitors to hear personal stories of incarceration alongside…
Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P.; Sekol, Ivana
Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p behavior among children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730
Rowell, Tawandra L; Wu, Elwin; Hart, Carl L; Haile, Rahwa; El-Bassel, Nabila
Black men currently comprise a substantial percentage of prisoners in the United States. Drug dependence is common among prison populations, and US prisons are high-risk environments for drug use. Prison drug use exacerbates health problems disproportionately prevalent among Black men and prisoners. The goal of this research was to examine predictors of prison drug use among incarcerated Black men. This study examined drug use within the prison environment in a random sample of 134 Black men incarcerated in maximum-security correctional institution. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used to measure illicit drug use history and the extent to which drug use occurred within the prison environment. Seventy-five percent of the participants reported a history of illicit drug use. Overall, 20% (n 25) of the participants, or 25% of those with a history of drug use, reported using drugs during a time frame consistent with incarceration. Participants with lengthier histories of drug use (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) and those who were incarcerated longer (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) were more likely to use drugs in prison. Drug use in prison was associated with history of injection drug use and with probation/parole status when arrested. Prisoners are engaging in illicit drug use while incarcerated, suggesting that they could benefit from harm reduction and drug treatment services offered during incarceration. Drug treatment programs that address long-standing addictions and coping mechanisms for lengthy prison stays, specifically, would be especially useful for this population.
Breitenstein, S; Eisenbach, C; Wille, G; Decurtins, M
We report here of a patient with an incarcerated vermiform appendix occurring in a left-sided indirect inguinal hernia. Occasionally, appendices are found in a hernial sac; however, the finding of an incarcerated vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia on the left side is very unusual and has only been previously described once. The patient suffering this rare entity underwent appendectomy and repair of the hernia and experienced an uneventful postoperative recovery. The possibility of the presence of a situs inversus, or malrotation, as an underlying cause for the observed pathology was excluded by x-ray examination.
Fiona G Kouyoumdjian
Full Text Available We aimed to explore whether mortality data are consistent with the view that aging is accelerated for people with a history of incarceration compared to the general population, using data on mortality rates and life expectancy for persons in Ontario, Canada.We obtained data from the Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services on all adults admitted to provincial correctional facilities in Ontario in 2000, and linked these data with death records from provincial vital statistics between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. We used life table methods to calculate mortality rates and life expectancies for this cohort by sex and 5-year age group. We similarly generated population comparison rates using publicly available data for the general population of Ontario in 2006 as the midpoint of the follow up period. We compared these mortality indices between the 2000 Ontario prison cohort and the general population by age group and sex.The difference in all-cause mortality rates between the 2000 Ontario prison cohort and the general population was greatest for younger adults, with the prison cohort experiencing rates of death that would be expected for persons at least 15 years older at ages 20 to 44 for men and ages 20 to 59 for women. Life expectancy in the 2000 Ontario prison cohort was most similar to life expectancy of persons five years older in the general population at age intervals 20 to 45 in men and 20 to 30 in women.For most of adulthood, life expectancy and mortality rates are worse for adults with a history of incarceration than for the general population in Ontario, Canada. However, the association between mortality and incarceration status is modified by age, with the greatest relative burden of mortality experienced by younger persons with a history of incarceration and modified by sex, with worse relative mortality in women. Future research should explore the association between incarceration status and markers of
Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Wessing, Ida; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Steinberg, Christian; Eden, Annuschka Salima; Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus
Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+) were paired with an aversive noise (US), while further 52 faces (CS−) remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating), behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report), and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography) measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80–117 ms) and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140–160 ms) during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory. PMID:26113814
Maimu Alissa Rehbein
Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.
Johnson, Jennifer E; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Peabody, Marlanea E; Shefner, Ruth T; Fernandes, Karen M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Zlotnick, Caron
Incarcerated women with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (COD) face complex psychosocial challenges at community reentry. This study used qualitative methods to evaluate the perspectives of 14 prison and aftercare providers about service delivery challenges and treatment needs of reentering women with COD. Providers viewed the needs of women prisoners with COD as distinct from those of women with substance use alone and from men with COD. Providers described optimal aftercare for women with COD as including contact with the same provider before and after release, access to services within 24-72 hours after release, assistance with managing multiple social service agencies, assistance with relationship issues, and long-term follow-up. Providers also described larger service system and societal issues, including systems integration and ways in which a lack of prison and community aftercare resources impacted quality of care and reentry outcomes. Practice and policy implications are provided.
Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the gender pay gap, cleansed at least partially of the effect of intra-household specialization on productivity. The estimate is based on EU-SILC data for 19 member countries of the European Union. We use an estimate of the average treatment effect on the treated, supplemented by a matching procedure to estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap and use a subsample of employees earning more than their partners, thus minimizing the impact of child- and family-care on the gender pay gap. We conclude that the unexplained gender pay gap amounts approximately 10 percent working to the disadvantage of women. If we assume that the dominant role in family- and child-care is taken up by the partner earnings a lower wage, then this difference could neither be explained by differences in the observed personal and company characteristics nor by the dominant role of women in care for the household and children and could actually be due to wage discrimination against women.
Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve
This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…
Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
In this study, the authors examined the facility-to-community transition experiences--focusing specifically on employment--of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system. They gathered data on the sample while these youth were still in custody and then every 6 months through phone interviews to…
Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins
Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.
Saddichha, Sahoo; Fliers, Joelle M; Frankish, Jim; Somers, Julian; Schuetz, Christian G; Krausz, Michael R
Incarceration and homelessness are closely related yet studied rarely. This article aimed to study the incarcerated homeless and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the nonincarcerated homeless. It also aimed to describe the homeless population and its significant involvement with the criminal justice and enforcement system. Data were derived from the British Columbia Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban center Vancouver (n = 250), Victoria (n = 150) and Prince George (n = 100). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Incarcerated homeless were more often male (66.6%), were in foster care (56.4%) and had greater substance use especially of crack cocaine (69.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (78.7%). They also had greater scores on emotional and sexual abuse domains of CTQ, indicating greater abuse. A higher prevalence of depression (57%) and psychotic disorders (55.3%) was also observed. Risk factors identified which had a positive predictor value were male gender (p Homeless individuals may be traumatized at an early age, put into foster care, rendered homeless, initiated into substance use and re-traumatized on repeated occasions in adult life, rendering them vulnerable to incarceration and mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
Peer van der Helm PhD; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.C. van der Stel; M.A.M. van Langen; P.H. van der Laan
The present study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour, and may therefore be vital for
Fishman, Susan Hoffman
Discusses impact of parent's imprisonment on children of male and female inmates at four crisis points: (1) arrest and pretrial; (2) sentencing day; (3) initial incarceration; and (4) pre/post release. Describes Sesame Street projects, designed to provide educational and entertaining activities for children on prison visiting days. (CMG)
Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated ...
Connors, Angela D.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Gray, Andrew L.
The following study is an evaluation of the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP). The sample consisted of 298 male federal offenders who participated in the MIFVPP while incarcerated or on release within the community. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of…
Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.
Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…
Metraux, Stephen; Culhane, Dennis P.
This study examined incarceration histories and shelter use patterns of 7,022 persons staying in public shelters in New York City. Through matching administrative shelter records with data on releases from New York State prisons and New York City jails, 23.1% of a point-prevalent shelter population was identified as having had an incarceration…
Haskins, Anna R
A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.
Chapman, Jenifer; Estcourt, Claudia S; Hua, Zhou
China has one of the most rapidly expanding HIV epidemics in the world with sexual transmission between female sex workers (FSW) and clients accounting for a rising fraction of new infections. Successful HIV prevention relies on the delivery of relevant, culturally appropriate messages to influence behaviour change. However, the cultural systems that give rise to barriers to condom use among Chinese FSW have been poorly examined. A better understanding of these barriers is fundamental to global HIV prevention efforts particularly considering increasing international migration of Chinese women who go on to engage in sex work in their migrant country. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 FSW incarcerated in a re-education and detention centre in Shenzhen, China in July to August 2004. All respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Respondents explained that they would 'lose face' if they returned from their migration penniless. Women's distinction between commercial and non-commercial partners was very subtle; the nature of 'boyfriend' relationships was diverse and these were often transactional. Condom use was influenced by gender norms, familiarity, a desire to 'save' and 'give' face and, in transactional relationships, whether more money was offered. Women felt HIV was a disease of 'others'; only two women felt personally at risk. The present study has highlighted the importance of unique cultural structures in Chinese FSW sexual decision-making, an understanding of which will enhance the success of HIV-prevention efforts globally.
Baillargeon, Jacques; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Penn, Joseph V; Williams, Brie A; Murray, Owen J
A number of legal, social, and political factors over the past 40 years have led to the current epidemic of psychiatric disorders in the U.S. prison system. Although numerous investigations have reported substantially elevated rates of psychiatric disorders among prison inmates compared with the general population, it is unclear whether mental illness is a risk factor for multiple episodes of incarceration. The authors examined this association in a retrospective cohort study of the nation's largest state prison system. The study population included 79,211 inmates who began serving a sentence between September 1, 2006, and August 31, 2007. Data on psychiatric disorders, demographic characteristics, and history of incarceration for the preceding 6-year period were obtained from statewide medical information systems and analyzed. Inmates with major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and nonschizophrenic psychotic disorders) had substantially increased risks of multiple incarcerations over the 6-year study period. The greatest increase in risk was observed among inmates with bipolar disorders, who were 3.3 times more likely to have had four or more previous incarcerations compared with inmates who had no major psychiatric disorder. Prison inmates with major psychiatric disorders are more likely than those without to have had previous incarcerations. The authors recommend expanding interventions to reduce recidivism among mentally ill inmates. They discuss the potential benefits of continuity of care reentry programs to help mentally ill inmates connect with community-based mental health programs at the time of their release, as well as a greater role for mental health courts and other diversion strategies.
Salmons, Patrick Jeremiah
The United States has many problems currently, the most persistent of which is the issue of race, and the problem of Mass Incarceration. This thesis addresses what Mass Incarceration is, as well as developing a theoretical understanding of how to overcome Mass Incarceration through the music of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement. This thesis presents the questions: What is the era of Mass Incarceration? How does Kendrick Lamar's music inform the problems of Mass Incarceration?...
Attachment organization in a sample of incarcerated mothers: distribution of classifications and associations with substance abuse history, depressive symptoms, perceptions of parenting competency and social support.
Borelli, Jessica L; Goshin, Lorie; Joestl, Sarah; Clark, Juliette; Byrne, Mary W
We report attachment classifications in a sample of pregnant women incarcerated in a state prison with a nursery program. Analyses were based on 69 women serving sentences for felony crimes who were followed from the birth of their child to completion of the prison nursery co-residence. They completed the Adult Attachment Interview shortly after entering the program and scales measuring depression, perceived parenting competency, and social support at study entry (Time 1) and program completion (Time 2). Incarcerated mothers had higher rates of insecure attachment than previous low-risk community samples. Compared with dismissing and secure mothers, preoccupied mothers reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower parenting competency, and lower satisfaction with social support at the conclusion of the nursery program. Higher scores on unresolved loss and derogation were associated with a history of substance abuse; higher scores on unresolved trauma were associated with depressive symptoms at program completion.
Brygger, Louise; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Severin Gråe Harbo, Frederik
Diaphragmatic hernia is a rare complication in pregnancy which due to misdiagnosis or management delays may be life-threatening. We report a case of a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy who presented with sudden onset of severe epigastric and thoracic pain radiating to the back. Earlier...... in the index pregnancy, she had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery (ARS) for a hiatus hernia because of severe gastro-oesophageal reflux. Owing to increasing epigastric pain a CT scan was carried out which diagnosed wrap disruption with gastric herniation into the thoracic cavity and threatened...... incarceration. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of severe adverse outcome after ARS during pregnancy, with acute intrathoracic gastric herniation. We recommend the avoidance of ARS in pregnancy, and the need to advise women undergoing ARS of the postoperative risks if pregnancy occurs within a few...
Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L; Radhakrishnan, Bharathi; Pantalone, David W
Incarcerated women face significant barriers to achieve continuous HIV care. We employed a descriptive, exploratory design using qualitative methods and the theoretical construct of agency to investigate participants' self-reported experiences accessing HIV services in jail, in prison, and post-release in two Alabama cities. During January 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive women. Two researchers completed independent coding, producing preliminary codes from transcripts using content analysis. Themes were developed iteratively, verified, and refined. They encompassed (a) special rules for HIV-positive women: isolation, segregation, insults, food rationing, and forced disclosure; (b) absence of counseling following initial HIV diagnosis; and (c) HIV treatment impediments: delays, interruption, and denial. Participants deployed agentic strategies of accommodation, resistance, and care-seeking to navigate the social world of prison and HIV services. Findings illuminate the "HIV prison paradox": the chief opportunities that remain unexploited to engage and re-engage justice-involved women in the HIV care continuum.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarceration history is associated with lower rates of condom use and increased HIV risk. Less is known about duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations’ impact on condom use post-release. Methods In the current study, we surveyed 1,416 adults in Mississippi about their incarceration history and sexual risk behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to test associations between duration of incarceration, multiple incarcerations, socio-demographic factors, substance use, sexual behavior, and event level condom use at last sex. Results After adjusting for covariates, having been incarcerated for at least 6 months two or more times remained significantly associated with condomless sex. Conclusions This study found a strong, independent relationship between condom use and multiple, long-term incarceration events among patients in an urban STI clinic in the Deep South. The results suggest that duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations have significant effects on sexual risk behaviors, underscoring the deleterious impact of long prison or jail sentences on population health. Our findings also suggest that correctional health care professionals and post-release providers might consider offering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services and those providing community care should consider screening for previous incarceration as a marker of risk.
Revnaud-Maurupt, Catherine; Caer, Yves; Escaffre, Noëlle; Gagneau, Murielle; Galinier, Anne; Marzo, Jean-Noël; Meroueh, Fadi
To describe the social and medical profiles of incarcerated (in detention or after sentencing) opiate addicts, whether or not they had already begun substitution treatment at arrival, and assess the impact of high-dose buprenorphine substitution therapy on the health of prisoners and the course of their incarceration. A prospective survey was conducted on opiate addicts on admission to prison and after 2 months of incarceration, from December 2001 to February 2003, in 6 prison centres in the South East of France. During incarceration, no significant difference (other than in medical follow-up) appeared between the prisoners receiving substitution treatment and those who went through withdrawal on arrival. The first group differed from the second in several respects: their occupational history before incarceration was less stable, their history of drug addiction and incarceration was more serious (injection, psychotropic use, number of prior incarcerations, early age at first incarceration). The buprenorphine patients also differed in their more intense use of medical follow-up before incarceration. The impact of buprenorphine substitution therapy during incarceration could not be demonstrated, but prisoners receiving this treatment had a substantially different profile than those who were not receiving treatment when they arrived in prison.
Full Text Available The paper examines the antecedents of criminal behavior through the process of retrospective family and life course histories in which incarcerated male inmates and male university students are compared. The main focus is on early childhood experiences and parental behaviors. The study data derive from intensive, face-to-face interviews with 38 men incarcerated for violent offences and a matched group of 66 men attending university at the same time. The interviews focus on the relative importance of adverse childhood experiences and linkages with adolescence. The interviews demonstrated that nearly four-fifths of the inmates experienced toxic family environments by the time they reached adolescence, as compared with only two of the university students. Qualitative analyses flesh out the major themes, experiences, and “risk factors” that helped shape the trajectories of both groups of men. The socially toxic family environments and sub-optimal parenting practices that most inmates endured produced long-term, adverse effects in reducing their capacities for resilience, forging healthy relationships with their peers, and remaining in school.
Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Roberts, Mary B.; Bock, Beth C.; Stein, L.A.R.; Parker, Donna R.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as “smoking used cigarettes.” Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes (‘butts’), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a US prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and femal...
Katharine Elizabeth Stott
Full Text Available We describe a case of HIV/tuberculosis (TB co-infection from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, characterised by drug resistance in both pathogens. The development of drug resistance was linked temporally to two periods of incarceration. This highlights the urgent need for improved integration of HIV/TB control strategies within prison health systems and within the broader public health framework.
This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.
Reimbold , Haley
Despite international consensus among researchers that incarcerating youth is an ineffective and inefficient response to crime, this practice persists—to widely varying degrees—in every country. What are the differences in youth incarceration in disparate welfare state regimes? To answer this question, this paper develops a youth incarceration typology by comparing three cases: that of Sweden, Germany, and the United States. The first multi-¬‐dimensional typology specific to youth incarcerati...
Anna R Haskins
Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratiﬁcation, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age ﬁve is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.
Newman, Claire; Cashin, Andrew; Waters, Cheryl
This study aimed to examine the lived experience of incarceration for those with autism using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Eight adults who were incarcerated in New South Wales, Australia, were interviewed. The lived experience of incarceration for the participants was about being in an unpredictable environment characterised by ever-changing routines and complex social situations. Participants were deprived of their ability to create predictability in their environment, and experienced confusion and distress when forced to comply with actions that were in conflict with their logic. Mental health nursing case management is recommended to address the needs of incarcerated persons with autism.
Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher
Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...
Dale, Sannisha K; Pierre-Louis, Catherine; Bogart, Laura M; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A
Psychosocial factors of trauma and abuse, racial discrimination, HIV stigma, and gender-related stressors (e.g., prioritizing others' needs) have been associated with antiretroviral treatment (ART) nonadherence and poor viral suppression among Black women living with HIV (BWLWH). To inform the development of an intervention addressing these psychosocial factors to improve ART adherence, the authors sought the insight of BWLWH. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 BWLWH to gather information on their experiences with trauma, racism, HIV stigma, gender-related stressors, ART adherence, and coping strategies, and their insights on the proposed intervention. Participants' interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic content analysis and grounded theory. Participants shared (a) their experiences with trauma/abuse, racism, HIV-stigma, gender-related stress, and medication adherence; (b) coping strategies they use (e.g., social support, awareness [acknowledging systemic racism], assertiveness, selective disclosure of HIV status, and prioritizing the self); (c) how each of these adversities relate to their medication adherence and how they found ways to self-validate and practice self-primacy and self-care, including medication adherence in spite of adversities; and (d) enthusiasm for the proposed intervention. Culturally adapted interventions are needed to improve the health of BWLWH by enhancing coping strategies for the multiple adversities they face and promoting self-validation, self-primacy, and self-care in spite of adversities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Martin, Margaret E.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.
Studies 49 incarcerated women to examine the complex relationship among women's criminal history, victimization, relational supports, personal strengths and their mental health. A cluster analysis produced four typologies shaping recommendations for assessment and treatment. Findings suggest that women with the greatest mental health needs have…
Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl
Rural women, particularly those in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV related to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk by 3 different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) among drug-using women in rural jails. This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women in 1 Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk. Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Because of service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H.
Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental…
De Cuyper, R.H.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Völker, B.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.
This study examines inmates' core discussion network prior to their incarceration. The core discussion network consists of the immediate social circle of relatively strong ties. The aims of the study are twofold: (1) to describe inmates' core discussion network prior to their incarceration in terms
This article reports the findings of a study examining the types of artistic responses and personal interpretations that incarcerated male youths make as they listen and respond to selected pieces of young adult literature. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methodology to gather information about incarcerated youth and their…
Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan
Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…
Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.
Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present
Menting, A.T.A.; Orobio De Castro, B.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.
Objective. The present study examines cognitive and emotional problems in mothers being released from incarceration. Design. Participants were 98 mothers who were about to be released or had just been released from incarceration, and 63 comparison mothers from disadvantaged areas with low
Wang, Emily A; Moore, Brent A; Sullivan, Lynn E; Fiellin, David A
Behaviors associated with opioid dependence often involve criminal activity, which can lead to incarceration. The impact of a history of incarceration on outcomes in primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine whether having a history of incarceration affects response to primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. In this post hoc secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, we compared demographic, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes among 166 participants receiving primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment stratifying on history of incarceration. Participants with a history of incarceration have similar treatment outcomes with primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone than those without a history of incarceration (consecutive weeks of opioid-negative urine samples, 6.2 vs. 5.9, p = 0.43; treatment retention, 38% vs. 46%, p = 0.28). Prior history of incarceration does not appear to impact primary care office-based treatment of opioid dependence with buprenorphine/naloxone. Community health care providers can be reassured that initiating buprenorphine/naloxone in opioid dependent individuals with a history of incarceration will have similar outcomes as those without this history.
Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A
This study sought to investigate the rates and correlates of homelessness, especially mental illness, among adult jail inmates. Data from a national survey of jail inmates (N=6,953) were used to compare the proportion of jail inmates who had been homeless in the previous year with the proportion of persons in the general population who had been homeless in the previous year, after standardization to the age, race and ethnicity, and gender distribution of the jail sample. Logistic regression was then used to examine the extent to which homelessness among jail inmates was associated with factors such as symptoms or treatment of mental illness, previous criminal justice involvement, specific recent crimes, and demographic characteristics. Inmates who had been homeless (that is, those who reported an episode of homelessness anytime in the year before incarceration) made up 15.3% of the U.S. jail population, or 7.5 to 11.3 times the standardized estimate of 1.36% to 2.03% in the general U.S. adult population. In comparison with other inmates, those who had been homeless were more likely to be currently incarcerated for a property crime, but they were also more likely to have past criminal justice system involvement for both nonviolent and violent offenses, to have mental health and substance abuse problems, to be less educated, and to be unemployed. Recent homelessness was 7.5 to 11.3 times more common among jail inmates than in the general population. Homelessness and incarceration appear to increase the risk of each other, and these factors seem to be mediated by mental illness and substance abuse, as well as by disadvantageous sociodemographic characteristics.
Seung Chan Lee
Full Text Available Background Among the various signs and symptoms of orbital fractures, certain clinical findings warrant immediate surgical exploration, including gaze restriction, computed tomographic (CT evidence of entrapment, and prolonged oculocardiac reflex. Despite proper surgical reconstruction, prolonged complications such as diplopia and gaze restriction can occur. This article evaluated the prognostic factors associated with prolonged complications of orbital fractures with muscle incarceration. Methods The medical records of 37 patients (37 orbits with an orbital fracture with muscle incarceration from January 2001 to January 2015 were reviewed. The presence of Incarcerated muscle was confirmed via CT, as well as by intraoperative findings. Various factors potentially contributing to complications lasting for over 1 year after the injury were categorized and analyzed, including age, cause of injury, injury-to-operation time, operative time, fracture type, nausea, vomiting and other concomitant symptoms and injuries. Results All patients who presented with extraocular muscle limitations, positive CT findings, and/or a positive forced duction test underwent surgery. Of the 37 patients, 9 (24% exhibited lasting complications, such as diplopia and gaze restriction. The mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (range, 1–108 months, while that of patients who experienced prolonged complications was 30.1 months (range, 13–36 months. Two factors were significantly associated with prolonged complications: injury-to-operation time and nausea/vomiting. Loss of vision, worsening of motility, and implant complication did not occur. Conclusions Patients who present with gaze limitations, with or without other signs of a blow-out fracture, require a thorough evaluation and emergent surgery. A better prognosis is expected with a shorter injury-to-operation time and lack of nausea and vomiting at the initial presentation.
Full Text Available Abstract This article gives insight into a German as a foreign language course in a prison in the German speaking part of Switzerland. From the perspective of the teacher, the author reflects on beliefs and assumptions regarding professional issues which are carried into this specific learning setting and challenges these by contrasting them with anecdotal accounts. She advocates the view that rather than try and do away with beliefs teachers should believe in incarcerated person’s capability to learn and achieve.
Full Text Available ... Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home ... All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD ...
Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B
Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.
Martin, Rosemarie A.; Stein, Lynda A.R.; Clair, Mary; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Hurlbut, Warren; Rohsenow, Damaris J.
Background Treatment engagement is often measured in terms of treatment retention and drop out, resource utilization, and missed appointments. Since persons may regularly attend treatment sessions but not pay close attention, actively participate, or comply with the program, attendance may not reflect the level of effort put into treatment. Teens in correctional settings may feel coerced to attend treatment, making it necessary to develop measures of treatment involvement beyond attendance. This study describes the development and validation of the Adolescent Substance Treatment Engagement Questionnaire (ASTEQ), Teen and Counselor versions. Methods The psychometric properties of the ASTEQ were examined in a sample of incarcerated teens (N = 205) and their counselors. Principal component analysis was conducted on teen and counselor versions of the questionnaire. Results Scales of positive and negative treatment engagement were found, reflecting both overt behaviors (joking around, talking to others) and attitudes (interest in change). Significant correlations with constructs related to treatment attitudes and behaviors, and misbehaviors (including substance use) demonstrate good concurrent and predictive validity. Teen and counselor ratings of engagement produced validity correlations in the medium effect size range. Conclusions These measures comprise a valid and reliable method for measuring treatment engagement for incarcerated teens. PMID:26021405
Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.
Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova
perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...... unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...... performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...
Full Text Available ... by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... types of therapy that are proven to work. Learn more about Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing ...
Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...
Mollard, Elizabeth; Brage Hudson, Diane
Incarcerated women are a vulnerable and unique population of special concern to nurses as they have high rates of mental illness. In this article, the authors discuss how trauma exposure contributes to mental illness in incarcerated women through abuse, socioeconomic factors, and the prison environment, how this trauma exposure manifests in the inmate survivor, and the related implications for practice. A history of trauma and victimization is related to complex mental health issues which affect the majority of justice-involved women. The correctional environment can exacerbate these issues. Nursing implications include discussion of the trauma-informed care model. The authors recommend a model of trauma-informed care named "the 4 Es" that can guide nurses in preparing a trauma-informed correctional environment and discuss the importance of nurse-led policy change in finding alternatives to incarceration for women with mental illness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Pals, Sherri L; Kidder, Daniel P; Henny, Kirk; Emshoff, James G
Among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) experiencing homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness, a history of incarceration may serve as a marker for ongoing risk behavior or health disparities. We examined factors associated with a history of incarceration among HIV-positive clients of housing agencies in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles (N = 581). We used logistic regression to conduct analyses. Of the 581 participants, 68% (n = 438) reported a history of incarceration: 32% (n = 182) had spent more than 1 year incarcerated. After adjustment for covariates, incarceration history was associated with having ever injected drugs, ever engaged in sex exchange, and ever experienced physical abuse. Incarceration history was also associated with having a detectable HIV viral load, better mental health, and being a biological parent. It was not associated with current risk behavior. Service providers may explore possible increased need for medical support among homeless PLWHA with a history of incarceration.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kasprow, Wesley J; McGuire, James F
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been increasing efforts to reach out to assist incarcerated veterans. While previous studies have shown strong associations between incarceration and homelessness, few studies have examined distinctive characteristics of incarcerated homeless and non-homeless veterans. National administrative data on 30,348 incarcerated veterans served by the Health Care for Re-entry Veterans (HCRV) program were analyzed. Incarcerated veterans were classified into four groups based on their history of past homelessness: not homeless, transiently homeless, episodically homeless, and chronically homeless. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare groups on sociodemographic characteristics, criminal justice status, clinical status, and their interest in using VHA services. Of the sample, 70 % were classified as not homeless, 8 % as transiently homeless, 11 % as episodically homeless, and 11 % as chronically homeless. Thus, 30 % of the sample had a homeless history, which is five times the 6 % rate of past homelessness among adult men in the general population. Compared to non-homeless incarcerated veterans, all three homeless groups reported significantly more mental health problems, more substance abuse, more times arrested in their lifetime, more likely to be incarcerated for a non-violent offense, and were more interested in receiving VHA services after release from prison. Together, these findings suggest re-entry programs, like HCRV, can address relevant mental health-related service needs, especially among formerly homeless veterans and veterans in need of services are receptive to the offer of assistance.
Vogel, Matt; Porter, Lauren C
Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present study examines the extent to which differences in age structure account for incarceration disparities across racial and ethnic groups. We apply two techniques commonly employed in the field of demography, age-standardization and decomposition, to data provided by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the 2010 decennial census to assess the contribution of age structure to racial and ethnic disparities in incarceration. The non-Hispanic black and Hispanic incarceration rates in 2010 would have been 13-20 % lower if these groups had age structures identical to that of the non-Hispanic white population. Moreover, age structure accounts for 20 % of the Hispanic/white disparity and 8 % of the black/white disparity. The comparison of crude incarceration rates across racial/ethnic groups may not be ideal because these groups boast strikingly different age structures. Since the risk of imprisonment is tied to age, criminologists should consider adjusting for age structure when comparing rates of incarceration across groups.
S J Baruah
Full Text Available Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V. We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.
Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit
's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...
Black, Donald W; Gunter, Tracy; Loveless, Peggy; Allen, Jeff; Sieleni, Bruce
We determined the frequency of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in offenders. We examined demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life in those with and without ASPD. We also looked at the subset with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A random sample of 320 newly incarcerated offenders was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). ASPD was present in 113 subjects (35.3%). There was no gender-based prevalence difference. Offenders with ASPD were younger, had a higher suicide risk, and had higher rates of mood, anxiety, substance use, psychotic, somatoform disorders, borderline personality disorder, and ADHD. Quality of life was worse, and their LSI-R scores were higher, indicating a greater risk for recidivism. A subanalysis showed that offenders with ASPD who also had ADHD had a higher suicide risk, higher rates of comorbid disorders, and worse mental health functioning. ASPD is relatively common among both male and female inmates and is associated with comorbid disorders, high suicide risk, and impaired quality of life. Those with comorbid ADHD were more impaired than those without ADHD. ASPD occurs frequently in prison populations and is nearly as common in women as in men. These study findings should contribute to discussions of appropriate and innovative treatment of ASPD in correctional settings.
Lacey, Candace H.
This paper presents the qualitative findings based on the analysis of open-ended responses from surveys completed by 59 incarcerated women who participated in an arts-based education program. ArtSpring focuses on promoting self-growth and effective life skills through art-making for underserved and institutionalized women and girls. Findings…
Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...
Full Text Available ... to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos ...
Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...
Full Text Available ... traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In ...
Cooke, Cheryl L
More than 800,000 African American men are currently incarcerated in prisons or jails in the United States. Most of these men leave prison ill prepared to return to society as workers, or to reintegrate into family settings. Returning from prison is complicated by struggles in the housing and job markets. This article begins with a review of literature exploring drug laws and disproportionate incarceration rates, homelessness, and joblessness. Data from a community-based, qualitative study of African American men following incarceration is presented. A discussion of how incarceration influenced their return to family situations is included that supports the findings by earlier studies on the effects of homelessness and joblessness on individuals and families. The article concludes with recommendations for the development of targeted support systems and offers suggestions for future nursing research with this population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2% participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48, non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39, syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32, and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82. Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9% reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4% of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202. Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai
Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K
Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Venkata K Mukku
Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Skarðhamar, Torbjørn; Telle, Kjetil
We explore the relationship between formal employment and recidivism using a dataset that follows every Norwegian resident released from prison in 2003 for several years. By the end of 2006, 27 percent are re-incarcerated. Using a Cox proportional hazard model that controls for a host of individual characteristics, we find that the hazard of re-incarceration is 63 percent lower for those getting employed compared to those not getting employed. While some of the moderating association between ...
Petronila Libana Cechim
Full Text Available O estudo buscou conhecer fatores geradores do medo que assola as mulheres soropositivas e conseqüências nas relações do cotidiano familiar, do trabalho e do convívio social. O método empregado é de natureza qualitativa. Focalizou mulheres com HIV/AIDS que estão em acompanhamento na Unidade de Saúde do Município de São Leopoldo-RS. A coleta de dados foi por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada, atingindo 18 mulheres, de 23 a 55 anos. A discriminação no seio da família e no trabalho e a perda de amigos constituem fator de medo constante e exercem influência no comportamento social das mulheres. O medo está relacionado também com a imagem da mulher e o isolamento social.En el presente trabajo se buscó conocer a los factores generadores del miedo que asola las mujeres seropositivas y a las consecuencias en las relaciones del cotidiano de la familia, del trabajo y del convivio social. El método usado fue de naturaleza cualitativa. Se focalizó en mujeres con HIV/SIDA que están siendo acompañadas en la Unidad de Salud del Municipio de São Leopoldo-RS. La recogida de datos fue a través de entrevista semiestructurada, abarcando 18 mujeres, de 23 a 55 anos. La discriminación en el seno de la familia y en el trabajo y la pérdida de amigos constituyen factor de miedo permanente y ejercen influencia en el comportamiento social de las mujeres. El miedo también está relacionado con la imagen de la mujer y el aislamiento social.The study aimed at determining factors that generate the fear visiting upon HIV-positive women and consequences in routine family, work and social life relations. The method employed is of qualitative nature. Women with HIV/AIDS that were followed at the Health Clinic of São Leopoldo-RS were focused. Data collection was performed by a semi-structured interview, seeking 18 women, from 23 to 55 years old. Discrimination in the family and at the workplace and loss of friends constitute a factor of constant fear
PHELPS, MICHELLE S.
After four decades of steady growth, U.S. states’ prison populations finally appear to be declining, driven by a range of sentencing and policy reforms. One of the most popular reform suggestions is to expand probation supervision in lieu of incarceration. However, the classic socio-legal literature suggests that expansions of probation instead widen the net of penal control and lead to higher incarceration rates. This article reconsiders probation in the era of mass incarceration, providing the first comprehensive evaluation of the role of probation in the build-up of the criminal justice system. The results suggest that probation was not the primary driver of mass incarceration in most states, nor is it likely to be a simple panacea to mass incarceration. Rather, probation serves both capacities, acting as an alternative and as a net-widener, to varying degrees across time and place. Moving beyond the question of diversion versus net widening, this article presents a new theoretical model of the probation-prison link that examines the mechanisms underlying this dynamic. Using regression models and case studies, I analyze how states can modify the relationship between probation and imprisonment by changing sentencing outcomes and the practices of probation supervision. When combined with other key efforts, reforms to probation can be part of the movement to reverse mass incarceration. PMID:24072951
Cusack, Meagan; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth
Homelessness and incarceration share a bidirectional association: individuals experiencing homelessness are more likely to be incarcerated and former inmates are more likely to become homeless. Permanent supportive housing (PSH) programs have demonstrated positive outcomes for participants with criminal histories, yet participants continue to exit to jail or prison and experience subsequent homelessness. Using data on Veterans participating in a PSH program at 4 locations between 2011 and 2014 (N = 1,060), logistic regression was used to examine the risk factors for exiting PSH because of incarceration and returning to homelessness. Though exiting because of incarceration was uncommon, Veterans with a drug use disorder who decreased the frequency of related care over time had an increased risk for this outcome, and a history of incarceration increased Veterans' risk of experiencing ongoing homelessness. Findings can inform housing and reentry interventions which should account for participant risk factors and service needs in an effort to end the cycle of homelessness and incarceration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.
The purpose of this study was to explore empirically the presence of any spatial and demographic disparity in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection rate among the prison inmates across 48 states in the US and compare the results for 2000 and 2010. HIV infection is a severe health issue for incarcerated populations in the US. In 2010, the rate of diagnosed HIV infection among inmates in state and federal prisons was five times more than the nonincarcerated population. The National Prisoner Statistics database was used to find the demographic disparities in HIV prevalence rate based on incarceration rate, gender, race/ethnicity, the proportion of non-US citizens, and proportion of population below 18 years. State-level spatial mapping, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Moran's I statistic (univariate and bivariate) were computed based on these demographic characteristics using QGIS and Geoda software. There was a statistically significant pattern of spatial disparity in overall, male and female HIV infection rates across the state prisoners, with South and South-Eastern states facing a higher risk of infection. There was also statistically significant bivariate spatial association of HIV infection rate with the covariates: whites (negative), blacks (positive), non-US citizen (positive), and prisoners under age 18 years (positive) for both 2000 and 2010. There was a statistically significant higher HIV infection rate among the female prisoners in comparison to the male prisoners. It is of prime importance to examine the state-level disparities in HIV infection rate based on place and demographics. This is because evaluating the spatial pattern will help in accessing the relevant local information and provide federal agencies with better knowledge to target interventions and prevention programs toward the subgroup of the population at higher risk and help in controlling and reducing HIV infection prevalence.
Olaitan, Sulaiman A; Shmaila, Hanif; Sikiru, Lamina; Lawal, Isa U
Background Incarceration has been associated with reduced physical activity. However, physical inactivity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore, to evaluate the incidence and relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration in of inmates in Kano-Nigeria prisons. Method A cross-sectional study was done to determine the relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration ...
Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M
Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.
Handal, Alexis J; Garcia Saavedra, Luigi; Schrader, Ronald; Aragón, Crystal L; Páez, Maritza; Lowe, Jean R
Objectives The importance of mother-child interaction in early infancy on child development has been well documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the Still Face Paradigm to measure mother interactive style, infant affect and emotional regulation in a rural Ecuador setting. Methods Infant's emotional regulation and the quality of mother's interaction were measured with the Still Face Paradigm at 4 months of age (±15 days). Twenty-four infants and their mothers were assessed in their home. Mother interactive style was coded for attention seeking and contingent responding. Emotional regulation was described by change in infant affect between Still Face episodes. Results A significant difference was found for infant affect between the five Still Face episodes (F 1,118 = 9.185, p = 0.003). A significant negative correlation was found for infant affect between episode 3 and 2 with attention seeking mother interactive style during episode 3 (rho = -0.44, p = 0.03), indicating that mothers using more contingent-responding interactions had infants with more positive affect. Conversely, a significant positive association was found for infant affect between episode 3 and 2 and contingent responding mother interactive style during episode 3 (rho = 0.46, p = 0.02), indicating that mothers who used more attention seeking play had infants who showed less positive affect. Conclusion for Practice Study results demonstrate feasibility in using the Still Face Paradigm in working populations residing in a rural region in Ecuadorian highlands and may be feasible in other similar populations in Latin America, and as a successful approach to measuring maternal-child interactions within a field-based epidemiological study design.
Bortot, Andrea T; Risser, William L; Cromwell, Polly F
Information is limited on how well adolescents use condoms and where they learn how. The objective of this study was to determine how often incarcerated males used condoms incorrectly and where, how, and from whom they learned condom use. This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey during intake physicals at a juvenile detention center. Results were based on self-report; condom use models were not used. During usual use among 141 males, errors included failure to secure the condom to the penis on withdrawal (37%), loss of erection before condom removal (18%), and failure to leave space at the tip (14%). Learning occurred at home (27%), school (23%), probation/detention facilities (14%), and community programs (3.4%). Subjects learned from educators/counselors (37%), family (27%), and friends (6.9%). Methods of learning included reading the package insert (45%), demonstrations (39%), explanations (33%), and media (19%). These adolescents had relatively few condom errors. Common methods of learning correct condom use included observing a demonstration, reading the package insert, and hearing an explanation. The last 2 methods are easy to implement.
Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Isoma, Zachary; Donoghue, Kathleen
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth are believed to be a developmental precursor to adult psychopathy, tapping its affective dimension. There is growing support for the existence of variants of psychopathy that can be distinguished based on the presence of anxiety, maltreatment histories, and comorbid psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether primary and secondary variants of CU traits could be differentiated according to their experiences of distinct types of childhood maltreatment among a sample of 227 incarcerated adolescent boys. Results indicated that variants of youth scoring high on CU traits could be identified which were consistent with theory and prior research. Greater sexual abuse histories, violent and property delinquency, and a sexually motivated index offense distinguished secondary variants, whereas greater neglect distinguished primary variants of youth with CU traits. Psychopathy variants were behaviorally indistinguishable with respect to their levels of aggression and drug delinquency, although they differed in several important ways from youth scoring low on CU traits. Variants also showed distinct patterns of scores on the measure of CU traits. These findings are important to informing developmental theories of psychopathy and have practical and policy implications for intervening with maltreated and antisocial youth.
Kahn, Rachel E.; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; 1) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; 2). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in high risk youth were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits. PMID:26779640
Naciye Sinem Gezer
Full Text Available An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with an acute left-sided groin pain and scrotal swelling. He has suffered from a groin hernia for two years. Abdominal x-ray demonstrated air-fluid levels in the left upper quadrant suggesting an intestinal obstruction (Figure 1. Abdominal computed tomography (CT scan was obtained with an initial diagnosis of an incarcerated inguinal hernia. However, it showed multiple perirenal abscesses and a giant-sized retroperitoneal abscess extending from the retroperitoneal space into the scrotum through the inguinal canal (Figure 2 and 3. Retroperitoneal abscesses are most frequently seen in the 3rd to 6th decades of life (1. Gram-negative bacteria, most commonly E. coli, are the cause of infection which usually develops secondary to pyelonephritis, urinary stasis or immune suppression. The onset of clinical manifestations of the infection, including flank, abdomen and groin pain, chills, fever, tachycardia, weakness and anorexia are often insidious (2,3. Laboratory findings include leukocytosis, increased serum creatinine levels and pyuria. The literature emphasizes the possibility of diagnostic delay and postponed treatment of retroperitoneal abscess due to the fact that its prodrome phase may be long.
Psick, Zachary; Simon, Jonathan; Brown, Rebecca; Ahalt, Cyrus
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons. Originality/value Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age - and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person's likelihood of repeat offense - is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.
Kouri, E M; Pope, H G; Powell, K F; Oliva, P S; Campbell, C
The present study investigated the relationship between crime and substance abuse in a sample of 133 consecutively evaluated male prisoners. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, we assessed the prevalence of various forms of substance abuse in this population and attempted to judge whether substance abuse played a role in the index crime which has led to the present incarceration. In addition, we assessed whether there was a relationship between the nature of substance dependence and the type of crime committed, whether sexual, violent, or non-violent. Among the 133 prisoners, 95% obtained a diagnosis of dependence on one or more substances. Fifty-eight percent of the inmates reported that they were acutely intoxicated with one or more substances at the time they committed the index crime and an additional 6% were withdrawing from a substance at the time of the crime. There was no significant correlation between the type of substance abuse diagnosis and the type of crime committed. Similarly, there was no significant correlation between the number of individuals who reported they were intoxicated at the time of the offense and the type of crime committed.
Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.
The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657
Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth. This study examines the relationship between incarceration and drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Methods Between September 2005 and November 2014, data were collected through the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs, in Vancouver, Canada. An extended Cox model with time-dependent variables was used to examine the relationship between recent incarceration and initiation into drug dealing, controlling for relevant confounders. Results Among 1172 youth enrolled, only 194 (16.6% were drug dealing naïve at baseline and completed at least one additional study visit to facilitate the assessment of drug dealing initiation. Among this sample, 56 (29% subsequently initiated drug dealing. In final multivariable Cox regression analysis, recent incarceration was significantly associated with initiating drug dealing (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21–4.42, after adjusting for potential confounders. Measures of recent incarceration lagged to the prior study follow-up were not found to predict initiation of drug dealing (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95% CI 0.66–3.42. Conclusions These findings suggest that among this study sample, incarceration does not appear to significantly propel youth to initiate drug dealing. However, the initiation of drug dealing among youth coincides
Ryan, Kaitlin F.; Gauthier, Isabel
When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning to measures individual differences with face categories for which men and women may differ in experience, using the faces of Barbie dolls and of Transformers. The results show a crossover interaction between subject gender and category, where men outperform women with Transformers’ faces. We demonstrate that men can outperform women with some categories of faces, suggesting that explanations for a general face recognition advantage for women are in fact not needed. PMID:27923772
Although women outnumber men in higher education participation in many regions, there is still a gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa, with far fewer females enrolling than males. This is true even with affirmative action policies in place in many university settings. Not surprisingly, there is a corresponding dearth of female leadership in African…
Cooke, Cheryl L
To explore how joblessness and homelessness influence the health of men leaving prison. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 17 formerly incarcerated African American men. Participants were interviewed for 1-2 hours in a private setting. Data were collected over 3 months in late 2001. Questions were focused on the experiences of participants during incarceration and after release from prison. Discourse analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings related to unemployment included, (a) being incarcerated was associated with decreased types of employment available after release from prison, (b) a history of incarceration altered how participants were able to conduct job searches, and (c) men who did well after release were those who were self-employed. Findings related to homelessness showed that barriers in either systems or relationships interfered with finding homes. If formerly incarcerated African American men are to reenter society in meaningful ways, steady, living-wage employment and a stable living environment are needed for these men to be able to successfully reintegrate into both families and the larger society, and to avoid conditions that are precursors of health problems.
Liem, Marieke; Kunst, Maarten
It has been suggested that released prisoners experience a unique set of mental health symptoms related to, but not limited to, post-traumatic stress disorder. We sought to empirically assess whether there is a recognizable post-incarceration syndrome that captures the unique effects of incarceration on mental health. We conducted in-depth life interviews with 25 released "lifers" (individuals serving a life sentence), who served an average of 19 years in a state correctional institution. We assessed to what extent the symptoms described by the participants overlapped with other mental disorders, most notably PTSD. The narratives indicate a specific cluster of mental health symptoms: In addition to PTSD, this cluster was characterized by institutionalized personality traits, social-sensory disorientation, and alienation. Our findings suggest that post-incarceration syndrome constitutes a discrete subtype of PTSD that results from long-term imprisonment. Recognizing Post-Incarceration Syndrome may allow for more adequate recognition of the effects of incarceration and treatment among ex-inmates and ultimately, successful re-entry into society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abiona, Titilayo C; Adefuye, Adedeji S; Balogun, Joseph A; Sloan, Patricia E
We examined the relationship between frequency of incarceration and preincarceration risk behaviors and determined the demographic factors associated with risk behaviors among a sample of African American inmates. We surveyed 229 (102 female and 127 male) randomly selected inmates. Risk behaviors between inmates serving their first prison sentence and those who had been incarcerated in prison more than once were compared using the chi2 test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with risk behaviors. For most risk behaviors, there were no significant differences between inmates serving their first prison sentence and inmates incarcerated more than once; however, male inmates who had been incarcerated more than once were more likely to report having had multiple vaginal sex partners (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.10-5.32; P = .03). No demographic variable was found to be independently associated with risk behaviors. Frequency of incarceration did not affect preincarceration human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among this sample of African American inmates. HIV prevention efforts should be directed at addressing the individual and structural factors associated with high-risk behaviors among African Americans.
Bridges, M R; Wilson, J S; Gacono, C B
Rorschach protocols of 60 incarcerated men who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for Pedophilia were compared to those of 60 incarcerated men with no history of sex offenses (matched for age, education, and race). Comprehensive System Rorschach variables (Exner, 1991) were selected based on both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral models of pedophilia. Pedophiles' Rorschachs (a) contained significantly more responses and were more likely to reveal signs of (b) anxiety and helplessness, (c) painful introspection, (d) distorted views of others, and (e) primitive dependency needs than the comparison group's Rorschachs. Like other incarcerated men, the pedophiles exhibited disturbances in self-worth (either poor self-esteem or excessive self-focus), tendencies to abuse fantasy and avoid emotionally tinged stimuli, and chronic oppositionality and hostility. Pedophiles possess many core personality features associated with Narcissistic Personality Disorders, but are less well defended against feelings of vulnerability and painful introspection than other incarcerated men. Like Antisocial Personality Disorder patients (Gacono & Meloy, 1994), our pedophiles and nonpedophile offenders showed signs of impaired attachment and, in the context of incarceration, failed narcissism.
Kapisiz, A; Karabulut, R; Turkyilmaz, Z; Sonmez, K; Basaklar, A C
The recommended approach to hydrocele repair in children is inguinal. Recently, a transscrotal approach has been recommended for hydroceles in children. This report describes our experience with hydrocele with omentum incarceration. This retrospective study reviewed the records of ten children who underwent inguinal hydrocele repair with omentum incarceration in our clinic. The mean age of the patients was 4.5 years (range 1.5-16). Hydroceles were located on the right side in all patients. Scrotal erythema, inguinal pain, signs of intestinal obstruction and hernia sac were not determined. Hydrocele repairs were made by inguinal approach in all patients. The procesus vaginalis was rougher than normal and noted as the hernia sac. Thus, the hernia sacs were opened and omental incarceration was defined in all cases. Omentum protruded into the abdomen in all cases. A high ligation was performed and the distal parts of the sacs were fenestrated. In the light of our experience, a scrotal approach to hydrocele repair in children would be difficult in cases of incarceration with hernia. Omental incarceration may cause hydrocele, and this hydrocele can be confused with normal hydrocele. Therefore, we would continue to recommend an inguinal approach for childhood hydroceles.
McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L; Robinson, Jo C
This study assessed relationships between homelessness, mental disorder, and incarceration. Using archival databases that included all 12,934 individuals who entered the San Francisco County Jail system during the first six months of 2000, the authors assessed clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with homelessness and incarceration. In 16 percent of the episodes of incarceration, the inmates were homeless, and in 18 percent of the episodes, the inmates had a diagnosis of a mental disorder; 30 percent of the inmates who were homeless had a diagnosis of a mental disorder during one or more episodes. Seventy-eight percent of the homeless inmates with a severe mental disorder had co-occurring substance-related disorders. Inmates with dual diagnoses were more likely to be homeless and to be charged with violent crimes than other inmates. Multiple regression analyses showed that inmates who were homeless and had co-occurring severe mental disorders and substance-related disorders were held in jail longer than other inmates who had been charged with similar crimes. People who were homeless and who were identified as having mental disorders, although representing only a small proportion of the total population, accounted for a substantial proportion of persons who were incarcerated in the criminal justice system in this study's urban setting. The increased duration of incarceration associated with homelessness and co-occurring severe mental disorders and substance-related disorders suggests that jails are de facto assuming responsibility for a population whose needs span multiple service delivery systems.
Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T.; Alpers, Georg W.
Abstract The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer—conveyed by facial expression and face direction—amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. PMID:28158672
Full Text Available Christos Simoglou,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Nikolaos Machairiotis,3 Konstantinos Porpodis,2 Lambros Simoglou,4 Alexandros Mitrakas,5 Agisilaos Esebidis,5 Eirini Sarika,6 George Kouklakis,7 Alkis Iordanidis,8 Nikolaos Katsikogiannis31Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 2Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Surgical Clinic (NHS, Komotini General Hospital, Thrace, Greece; 51st University Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 6Biopathology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 7Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, 8Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, GreeceAbstract: The case of a tender, isolated abdominal wall tumor within a Pfannenstiel incision due to a seeding deposit of endometrial tissue secondary to a previous obstetric operation (caesarean section in a 39-year-old female without previously reported pelvic endometriosis is presented. The lesion clinically mimicked the appearance of an incarcerated incisional hernia at the outer corner of the healed Pfannenstiel incision. The preoperative differential diagnosis also included that of a locally forming post-operative tender granuloma and the remote possibility of an incisional endometrioma (although no link to menstruation could be made. Local malignancy was not taken as a serious possibility. Definitive diagnosis of the excised lesion was made at histology. The pre-operative diagnostic dilemma is presented, along with a short review of the literature.Keywords: endometrioma, seeding
Stela N. Meneghel
Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a experiência com grupos de mulheres em situação de violência de gênero, desenvolvida em um programa de extensão da Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (Unisinos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os pesquisadores organizaram três grupos de mulheres durante os anos de 2002 e 2003. Os grupos tiveram o formato de oficina, abertos a toda mulher em situação de violência de gênero perpetrada pelo companheiro e constituíram um espaço protegido de acolhimento e escuta para as mulheres. O objetivo principal das oficinas foi contribuir para o "empoderamento" das mulheres, tornando-as agentes da sua própria transformação. Foram construídas dinâmicas como narrativas e pinturas, objetivando impactar sobre a violência de gênero. O grupo proporcionou troca interdisciplinar, experiência e avaliação contínua para os pesquisadores e as participantes.This study represents an evaluation about battered women's group experience developed as part of a university extension program of Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (Unisinos in Rio Grande do Sul State. The researchers organized three groups of women during the years 2002 and 2003. The groups worked like a workshop open to any woman suffering domestic violence perpetrate by partner and was a protect space to receive and listen to women. The main objective of the workshops was to contribute to the empowerment of women, turning them into agents of their own transformation. Researchers built actions like stories and paintings to impact gender violence. The group provided interdisciplinary exchange, experience and ongoing evaluation for researchers and participants.
Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.
Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Steven Neal Greenoe, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate 54450-056, USP Atlanta, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 1150160, Atlanta, GA...: Currently incarcerated at: Inmate 54450-056, USP Atlanta, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 1150160, Atlanta, GA...
Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert
Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.
The sharp rise in U.S. incarceration rates has heightened long-standing concerns among scholars and policymakers that lengthy incarceration permanently harms the future labor market outcomes of prisoners. If true, then lengthy prison sentences will not only punish criminals for crimes committed, but will also make it far more difficult for…
Hanson, Bridget L; Faulkner, Sherilyn A; Brems, Christiane; Corey, Staci L; Eldridge, Gloria D; Johnson, Mark E
Understanding motivations of research participants is crucial for developing ethical research protocols, especially for research with vulnerable populations. Through interviews with 92 institutional review board members, prison administrators, research ethicists, and researchers, we explored key stakeholders' perceptions of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research. Primary motivators identified were a desire to contribute to society, gaining knowledge and health care, acquiring incentives, and obtaining social support. The potential for undue influence or coercion were also identified as motivators. These results highlight the need for careful analysis of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research as part of developing or reviewing ethically permissible and responsible research protocols. Future research should expand this line of inquiry to directly include perspectives of incarcerated individuals. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión sobre la problemática que viven las mujeres ante el VIH/SIDA. A través de estadísticas mundiales y nacionales que dan cuenta del incremento de la epidemia en las mujeres, se hace evidente la necesidad de atender el problema. Se argumenta cómo la estructura y relaciones de género favorecen la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres, y cómo la vulnerabilidad y el riesgo de infección se incrementan para muchas mujeres al transitar por diversas situaciones específicas, como la migración, la precariedad de empleo y la violencia doméstica, entre otras. Se enuncian los principales obstáculos que enfrentan las mujeres para hacer socialmente visible su situación y necesidades, así como la falta de poder para encarar de manera más eficaz su problemática. Se habla de las iniciativas de la sociedad civil organizada y de las estrategias gubernamentales que se han implantado, así como de sus principales logros, carencias, necesidades y retos. Finalmente, a manera de conclusión y recomendación, se destaca la necesidad de establecer y evaluar programas y políticas de prevención y atención bajo una perspectiva de género y de derechos humanos, que permita una mayor conciencia y mejores respuestas al problema de las mujeres frente al VIH/SIDA.This paper presents some thoughts on the problems endured by women facing HIV/AIDS. World and nationwide statistics show an upward trend of the epidemic among women, calling for the need to address this problem. A case is made for the way in which gender structure and relations facilitate the vulnerability of women to this disease, increasing their risk of infection related with specific factors like migration, employment unsafe conditions, and domestic violence, among others. Emphasis is made on the main obstacles faced by women to flag their concerns and needs in society, as well as on their lack of empowerment to cope effectively with their problems. Some initiatives advanced by
Noelle R Leonard
Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.
Lin, Huang-Chi; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Incarcerated intravenous heroin users have more problematic patterns of heroin use, but are less likely to access methadone maintenance treatment by their own initiative than heroin users in the community. The present study examined predictors for receiving methadone maintenance treatment post-release among incarcerated intravenous heroin users within a 24-month period. This cohort study recruited 315 incarcerated intravenous heroin users detained in 4 prisons in southern Taiwan and followed up within the 24-month period post-release. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to determine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and drug-use characteristics, attitude toward methadone maintenance treatment, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression for access to methadone maintenance treatment after release. There were 295 (93.7%) incarcerated intravenous heroin users released that entered the follow-up phase of the study. During the 24-month follow-up period, 50.8% of them received methadone maintenance treatment. After controlling for the effects of the detainment period before and after recruitment by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, incarcerated intravenous heroin users who had positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.80-4.52, p maintenance treatment before committal (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, p maintenance treatment within the 24-month follow-up period. Positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus with fully subsidized treatment and previous methadone maintenance treatment experiences predicted access of methadone maintenance treatment post-release. Strategies for getting familiar with methadone maintenance treatment during detainment, including providing methadone maintenance treatment prior to release and lowering the economic burden of receiving treatment, may facilitate entry of methadone maintenance treatment for incarcerated intravenous heroin
Full Text Available Amyand’s hernia is a very rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of a normal or inflammed appendix within the inguinal hernia sac. It may be present as an acute apendicitis inside the sac or incarcerated hernia. Sometimes it may be asymptomatic. We report a case of 70-year-old male patient that was presented to our emergency service with a huge right inguinal mass that was diagnosed as an incarcerated inguinal hernia and underwent operation. The intraoperative findings included small intestinal segment, large omental tissue and mobile cecum with healthy appendix inside the sac. There was no sign of strangulation. Lichtenstein herniorhaphy was done without appendectomy.
Pridemore, William Alex
There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Bui, Hoan N.; Morash, Merry
Using data obtained from retrospective, in-depth interviews with 20 successful female parolees, the present study examines the effects of women offenders' relationships with people in their social networks (i.e., their network relationships) before, during, and after incarceration on their postrelease desistence from crime. Because women's social…
Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.
This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…
Shepherd, Tina D.
In 1990, The Americans with Disabilities Act ruled that, regardless of age, inmates were entitled to continued special education services in correctional facilities. This qualitative case study identified perceptions of recidivism in incarcerated adolescents with special education needs. In this study the correctional education programs were…
Smalbraak, I.; Bleker, O. P.; Schutte, M. F.; Treffers, P. E.
Four cases of incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus are described. Typical observations were: a rather low fundal height at vaginal examination, no detectable uterine cervix, and the fetal presenting part deeply impacted in the pelvic cavity. One spontaneous correction in the third
Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul; Mueller, Gina; Havel, Emily
A five-year longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated youth, more than half of whom had a disability, showed that those who were working or in school 6 months after release tended to stay involved in positive activities and had not returned to the juvenile facility 12 months after release. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
Studies on the effectiveness of correctional treatment have widely failed to assess program integrity. This study examined the program integrity of EQUIP in 34 treatment groups of incarcerated offenders, using a new multiaspect program integrity instrument (MIPIE). The first aim of our study was to
Erica D. Kane
Conclusion: This is the first report of incisional hernia appendicitis with nonhealing colocutaneous fistulas secondary to Crohn’s. It is a lesson in developing a differential diagnosis of an inflammatory process within an incarcerated hernia and management of the complications related to laparoscopic hernial appendectomy in a patient with undiagnosed Crohn’s disease.
The perception of penitentiaries as male institutions dates back to the late Middle Ages, when urban governments across Europe began constructing prisons as cogs in their growing machineries of justice. Already then, female incarceration contrasted sharply, intentionally, and symbolically with that
Tollenaar, N.; van der Laan, A. M.; van der Heijden, P. G M
Objectives: To estimate the incapacitation effect and the impact on post-release recidivism of a measure combining prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation, the ISD measure for high frequency offenders (HFOs) was compared to the standard practice of short-term imprisonment. Methods: We applied a
Blumberg, Daniel M.; Griffin, Dawn A.
This article introduces a successful reading program, Family Connections, for incarcerated parents and their children. A comprehensive review of the literature supports the need to implement prison programs from an ecological perspective, in which the needs of inmates and their families are considered. More specifically, the benefits of directing…
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…
Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.
Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A
Although criminal justice involvement and incarceration are common problems for homeless veterans, few studies have examined childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement among veterans. This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration during adulthood. However, the variance explained in criminal behavior by childhood was not large, suggesting that there are other factors that affect the trajectory by which homeless veterans become involved in the criminal justice system. Further research is needed to intervene in the pathway to the criminal justice system and guide efforts to prevent incarceration among veterans. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Gavigan, Karen; Albright, Kendra
Graphic novels are an increasingly popular format that educators can use as a tool to teach reading and writing skills across the K-12 curriculum. This article describes a project in which incarcerated youths collaborated with a graphic illustrator to create a graphic novel about teens dealing with issues related to HIV/AIDS. The graphic novel is…
Asbjørnsen, Arve Egil; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan
Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community. Such conditions have been associated with employment, educational outcomes, and development of anti-social behaviour in the general population. Little is known about how these symptoms are…
Ball, Jeremy D.
Research on the intergenerational transmission of abuse hypothesis often only examined the "existence" of abuse. The current study utilizes retrospective recalls of incarcerated male defendants (N = 414), using questions formulated from the modified Conflict Tactics Scales. Five logistic regression models are run, representing a different physical…
Hunt, Stephen C; Orsborn, Mack; Checkoway, Harvey; Biggs, Mary L; McFall, Miles; Takaro, Tim K
Incarceration-related predictors of later life disability in former prisoners of war (POWs) have not been previously described. The objective of this project was to identify aspects of POW incarceration which are associated with later life disability status. Cross-sectional retrospective study of 328 former U.S. military personnel held as POWs (World War II and Korean and Vietnam Wars) who presented for evaluations at a Veterans Affairs medical center between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004 outcome measures were: (1) total number of later life disability conditions attributable to incarceration and (2) cumulative percentage later life disability attributable to these conditions. We found significant associations between later life disability and POW experiences, including experiencing or witnessing torture, solitary confinement, forced marches, dysentry, pellagra, vitamin deficiencies, scabies, depression, and suicidal thoughts. Conditions of captivity and health concerns or emotional distress during captivity may contribute to long-term adverse health outcomes as measured by later life disabilities in individuals incarcerated as POWs.
Agbakwuru, Chikwe; Awujo, Grace C.
This paper investigated the strategies for coping with the challenges of incarceration among inmates of Port Harcourt Prison, Nigeria. The population was 2,997 inmates of the prison while the sample was 250 inmates drawn through stratified random sampling technique from the same Port Harcourt prison. Six research questions were posed and data for…
The intersection of mass incarceration and fatherhood is of particular interest to a growing number of scholars, policymakers, and practitioners. In this study, the role of fathers in children's lives before and during imprisonment are investigated from the caregiver perspective. Reliance on caregivers' accounts offers valuable insight into the…
Gonenc, M; Bozkurt, M A; Kapan, S; Aras, A; Surek, A; Alis, H
The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis in patients with acutely incarcerated abdominal wall hernia (AWH). The medical records of patients who underwent emergency surgery with preoperative diagnosis of acutely incarcerated AWH and in whom acutely incarcerated AWH was the consequence of increased intraabdominal pressure due to other abdominal emergencies were reviewed. The following data were collected: demographics, the duration between the onset of symptoms and admission, clinical findings, biochemical test results that were abnormal, radiological findings, preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis, operative findings, surgical procedure, different diagnosis made in the postoperative period, reoperation, morbidity, mortality, and the length of hospital stay. Ten patients were included to the study. The primary pathology was found to be perforated peptic ulcer disease in three, bowel obstruction due to neoplastic mass in three, complicated appendicitis in two, acute mesenteric ischemia in one, and acute diverticulitis in one. The correct diagnosis was made during emergency surgery for hernia repair, whereas the primary pathology was identified postoperatively in two patients. Patients who are diagnosed to have acutely incarcerated AWH preoperatively should undergo further diagnostic workup, if any level of clinical suspicion for differential diagnosis is present. Moreover, the surgeon should consider general abdominal exploration if contradictory findings are encountered during the exploration of the hernia sac, even if preoperative diagnostic studies reveal no gross pathology or non-specific findings.
Brito, Natalie; Barr, Rachel; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole
The absence of a father figure has been linked to very poor developmental outcomes. The Baby Elmo Program, a parenting and structured visitation program, aims to form and maintain bonds between children and their incarcerated teen fathers. The program is taught and supervised by probation staff in juvenile detention facilities. This intervention…
Campbell, Michael C.; Vogel, M.S.
This manuscript examines whether certain fundamental demographic changes in age structures across racial groups might help explain incarceration rates in the United States. We argue that a “demographic divide”—a growing divergence in the age structures of blacks and whites—was an important factor
Kamptner, N. Laura; Teyber, Faith H.; Rockwood, Nicholas J.; Drzewiecki, Dolly
An attachment-based, psychotherapeutic parent education course was created for incarcerated mothers and fathers to help improve their ability to provide positive parenting and a more stable home environment for their children. The current study assessed the effects of this parenting curriculum on parents' reported tendencies to be abusive, their…
Roth, Beate Buanes; Manger, Terje
The aim of this study was to examine Norwegian prisoners' educational motives, and how previous incarceration, sentence length, and sentence served influence such motives. Three motive categories emerged: future planning (Factor 1), social reasons and escapism (Factor 2), and competence building (Factor 3). Among prisoners who participated in…
Tangney, June P.; Folk, Johanna B.; Graham, David M.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Blalock, Daniel V.; Salatino, Andrew; Blasko, Brandy B.; Moore, Kelly E.
Purpose To assess changes in inmates’ misuse of substances from pre- to post-incarceration. Methods In Study 1, professionals (n = 162) and laypersons (n = 50) predicted how jail inmates’ substance misuse would change from pre-incarceration to post-release. In Study 2, a longitudinal study of 305 jail inmates, we examined actual changes in substance use and dependence from pre-incarceration to the first year post-incarceration, as well as whether changes varied as a function of demographic, criminal justice, treatment, and personality factors. Results Professionals and laypersons predicted little change in substance misuse whereas, in fact, inmates’ frequency of substance use and dependence decreased substantially from pre-incarceration to post-release. Sharper decreases were observed for inmates who were female, younger, more educated, serving longer sentences, enrolled in substance abuse treatment, high in shame-proneness, and low in criminogenic thinking. Race, first time incarceration, transfer to other correctional facilities, mandated community supervision (probation), and guilt-proneness did not predict changes in substance use or dependence. Conclusions Although substance misuse decreased, this remains a population high in need of substance abuse treatment both upon arrest and at one year post-incarceration; 60% of former inmates met at least one DSM-IV criterion for substance dependence at one year post-release. PMID:27458324
Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James
We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.
Vilhauer, Ruvanee P
To compare the experiences of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in computer-mediated and face-to-face support groups. Interviews from 18 women with MBC, who were currently in computer-mediated support groups (CMSGs), were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The CMSGs were in an asynchronous mailing list format; women communicated exclusively via email. All the women were also, or had previously been, in a face-to-face support group (FTFG). CMSGs had both advantages and drawbacks, relative to face-to-face groups (FTFGs), for this population. Themes examined included convenience, level of support, intimacy, ease of expression, range of information, and dealing with debilitation and dying. CMSGs may provide a sense of control and a greater level of support. Intimacy may take longer to develop in a CMSG, but women may have more opportunities to get to know each other. CMSGs may be helpful while adjusting to a diagnosis of MBC, because women can receive support without being overwhelmed by physical evidence of disability in others or exposure to discussions about dying before they are ready. However, the absence of nonverbal cues in CMSGs also led to avoidance of topics related to death and dying when women were ready to face them. Agendas for discussion, the presence of a facilitator or more time in CMSGs may attenuate this problem. The findings were discussed in light of prevailing research and theories about computer-mediated communication. They have implications for designing CMSGs for this population.
In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different
Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian
This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…
Bailey, Steven; Gilmore, Kathryn; Yerkes, Lauren; Rhodes, Anne
Incarcerated individuals are disproportionately affected by HIV and often experience risk factors associated with poor maintenance of HIV care upon release. Therefore, the transition period from incarceration to the community is a particularly critical time for persons living with HIV to ensure continuity of care and treatment. By building relationships with Department of Corrections staff and community partners, the Virginia Department of Health developed a program to link recently incarcerated persons living with HIV to care and treatment immediately upon release from correctional facilities across Virginia. Findings show that clients served by the program have better outcomes along the HIV continuum of care than the overall population living with HIV in Virginia. This paper describes the development, implementation and health outcomes of the Care Coordination program for recently incarcerated persons living with HIV in Virginia.
Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew
The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.
Fujimoto, Kayo; Kim, Ju Yeong; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.
Objectives This study examined HIV risks in the multiplex crack-smoking and sexual networks of incarcerated drug-using men who have sex with men (MSM) and their associates. We estimated the associations between the network members’ incarceration, self-reported HIV infection, and trading sex for money. Methods Our analytic sample consisted of 508 crack-smoking or sexual partnerships of 273 high-risk MSM. Network members were specified by (1) crack smoking and sexual behavior or (2) crack smoking only. Results Longer incarceration of the crack-smoking and sexual network members was associated with self-reported HIV infection (AOR = 1.61, p trading sex (AOR = 2.77, p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of the study call for the development of a system-level HIV intervention among former incarcerated MSM and their associates. PMID:27417286
Fernanda Carneiro Mussi
to understand the meanings of the experience of pain suffered by women during acute myocardial infarction (AMI and to identify their immediate actions in face of pain. This qualitative research used the Symbolic Interactionism theory and the Grounded Theory methodology. Forty-three wo-men were interviewed at the University Hospital. The central category expressing the pain experience was that it was "a break with day-to-day life". The categories that expressed such break revealed that in face of increasing pain those women felt dominated and afraid of dying because they had lost control over their bodies and their lives. They did not recognize the occurrence of AMI and at first resisted to look for assistance by attempting to alleviate the pain. In face of the unbearable pain and their impotence to control it, they asked for God's salvation and help from surrounding people and finally resorted to medical assistance.
Full Text Available Kebebe Bekele,1 Desalegn Markos2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia; 2Unit of Neonatology Nursing, St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Amyand’s hernia, which is the presence of a normal or pathological appendix as a part of an inguinal hernia, is a rare clinical entity. We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement. Case presentation: A 4-year-old male child with left inguinal swelling of 2-year duration presented to Goba Referral Hospital. Two days before the patient visited our hospital, the swelling had become irreducible and caused severe groin pain. He had abdominal cramps, bilious vomiting, and mild abdominal distention, but passed feces. With the diagnosis of left-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia, the patient was investigated and prepared for surgical management. During the operative procedure, we identified the presence of appendix, cecum, and terminal ileum in the scrotum as the herniated component. After the sack was dissected, since there was also appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed. Then, high ligation of sack was done after cecum and ileum were reduced. After 3 uneventful postoperative days in the hospital, the patient was discharged. The patient was followed-up for 6 months, and he did not develop any complications. Conclusion: Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement is a rare clinical entity. Even though it is not common, appendicitis is one of the comorbidities that can be seen in patients with left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum. Surgeons should have a high index of clinical suspicion and be aware of the potential involvement of appendix, cecum, and ileum as part of an incarcerated hernia during surgery, even in the left inguinal region. In this case, left
Carr, William Reginald Joseph; O'Dair, Graham
A 65-year-old man presented to the general surgical outpatients with an incarcerated left inguinal hernia. Initial investigations revealed an iron deficiency anaemia that was investigated with a colonoscopy and gastroscopy. This revealed a sigmoid cancer and the staging CT scan confirmed a tumour incarcerated in the sac of the left inguinal hernia. We proceeded with a laparoscopic high anterior resection using the inguinal hernia as the extraction site. The hernia was repaired using Permacol mesh. No postoperative complications occurred.
Bryan L. Sykes
Full Text Available The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last four decades and the corresponding rise of parental incarceration raises questions about whether the children of current and former inmates are at an increased risk of material hardship that necessitates social service intervention. Recent sociological scholarship finds that the greater surveillance experienced by former inmates and the criminally involved precludes them from seeking medical care and social services. Yet there is no scholarship that assesses health care and social service utilization among children exposed to parental incarceration. In this article, we investigate how race and educational inequality in parental incarceration were associated with markers of deprivation and social program enlistment after the Great Recession. Using data from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, we not only find that children with an incarcerated parent experience greater levels of deprivation—material hardship, unmet health needs, and residential instability—but that these children are drawn into social service programs at a higher rate than the rate for children unexposed to parental incarceration. Nearly 2.1 million children (or 81 percent of minors with an incarcerated parent are enrolled in at least one social service program. Our findings are consistent with a “system inclusion” perspective, which aligns with David Garland’s and William Julius Wilson’s theoretical and historical explanations of social service participation among disadvantaged minors.
Márcia Vieira dos Santos; Valdecyr Herdy Alves; Audrey Vidal Pereira; Diego Pereira Rodrigues; Giovanna Rosário Soanno Marchiori; Juliana Vidal Vieira Guerra
Objetivo: identificar los factores relacionados con la salud mental de las mujeres en una prisión en el estado de Río de Janeiro. Método: estudio cualitativo exploratorio, descriptivo, realizado entre octubre de 2014 y enero de 2015 en una cárcel de mujeres en el estado de Río de Janeiro. Cuarenta mujeres privadas de libertad fueron entrevistados. La información recogida se discutió sobre la base de análisis de contenido, modalidad temática. Resultados : se identific...
Kjær Minke, Linda
International forskning viser overvejende positive resultater, når det gælder indsattes muligheder for at have kontakt med dyr under straffuldbyrdelsen. Paperet diskuterer resultaterne fra et kvalitativt studie om en hunds indflydelse på kvindelige indsatte og det sociale klima i en beskæftigelse...
Barrett, Carla J
This study used participant/observation and open-ended interviews to understand how male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from yoga and mindfulness training within an Alternative to Incarceration (ATI) program. Findings suggest that the male participants (age 18-24 years) benefited from the intervention through reductions in stress and improvements in emotion regulation. Several participants noted the importance of the development of an embodied practice for assisting them in managing anger and impulse control. The young men's narratives suggest that mindfulness-based interventions can contribute positively to rehabilitative outcomes within alternative to incarcerations settings, providing complementary benefit to existing ATI programs, especially for clients amenable to mindfulness training. With many jurisdictions expanding rehabilitation-focused interventions for young offenders, service providers should consider the potential positive contributions that mindfulness-based interventions can have for fostering desistance and reducing recidivism among justice system-involved populations.
Cunha, Olga; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa
The literature considers intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators to be a heterogeneous group. In Portugal, IPV perpetrators may be sentenced to either of two types of sentences: deprivation of freedom or alternatives to prison (in the community). In the present study, we performed a comparative analysis between 76 male individuals sentenced to prison and 76 male individuals sentenced to community measures for crimes against their current or former partners, using a set of psychological measures. The results indicate that although incarcerated and nonincarcerated IPV perpetrators demonstrate considerable differences, some similarities may also be observed. Incarcerated IPV perpetrators present the lowest socioeconomic status and education, perpetrate more severe IPV, and have more criminal convictions. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the use of weapons and objects increased the probability of IPV perpetrators belonging to the prison group above and beyond sociodemographic variables. Based on these results, implications for IPV perpetrators' treatment are discussed.
Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.
Tsang, Jenkin; Mishra, Sharmistha; Rowe, Janet; O'Campo, Patricia; Ziegler, Carolyn; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; Matheson, Flora I; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Zahid, Shatabdy; Antoniou, Tony
Little is known about the mechanisms that influence the success or failure of programs to facilitate re-engagement with health and social services for formerly incarcerated persons with HIV. This review aims to identify how interventions to address such transitions work, for whom and under what circumstances. We will use realist review methodology to conduct our analysis. We will systematically search electronic databases and grey literature for English language qualitative and quantitative studies of interventions. Two investigators will independently screen citations and full-text articles, abstract data, appraise study quality and synthesize the literature. Data analysis will include identifying context-mechanism-outcome configurations, exploring and comparing patterns in these configurations, making comparisons across contexts and developing explanatory frameworks. This review will identify mechanisms that influence the success or failure of transition interventions for formerly incarcerated individuals with HIV. The findings will be integrated with those from complementary qualitative and quantitative studies to inform future interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016040054.
Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R
There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American
KJELLSTRAND, JEAN M.; EDDY, J. MARK
Over the past several decades, the number of youth with parents in prison in the U.S. has increased substantially. Findings thus far indicate a vulnerable group of children. Using prospective longitudinal data gathered as part of the population-based Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) randomized controlled trial, adolescents who had an incarcerated parent during childhood are compared to those who did not across four key domains: family social advantage, parent health, the ...
PATTERSON, EVELYN J.
Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics and Census Bureau, I estimate death rates of working-age prisoners and nonprisoners by sex and race. Incarceration was more detrimental to females in comparison to their male counterparts in the period covered by this study. White male prisoners had higher death rates than white males who were not in prison. Black male prisoners, however, consistently exhibited lower death rates than black male nonprisoners did. Additionally, the findings ...
Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention for corneal perforation is indicated when the anterior chamber does not reform within a short period of time. Herein, we report the successful management of a small paracentral corneal perforation using autologous iris incarceration and tissue adhesive. Case: A 41-year-old man developed a small paracentral corneal perforation (0.5 mm in size in the right eye, while the treating physician attempted to remove the residual rust ring after removal of a piece of metallic foreign body. Observations: The eye was initially managed with a bandage soft contact lens to ameliorate the aqueous leakage; however, without success. Iatrogenic iris incarceration of the wound was first induced, followed by application of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to the perforated site. As a result, the anterior chamber was immediately reformed and maintained. Complete corneal epithelialization of the perforation was achieved in 2 months without visual compromises. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive with iatrogenic incarceration of the autologous iris was effective in treating this type of small corneal perforation. This technique is simple and potentially useful for small paracentral corneal perforations outside the visual axis and without good apposition.
Fornili, Katherine Smith
The purpose of this column is to summarize important aspects of the racialized War on Drugs, including (a) the school-to-prison pipeline, (b) the for-profit prison system ("prison industrial complex"), (c) racialized mass incarceration, and (d) the disproportionately negative impact of the War on Drugs on families and communities of color. Analysis of critical race theory (CRT), the study of the relationships between race, racism, and power, will provide a cohesive framework for examining these four aspects. CRT maintains that American laws, including antidiscrimination laws, are structured to maintain White privilege (Alexander, 2010; Capers, 2014; Delgado & Stefancic, 2017; Nyika & Murray-Orr, 2017). Proponents of CRT are committed to progressive race consciousness and view CRT as a mechanism for analyzing and addressing racial inequity (Capers, 2014). We cannot incarcerate our way out of the drug epidemic. The War on Drugs is a war on individuals who experience a treatable medical condition and on the communities in which they reside. It should more properly be called "The War on Our Own People." The failed War on Drugs and the current administration's efforts to revive and strengthen it provide examples of how the dominant society allows, and perhaps even actively promotes, the destruction of minority communities. Addictions nurses object to the conditions that perpetuate the War on Drugs and racialized mass incarceration. We view it our ethical responsibility to advocate for social justice and healthy sociopolitical environments for all members of society, regardless of race, class, or creed.
Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Tyler, Kimberly A
Our paper examines service usage (e.g., shelter) as well as a typology of individuals who are most likely to use groupings of services among 249 homeless youth. Our results revealed that the majority of homeless young people have used food programs (66%) and street outreach (65%) on at least one occasion within the past year. Cluster analysis of services revealed four distinct groups: (1) basic survival service use, characterized by above average shelter, food, and outreach service use, but below average on counseling, substance abuse/mental health services, and incarceration; (2) multiple service use, which included above average use of all six services; (3) incarceration experience, characterized by above average incarceration experience, but below average use of all other five services; and (4) minimal service use, which included slightly above average use of counseling, but below average use of all other services. These findings have the potential to provide important information that may assist with targeting services to homeless youth. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arve Egil Asbjørnsen
Full Text Available Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community, but little is known about how the symptoms are related to education and work experience. An ongoing study among Norwegian inmates reveals that 60 % report signs of ADHD. In the present study a sample of 600 inmates incarcerated in Norway filled out a questionnaire including the WURS-k (Wender Utah Rating Scale, short form and questions to survey completed education level and work experience. A clear relationship was found between the WURS-k score and earlier job-experience, with increased probability of ADHD with work experience from low socio-economic status jobs. The scale was also found to share variance with the inmates’ reported education history, as higher education reduces the probability of ADHD among the incarcerated adults. Thus, the WURS-k could be a useful screening instrument in education assessment among inmates. The link between the present findings and development of anti-social behaviour is discussed.
Rowe, Cynthia L; Wang, Wei; Greenbaum, Paul; Liddle, Howard A
Incarcerated adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups for STD infection, and substance abuse is prevalent in over half of this population. Substance abuse and HIV/STD-associated risk behaviors are closely linked among juvenile justice-involved youth, but it is unclear whether common antecedents explain these different problems. The current study examined predictors of HIV/STD risk level and substance use disorders, and investigated whether family variables added unique predictive variance for these problems among incarcerated youth. The sample included 154 substance-involved youth ages 13 to 17 recruited in detention facilities in Miami and Tampa, FL and was primarily male (82%) and African-American (58%). Using a comprehensive assessment strategy with data obtained from youth report, parent report, and laboratory confirmed STD testing, the results show that delinquency is a consistent predictor of both HIV/STD risk level and substance use disorders, and also that substance use directly predicts HIV/STD risk level among incarcerated adolescents. Consistent with previous research, family conflict is an important predictor of substance use disorders even after controlling for other factors. The results suggest the need for integrated family-based interventions addressing delinquency, substance abuse, and HIV/STD-associated risk factors with juvenile justice-involved adolescents.
Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Rad, Jordyn; Hummel, Erich V
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. Significant findings indicated that compared with lone offenders, group JHOs had a higher mean of pre-homicide arrests and were more likely to be Black, have a pre-homicide delinquent record, commit a crime-related homicide offense, and target a stranger. With respect to post-homicide variables, group JHOs were more likely to be released from prison and more likely to be rearrested. The two types of JHOs did not differ significantly in relation to the number of post-release violent offenses. Preliminary implications of the findings and avenues for future investigation are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ross, Jana; Waterhouse-Bradley, Bethany; Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie
Numerous studies have reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, but no study has examined the different typologies of ACEs and the relationship of these with adult incarceration in military veterans. The current study used latent class analysis to examine the existence of different childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction typologies in a sample of U.S. military veterans identified through the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III ((NESARC-III)). A total of 60.73% of veterans reported one or more ACEs. Four latent classes were identified and were named Low adversities, Moderate maltreatment with high household substance use, Severe maltreatment with moderate household dysfunction and Severe multi-type adversities. Relative to the Low adversities class, the three maltreatment/dysfunction classes had significantly elevated odds ratios (1.72-2.29) for adult incarceration, when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and drug use. The results point to the importance of examining childhood risk factors for incarceration and suggest that a certain sub-group of military personnel who are about to transition into the civilian life may need additional support to adjust and live successful lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edson Augusto Ribeiro
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon spontaneous lateral ventral hernia with an incarceration ratio of around 20%. However, complications such as intestinal obstruction are extremely rare. We report on a case of giant incarcerated Spigelian hernia with a clinical condition of complete intestinal obstruction that was treated using prosthetic polypropylene mesh. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a firm 10 x 10 cm tender mass in the lower left quadrant, without surrounding cellulite or tenderness. Plain abdominal radiographs displayed the formation of levels, thus indicating the existence of intestinal obstruction. An abdominal computed tomography scan clearly showed a fluid and air-filled mass in the soft tissue area of the lower left-side abdominal wall. Spigelian incarcerated hernia was diagnosed and the patient underwent emergency surgical repair by means of local incision. The large defect in the abdominal wall was closed up as successive anatomical layers, and a prosthetic polypropylene mesh was set into the lateral aspect of the rectus sheath. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day.
Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.
Full Text Available After reduction of the incarceration during surgery for incarcerated hernia, intestinal blood flow (IBF and the need for bowel resection must be evaluated. We report the case of a patient with incarcerated umbilical hernia in whom the bowel was preserved after evaluating IBF using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence. A woman in her 40s with a chief complaint of abdominal pain visited our hospital, was diagnosed with incarcerated umbilical hernia and underwent surgery. Laparotomy was performed to reduce bowel incarceration. After reducing the incarceration, IBF was observed using ICG fluorescence detected using a brightfield full-color fluorescence camera. The small bowel that had been incarcerated showed deep-red discoloration on gross evaluation, but intravenous injection of ICG revealed uniform fluorescence of the mesentery and bowel wall. This indicated an absence of irreversible ischemic changes of the bowel, so no resection was performed. The patient showed a good postoperative course, including resumption of eating on day 4 and discharge on day 11. In surgery for incarcerated hernia, ICG fluorescence may offer a useful method to evaluate IBF after reducing the incarceration. This case implied that PINPOINT could be used in open conventional surgery.
Langlois, Judith H.; And Others
Two studies, one with two- to three-month-olds and one with six- to eight-month-olds, examined infant preferences for attractive faces. A visual preference technique was used. Infants were shown slides of faces of adult women previously rated for attractiveness. When shown pairs of attractive and unattractive faces, older and younger infants…
Arianna Oliveira Santana Lopes
Full Text Available The article discusses issues associated to women's health, since search what are the sexual and reproductive rights for women in situations of incarceration, highlighting the essentiality of these and if they are applied in Brazilian prisons. Therefore, was realized a literature review to assess the situation of the Brazilian women's prisons with regular year 2003 to 2012. When examined there was a wide disparity of reality experienced by these women by numerous factors, ranging from the barriers imposed by the prison as restriction on conjugal visits, the very attempt to play a role of motherhood and, of course, which drew more attention: the discrimination based on gender, since man reassembles his relationships more easily and generally leaves the companion incarcerated for cultural and social arising male sex. Concludes with the emerging need for change this situation in order to provide a better way to live in such a hostile environment to women incarcerated, where the same have their rights violated and nothing is done to such default.
Arianna Oliveira Santana Lopes
Full Text Available The article discusses issues associated to women's health, since search what are the sexual and reproductive rights for women in situations of incarceration, highlighting the essentiality of these and if they are applied in Brazilian prisons. Therefore, was realized a literature review to assess the situation of the Brazilian women's prisons with regular year 2003 to 2012. When examined there was a wide disparity of reality experienced by these women by Saúde da mulher em situação de prisão: direitos sexuais e reprodutivos numerous factors, ranging from the barriers imposed by the prison as restriction on conjugal visits, the very attempt to play a role of motherhood and, of course, which drew more attention: the discrimination based on gender, since man reassembles his relationships more easily and generally leaves the companion incarcerated for cultural and social arising male sex. Concludes with the emerging need for change this situation in order to provide a better way to live in such a hostile environment to women incarcerated, where the same have their rights violated and nothing is done to such default.
Spiropoulos, Georgia V.; Spruance, Lisa; Van Voorhis, Patricia; Schmitt, Michelle M.
The effects of "Problem Solving" (Taymans & Parese, 1998) are compared across small diversion and prison samples for men and women. A second program, "Pathfinders" (Hansen, 1993), was compared to the Problem Solving program among incarcerated women offenders to determine whether its focus upon empowerment and relationships enhanced the effects of…
Design and implementation of a factorial randomized controlled trial of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention for incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence in Malaysia.
Bazazi, Alexander R; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Shrestha, Roman; Al-Darraji, Haider; Copenhaver, Michael M; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
Incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence face enormous challenges to accessing evidence-based treatment during incarceration and after release into the community, placing them at risk of poor HIV treatment outcomes, relapse to opioid use and accompanying HIV transmission risk behaviors. Here we describe in detail the design and implementation of Project Harapan, a prospective clinical trial conducted among people living with HIV and opioid dependence who transitioned from prison to the community in Malaysia from 2010 to 2014. This trial involved 2 interventions: within-prison initiation of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention adapted to the Malaysian context (the Holistic Health Recovery Program for Malaysia, HHRP-M). Individuals were recruited and received the interventions while incarcerated and were followed for 12months after release to assess post-release HIV transmission risk behaviors and a range of other health-related outcomes. Project Harapan was designed as a fully randomized 2×2 factorial trial where individuals would be allocated in equal proportions to methadone maintenance therapy and HHRP-M, methadone maintenance therapy alone, HHRP-M alone, or control. Partway through study implementation, allocation to methadone maintenance therapy was changed from randomization to participant choice; randomization to HHRP-M continued throughout. We describe the justification for this study; the development and implementation of these interventions; changes to the protocol; and screening, enrollment, treatment receipt, and retention of study participants. Logistical, ethical, and analytic issues associated with the implementation of this study are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Fisher, Patrick M; Hjordt, Liv V
Facial expressions robustly activate the amygdala, a brain structure playing a critical role in aggression. Whereas previous studies suggest that amygdala reactivity is related to various measures of impulsive aggression, we here estimate a composite measure of impulsive aggression and evaluate...... whether it is associated with amygdala reactivity to angry and fearful faces. We estimated amygdala reactivity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 47 men with varying degree of aggressive traits (19 incarcerated violent offenders and 28 healthy controls). We modeled a composite "impulsive...... aggression" trait construct (LVagg) using a linear structural equation model, with a single latent variable capturing the shared correlation between five self-report measures of trait aggression, anger and impulsivity. We tested for associations between amygdala reactivity and the LVagg, adjusting for age...
Caulfield, Laura S
Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women's mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Review of official prison records provided a form of data triangulation. Findings Analysis of the data revealed that while many women who experienced mental health issues in prison had experienced these issues in the past, a number of women reported first experiencing mental health and emotional problems only after entering prison. Although these problems often recede, this demonstrates the significant impact that entering prison can have upon the mental health of women. Unusually, the data highlighted many positive experiences of support within prison. However, there was some lack of consistency in the treatment and support offered to women. Originality/value The data presented here are in many ways more positive than previous research and - as opposed to much of the existing literature that simply states the prevalence women's issues in prison - provides insight into the lived experiences of women in prison. This paper documents how prison can present an opportunity for women to engage with treatment, but there is a need for a clearer understanding of women's needs and consistent and appropriate support.
Jain, Anil K
.... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...
Full Text Available Both homelessness and incarceration are associated with housing instability, which in turn can disrupt continuity of HIV medical care. Yet, their impacts have not been systematically assessed among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA.We studied a retrospective cohort of 1,698 New York City PLWHA with both jail incarceration and homelessness during 2001-05 to evaluate whether frequent transitions between jail incarceration and homelessness were associated with a lower likelihood of continuity of HIV care during a subsequent one-year follow-up period. Using matched jail, single-adult homeless shelter, and HIV registry data, we performed sequence analysis to identify trajectories of these events and assessed their influence on engagement in HIV care and HIV viral suppression via marginal structural modeling.Sequence analysis identified four trajectories; 72% of the cohort had sporadic experiences of both brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas others experienced more consistent incarceration or homelessness during early or late months. Trajectories were not associated with differential engagement in HIV care during follow-up. However, compared with PLWHA experiencing early bouts of homelessness and later minimal incarceration/homelessness events, we observed a lower prevalence of viral suppression among PLWHA with two other trajectories: those with sporadic, brief occurrences of incarceration/homelessness (0.67, 95% CI = 0.50,0.90 and those with extensive incarceration experiences (0.62, 95% CI = 0.43,0.88.Housing instability due to frequent jail incarceration and homelessness or extensive incarceration may exert negative influences on viral suppression. Policies and services that support housing stability should be strengthened among incarcerated and sheltered PLWHA to reduce risk of adverse health conditions.
Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given concerns over rising use of methamphetamine, especially among street-involved youth, and the links between exposure to the correctional system and the production of drug-related harm, we sought to assess the relationship between ever using methamphetamine and reporting ever being incarcerated in the At-Risk Youth Survey (ARYS in Vancouver, Canada. Methods The relationship between ever being imprisoned and ever using methamphetamine was estimated using a multivariate logistic regression analysis while also considering potentially confounding secondary demographic, social and behavioural variables. Results Of the 478 youth recruited into ARYS between September 2005 and October 2006, 385 (80.5% reported ever being incarcerated overnight or longer. In the multivariate model, methamphetamine use was independently associated with ever being incarcerated (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03 – 3.13. Conclusion Incarceration was very common in this cohort and strongly linked with ever using methamphetamine. This finding is of concern and, along with the previously identified risks of drug-related harm associated with incarceration, supports the development of novel public policy, such as community-based drug treatment, to address the use of methamphetamine among street youth.
Dallaire, Danielle H; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C
The current study examined children's attachment representations as assessed with their family drawings in relation to contact with an incarcerated or estranged parent, caregiver behavior, and family stress in a high-risk sample of children (N = 44, M (age) = 8.14), 55% of whom had incarcerated parents. Greater phone, mail, and physical contact with an incarcerated parent was associated with more role reversal in children's family drawings. Additional results show that child-reports of more hostile caregiver behavior were associated with greater overall insecurity in their family drawings; child and caregiver reports of stress were associated with increased global pathology and bizarreness/dissociation in children's family drawings. Given the lack of research on concurrent familial-based correlates of ratings made of children's family drawings, these results provide additional insights into children's representations of attachment relationships in early middle childhood. Further, the results regarding contact with incarcerated parents have implications for researchers and clinicians working with families impacted by parental incarceration.
Greene, Carolyn A; Ford, Julian D; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Barry, Lisa C
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship among childhood abuse and traumatic loss, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and Axis I psychiatric disorders other than PTSD among newly incarcerated adults, and to test a proposed model in which the severity of PTSS mediates the relationship between childhood abuse/loss and adult psychiatric disorders. Four hundred sixty-five male and female inmates participated in a structured clinical research interview. Four types of interpersonal potentially traumatic experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and traumatic loss) were assessed for occurrence prior to the age of 18 years old. Current psychiatric disorders and PTSS were also assessed by structured interview. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the cumulative number of types of childhood abuse/loss experienced and number of current Axis I disorders, and to test the mediation model. Approximately half of the sample (51%) experienced 1 or more types of childhood abuse/loss, and 30% of the sample had at least one psychiatric disorder other than PTSD. For both men and women, childhood physical abuse and childhood sexual abuse were independently associated with psychiatric morbidity, and an increasing number of types of childhood trauma experienced was associated with an increase in the number of current Axis I diagnoses. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant when severity of PTSS was added to the model, providing support for the proposed mediation model. Implications for secondary prevention services for at-risk inmates are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Geest, V.R.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Nagin, D.
Life-course theories expect imprisonment to negatively influence a person’s employment prospects. Incarceration not only instantaneously interrupts a number of life-course domains but may also reduce future opportunities to reconnect to them. This article analyzes the effects of incarceration on
Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.
Perkins, Suzanne C.; Smith-Darden, Joanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Incarcerated populations have an estimated incidence of intellectual disabilities (ID) far higher than national norms, ranging as high as ten percent. In the present study, the relation between ID and violence exposure in 115 incarcerated adolescents was examined. Interpersonal violence exposure (IPV-E) predicted an average decrease in full scale IQ of 4.5 points, explaining approximately five percent of the difference in IQ. Child maltreatment increased the odds of having a verbal disability by 3 fold and explained 17% of the variance in verbal disability. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the relative contribution of ethnicity, poverty and violence exposure to intellectual functioning. The literature on racial bias in incarceration and the implications for the present study are discussed. PMID:21882671
Wallace, Danielle; Fahmy, Chantal; Cotton, Lindsy; Jimmons, Charis; McKay, Rachel; Stoffer, Sidney; Syed, Sarah
A significant number of prisoners experience mental health problems, and adequate social support is one way that facilitates better mental health. Yet, by being incarcerated, social support, particularly family support, is likely to be strained or even negative. In this study, we examine whether familial support--either positive or negative--in-prison and after release affects mental health outcomes post-release. Using the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) dataset, we regress post-release mental health on in-prison familial support, post-incarceration familial support, and changes in familial support. We find that while in-prison family support does not affect mental health, post-release familial support does. Also, experiencing an increase in negative familial support is associated with lower post-incarceration mental health. We conclude with a discussion of policies which may facilitate better familial support environments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C; Comfort, Megan
Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.
Slade, Gavin; Vaičiūnienė, Rūta
This article looks at how global flows of people and policies affect penal subjectivity among prisoners in Lithuania. Those who had previously been incarcerated abroad perceive their punishment in Lithuania’s reforming penal system in comparative terms. We find that international prison experience may either diminish or increase the sense of the severity of the current punishment. Respondents often felt more comfortable in a familiar culture of punishment in Lithuania that emphasizes autonomy and communality. Moreover, internationalized prisoners perceive prison reform emulating West European models as a threat to this culture and are able to articulate comparative critiques of this reform and contest its effects. PMID:29568238
Silman, Eric F
Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may present to the emergency department (ED with vomiting, abdominal pain or hernias, renal insufficiency or failure, or bleeding from cerebral aneurysms. A 37-year-old man presented to the ED with signs and symptoms of incarcerated inguinal hernia. Laboratory studies showed renal failure with anion gap acidosis, and bedside ultrasound showed multicystic kidneys. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. Emergency physicians should be aware of this common connective tissue defect and its serious associated conditions. [WestJEM. 2009;10:55-57
Proverbio, Alice Mado
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert
This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Raza, Kazim; Khadim, Muhammad F; Naqvi, Gohar Abass; Ahmed, Iftikhar
An unusual case of penile incarceration in a 13-year-old boy is presented, with lessons to be learned for Accident and Emergency Department junior doctors in particular and for all in general. The presentation was misleading and the condition would have gone undiagnosed with fatal consequences without a team effort. The object used was a wedding ring in this case. Penile incarceration is not common in routine practice. The need for development of necessary paediatric history taking and examination techniques among Emergency Department doctors and staff is highlighted. Recalling the basics, this case report emphasises the importance of thorough physical examination. With early diagnosis and treatment, lifelong disabilities can be prevented.
Samantha Teófilo Valério Yoshinari
Full Text Available O câncer de mama é a neoplasia mais incidente nas mulheres (exceto o câncer de pele não melanoma, justificando-se uma preocupação com seu impacto na vida dessas pacientes. Procedeu-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura nacional, buscando artigos relacionados ao tema na plataforma SciELO, utilizando-se os buscadores “câncer de mama” e “vivência”, sem restrições com relação ao período de publicação ou tipo de artigo, sendo recuperadas onze publicações. Da análise integrativa das publicações, conclui-se que a experiência de cada paciente com seu processo de doença é pessoal; porém, guarda algumas similaridades que devem ser identificadas e corretamente trabalhadas, posto que sentimentos conflitantes podem coexistir. Tais conflitos são evidenciados na identificação de distorções de autoimagem, sexualidade e a incerteza sobre o futuro, em contraposição à coragem para o enfrentamento, ressignificação da vida e a percepção do apoio familiar. Breast cancer is the most incident neoplasm in women (except for non-melanoma skin cancer. This fact justifies a concern on how it impacts on the life of the patients. We proceeded an integrative review of the national literature, in SciELO database, under the following keywords: "breast cancer" and " life experience." No restriction regarding the period of publication was imposed. We retrieved eleven articles. From the analysis of the publications, we concluded that the experience of each patient with their disease process is personal, but it does have some similarities that must be identified and correctly worked out since conflicting feelings can coexist. We highlight distortions on self-image, issues regarding sexuality and uncertainties about the future as negative factors. On the other hand, courage facing the future after the disease, life's meaning resignification, and family's support were identified as positive factors.
This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be
Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A
Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z
Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.
Rich, Josiah D; McKenzie, Michelle; Larney, Sarah; Wong, John B; Tran, Liem; Clarke, Jennifer; Noska, Amanda; Reddy, Manasa; Zaller, Nickolas
Summary Background Methadone is an effective treatment for opioid dependence. When people who are receiving methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence are incarcerated in prison or jail, most US correctional facilities discontinue their methadone treatment, either gradually, or more often, abruptly. This discontinuation can cause uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal and renders prisoners susceptible to relapse and overdose on release. We aimed to study the effect of forced withdrawal from methadone upon incarceration on individuals’ risk behaviours and engagement with post-release treatment programmes. Methods In this randomised, open-label trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) inmates of the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI, USA) who were enrolled in a methadone maintenance-treatment programme in the community at the time of arrest and wanted to remain on methadone treatment during incarceration and on release, to either continuation of their methadone treatment or to usual care—forced tapered withdrawal from methadone. Participants could be included in the study only if their incarceration would be more than 1 week but less than 6 months. We did the random assignments with a computer-generated random permutation, and urn randomisation procedures to stratify participants by sex and race. Participants in the continued-methadone group were maintained on their methadone dose at the time of their incarceration (with dose adjustments as clinically indicated). Patients in the forced-withdrawal group followed the institution’s standard withdrawal protocol of receiving methadone for 1 week at the dose at the time of their incarceration, then a tapered withdrawal regimen (for those on a starting dose >100 mg, the dose was reduced by 5 mg per day to 100 mg, then reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg; for those on a starting dose ≤100 mg, the dose was reduced by 3 mg per day to 0 mg). The main outcomes were engagement with a methadone maintenance
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Perry, Ashley; Bobet, Ilka; Bobet, Santos; Ramos, Hector; Quiñones, Francisco; Lloyd, Kaity
In terms of the examination of the relationship between masculinity and health, there has been limited exploration of how the ways in which formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) construct their masculinities may conflict with public health messages. Using information gained from three years of ethnographic research that was conducted with formerly incarcerated Puerto Rican males in three urban communities in New York City, the authors examine what matters to FILM in terms of their health and well-being and what conflicts exist between public health prevention messages and FILM masculinity. Our results indicate the following: (1) major threats to the health of FILM, such as HIV risk behavior, alcohol and drug use and high caloric intake, are perceived as irrelevant to most of the FILM in the study; (2) young FILM believe that they engage in risky behaviors because of their "knucklehead" mentality and diminish their risks by becoming "street-smart;" and (3) social isolation, loneliness and general risk-taking behavior among FILM are salient issues that have yet to be effectively addressed. Of our sample of 32 FILM, we identified 7 individuals who have transitioned from having a "knucklehead" approach in their lives to possessing a greater sense of awareness of health and social matters. These seven individuals followed either or both of the following pathways: (1) pursuing a college education or (2) becoming community leaders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelley, Susan J.
A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…
Full Text Available Many women wear facial makeup to accentuate their appeal and attractiveness. Makeup may vary from natural (light to glamorous (heavy, depending of the context of interpersonal situations, an emphasis on femininity, and current societal makeup trends. This study examined how light makeup and heavy makeup influenced attractiveness ratings and facial recognition. In a rating task, 38 Japanese women assigned attractiveness ratings to 36 Japanese female faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup (12 each. In a subsequent recognition task, the participants were presented with 36 old and 36 new faces. Results indicated that attractiveness was rated highest for the light makeup faces and lowest for the no makeup faces. In contrast, recognition performance was higher for the no makeup and light make up faces than for the heavy makeup faces. Faces with heavy makeup produced a higher rate of false recognition than did other faces, possibly because heavy makeup creates an impression of the style of makeup itself, rather than the individual wearing the makeup. The present study suggests that light makeup is preferable to heavy makeup in that light makeup does not interfere with individual recognition and gives beholders positive impressions.
Abbott, Penelope; Magin, Parker; Davison, Joyce; Hu, Wendy
Background Women in contact with the prison system have high health needs. Short periods in prison and serial incarcerations are common. Examination of their experiences of health care both in prison and in the community may assist in better supporting their wellbeing and, ultimately, decrease their risk of returning to prison. Methods We interviewed women in prisons in Sydney, Australia, using pre-release and post-release interviews. We undertook thematic analysis of the combined interviews,...
Lier, R.J. van
We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot
Nicdao, Ethel G.; Trott, Elise M.; Kellett, Nicole C.
Incarceration and community reentry for rural women reflect gendered processes. We draw upon in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups to examine the return of women prisoners to underserved rural communities, while attending to the perspectives of their closest social supporters. Our findings underscore the complexity of the reentry process for rural women and its particular impact on their families. We challenge dominant discourses of personal responsibility that detract from the structura violence and injustice shaping reentry experiences for women and their social supporters. We also consider the policy implications of discharge and reentry planning for rural women and their families, as well as strategies to reduce recidivism. PMID:27274615
Smith, Angie J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…
van der Tuuk, K.; Krenning, R.A.; Krenning, G.; Monincx, W.M.
INTRODUCTION: Persistent retroversion of a gravid uterus (incarceration) in the third trimester is an extremely rare diagnosis and is only scarcely been described. Its prevalence may lead to increased foetal mortality and maternal morbidity. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case where a 35-year-old
Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul; Havel, Emily
This study examined the facility-to-community transition of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system, for a period of 12 months. Data on the sample were gathered through phone interviews, while they were still in custody and then every 6 months after their parole. The interviewees were asked to…
Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul
We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
The present study examined whether the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth would reduce recidivism and whether higher levels of program integrity - the extent to which a program is implemented as intended - would strengthen the effectiveness of EQUIP on recidivism. Program
Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.
This study examined whether a "program integrity booster" could improve the low to moderate program integrity and effectiveness of the EQUIP program for incarcerated youth as practiced in The Netherlands. Program integrity was assessed in EQUIP groups before and after the booster. Youth residing in
Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon; Welch, Chiquitia; Wall, Ariana; Wiggins, Pam
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral approach in changing the behavioral and cognitive skills of incarcerated girls participating in a substance abuse treatment program. A repeated measures design was used. The findings of this study revealed that the behaviors (i.e., self-monitoring,…
Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela; Rossiter, Chris; Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Roche, Michael
Learning to parent sensitively and safely can be challenging for adults with childhood abuse and neglect experiences. Such childhood experiences are prevalent among incarcerated parents whose ability to parent their own children is also limited by separation from them. Several prisons have developed programs to foster pro-social parenting skills…
Lotze, Geri M.; Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.
Children with incarcerated mothers are at high risk for developing problem behaviors. Fifty children (6-12 years; 62% girls) participated in summer camps, along with adult mentors. Regression analyses of child and adult measures of child's emotion self-regulation and callous-unemotional traits, and a child measure of moral emotions, showed that…
Munroe, Monekka L.
The problem is Florida is ranked as having the 10th largest incarceration rate in the United States, with a recidivism rate of almost 30%. Therefore, this researcher conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine any benefits to providing college courses to inmates, including the reduction of recidivism. To determine the…
Engles, Tim; Kory, Fern
English teachers can heighten awareness of the factors that influence racial disparities in arrest and incarceration rates by working with literature that dramatizes the differences between white and nonwhite experiences within the US criminal justice system. Tim Engles and Fern Kory demonstrate some methods for doing so by juxtaposing two…
Orjiakor, Charles T.; Ugwu, Dorothy I.; Eze, John E.; Ugwu, Leonard I.; Ibeagha, Peace N.; Onu, Desmond U.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Awaiting trial prisoners (ATPs) are represented in prisons globally, and may stay for long periods in detention. This group is however underrepresented in literature on incarcerated persons. We aim to explore the lived experiences of ATPs detained for prolonged years in a sub-Saharan country; examining what they make of their status and how their conditions have affected their wellbeing. Method: Eight inmates awaiting trial for armed robbery and murder offences, held for between 8 years and 15 years participated in a focus group discussion. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided the interpretation of transcripts. Result: ATPs recount disbelief and negative emotional experiences upon incarceration. Alienated and uncertain about their status, ATPs experience intensified distressful ruminations which impact wellbeing. ATPs re-rationalized incarceration and made social comparisons which breed poor perception of self. ATPs nonetheless recounted hopefulness, made favorable comparisons; and find consolation in religious beliefs. Conclusion: Prolonged years spent awaiting trial fuels a deterioration of wellbeing. Alternatives to incarceration are urgently needed for ATPs. Distressful experiences recalled by the inmates beg for the inclusiveness of ATPs in programs that promote wellbeing. The Good Lives Model holds potentials for building an inclusive framework to accommodate ATPs in prison interventions. PMID:29103371
Orjiakor, Charles T; Ugwu, Dorothy I; Eze, John E; Ugwu, Leonard I; Ibeagha, Peace N; Onu, Desmond U
Awaiting trial prisoners (ATPs) are represented in prisons globally, and may stay for long periods in detention. This group is however underrepresented in literature on incarcerated persons. We aim to explore the lived experiences of ATPs detained for prolonged years in a sub-Saharan country; examining what they make of their status and how their conditions have affected their wellbeing. Eight inmates awaiting trial for armed robbery and murder offences, held for between 8 years and 15 years participated in a focus group discussion. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided the interpretation of transcripts. ATPs recount disbelief and negative emotional experiences upon incarceration. Alienated and uncertain about their status, ATPs experience intensified distressful ruminations which impact wellbeing. ATPs re-rationalized incarceration and made social comparisons which breed poor perception of self. ATPs nonetheless recounted hopefulness, made favorable comparisons; and find consolation in religious beliefs. Prolonged years spent awaiting trial fuels a deterioration of wellbeing. Alternatives to incarceration are urgently needed for ATPs. Distressful experiences recalled by the inmates beg for the inclusiveness of ATPs in programs that promote wellbeing. The Good Lives Model holds potentials for building an inclusive framework to accommodate ATPs in prison interventions.
Tosi, Gian Marco; Malandrini, Alex; Cevenini, Gabriele; Neri, Giovanni; Marigliani, Davide; Cerruto, Arianna; Virgili, Gianni
To study the patterns of vitreous incarceration at sclerotomy sites by ultrasound biomicroscopy in patients subjected to valved or nonvalved small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. A prospective comparative study of 88 eyes affected by epiretinal membrane and macular hole. Patients were divided into four groups: valved or nonvalved 23-gauge (16 eyes each) and valved or nonvalved 25-gauge (20 eyes each); their vitreal disposition was compared by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Vitreal disposition was also assessed in 16 eyes of 16 patients subjected to valved 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. Three vitreal patterns were identified: P0 (vitreous not visible or vitreous strand distant from the sclerotomy site), P1 (vitreous strand parallel to and in contact with the sclerotomy site), and P2 (vitreous strand entrapped in the sclerotomy site). The effect of valved trocar use on vitreous incarceration seemed to be somewhat beneficial, but no statistically significant effect could be shown (odds ratio: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.74, P = 0.657). Similarly, no differences in vitreous incarceration were shown among vitrectomy gauges (23, 25, or 27) both in a model including valved trocars only (P = 0.858) and in a model with all available data (P = 0.935). In 23- and 25-gauge macular surgeries, postoperative vitreous incarceration does not seem to be reduced using valved cannulas and was similar to that observed in 27-gauge surgery.
Vreugdenhil, C.; van den Brink, W.; Ferdinand, R.; Wouters, L.; Doreleijers, T.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the empirical or DSM-oriented scales of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) can be used to screen for DSM psychiatric disorders among incarcerated boys. DSM-oriented scales have recently been developed by Achenbach to enhance comparability of YSR results with DSM diagnostic
McGaha, Johnny E.; Leoni, Edward L.
Individuals from substance-abusing family environments have been found to suffer from low self-esteem, depression, anger, and a variety of acting-out behaviors. An investigation of the differences between incarcerated juveniles from substance-abusing families and those from non-substance-abusing families indicates significant differences in family…
...: Inmate No. 81783- 079, FCI Ray Brook Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 300, Ray Brook, NY 12977...: Currently incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783-079, FCI Ray Brook, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 300, Ray Brook, NY 12977, and with an address at: 6045 Spencer Avenue, Bronx, NY 11471, and when...
Robertson, Angela R.; St. Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen
Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk…
Fitch, Brian D., Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.
Education-Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The Ultimate Social Justice Crime Fighting Tool takes a penetrating look at the needs and challenges of society's disenfranchised jail populations. It is incumbent to encourage public awareness of the causes that underlie the destructive cycles plaguing these populations, including the abuse and…
Full Text Available Introduction: the finding of the vermiform appendix within a crural hernia (Amyand's hernia is a rare entity whose incidence is not described in the literature. Objective: the aim of this study was to report our hospital's experience in this kind of pathology. Material and methods: between 1993 and 2004, 4,572 acute appendicitis and 372 incarcerated crural hernia cases have been operated on in our hospital. We studied 6 cases of incarcerated crural hernia with vermiform appendix inside. We analyzed in retrospect the following parameters: age, sex, personal history, clinical manifestations, preoperative diagnosis, surgical technique, mean hospital stay, and outcome. Results: all patients were women with a mean age of 78.8 years. Most frequent clinical manifestations included pain and a mass in the right inguinocrural region, of variable intensity and duration. No clinical, laboratory, or radiographic signs help in reaching a correct preoperative diagnosis. General anesthesia and a crural approach are used in most surgical operations. In all cases an appendectomy was performed via the hernia sac, thus proving the presence of acute appendicitis in four of them (66.67%. A prosthetic mesh was used in 3 cases, and one case of wound infection was found. In the other cases we sutured the hernia ring using prolene. Conclusion: the finding of the appendix in an incarcerated crural hernia is a rare entity in old women that is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Treatment includes appendectomy and herniorraphy. The use of prosthetic mesh is controversial.Introducción: la presencia del apéndice vermiforme en el interior de un saco herniario crural (hernia de Amyand constituye una entidad poco frecuente y cuya incidencia no está descrita en la literatura. Objetivo: el objetivo del trabajo es presentar la experiencia de nuestro hospital en este tipo de patología. Material y métodos: entre 1993 y 2004 se han intervenido en nuestro centro 4.572 pacientes
Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S
to be associated with substance use. Adolescent offenders face an important amount of daily stress and do not always have the appropriate skills to deal with it. Indeed, we know from clinical experience that they often report a sense of hopelessness toward their lack of professional perspectives as well as familial conflicts which can be important stressors in addition to the incarceration in itself. Therefore, treatment aiming to improve psychic elaboration can help these adolescents to make their thinking styles more flexible and use more appropriate ways of coping with stress instead of externalizing behaviors and substance use. Moreover, considering the complex cases of these adolescents and the many changes of caregivers and institutions where they have lived, which can be important stressors as well, professionals working with these youth should be aware of their emotional reactions toward them and try to encourage continuity of care. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, Hannah K; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Oser, Carrie B; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G
Women involved in the criminal justice system, particularly those with a history of drug use, are at elevated risk of HIV infection, yet few HIV prevention interventions have been tailored for delivery to incarcerated women. Drawing on the Relational Model, the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) intervention was developed and evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial. Women with weekly drug use prior to incarceration (n = 444) who were incarcerated within correctional institutions in four states were randomized to (1) the RRR-HIV intervention consisting of an HIV educational video, five group sessions, and one postrelease booster session or (2) a control condition consisting of the HIV educational video. The RRR-HIV intervention combined didactic and interactive content regarding seven "thinking myths" about intimate relationships that may result in decisions to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Data were collected while women were still incarcerated and approximately 90 days following release from prison by trained interviewers. A negative binomial regression (NBR) model of unprotected sexual behaviors at the 90-day follow-up indicated that RRR-HIV participants reported fewer unprotected sexual behaviors than women in the control condition once the analysis was adjusted for study site. Future studies should examine the sustainability of the RRR-HIV intervention's effect on risk reduction. Implementation research is needed to determine whether delivery of this intervention by correctional staff or peers, rather than research staff, yields similar reductions in unprotected sexual behaviors.
The Commentary contests the increasingly outdated and narrow use of the terminology ?face-to-face? (often abbreviated as F2F) to connote clinical interactions in which both the client and the practitioner are physically present in the same room or space. An expanded definition is necessary because when delivered synchronously via videoconferencing, telehealth also provides face-to-face services (i.e., the practitioner and the client view each other?s faces). Terminology that uses face-to-face...
Suarez, Edward; Jackson, David S; Slavin, Lesley A; Michels, M Stanton; McGeehan, Kathleen M
Project Kealahou (PK) is a six-year, federally-funded program aimed at improving services and outcomes for Hawai'i's female youth who are at risk for running away, truancy, abuse, suicide, arrest and incarceration. PK builds upon two decades of sustained cross-agency efforts among the state's mental health, juvenile justice, education, and child welfare systems to promote system-of-care (SOC) principles of community-based, individualized, culturally and linguistically competent, family driven, youth-guided, and evidence-based services. In addition, PK emphasizes trauma-informed and gender-responsive care in serving its target population of females ages 11-18 years who have experienced psychological trauma. Results from the first four years of the implementation of PK in the Department of Health's (DOH) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division (CAMHD) highlight the serious familial, socioeconomic, functional, and interpersonal challenges faced by the young women who receive services in Hawai'i's SOC. Despite the challenges faced by PK youth and their families, preliminary results of the evaluation of PK show significant improvements across multiple clinical and functional domains of service recipients. A financial analysis indicates that these outcomes were obtained with a minimal overall increase in costs when compared to standard care alone. Overall, these results suggest that PK may offer a cost effective way to improve access, care, and outcomes for at-risk youth and their families in Hawai'i.
Barr, Rachel; Morin, Marisa; Brito, Natalie; Richeda, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole
The absence of a father figure has been linked to very poor developmental outcomes for the child. During incarceration, there are limited opportunities for visitation between fathers and their children. The Baby Elmo Program provides incarcerated teen fathers with parenting training and visitation with their children with the stated goal of enhancing father-child interactional quality. Forty-one incarcerated teen fathers and their infants ranging from 1 to 15 months of age participated in the present study. During individual sessions, a trained facilitator prepared fathers for visits with their children by introducing key concepts such as following the child's lead, using developmentally appropriate media to illustrate those concepts. After each training session, the incarcerated teen father interacted with his infant and the visit was video recorded. Analysis of the visit sessions focused on father's time use on different activities, the quality of father-infant interactions, and father's integration of target skills introduced in the intervention. The time-use analysis revealed that time use changed as a function of infant age. Growth linear modeling indicated that there were significant positive increases in the amount of parent support and infant engagement as a function of the number of sessions. Follow-up analyses indicated that changes between specific sessions mapped onto the target skills discussed during specific training sessions. This study's preliminary findings suggest that an intervention integrating visitation and appropriate media may be effective for incarcerated teen fathers. Due to the lack of a randomized control group, the present findings are exploratory and are discussed with a focus on further program development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Migrant women living with HIV in Europe: are they facing inequalities in the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV?: The European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord.
Favarato, G; Bailey, H; Burns, F; Prieto, L; Soriano-Arandes, A; Thorne, C
In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care. Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002-12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions. We compared three suboptimal PMTCT interventions (HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy in women undiagnosed at conception, late anti-retroviral therapy (ART) start in women diagnosed but untreated at conception and detectable viral load (VL) at delivery in women on antenatal ART) in native and migrant women using multivariable logistic regression models. Data included 9421 (79.9%) migrant women, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); 4134 migrant women were diagnosed in the current pregnancy, often (48.6%) presenting with CD4 count <350 cells/µl. Being a migrant was associated with HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy [OR for SSA vs. native women, 2.12 (95% CI 1.67, 2.69)] but not with late ART start if diagnosed but not on ART at conception, or with detectable VL at delivery once on ART. Migrant women were more likely to be diagnosed in late pregnancy but once on ART virological response was good. Good access to antenatal care enables the implementation of PMTCT protocols and optimises both maternal and children health outcomes generally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
... several weeks. Keeping your head elevated and applying cold compresses can help. Plan to have your surgery at least 6 weeks before any important social events. Changes in skin sensation. During a face-lift, the repositioning of your ...
Jain, Anil K
This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...
Willging, Cathleen Elizabeth; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; St Cyr, Shilo; Zywiak, William H; Lapham, Sandra C
To identify community reentry needs, this study examined mental illness, substance dependence, and other correlates of reincarceration in an ethnically diverse, rural population of women prisoners. A purposive, cross-sectional sample of 98 women in a New Mexico state prison completed structured interviews. Analyses examined associations of substance dependence, mental illness, lifetime trauma, and sociodemographic variables with previous incarceration. Eighty-five percent screened positive for substance dependence, 50% for current mental disorders, and 46% for both. Exposure to trauma was pervasive (100%), especially physical or sexual trauma (83%). In adjusted analyses, previous incarceration was associated with precarious housing before imprisonment (odds ratio [OR]=2.19, p=.038) and with having co-occurring mental illness and substance dependence (OR=2.68, p=.019). Findings support those of similar studies in urban areas and with other ethnic groups. Wraparound programs focusing on harm reduction, housing, and treatment and support services are needed for successful reentry of these underserved women.
patients to face the difficulties are generally not considered. The objective of the current study was to investigate ... Mechanisms used by 89 women to face the difficulties they encountered following mastectomies were ... religion is a great force that can help to transfer problems from the human to the divine domain. This is ...
Tsay, Sharon; Childs, Gwendolyn; Cook-Heard, Dayna; Sturdevant, Marsha
The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of modes of HIV transmission and increase HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STD) prevention efforts for incarcerated youth through use of an HIV/STD prevention program guided by the Making Proud Choices! curriculum. A convenience sample of 662 youth aged 13 to 18 was recruited from Alabama juvenile detention facilities. Participants took part in three 2-hour sessions. Baseline and postintervention data were collected. There was no significant difference between males and females in intent to use condoms at baseline and postintervention. Intent to use condoms was the most influential predictor of condom self-efficacy. However, there was little change in condom self-efficacy among males and females at baseline and postintervention.
Nederlof, E; Van der Ham, J M; Dingemans, P M J A; Oei, T I
The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to measure pathological personality dimensions, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess childhood maltreatment. The five maltreatment subtypes were found to be differentially and uniquely related to the normal and pathological personality dimensions in juvenile delinquents. The association between the abusive subtypes and Emotional Dysregulation depended on the co-occurrence of neglect. It was concluded that subtypes of maltreatment are distinctively related to dimensions of personality and personality pathology, possibly due to specific gene-environment interactions. Further research on this interplay is needed to be able to recognize genetic vulnerability. Early identification of children at risk could aid to limit the long-term consequences of maltreatment.
Reidy, T J; Carstens, C
Clinical use of the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI) depends on computerized interpretation of the pattern of scale score elevations in the profile beyond certain cutoff scores rather than the elevations of single scales. There has been no reported work on the stability of the scale scores or the stability of the 2-point codes in a delinquent population. The MAPI was administered to 46 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents and was readministered after a period of 2 to 4 weeks. The test-retest correlations of the base-rate scale scores ranged from .33 to .89 with a mean of .74, which compare favorably to Millon's (1982) standardization sample. However, only 41% of the 2-point codes were judged to be congruent between administrations. The poor congruence of the 2-point codes across administrations raises doubts about interpretive statements based on these codes.
Tolou-Shams, Marina; Conrad, Selby; Louis, Alaina; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Brown, Larry K
Juvenile offenders are a subgroup of adolescents at particular risk for HIV/STI infection. Although HIV prevalence among these youth is low (justice system, which is known to have an extremely high rate of HIV infection. US constitutional mandates provide HIV/STI testing for incarcerated juveniles, but close to 80% of juvenile arrestees are never detained. Moreover, although they engage in similar HIV risk behaviors as those detained, they have limited access to available HIV/STI testing services. Thus, our study examined rates of lifetime HIV testing among a pilot sample of 60 court-involved, substance-using juveniles monitored in the community to explore rates of testing and the reasons related to lifetime testing among a high-risk, yet understudied US juvenile population.
Puglisi, Lisa; Calderon, Joseph P; Wang, Emily A
Access to health care is a constitutional right in the United States correctional system, and many incarcerated adults are newly diagnosed with chronic diseases in prison. Despite this right, the quality of correctional health care is variable, largely unmeasured and unregulated, and characterized by patients' widespread distrust of a health system that is intimately tied to a punitive criminal justice system. Upon release, discontinuity of care is the norm, and when continuity is established, it is often hindered by distrust, discrimination, poor communication, and racism in the health system. In this paper, we will propose best practices in transitioning from correctional- to community-based health care and argue that achieving health equity for people with criminal justice involvement in the United States is not possible without ethical provision of health care. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
A grassroots movement of nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations is creating programs in which incarcerated individuals train rescued shelter dogs as therapeutic canines for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Driven in part by reports of Veterans not receiving adequate treatment for PTSD, the programs are the latest iteration of prison-based animal programs and are founded on the principles of animal therapy and healing powers of animals. The far-reaching and deleterious collateral consequences of PTSD create social and economic burdens on the country; providing beneficial interventions for Veterans is a pressing social problem. Without oversight, a patchwork of agencies has developed that provides Veterans with dogs with varying levels of training and differing abilities. To best serve the needs of Veterans, the programs need regulation and standardized methods of training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 49-57.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Marecková, Klara; Perrin, Jennifer S; Nawaz Khan, Irum; Lawrence, Claire; Dickie, Erin; McQuiggan, Doug A; Paus, Tomás
Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence support a female advantage in the perception of human faces. Here we explored the possibility that this relationship may be partially mediated by female sex hormones by investigating the relationship between the brain's response to faces and the use of oral contraceptives, as well as the phase of the menstrual cycle. First, functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 young women [10 freely cycling and 10 taking oral contraception (OC)] during two phases of their cycle: mid-cycle and menstruation. We found stronger neural responses to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA) in women taking oral contraceptives (vs freely cycling women) and during mid-cycle (vs menstruation) in both groups. Mean blood oxygenation level-dependent response in both left and right FFA increased as function of the duration of OC use. Next, this relationship between the use of OC and FFA response was replicated in an independent sample of 110 adolescent girls. Finally in a parallel behavioral study carried out in another sample of women, we found no evidence of differences in the pattern of eye movements while viewing faces between freely cycling women vs those taking oral contraceptives. The imaging findings might indicate enhanced processing of social cues in women taking OC and women during mid-cycle.
Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg
Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction. Addiction in women can expose them to malnutrition, high blood pressure, cancer, and some other dangerous diseases like hepatitis, AIDS, or other sexual transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to assess illegal sexual relations in three groups of women. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that was done on 236 girls and young women aged 16–25 years in 2012 in three groups: vulnerable women who have substance dependency (crimes that had made women incarcerated were considered as vulnerability in this study, invulnerable women who have substance dependency (substance dependent women without a history of incarceration, and a control group (women with no history of substance dependency or being in prison. Results. 43.8% of vulnerable women who have substance dependency had extramarital sexual relations; this percentage was 55.8% in invulnerable women who have substance dependency and 1.4% in the control group. Crystal and methamphetamine abuse was higher in addicts who had extramarital sexual relations and alcohol abuse was correlated with unsafe sexual intercourse (r=;0.36, P=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in extramarital sexual relation based on marital status (P<0.001. Conclusions. Poverty, drug dependency, divorce, and alcohol consumption make women prone to other high risk behaviors that need more attention.
Kathryn V. Stanley
Full Text Available This paper examines the African American church’s response to the special problems of African American women who reenter the community post-incarceration. The first portion of the paper examines the impact of criminal justice policies on women of color and the attending problems of reentry which resulted. It then surveys the black church’s response to returning citizens, especially women. It concludes by proposing shifts in perspectives and theologies which create barriers to successful reintegration into the community at large, and the church in particular. The intended audience is individuals and faith communities who seek to work effectively with returning women.
In Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya, a decentralized approach to land administration promises more accessible dispute resolution and a better deal for women. But the new systems face significant challenges. Among them are old social attitudes that pre-empt any real discussion about women's right to control land.
Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.
Majer, John M.; Salina, Doreen D.; Jason, Leonard A.
Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed. PMID:26949443
Popov, V.I.; Bakhtin, V.N.; Tolkachev, N.I.
A temporary face support is proposed. It includes a beam supported by hydraulic jacks on the housing of the cutter-loader with a working tool and rotary pressure regulator. It differs in that to decrease the volume of unsecured roofing in the face space between the leading edge of the beam and the cutting tool of the cutter-loader, the beam is hinged onto the housing of the rotary pressure regulator by a fastened connecting rod, and the hydraulic jacks are provided with additional powered elements with a mechanism that regulates the length of the cut-off plate of the hydraulic pump when the seam pressure changes.
Suntharasamai, Pravan; Martin, Michael; Vanichseni, Suphak; van Griensven, Frits; Mock, Philip A; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Tappero, Jordan W; Sangkum, Udomsak; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Gurwith, Marc; Choopanya, Kachit
To determine if incarceration was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and identify risk factors for incarceration among injection drug users (IDUs) participating in an HIV vaccine trial in Bangkok. The AIDSVAX B/E HIV vaccine trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A proportional hazards model was used to evaluate demographic characteristics, risk behavior and incarceration as predictors of HIV infection and generalized estimation equation logistic regression analysis to investigate demographic characteristics and risk behaviors for predictors of incarceration. The trial was conducted in Bangkok Metropolitan Administration drug-treatment clinics, 1999-2003. A total of 2546 HIV-uninfected IDUs enrolled in the trial. HIV testing was performed and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess risk behavior and incarceration at baseline and every 6 months for a total of 36 months. HIV incidence was 3.4 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-3.9] and did not differ among vaccine and placebo recipients. In multivariable analysis, being in jail (P education (P = 0.001) and being in jail (P < 0.0001) or prison (P < 0.0001) before enrollment. Among IDUs in the AIDSVAX B/E trial, incarceration in jail was associated with incident HIV infection. IDUs in Thailand remain at high risk of HIV infection and additional prevention tools are needed urgently. HIV prevention services, including methadone, should be made available to IDUs.
To, Matthew J; Palepu, Anita; Matheson, Flora I; Ecker, John; Farrell, Susan; Hwang, Stephen W; Werb, Dan
The objective of the study is to characterize the associations between a history of incarceration and subsequent housing stability over a two-year follow-up period among a sample of homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. The study was a prospective cohort study of homeless and vulnerably housed adults in three Canadian cities. Between 2009 and 2012, data were collected using structured, in-person interviews at baseline and two follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations were employed to determine the association between reported incarceration within the past 12 months and being housed during the subsequent year over a two-year follow-up period. Baseline data were available for 1,189 homeless and vulnerably housed adults. Recent incarceration was reported by 337 (29%) individuals at baseline. In adjusted analyses, incarceration in the past 12 months was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of being housed during the subsequent year over the two-year follow-up period (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.90). Homeless and vulnerably housed individuals reporting recent incarceration were less likely to be housed over a two-year follow-up period. These findings highlight the importance of assisting individuals experiencing incarceration with securing stable housing during discharge and post-release planning.
Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra M; Wagner, Thomas R
The objective of this study was to investigate specific interpersonal communication motives that college students use to flirt through texting versus face to face (FtF). Four hundred college students (101 men, 299 women) were surveyed and reported using various communication motives to flirt using texting with a potential romantic partner. College students reported specific motives for flirting. Women reported flirting through text and FtF for pleasure motives significantly more than men, whereas men reported flirting for control and relaxation. In addition, men were more likely to flirt FtF for escape compared with women. Findings suggest that individuals are likely to flirt for pleasure if they are in a committed romantic relationship compared with those not in a committed relationship.
De Voe, Ryan S; Spaulding, Kathy A; Rotstein, Jack; Rotstein, David S
A 2.5-year-old, female opossum had acute stranguria. Based on radiography and ultrasonographic examination a cystic structure was identified in the caudal abdomen associated with bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This structure contained a neutrophilic fluid, determined to be urine. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum chemistry values were within normal limits. The opossum was euthanized. An intra-abdominal fat pad incarceration of the urinary bladder above the trigone was present, resulting in complete obstruction of the urinary bladder and partial obstruction of the ureters. Vessels to the bladder were involved in the incarceration which resulted in vascular compromise and infarction of the bladder. Mild to moderate hydroureter and hydronephrosis were present.
Full Text Available Incisional or postoperative hernia, one of the most common surgical procedure in general surgery practice, mostly occurs in the first years following abdominal operations. Incarceration or strangulation is a serious complication of these hernias, and mostly requires emergent surgery. Meckel%u2019s diverticulum, the most frequent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, is rarely found within a hernial sac and this unusual condition is called as Littre%u2019s hernia. In addition, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual condition is rather difficult and it is almost always first discovered during operation. A small number of cases of strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an incarcerated ventral incisional hernia have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum through a ventral incisional hernia in a 65 year-old woman who presented with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction.
Jäggi, Lena J; Mezuk, Briana; Watkins, Daphne C; Jackson, James S
Prior research indicates an association between exposure to trauma (e.g., being victimized) and perpetration of crime, especially in the context of chronic victimization. This study examines the relationship between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and history of arrest and incarceration among a representative sample of black Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 5,189). One-third had a history of arrest, and 18 percent had a history of incarceration. Frequency of trauma exposure was associated with involvement with the criminal justice system. Relative to never experiencing trauma, experiencing ≥4 traumas was associated with elevated odds of arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 4.03), being jailed (OR = 5.15), and being imprisoned (OR = 4.41), all p history of trauma (OR = 2.18, p Americans.
Katyal, Monica; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer
In the United States, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) detection in correctional settings is a public health priority. Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA)-based LTBI screening was introduced in New York City jails in 2011 to 2012, replacing historically used tuberculin skin testing (TST), which was associated with substantial incomplete screening rates. This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated LTBI screening outcomes and correlates of positivity in 40,986 persons newly incarcerated in 2011 to 2013. Of 35,090 eligible patients tested (96.4%), final results were 6.3% positive, 93.4% negative, and 0.2% indeterminate. In multivariable regression modeling, sex, age, race/ethnicity, nativity, marital status, prior jail incarceration, and HIV status were correlated with positivity. IGRA-based screening yielded high screening and low indeterminate test rates and may be recommended in correctional and other settings where TST is currently used.
If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.
Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...
Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)
Beasley, Conger, Jr.
Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…
Rivers, E A; Strate, R G; Solem, L D
Fabrication of an accurate transparent mask for total contact pressure to the healed burned face proved helpful in controlling scarring. Wearing the mask for 20 hours daily, secured by elastic straps giving 35-mmHG pressure to the scar, can prevent the original facial contours from being distorted by contracting scar tissue.
Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In
Full Text Available Human faces show marked sexual shape dimorphism, and this affects their attractiveness. Humans also show marked height dimorphism, which means that men typically view women's faces from slightly above and women typically view men's faces from slightly below. We tested the idea that this perspective difference may be the evolutionary origin of the face shape dimorphism by having males and females rate the masculinity/femininity and attractiveness of male and female faces that had been manipulated in pitch (forward or backward tilt, simulating viewing the face from slightly above or below. As predicted, tilting female faces upwards decreased their perceived femininity and attractiveness, whereas tilting them downwards increased their perceived femininity and attractiveness. Male faces tilted up were judged to be more masculine, and tilted down judged to be less masculine. This suggests that sexual selection may have embodied this viewpoint difference into the actual facial proportions of men and women.
Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming
Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.
This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…
Irizarry, Yasmiyn; May, David C.; Davis, Adrienne; Wood, Peter B.
In spite of documented harmful effects of mass incarceration, evidence to date suggests that Blacks perceive the experience of prison as less punitive than Whites. While these findings are well documented, little is known about the role of sociodemographic or contextual factors in shaping this pattern. Utilizing a quantitative intersectional framework, we analyze data from over 1000 Kentucky prison inmates who were within 12 months of their parole hearing or release date to examine the differ...
Gates, Madison L.; Bradford, Robert K.
Introduction. The association between incarceration and weight gain, along with the public health impact of former prisoners who are overweight or obese, warrants more investigation to understand the impact of prison life. Studies regarding incarceration’s impact on obesity are too few to support assertions that prisons contribute to obesity and comorbid conditions. This study examined a statewide prison population over several years to determine weight gain. Methods. Objective data for weigh...
Yang, Shuo; Luo, Ping; Loy, Chen Change; Tang, Xiaoou
We propose a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for face detection leveraging on facial attributes based supervision. We observe a phenomenon that part detectors emerge within CNN trained to classify attributes from uncropped face images, without any explicit part supervision. The observation motivates a new method for finding faces through scoring facial parts responses by their spatial structure and arrangement. The scoring mechanism is data-driven, and carefully formulated considering challenging cases where faces are only partially visible. This consideration allows our network to detect faces under severe occlusion and unconstrained pose variations. Our method achieves promising performance on popular benchmarks including FDDB, PASCAL Faces, AFW, and WIDER FACE.
Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....
Tangen, Jason M; Murphy, Sean C; Thompson, Matthew B
We describe a novel face distortion effect resulting from the fast-paced presentation of eye-aligned faces. When cycling through the faces on a computer screen, each face seems to become a caricature of itself and some faces appear highly deformed, even grotesque. The degree of distortion is greatest for faces that deviate from the others in the set on a particular dimension (eg if a person has a large forehead, it looks particularly large). This new method of image presentation, based on alignment and speed, could provide a useful tool for investigating contrastive distortion effects and face adaptation.
Anne M Burrows
Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle
While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...
Gates, Madison L; Bradford, Robert K
The association between incarceration and weight gain, along with the public health impact of former prisoners who are overweight or obese, warrants more investigation to understand the impact of prison life. Studies regarding incarceration's impact on obesity are too few to support assertions that prisons contribute to obesity and comorbid conditions. This study examined a statewide prison population over several years to determine weight gain. Objective data for weight, height, and chronic diseases, along with demographics, were extracted from an electronic health record. These data were analyzed statistically to determine changes over time and between groups. As a total population, prisoners not only gained weight, but also reflected the distribution of BMIs for the state. There were differences within the population. Male prisoners gained significantly less weight than females. The population with chronic diseases gained less weight than the population without comorbid conditions. Prisoners with diabetes lost weight while hypertension's impact was negligible. This study found that weight gain was a problem specifically to females. However, this prison system appears to be providing effective chronic disease management, particularly for prisoners with diabetes and hypertension. Additional research is needed to understand the impact incarceration has on the female population.
Silverman-Retana, Omar; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bertozzi, Stefano Michele; Orozco-Nuñez, Emanuel; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy
There is a lack of evidence regarding chronic disease modifiable risk factors among prisoner populations in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and to assess their relationship with length of incarceration. We analysed data from a cross sectional study in which 4241 prisoners were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire with socio-demographic and health behaviour content using an audio computer-assisted self-interview format. Physical activity (PA), low-quality diet, current smoking and alcohol or cocaine use during the last month in prison were our main outcomes. Quantile regression models and logistic regression models were performed. Our final analytical sample consisted of 3774 prisoners from four Mexico City prisons. PA was estimated as 579 median metabolic equivalents-min/week, prevalence of alcohol use was 23.4%, cocaine use was 24.2% and current smoking was 53.2%. Our results suggest that, as length of incarceration increased, PA as well as alcohol and cocaine use increased, whereas the quality of diet decreased. This study supports the hypothesis that exposure to prison environment (measured by length of incarceration) fosters modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly diet quality and cocaine use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.
Martins, Alexandra; Pereira, Marco; Andrade, Rita; Dattilio, Frank M; Narciso, Isabel; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
This study examined the gender-specific correlates of face-to-face and online extradyadic involvement (EDI) in dating relationships. The sample consisted of 561 women (M age = 23.19 years) and 222 men (M age = 23.97 years), all of whom reported being in an exclusive dating relationship for an average of 35 months. Participants completed the following self-report measures: Extradyadic Behavior Inventory, Attitudes toward Infidelity Scale, and Investment Model Scale. During the current relationship, men were more likely than women to report engagement in face-to-face physical/sexual EDI (23.4 vs. 15.5 %) and online sexual EDI (15.3 vs. 4.6 %). Both men and women with a history of infidelity in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in EDI. More positive attitudes toward infidelity, lower relationship satisfaction, lower commitment, and higher quality of alternatives were significantly associated with EDI, regardless of gender. Women reporting infidelity of a partner in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in face-to-face and online emotional EDI; a longer relationship and a younger age at the first sexual encounter were significant correlates of the engagement in face-to-face emotional EDI. Women with higher education were approximately three times more likely to engage in online sexual EDI. Although men and women are converging in terms of overall EDI, men still report higher engagement in physical/sexual extradyadic behaviors, and the correlates of sexual and emotional EDI vary according to gender. This study contributes to a comprehensive approach of factors influencing the likelihood of EDI and encourages future research in this area.
Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.
Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter
This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dr. Ouk Vong Vathiny is the first director of the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia (RHAC), the International Planned Parenthood's newest affiliate. Dr. Vathiny's interest in reproductive health began with her first position in a clinic serving women working in Phnom Penh's commercial sex district. Today, she works with RHAC staff to provide a full range of reproductive health services to a wide variety of rural and urban women. Under the direction of Dr. Ping Chutema, the RHAC clinic provides a standard package of safe motherhood services and highlights provision of birth spacing counseling and methods. Although it operates in only three of 22 provinces, the RHAC now distributes between a fourth and a third of all contraceptives dispensed by government services. Dr. Vathiny and Dr. Chutema note that the biggest problem they face is the fact that most women in Cambodia have very little education and that rumors spread faster than real information. Efforts to insure safe motherhood are challenged by high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and by a high prevalence and rate of increase of HIV infection, both of which are exacerbated by the popularity of commercial sex among married men. Domestic violence and women's low nutritional status are also problems. RHAC considers education and counseling essential elements of its safe motherhood package and even trains community-based contraceptive distributors to counsel women on ways to negotiate with their husbands.
VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra G.
Women face unique challenges as superintendents. This study determined barriers women face as superintendents and elicited reasons why these women would consider leaving the superintendent's position. Thirty-nine PreK-12 women superintendents in Illinois participated in a web-based survey in January 2008. Survey items included information…
In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.
The Commentary contests the increasingly outdated and narrow use of the terminology 'face-to-face' (often abbreviated as F2F) to connote clinical interactions in which both the client and the practitioner are physically present in the same room or space. An expanded definition is necessary because when delivered synchronously via videoconferencing, telehealth also provides face-to-face services (i.e., the practitioner and the client view each other's faces). Terminology that uses face-to-face to connote only in-person care is limiting and perpetuates language that is out of line with progressive US regulatory language and broad interpretation within existing regulatory language. It is this author's hope that this commentary will raise awareness of the important policy implications associated with this seemingly minor distinction in terminology and impact the lingering misapplication of the term, face-to-face.
DU, Li-Li; Wang, Li-Min; Zhuang, Ziqing
To probe into the physical changes on the head and face of Chinese adults, find the representative indexes and provide references for head-face products design especially in the field of labor protection. The ISO7250-1996 and GB/T5703-99 Basic Human Body Measurements for Technological Design was used. Twenty items of head-face referential parameters and 4 items of body indexes (height, weight, waist circumference and buttock circumference) were measured by using sliding caliper, spreading caliper and pupillometer. The populations were sampled by age, gender and region and their influences on the head and face dimensions were statistically analyzed. By studying the relationship between these parameters with correlation and cluster analysis, the representative indexes of head and face dimensions were concluded. 3000 objectives (2026 men and 974 women) were involved in this survey. The results enunciated that the values of the items in male were larger than those in female. For example, the mean values of face length, face width, jaw width, lip length and nose protrusion were 117.0, 147.6, 118.5, 51.7, 18.7 mm for male and 109.7, 140.1, 114.5, 49.3, 17.7 mm for female. The regional disparity and obesity were significant factors. The sizes of head and face of north-eastern population were significantly bigger than those of south-western population except of maximum length of head, the length of lip and face configuration length. The sizes of head and face of obesity population were significantly bigger than those of non-obesity population (P well represent the head-face dimensions. The influence of gender, region and obesity on the head-face dimensions is significant. The age is not a significant influential factor. Five representative indexes (face length, face width, jaw width, lip length and nose protrusion) are obtained to provide foundation in the standard design of head-face products.
Alice Mado eProverbio
Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.
Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Martin, Eleonora; Zani, Alberto
Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (Caldara et al., 2004), little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women) who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection). The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP) to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA) showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21) and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24) had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.
J. Michael Maurer
Full Text Available Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100 who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV. The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA. Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude.
Maurer, J. Michael; Steele, Vaughn R.; Cope, Lora M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Stephen, Julia M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude. PMID:26930170
Ober, Ciprian-Andrei; Peștean, Cosmin Petru; Bel, Lucia Victoria; Taulescu, Marian; Cătoi, Cornel; Bogdan, Sidonia; Milgram, Joshua; Schwarz, Guenter; Oana, Liviu Ioan
True vaginal prolapse is a rare condition in dogs and it is occasionally observed in animals with constipation, dystocia, or forced separation during breeding. If a true prolapse occurs, the bladder, the uterine body and/or distal part of the colon, may be present in the prolapse. A 2-year-old intact non pregnant Central Asian Shepherd dog in moderate condition, was presented for a true vaginal and rectal prolapse. The prolapses were confirmed by physical examination and ultrasonography. Herniation of the urinary bladder was identified within the vaginal prolapse. The necrotic vaginal wall was resected, the urinary bladder was reduced surgically and fixed to the right abdominal wall to prevent recurrence. Rectal resection and anastomosis was necessary to correct the rectal prolapse. Recurrence of the prolapses was not observed and the dog recovered completely after the surgical treatment. In our opinion, extreme tenesmus arising from constipation may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse with bladder incarceration and secondarily to rectal prolapse. In the young female dog, true vaginal prolapse with secondary involvement of the urinary bladder and irreducible rectal prolapse is an exceptionally rare condition.
Blomberg, Thomas G; Bales, William D; Piquero, Alex R
Research has linked the role of education to delinquency, but much of the focus has been on general population samples and with little attention to demographic differences. Employing a cumulative disadvantage framework that integrates elements of informal social control and labeling theories, this article examines whether academic achievement serves as a positive turning point and re-directs juvenile delinquents away from subsequent offending. Attention is also given to race/sex contingencies. Using a sample of 4,147 delinquents released from Florida correctional institutions (86% male, 57% non-White, average age at release = 16.8 years), propensity score analysis yielded two findings: youth with above average academic achievement while incarcerated were significantly more likely to return to school post-release, and youth with above average attendance in public school were significantly less likely to be re-arrested in the 1-year post-release period. While the academic gains were pronounced among African-American males, the preventive effects of school attendance are similar across race and sex, suggesting that education can be a part of a larger prevention effort that assists juvenile delinquents in successful community re-entry.
Carla L. Harenski
Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on “moral violation severity”. Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits-Youth Version (ICU-Y. While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment.
Wiklund, Gunnar; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Koposov, Roman A; Af Klinteberg, Britt
The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Factor 1 denoted Callous/Dominance and Factor 2 denoted Manipulativeness/Impulsiveness. Subjects with complete data on PAS and Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS) (n=171) were divided into extreme groups (first and fourth quartiles) according to their total scores on PAS and the two factor scores, respectively. The extreme groups of total PAS and PAS Factor 1 differed in CPS ratings and in violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC). They also differed in the personality dimension Harm Avoidance as measured by use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and in delinquent and aggressive behavior as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR). The extreme groups of PAS Factor 2, in turn, differed in aggressive behavior as assessed by the YSR, and in the TCI scale Self-Directedness. When PAS was used as a continuous variable, total PAS and PAS Factor 1 (Callous/Dominance) were significantly positively related to registered violent crime. The possible usefulness of PAS in identifying high-risk individuals for bullying tendencies among incarcerated delinquents is discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Martinez, Omar; Draine, Jeffrey; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Severson, Nicolette; Levine, Ethan; Benjamin, Gregory
After being exposed to high-risk environments in correctional facilities, formerly incarcerated Latino men (FILM) encounter new risks upon reentering their community of residence including drug use and sexual risk behaviors. Families and close social support networks are critical in potentially mitigating the stressors and risks associated with reentry and reducing the likelihood of recidivism. We conducted a study to examine the material and cognitive assets that familial networks can use to provide support to FILM to engage in health-promoting practices. This analysis is based on linear and logistic regression modeling of cross-sectional data collected through a computer-administered survey with dyads of FILM (ages 18-49, who had been in jail or prison within the past 5 years) and their nominated social network (n = 130 dyads). We found that both male and female social supports (MSS and FSS) have significantly higher levels of structural resources (education and employment) than FILM. Though FSS reported higher self-efficacy on health-promoting practices than FILM, contrary to what we predicted, FILM and FSS/MSS reported similar levels of mental health and behavioral risks. Our results suggest a number of limitations in designing family-based intervention strategies, but they also provided insight into the specificities needed to enhance the social support networks of FILM.
Leidenfrost, Corey M; Calabrese, William; Schoelerman, Ronald M; Coggins, Evelyn; Ranney, Michael; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel
While improving the psychological health and well-being of individuals with serious mental illness can help reduce emotional distress and increase resilience, not enough is known about the well-being of incarcerated individuals with mental illness. Using the Schwartz Outcome Scale-10, the authors examined changes in subjective well-being and its association with other clinical symptoms and personality features in 43 mentally ill inmates in a large jail. All participants demonstrated significant improvement in general psychopathology and negative emotions. For well-being, however, different trajectories were associated with high versus low baseline ratings. Furthermore, those in the high well-being group were more likely to show features of aggression, dominance, hostility, mania, and more positive affect. These findings suggest that the level of well-being among inmates with serious mental illness may be an early indicator of personality features, clinical changes, and resilience, which is essential knowledge required when completing effective treatment planning. © The Author(s) 2015.
Steven Downing PhD
Full Text Available Space and time are concepts familiar to physicists, philosophers, and social scientists; they are operationalized with varying degrees of specificity but are both heralded as important to contextualizing research and understanding individual, cultural, and historical differences in perception and the social construction of reality. Space can range from, at the macro level, geographic region, to at the micro level, the immediate physical surroundings of an individual or group of persons. Similarly, a conceptualization of time can range from era or epoch to the passing of seconds and minutes within a situational dynamic of human interaction. In this article we examine the microcosmic end of the space-time spectrum, specifically as it relates to doing qualitative interviews with current or former criminal offenders. Through a comparative discussion of interviews with incarcerated, recently released, and active offenders, we pose questions and offer insights regarding how interviewers and interviewees perceive physical space and the passage of time and, most importantly, how these perceptions relate to the interview process and resulting data. Notably, we suggest that interviewer reflexivity should take into account not only the relationship, dialogue, and discourse between interviewer and interviewee but also space and time as perceived and constructed by both parties. Finally, we offer several key strategies for incorporating these considerations into the interviewer toolkit.