WorldWideScience

Sample records for incarcerated male sexual

  1. The health profile of incarcerated male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C B; Tambor, E; Riley, A W; Ensminger, M E; Starfield, B

    2000-01-01

    To identify the health needs of adolescent males incarcerated in a juvenile justice facility and to compare their health profiles with those of male adolescents in the community. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of incarcerated (N = 202) and school (N = 379) samples of male youths. Questionnaires were self-administered and completed before admission health screens (incarcerated youth) or in classrooms (school sample). Health status was assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition, using scale and item means and by categorizing each youth's pattern of health into 1 of 13 mutually exclusive health profile types. Compared with school counterparts, incarcerated male youths had significantly worse health status as demonstrated by poorer health and functioning scores in perceived well being, self-esteem, physical discomfort, acute, chronic, and psychosocial disorders, family involvement, physical activity, interpersonal problem-solving, risk behaviors, and academic performance. Three profile types-High Risks, High Risks/Low Resilience, and Worst Health-accounted for patterns of health for 69.8% of incarcerated youth versus 37.3% of an age-matched school sample. Just 6.4% of incarcerated males were in the Excellent/Good Health profile types, which contrasted with 34.2% of the age-matched school sample. The health profiles of incarcerated male youths were worse than those of male youths in school. Our results indicate that rehabilitation programs will need to address incarcerated youth's basic health needs as well as modifying their risk and antisocial behaviors.

  2. Can I Ask for Help? The Relationship Among Incarcerated Males' Sexual Orientation, Sexual Abuse History, and Perceptions of Rape in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkalkar, Mina; Atkin-Plunk, Cassandra A

    2017-06-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). Although subsequent research to PREA has shed light on the prevalence and incidence of sexual violence in American prisons, few studies examine inmates' perceptions of rape and safety from rape in prison. Even less is known about how inmates' perceptions of rape influence mental health treatment-seeking behavior during incarceration. Using a sample of incarcerated men, this study adds to the limited body of research by examining the perceived fear of rape and mental health treatment-seeking behavior in two vulnerable prison populations-gay and bisexual inmates and inmates with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Compared with straight inmates, gay and bisexual inmates were approximately two times more likely to perceive that rape was a threat and three times more likely to voluntarily request mental health treatment in prison. Inmates with a history of childhood sexual abuse were over twice as likely to perceive the threat of rape and nearly four times more likely to request mental health treatment than inmates who did not report a history of childhood sexual abuse. Policy, practice implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  3. Creative Art Therapy for Incarcerated Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, Virginia; Newlon, Betty J.

    This document begins by briefly outlining the problems of juveniles incarcerated in correctional institutions, including the problems of overcrowding and recidivism. It asserts that creative art therapy is designed to provide a therapeutic atmosphere for understanding and change and documents the use of creative art therapy techniques with…

  4. Criminal recidivism of incarcerated male nonviolent offenders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong

    2015-02-01

    Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  6. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  7. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  8. Condom use in incarcerated adolescent males: knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Andrea T; Risser, William L; Cromwell, Polly F

    2006-01-01

    Information is limited on how well adolescents use condoms and where they learn how. The objective of this study was to determine how often incarcerated males used condoms incorrectly and where, how, and from whom they learned condom use. This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey during intake physicals at a juvenile detention center. Results were based on self-report; condom use models were not used. During usual use among 141 males, errors included failure to secure the condom to the penis on withdrawal (37%), loss of erection before condom removal (18%), and failure to leave space at the tip (14%). Learning occurred at home (27%), school (23%), probation/detention facilities (14%), and community programs (3.4%). Subjects learned from educators/counselors (37%), family (27%), and friends (6.9%). Methods of learning included reading the package insert (45%), demonstrations (39%), explanations (33%), and media (19%). These adolescents had relatively few condom errors. Common methods of learning correct condom use included observing a demonstration, reading the package insert, and hearing an explanation. The last 2 methods are easy to implement.

  9. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of african american males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K

    2012-01-01

    Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  10. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of African American males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K Mukku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  11. Multiplex crack smoking and sexual networks: Associations between network members’ incarceration and HIV risks among high-risk MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Kim, Ju Yeong; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined HIV risks in the multiplex crack-smoking and sexual networks of incarcerated drug-using men who have sex with men (MSM) and their associates. We estimated the associations between the network members’ incarceration, self-reported HIV infection, and trading sex for money. Methods Our analytic sample consisted of 508 crack-smoking or sexual partnerships of 273 high-risk MSM. Network members were specified by (1) crack smoking and sexual behavior or (2) crack smoking only. Results Longer incarceration of the crack-smoking and sexual network members was associated with self-reported HIV infection (AOR = 1.61, p trading sex (AOR = 2.77, p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of the study call for the development of a system-level HIV intervention among former incarcerated MSM and their associates. PMID:27417286

  12. Ethnic differences in the mother-son relationship of incarcerated and non-incarcerated male adolescents in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Violaine C; Stevens, Gonneke Wjm; Doreleijers, Theo Ah; Deković, Maja; Pels, Trees; Vollebergh, Wilma Am

    2011-06-29

    In the Netherlands, youths of Moroccan origin account for a disproportionately large percentage of the population in juvenile justice institutions. Previous research showed that Moroccan adolescents in pre-trial arrest are characterized by less serious offending behavior (i.e., primarily property-based) and lower levels of mental health problems than native Dutch adolescents in pre-trial arrest. To date, little is known about the parent-child relationship of these adolescents. This study examines the mother-son relationships of Moroccan and native Dutch delinquent adolescents and their association with adolescent delinquency. In the present study, differences in the mother-son relationship characteristics between families of incarcerated (N = 129) and non-incarcerated (N = 324) adolescents were examined, and it was analyzed if these differences between incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents were the same for Moroccans and native Dutch. Data collection for the incarcerated sample took place from 2006 to 2008. Comparison data were used of interviews conducted with mothers originating from former larger studies in the general Dutch population. Latent Class Analysis was performed in order to identify types of mother-son relationship. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the relationships between mother-son relationship types, incarceration and ethnicity. A three class model of mother-son relationship types was found: a low-conflict mother-son relationship type, a high-conflict mother-son relationship type, and a neglectful mother-son relationship type. Compared to the native Dutch adolescents, Moroccans (both in the incarcerated and non-incarcerated population) more often showed a neglectful mother-son relationship type. For Moroccans, no differences in mother-son relationship types were found between the incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents, whereas considerable differences occurred between the native Dutch incarcerated and non-incarcerated

  13. Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R

    2017-02-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

  14. Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparison Between Incarcerated and Community Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Olga; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2017-11-01

    The literature considers intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators to be a heterogeneous group. In Portugal, IPV perpetrators may be sentenced to either of two types of sentences: deprivation of freedom or alternatives to prison (in the community). In the present study, we performed a comparative analysis between 76 male individuals sentenced to prison and 76 male individuals sentenced to community measures for crimes against their current or former partners, using a set of psychological measures. The results indicate that although incarcerated and nonincarcerated IPV perpetrators demonstrate considerable differences, some similarities may also be observed. Incarcerated IPV perpetrators present the lowest socioeconomic status and education, perpetrate more severe IPV, and have more criminal convictions. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the use of weapons and objects increased the probability of IPV perpetrators belonging to the prison group above and beyond sociodemographic variables. Based on these results, implications for IPV perpetrators' treatment are discussed.

  15. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  16. Experiences of, and attitudes towards, pregnancy and fatherhood amongst incarcerated young male offenders: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Katie Margaret

    2010-12-01

    Teenage parenthood is problematised in the UK. Attention is increasingly falling on the potential or actual father yet we still know relatively little about young men's experiences and attitudes in this area. This paper focuses on the experiences of, and attitudes towards, pregnancy and fatherhood amongst a sample of men incarcerated in a Scottish Young Offender Institute. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 inmates, aged 16-20, purposively sampled using answers from a questionnaire administered to 67 inmates. Twelve men reported eighteen pregnancies for which they were, definitely or possibly, responsible. All but one of the pregnancies were unplanned. Five of the men were fathers: two were still in a relationship with the mother of their child and were in close contact with her and the child while incarcerated, three, all of whom had separated from their partner before the birth, had had patchy contact with mother and child before and/or during their sentence. All five of the men expressed a strong desire to be 'a good father'. Amongst the interview sample as a whole, most said they did not feel ready to become fathers. The main reason given was being unable to fulfil what they regarded as the key role of financial provider. Most of the men had given little or no thought to the possibility of a sexual partner becoming pregnant. Contraceptive use was high, however, amongst the minority who reported thinking about this possibility. The paper concludes by considering the cultural context of the men's attitudes and the potential for intervention development for incarcerated male young offenders in the areas of Sex and Relationships Education and parenting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B

    The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.

  20. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) upon behaviorally challenged incarcerated male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Male sexuality with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Andreas; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2004-04-15

    People aged 60 years or older are commonly given the image of grandparents who are sexually rather inactive. However, a high percentage of men over 60 years have sexual desires and are sexually active. Aging men need more time and more direct stimulation of the penis to achieve full erection. The risk of developing erectile dysfunction increases with age. Almost one man in 22 aged 60-69 years without previous erection problems develops erectile dysfunction within 1 year. Hormone replacement therapy is only indicated if testosterone deficiency is combined with the syndrome of the "aging male" and lack of other disorders that are possibly causative and could be treated. For hormone replacement therapy testosterone gel preparations are preferable because they have a short half-time and can be immediately discontinued in the event that a pre-existing occult prostate carcinoma is stimulated.

  2. PREDICTORS OF SUICIDE RISK IN INCARCERATED MALE OFFENDERS: THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Cozmin; Robu, Viorel; Knieling, Anton; Iliescu, Diana Bulgaru; Chirita, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a cross-sectional study aimed at exploring the role of personality disorders in predicting the suicide risk among males imprisoned for various offenses. The data set used in analyses was based on the responses of 124 males imprisoned for various violent or non-violent offenses (M(age) = 32.39 years, SD = 8.43 years). Male offenders were interviewed using a form for demographic data and information on suicidal history. Also, they completed the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, as part of a broader protocol used in an ongoing study focused on the psychosocial and pharmacological aspects relevant to the diagnosis and management of personality disorders among inmates. At the time of data collection, forty-three respondents (34.7%) were diagnosed with at least one personality disorder. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. The frequency of suicide attempts during the periods of freedom and during incarceration were significant predictors of suicide risk. Moreover, the diagnosis of personality disorder brought a significant addition to the power of final regression model, explaining almost 8% of the variance in suicide risk among the inmates. The findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention programs in correctional institutions, with screening and monitoring of inmates diagnosed with severe mental disorders as an important component.

  3. Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janice

    This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

  4. Child abuse and neglect profiles and their psychosocial consequences in a large sample of incarcerated males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age). Data were collected among a large systematically selected sample of adult male inmates (N=1261). Based on LCA, three unique classes of CAN were distinguished, including a 'low abuse' group (43.4% of the sample), a 'high physical and emotional abuse' group (51.3%), and a 'poly-victimized' group (5.3%). The analysis revealed that the CAN classes were differentially associated with affective responsiveness, cognitive responsiveness, personal self-esteem, prison self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, and violent offending. Findings highlight the unique nature of CAN constellations among criminal justice involved participants. The significance of the present results is discussed in relation to past and future research. Potential contributions to treatment strategies are also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Male sexual dysfunctions and homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuillet, P; Cour, F; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    The homosexuality, which expresses itself through a varied and complex behavior that those whom are shared by the heterosexual majority, is not that a simple sexual behavior, obvious or not, but a whole set of attitudes, affects, preferences, values, lifestyle which concern profoundly the individual, as the heterosexuality. A review of the literature using PubMed database has been performed to select 38 articles. Among sexual difficulties met by the gays, erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire are the more frequent. Concerning the ejaculation disorders observed in the gay population, premature ejaculation is rather rare in comparison with heterosexual men; however delayed ejaculation or anejaculation are more frequent. Painful sexual disorders in particular anodyspareunia are also reported. Sexual disorder management must follows the classic rules but it is necessary to be aware how to approach the specific questions affecting the homosexual persons. Still the homosexual person has to find a competent therapist, "opened" to the sexual problem of the homosexuals, with the aim of a care privileging the efficiency to efficacy in the respect for the truth of the homosexual person. The homosexuality is the only one of the "unusual" sexual conducts to possibly concern the daily medical practice due to is prevalence. The management of sexual dysfunctions must privilege the "meeting" in a quest of sense in front of any sexual symptom, whatever the individual sexual orientation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual selection in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2007-12-21

    Research on sexual selection shows that the evolution of secondary sexual characters in males and the distribution of sex differences are more complex than was initially suggested but does not undermine our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved. However, the operation of sexual selection in females has still received relatively little attention. Recent studies show that both intrasexual competition between females and male choice of mating partners are common, leading to strong sexual selection in females and, in extreme cases, to reversals in the usual pattern of sex differences in behavior and morphology.

  7. Male genital modification : A sexual selection interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowanchilde, R

    1996-06-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection, male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual signal in both male competition and female mate choice. The reliability of the signal correlates with the cost of acquiring the trait. Women use a variety of cues to assess male quality. Male genital modification is one way that some women assess their mates. Extreme male genital modifications not only honestly advertise status, sexual potency, and ability to provide sexual satisfaction, they may provide a reliable index of male-female cooperation through the male's commitment to endure pain and risk.

  8. The sexual habits of males who molest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L E; Yap, A K; Ong, S H; Chan, A O; Chan, K L

    2000-10-01

    To gain better understanding into the causes of molesting behaviour in males, we examined a prison cohort of molesters and compared them with a control group comprising thieves. The molesters were older, had attained a higher educational level and were more likely to be married. They had their initial sexual intercourse at an older age but tended to have multiple sexual relationships and were less likely to report having viewed pornographic material. Three months prior to committing their offences, molesters seemed to engage in less sexual activity. The implications are that molesters had a need for more explicit sexual contact but were unable to sustain ongoing, stable, intimate sexual relationships.

  9. Zambian male adolescents' perceptions about premarital sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role adolescent boys play in premarital sexual activities, gender power relations, and the reproductive health risks they are exposed to, has received little attention in research. This qualitative study has aimed to explore Zambian male adolescents' perceptions and expectations about premarital sexual relationships.

  10. Conceptual model of male military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William B; Domino, Jessica L; Rentz, Timothy O; Mata-Galán, Emma L

    2017-08-01

    Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Three categories emerged from data analysis, including (a) types of military sexual trauma (being touched in a sexual way against their will [N = 18]; sexual remarks directed at them [N = 15]; being physically forced to have sex [N = 13]); (b) negative life effects (difficulty trusting others [N = 18]; fear of abandonment [N = 17]; substance use [N = 13]; fear of interpersonal violence [N = 12]; conduct and vocational problems [N = 11]; irritability/aggression [N = 8]; insecurity about sexual performance [N = 8]; difficulty managing anger [N = 8]); and (c) posttraumatic growth (N = 15). Results from this study suggest sexual trauma in the military context may affect systems of self-organization, specifically problems in affective, self-concept, and relational domains, similar to symptoms of those who have experienced prolonged traumatic stressors. This model can be used by clinicians to select treatments that specifically target these symptoms and promote posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Male infertility: an obstacle to sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoua, S; Hamamah, S; Scalici, E

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between infertility and sexuality are numerous and complex. Infertile men may suffer from sexual dysfunction (SD) when undergoing an assisted reproductive technology programme. We undertook a review both in French and English of the available data on male SD when being diagnosed with a fertility problem with a specific focus on azoospermic men. The review was performed over a 30-year time period using PubMed/Medline. The sexual concerns and needs of infertile/sterile men for whom potential parenting can be compromised were evaluated. When diagnosed with infertility, men usually go through a crisis that can have a deleterious effect on their sexuality with sometimes a feeling of sexual inadequacy. Infertile men will feel stigmatized because they are perceived as being deficient in a specific component of their masculinity. Hence, subsequent SD may occur that can impact the couple sexuality and the infertility management. However, little is known on how the announcement of azoospermia may affect male on a sexual and psychological point of view. The present review suggests that a global management through a healthcare network (biologist, andrologist, sexologist and psychologist) is required which will allow to consider infertility and its subsequent sexual disorders as a whole and not as dichotomized issues. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Sexual function of the ageing male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2013-08-01

    With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of normative masculinity on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment.

  15. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  16. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  17. Traditional plant aphrodisiacs and male sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany

    2014-06-01

    There has been a long history of man’s fascination with better and stronger sex drive and performance across different cultures. Several literature texts from the Hindu, Egyptian, Chinese and Roman civilizations document the human endless search for substances that can enhance sexual experiences and/or treat erectile dysfunction. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular plant aphrodisiacs and provide evidence to support or discourage the use of any of them to enhance sexual desire and/or function in men. We review the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. We found very little evidence to support the use of plant aphrodisiacs in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction. The vast majority of studies were conducted on animals with very few clinical studies. Available data suggest a beneficial effect of ginseng as a pro-sexual supplement and not an independent treatment for male sexual dysfunction. Trans-culturally, many herbal therapies show some potential benefits in improving men’s sexual function; however, adequate studies on the specific benefits and health risks associated with their use are needed. We strongly recommend the design and execution of well-controlled clinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of plant aphrodisiacs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  19. The DSM-5 Limited Prosocial Emotions subtype of Conduct Disorder in incarcerated male and female juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechorro, Pedro; Jiménez, Lucía; Hidalgo, Victoria; Nunes, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relevance of the DSM-5's Conduct Disorder new Limited Prosocial Emotions (CD LPE) specifier in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. A sample of 201 males and 98 females from the Juvenile Detention Centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice diagnosed with Conduct Disorder (CD) was used. Results showed that male juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU), general psychopathic traits, psychopathy taxon membership, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness, and lower on prosocial behavior and social desirability, while female juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU) and general psychopathic traits, and lower on prosocial behavior. Significant associations for both genders were found between the CD LPE specifier and age of crime onset and first problems with the law. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding......, including assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the SAPAS for various cut-off scores, will be presented Conclusions: The study provides a basis for preliminary conclusions regarding the validity of SAPAS as a brief routine screen for personality disorders amongst incarcerated male youth......Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...

  1. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  2. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  3. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. EVIDENCE...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...... an association between STDs and male infertility is also of inadequate quality. The data regarding possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: There may be an association between STDs and male infertility of unknown genesis and possibly with different pathogenic mechanisms for different...

  4. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  5. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

  6. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...... prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding...

  7. Sexual behaviors in male sex workers in Spain: modulating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Rafael; Salmerón, Pedro; Gil, María D; Giménez, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzed how the culture of origin, educational level, sexual orientation, and experience of male sex workers may mediate their commercial sexual behaviors. A total of 100 Spanish agency male sex workers were interviewed. Most of them were young men, Latin American, homosexual, and had middle-level education. Our results showed that cultural differences and sexual orientation could influence male sex workers when engaging in sexual behaviors with their clients. Social and health projects with male sex workers may have to take into account sexual myths and taboos related to sexual orientation and cultural differences.

  8. Sexual Behaviors in Male Sex Workers in Spain: Modulating Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Salmerón Sánchez, Pedro; Gil Llario, María Dolores; Giménez García, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed how the culture of origin, educational level, sexual orientation, and experience of male sex workers may mediate their commercial sexual behaviors. A total of 100 Spanish agency male sex workers were interviewed. Most of them were young men, Latin American, homosexual, and had middle-level education. Our results showed that cultural differences and sexual orientation could influence male sex workers when engaging in sexual behaviors with their clients. Social and health pr...

  9. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Silverman-Retana

    Full Text Available Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5% and diabetes (1.8% compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086. Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group.This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  10. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5%) and diabetes (1.8%) compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086). Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group. This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  11. Drug use and sexually transmitted diseases among female and male arrested youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front end of the justice system. Female-male, multi-group latent class analyses identified two subgroups, High Risk and Lower Risk, of youths described by a latent construct of risk based on drug test results, STD test results, and a classification for the seriousness of arrest charge. The results found: (1) a similar classification distinguished High Risk and Lower Risk male and female youths, and (2) important gender group differences in sexual risk related factors (e.g., substance use during sexual encounters). Among the youths in this sample who tested positive for an STD, 66% of the girls and 57% of the boys were released back into the community after arrest. Overall, our findings raise serious public health and social welfare concerns, for both the youths and the community. Prevention and intervention implications of these findings are also discussed.

  12. Male Sexual Dysfunction and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edey, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in end-stage renal disease. Historically, this cause of considerable morbidity has been under-reported and under-recognized. The ideal approach to diagnosis and management remains unclear due to a paucity of good quality data, but an understanding of the pathophysiology is necessary in order to address the burden of this important complication of CKD. This paper will review the endocrine dysfunction that occurs in renal disease, particularly the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, discuss the causes of erectile dysfunction, infertility, and altered body image and libido in these patients and suggest appropriate treatment interventions. PMID:28382300

  13. Sexual Dysfunction in Males: Significance of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 301 male college students found that occasional sexual dysfunction was frequent in young male adults, and long-lasting adverse familial relationships to attachment figures were more influential in later sexual dysfunction than were childhood sexual abuse experiences. (Author/DB)

  14. Problem Gambling Among Australian Male Prisoners: Lifetime Prevalence, Help-Seeking, and Association With Incarceration and Aboriginality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ben J; Larsen, Amii; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Prisoners represent a group containing the highest problem gambling (PG) rate found in any population. PG is of particular concern among Indigenous Australians. Little data exist concerning PG rates among Indigenous Australian prisoners. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the lifetime prevalence of PG among male prisoners, whilst identifying prisoners of Aboriginal background. The EIGHT Gambling Screen (Early Intervention Gambling Health Test) was administered to 296 prisoners across three male prisons in South Australia. Previous help-seeking behaviour and forms of gambling were also examined. Sixty percent of prisoners indicated a lifetime prevalence of PG with 18% reporting they were incarcerated due to offending relating to their gambling problem. Indigenous Australian prisoners indicated a significantly higher prevalence of PG (75%) than non-Indigenous prisoners (57%) and reported less than half the rate of help-seeking. Given the high levels of PG and overall low rates of help-seeking among prisoners, prisons may provide an important opportunity to engage this high-risk population with effective treatment programs, in particular culturally appropriate targeted interventions for Australian Indigenous prisoners.

  15. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  16. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness: a female strategy to reduce male sexual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Brask, Josefine B.; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K.

    2011-01-01

    Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, w...

  17. The Relationship between Personality, Anger Expression, and Perceived Family Control among Incarcerated Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Charlton J.; Greene, Anthony F.; Braithwaite, Harold O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three factors that may place adolescents at risk for aggression and violence: personality, affect, and family. Using a sample of male adolescents at risk for violence, a cluster analysis was conducted to categorize these adolescents in terms of personality characteristics. Concludes that, among male delinquents, elevated psychopathology…

  18. Histories of childhood victimization and subsequent mental health problems, substance use, and sexual victimization for a sample of incarcerated women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to be released from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample, who were both physically and sexually victimized as children, were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons' role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women's trajectories to prison, which disproportionately include childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dimorphic male midshipman fish: reduced sexual selection or sexual selection for reduced characters?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan S. F. Lee; Andrew H. Bass

    2006-01-01

    In most taxa with male dimorphisms, some males are large in body size with exaggerated secondary sexual characters (exaggerated morph), whereas other males in the same population are small and have reduced secondary sexual characters (reduced morph). What selective pressures cause male dimorphisms? Reduced morphologies may result when a) some males develop a morphology that, in the absence of sexual selection pressures for an exaggerated morphology, reduces energetic and developmental costs a...

  20. The role of impulsivity in self-mutilators, suicide ideators and suicide attempters - a study of 1265 male incarcerated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Jovanović, Nikolina; Podlesek, Anja; Roy, Alec; Rihmer, Zoltan; Maggi, Stefania; Marusic, Dragan; Cesaro, Caterina; Marusic, Andrej; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2010-06-01

    We explored differences between high and low-impulsive incarcerated individuals in the context of lifetime self-mutilation, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. A total of 1265 males detained in Italian penitentiary institutions were studied between January 2006 and December 2008. The study raters were specifically trained to discriminate between suicide attempters, ideators and self-mutilators. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Based on BIS 7 total score distribution, two extreme quarters - high-impulsive group (n=306) and low-impulsive group (n=285) - were compared. Over 42% of participants had lifetime suicide ideation, 13% attempted suicide and 17% were self-mutilators. High-impulsive subjects were younger, more often single and with more prominent psychoticism, extraversion, aggression, hostility and resilience capacity. They were more frequently diagnosed with substance use disorders and engaged in self-mutilating behaviour. There was no difference in the rate of suicide attempts between the two groups. Although high-impulsive subjects were more prone to suicidal behaviour, it was not predicted by higher impulsivity when other psychological variables were accounted for. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Severity and Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Risk in African American Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Hobbs, Marcia M; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A; Khan, Maria R

    2016-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV rates are disproportionately high among men involved in the criminal justice system. Mental health disorders, including personality disorders, are also elevated among inmates. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be an important risk factor for STI/HIV, yet remains relatively understudied, particularly among inmates. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study of African American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in heterosexual relationships at prison entry (n=189), to assess their STI/HIV risk in the 6 months before incarceration and BPD symptoms focused on emotional lability and relationship dysfunction. We created a continuous BPD symptom severity score and a dichotomous BPD indicator split at the top quartile of the score (BPD-TQ) to examine associations between BPD and STI/HIV outcomes using logistic regression. We also examined associations between individual symptoms and outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographics and antisocial personality disorder, BPD-TQ was associated with sexual risk behaviors including multiple partnerships (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36) and sex with nonmonogamous partners (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.51). Prevalence of previous STI (47.5% vs. 29.6%) and prevalent chlamydial infection (6.9% vs. 3.1%) seemed higher in those in BPD-TQ, although the associations were not statistically significant. Associations were similar to those with the continuous score. Borderline personality disorder symptoms most associated with STI/HIV risk were abandonment worry, mood swings, and shifts in opinions. Borderline personality disorder is strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in this sample. Researchers should further evaluate the relationship between STI/HIV and BPD, in addition to mood disorders.

  2. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Golin, C E; Friedman, S R; Scheidell, J D; Adimora, A A; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, M M; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, K K; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, K P; Wohl, D A

    2015-08-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months before incarceration, and 9 % tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3 %, gonorrhea: 0.5 %, trichomoniasis: 4.9 %). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 3.79, 95 % CI 1.19-12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis.

  3. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Intimate Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, MR; Golin, CE; Friedman, SR; Scheidell, JD; Adimora, AA; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, MM; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, KK; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, KP; Wohl, DA

    2015-01-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N=207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42%), concurrent partnerships (33%), and buying sex (11%) in the six months before incarceration, and 9% tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3%, gonorrhea: 0.5%, trichomoniasis: 4.9%). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.79, 95% CI: 1.19–12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467

  4. Sexual Coping, General Coping and Cognitive Distortions in Incarcerated Rapists and Child Molesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feelgood, Steven; Cortoni, Franca; Thompson, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Sexual coping, general coping and cognitive distortions were investigated in 25 rapists, 36 child molesters and 25 violent offenders. Rapists did not report more support for rape-supportive distortions than the violent offender comparison group. Child molesters scored higher than the other groups on the measure of molestation-supportive…

  5. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions.

  6. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... estimates of sexually antagonistic selection will be important to fully resolve these alternatives. [Bedhomme S., Chippindale A. K., Prasad N. G., Delcourt M., Abbott J. K., Mallet M. A. and Rundle H. D. 2011 Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic ...

  7. A discourse analysis of male sexuality in the magazine Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Rory

    2015-03-19

    The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmes, states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality. Although the media can promote awareness of sexual health issues, it also acts as a vehicle for defining and regulating sex norms. In other words, the standards of 'normal' sex are in part defined by the media. Accordingly, it has become imperative to analyse the media's construction of sexual norms in order to reveal how they are related to specific ideological views. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be limited to analysing the South African publication Intimacy. The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacy for women in regard to their male partner's sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. It was informed by feminist theories of sexuality that seek to examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions of sexual pleasure. The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. These include: (1) biological accounts of male sexuality; (2) phallocentric scripting of the sex act; and (3) the melodramatic penis. Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure. This requires texts that encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body.

  8. International Spinal Cord Injury Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Elliott, S

    2011-01-01

    To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets.......To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets....

  9. Generational differences in male sexuality that may affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine generational differences in male sexuality, which could predispose men's female sexual partners to STDs/HlV. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Harare, Zimbabwe. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety seven male adults aged eighteen years and above. Main outcome measures: Number of ...

  10. Sexual harassment in the context of double male dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, S.; Timmerman, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that numerically male-dominated workplaces propagate cultural norms that support sexual bravado, sexual posturing, and the denigration of feminine behaviour (Sbraga O'Donohue, 2000). These cultural norms are features of normative male dominance, which have been shown to

  11. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5%) and diabetes (1.8%) compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner’s health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086). Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group. Conclusions This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison’s health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context. PMID:26381399

  12. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...

  13. Endurance Exercise Training and Male Sexual Libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Oʼleary, Colin B

    2017-07-01

    This article aimed to study the associations between aspects of endurance exercise training and sexual libido in healthy men using a cross-sectional online survey study design. A developed online survey questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was based on preexisting validated questionnaires and was used to assess elements of physical characteristics, exercise training habits, and libido of participants (n = 1077). Three evidence-based categories were created for the primary outcome of total libido score and low, normal, and high-response category sets. The high and normal categories were combined to form a high/normal score group, and the low category formed a low score group. Odds ratio (OR) values were calculated to examine group categorization. Age, training intensity, and training duration of participants had significant (P libido scores, and were thus included in the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, training intensity (P libido group designation (high/normal vs low). Participants with the lowest (OR = 6.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-17.9) and mid-range training intensities (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.4-5.3) had greater odds of high/normal libido state than those with the highest training intensity. Participants with the shorter (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.6-10.0) and mid-range training durations (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-4.8) at their current intensity also had greater odds of high/normal libido score than those with a greatest duration. Exposure to higher levels of chronic intense and greater durations of endurance training on a regular basis is significantly associated with a decreased libido scores in men. Clinicians who treat male patients for sexual disorders and/or council couples on infertility issues should consider the degree of endurance exercise training a man is performing as a potential complicating factor.

  14. The perceptions and occurrence of sexual harassment among male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the perceptions and the occurrence of sexual harassment among male student athletes with male coaches. Most research in this field of study has been conducted from a male perpetrator-female victim paradigm and has thus been biased towards the study of female student athletes with male coaches.

  15. Sexually dimorphic nuclei in the spinal cord control male sexual functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka eSakamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lower spinal cord injuries frequently cause sexual dysfunction in men, including erectile dysfunction and an ejaculation disorder. This indicates that the important neural centers for male sexual function are located within the lower spinal cord. It is interesting that the lumbar spinal segments contain several neural circuits, showing a clear sexually dimorphism that, in association with neural circuits of the thoracic and sacral spinal cord, are critical in expressing penile reflexes during sexual behavior. To date, many sex differences in the spinal cord have been discovered. Interestingly, most of these are male dominant. Substantial evidence of sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the spinal cord have been reported in many animal models, but major issues remain unknown. For example, it is not known how the different circuits cooperatively function during male sexual behavior. In this review, therefore, the anatomical and functional significance of the sexually dimorphic nuclei in the spinal cord corresponding to the expression of male sexual behavior is discussed.

  16. The Relation of Violence Exposure and Ethnicity to Intelligence and Verbal-Performance Discrepancies in Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne C.; Smith-Darden, Joanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated populations have an estimated incidence of intellectual disabilities (ID) far higher than national norms, ranging as high as ten percent. In the present study, the relation between ID and violence exposure in 115 incarcerated adolescents was examined. Interpersonal violence exposure (IPV-E) predicted an average decrease in full scale IQ of 4.5 points, explaining approximately five percent of the difference in IQ. Child maltreatment increased the odds of having a verbal disability by 3 fold and explained 17% of the variance in verbal disability. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the relative contribution of ethnicity, poverty and violence exposure to intellectual functioning. The literature on racial bias in incarceration and the implications for the present study are discussed. PMID:21882671

  17. Delinquency in incarcerated male adolescents is associated with single parenthood, exposure to more violence at home and in the community, and poorer self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan

    2013-10-28

    To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.

  18. Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

    2014-07-01

    Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Male sexual health concerns in Muong Khen, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Vu Hong

    2008-06-01

    Male sexual health concerns are often construed in the medical literature as linked only to genital and reproductive difficulties and malfunctions. However, in reality, male sexual health concerns encompass a broader range of issues and should not be so narrowly conceived. This paper explores men's perceptions of sexual health concerns in Muong Khen, a rural town in northwestern Vietnam. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Findings suggest that men's sexual health concerns are strongly related to worries about economic problems, excessive drinking, men's beliefs about how their bodies work and the hegemonic notion that a man should be responsible for his family's economic well-being.

  20. The ability of YSR scales to predict DSM/DISC-C psychiatric disorders among incarcerated male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, C.; van den Brink, W.; Ferdinand, R.; Wouters, L.; Doreleijers, T.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the empirical or DSM-oriented scales of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) can be used to screen for DSM psychiatric disorders among incarcerated boys. DSM-oriented scales have recently been developed by Achenbach to enhance comparability of YSR results with DSM diagnostic

  1. Primary care management of sexually transmitted urethritis in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Claire E

    2003-04-01

    To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.

  2. Quality of Sexual Life in Males with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of sexual life of males with allergic rhinitis(AR). Material and Method: 40 patients with AR diagnosed with skin prick test and 40 control subjects with no evidence of allergy completed the study. International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF) was used to evaluate the quality of sexual life of the subjects. Results: The mean scores of erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction and overall s...

  3. Pain Reduces Sexual Motivation in Female But Not Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Leja, Alison; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Chan, Lindsey; MacIntyre, Leigh C.; Niaki, Tina; Chen, Mengsha; Mapplebeck, Josiane C.S.; Tabry, Vanessa; Topham, Lucas; Sukosd, Melissa; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Pfaus, James G.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is often associated with sexual dysfunction, suggesting that pain can reduce libido. We find that inflammatory pain reduces sexual motivation, measured via mounting behavior and/or proximity in a paced mating paradigm, in female but not male laboratory mice. Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or λ-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. Sexual behavior was significantly reduced in female mice experiencing pain...

  4. A discourse analysis of male sexuality in the magazine Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory du Plessis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization’s publication, Developing sexual health programmes, states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality. Although the media can promote awareness of sexual health issues, it also acts as a vehicle for defining and regulating sex norms. In other words, the standards of ‘normal’ sex are in part defined by the media. Accordingly, it has become imperative to analyse the media’s construction of sexual norms in order to reveal how they are related to specific ideological views. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be limited to analysing the South African publication Intimacy.Aim: The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacyfor women in regard to their male partner’s sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies.Method: A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. It was informed by feminist theories of sexuality that seek to examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions of sexual pleasure.Results: The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. These include: (1 biological accounts of male sexuality; (2 phallocentric scripting of the sex act; and (3 the melodramatic penis.Conclusion: Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure. This requires texts that encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body.

  5. A discourse analysis of male sexuality in the magazine Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory du Plessis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization’s publication, Developing sexual health programmes, states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality. Although the media can promote awareness of sexual health issues, it also acts as a vehicle for defining and regulating sex norms. In other words, the standards of ‘normal’ sex are in part defined by the media. Accordingly, it has become imperative to analyse the media’s construction of sexual norms in order to reveal how they are related to specific ideological views. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be limited to analysing the South African publication Intimacy. Aim: The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacyfor women in regard to their male partner’s sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. Method: A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. It was informed by feminist theories of sexuality that seek to examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions of sexual pleasure. Results: The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. These include: (1 biological accounts of male sexuality; (2 phallocentric scripting of the sex act; and (3 the melodramatic penis. Conclusion: Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure. This requires texts that encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body.

  6. Socio-Economic Perspectives of Male Sexual Challenges and Inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Perspectives of Male Sexual Challenges and Inter-Spousal Communication in a Mono-Cultural Setting. ... for all men who have sexual health challenges in order to stimulate mutual harmonious communication between husband and wife and enhance effective management of crisis at home fronts.

  7. Sexual function in male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate general and functional aspects of sexuality in male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compare the results with normative data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 308 male patients (age 30-69) admitted to a sleep...... that although sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in OSA patients than in the general population, it is a complex problem relating more to age, obesity, social factors and comorbidity than to the severity of OSA....

  8. A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M. Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G.; Bryan, Mara B.; Brown, C. Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the ‘rope’ tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, P-3 more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.

  9. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of any substance. Being sexually active and substance use before incarceration significantly (P<0.05) predicted current use of illicit substances while high self esteem and being the first born was protective. Since substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse ...

  10. Rights and representations: querying the male-to-male sexual subject in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Paul; Khanna, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex sexualities in India have been portrayed in research and activism as socially marginal and minoritarian. Whilst proceeding from a commitment to the political utility of such a view, this paper questions such a standpoint. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in different sites, the paper considers male-to-male sexualities as enacted and implicated in the production of ostensibly heteronormative spaces. This, in turn, raises questions about the representation of the queer or same-sex sexual subject in law and HIV prevention, especially in the context of post-colonial perspectives on sexuality.

  11. Reducing mutation load through sexual selection on males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Katrina; Petfield, Donna; Blows, Mark W

    2011-10-01

    Mutation load is a key parameter in evolutionary theories, but relatively little empirical information exists on the mutation load of populations, or the elimination of this load through selection. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection within a mutation accumulation divergence experiment to determine how sexual selection on males affected the accumulation of mutations contributing to sexual and nonsexual fitness. Sexual selection prevented the accumulation of mutations affecting male mating success, the target trait, as well as reducing mutation load on productivity, a nonsexual fitness component. Mutational correlations between mating success and productivity (estimated in the absence of sexual selection) were positive. Sexual selection significantly reduced these fitness component correlations. Male mating success significantly diverged between sexual selection treatments, consistent with the fixation of genetic differences. However, the rank of the treatments was not consistent across assays, indicating that the mutational effects on mating success were conditional on biotic and abiotic context. Our experiment suggests that greater insight into the genetic targets of natural and sexual selection can be gained by focusing on mutational rather than standing genetic variation, and on the behavior of trait variances rather than means. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Pain reduces sexual motivation in female but not male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Leja, Alison; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Chan, Lindsey; MacIntyre, Leigh C; Niaki, Tina; Chen, Mengsha; Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; Tabry, Vanessa; Topham, Lucas; Sukosd, Melissa; Binik, Yitzchak M; Pfaus, James G; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2014-04-23

    Chronic pain is often associated with sexual dysfunction, suggesting that pain can reduce libido. We find that inflammatory pain reduces sexual motivation, measured via mounting behavior and/or proximity in a paced mating paradigm, in female but not male laboratory mice. Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or λ-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. Sexual behavior was significantly reduced in female mice experiencing pain (in all combinations); male mice similarly treated displayed unimpeded sexual motivation. Pain-induced reductions in female sexual behavior were observed in the absence of sex differences in pain-related behavior, and could be rescued by the analgesic, pregabalin, and the libido-enhancing drugs, apomorphine and melanotan-II. These findings suggest that the well known context sensitivity of the human female libido can be explained by evolutionary rather than sociocultural factors, as female mice can be similarly affected.

  13. Intimacy and sexual risk behaviour in serodiscordant male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remien, R H; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Wagner, G

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated individual-level determinants of HIV sexual risk behaviour. Very little research has been conducted to identify couple-level factors associated with unsafe sexual behaviour. As part of a three-year study of more than 100 serodiscordant male couples, we conducted an in-depth qualitative study of 15 Latino and non-Latino male couples via focus groups and a follow-up telephone survey. We identified the sexual risk behaviour that occurs in these male couples, their perceptions of susceptibility for HIV transmission, and numerous couple-level and intrapsychic factors associated with their risk behaviour. We also describe the challenges confronted by these couples and barriers to emotional intimacy and couple satisfaction. Finally, we provide suggestions for ways of intervening to facilitate improved couple functioning, pleasure, satisfaction, and communication, and ways of reducing sexual risk behaviour without loss of emotional intimacy.

  14. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Sexual Objectification of Pinoy Males in Billboard Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agon Pacoma Marc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Male models in skimpy undergarments showing their Adonislike physique, presented in sexualized poses with disturbing bulges or crotches is one of the common landscapes in the Philippine advertising today. The author found the conflicting idea of a nation rich in morals, values and principles but endure high profanity or obscenity through sexualized male bodies as seen in billboards of fashion brands and gratification of visual desire among its spectators. Advertising promotes this phenomenon stimulating the idea that sex truly sells, male models are objectified as sexual objects capturing consumers’ attention resulting to persuasion and eventual consumption of the product. Ads showing Pinoy males’ chiselled bodies in silhouettes communicating sexual innuendos constitute a contemporary marketing technique; a ploy for companies to earn profit yet an avenue for public scrutiny and moral outcry.

  16. Effect of alcohol treatment on sexual behaviour of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Abraham, E; Velasco Plaza, A; Marin, B

    1991-08-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol treatment on sexual parameters of the male rats was studied. The results showed that the ingestion of cognac leads to significant alterations in the sexual behaviour of the male rat. Sexual parameters indicated that sexual behaviour is drastically affected by cognac consumption. The parameters affected were the number of ejaculation; initial latency, ejaculation latencies and neuromotor activities which showed significant variation (P less than 0.01). Further, mounts without, with and total intromissions and refractory periods were significantly affected by alcohol consumption. In addition, the percentage of tests during which an ejaculation was observed was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) in the alcohol-treated males when compared with control groups.

  17. Sexual and cardiovascular correlates of male unfaithfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Bandini, Elisa; Rastrelli, Giulia; Corona, Giovanni; Monami, Matteo; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2012-06-01

    Definitions of unfaithfulness and its consequences vary across different cultures, religions, and legal jurisdictions; however, having extramarital affairs is associated in most societies with a stigma. Therefore, the study of this sensitive topic is extremely complex, and its prevalence is often underestimated. To offer a summary of available data in literature about unfaithfulness. An extensive Medline search was performed including the following words "unfaithfulness,"extramarital affairs,"infidelity,"men." The search, up to December 4, 2011, was restricted to English-language articles. We reported literature data on the prevalence of unfaithfulness and on related psychobiological, sexual, and risk factors. Some surveys reported that 1.5-4% of married men had extramarital coitus in any given year, others that 23.2% of men have cheated during their current relationship. Different studies reported a lifetime prevalence of unfaithfulness between 15% and 50%. With respect to factors related to unfaithfulness, several authors reported that men with extramarital affairs more frequently have a dysfunctional primary relationship, in both relational and sexual terms. In addition, parenthood, as well as conflicts within the family, seem to be associated with a higher risk of having an affair. Furthermore, unfaithful men display a higher androgenization, larger testis volume, lower prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire, and better sexual functioning. Only few studies have evaluated the correlation between infidelity and cardiovascular risk, reporting that having an extramarital affair could have a negative impact on cardiac morbidity and mortality. Several interpersonal, sexual, and biological factors are associated with having extramarital affairs. Unfaithfulness in men seems to be associated with a higher risk of major cardiovascular events. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Male Violence and Sexual Intimidation in a Wild Primate Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniel, Alice; Cowlishaw, Guy; Huchard, Elise

    2017-07-24

    Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We found support for all three main predictions of the sexual coercion hypothesis [7]: male aggression (1) is greatest against cycling females, (2) is costly and represents the main source of injuries for cycling females, and (3) increases male mating success with their victims in the future. Detailed analysis of chronological sequences between aggression and matings ruled out other coercive mechanisms, such as short-term harassment and punishment, by showing that aggression and matings are temporally decoupled. This decoupling may explain why some forms of sexual violence have been largely overlooked in well-studied animal populations despite their likely impact on the fitness of both sexes. Finally, we found no support for alternative hypotheses such as a female preference for aggressive males [8, 9]. This new, detailed study of the forms and intensity of sexual intimidation in a wild primate suggests that it may be widespread across mammalian societies, with important implications for understanding the evolution of mate choice and sexual conflict in mammals, as well as the origins of human sexual violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness: a female strategy to reduce male sexual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brask, Josefine B; Croft, Darren P; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K

    2012-05-07

    Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non-receptive females still showed this preference, suggesting that they use information from chemical cues to assess the sexual attractiveness of potential female partners. Receptive females in contrast showed no such preferences. Our results demonstrate that females can decrease male harassment by associating with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others to their advantage; in this case, to reduce the sexual harassment they experience.

  20. Male circumcision does not result in inferior perceived male sexual function - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Düring, Signe; Frimodt-Møller, Cai

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The debate on non-medical male circumcision has gaining momentum during the past few years. The objective of this systematic review was to determine if circumcision, medical indication or age at circumcision had an impact on perceived sexual function in males. METHODS: Systematic...... seemed to cause less sexual dysfunction than circumcision later in life. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis of inferior male sexual function following circumcision could not be supported by the findings of this systematic review. However, further studies on medical circumcision and age at circumcision...

  1. Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamang Jyotsna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Results Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39% reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57% had used condom at the first sexual intercourse. The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15–19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5 more

  2. Religious Correlates of Male Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether religious beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males of differing sexual experience and to determine whether such beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males differing in frequency of contraceptive use. Results are discussed and implications for health educators are set forth. (MT)

  3. Conception on maleness within conjugal and sexual contexts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conception on maleness within conjugal and sexual contexts and involvement in family planning /household tasks among males in delta state. ... On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that the nation's educational curricular be reviewed to include teachings that will encourage men to participate in household ...

  4. Assortative sexual mixing patterns in male-female and male-male partnerships in Melbourne, Australia: implications for HIV and sexually transmissible infection transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Read, Tim R H; Law, Matthew G; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Assortative mixing patterns have become a new and important focus in HIV/sexually transmissible infection (STI) research in recent years. There are very limited data on sexual mixing patterns, particularly in an Australian population. Male-female and male-male partnerships attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 2011 and 2014 were included. Correlation of age between two individuals within a partnership was examined by using Spearman's rank correlation. The Newman's assortativity coefficient was used as an aggregate quantitative measurement of sexual mixing for number of partners and condom use. 1165 male-female and 610 male-male partnerships were included in the analysis. There was a strong positive correlation of age in both male-female (rho=0.709; Ppartnerships (rho=0.553; Ppartnerships (r=0.264; 95% CI: 0.218-0.309). There was a stronger assortative mixing pattern for condom use in male-male (r=0.517, 95% CI: 0.465-0.569) compared with male-female (r=0.382; 95% CI: 0.353-0.412) partnerships. Male-female and male-male partnerships have a high assortativity mixing pattern for age, number of partners and condom use. The sexual mixing pattern is not purely assortative, and hence it may lead to increased HIV and STI transmission in certain risk groups.

  5. A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G; Bryan, Mara B; Brown, C Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2013-07-15

    Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the 'rope' tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, PSexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.

  6. Guest editorial: Pharmacology of male sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    The introduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the mid 1980s has led not only to an increased attention to antidepressant-induced sexual side effects, but also to a paradigm shift in the theory of premature ejaculation (PE). Because of their ejaculation delaying effects,

  7. Male Pseudoheterosexuality and Minimal Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutstadt, Joseph P.

    1976-01-01

    There is often a correlation between "pseudoheterosexuality" and minor sexual dysfunction. Insight alone is not sufficient to provide relief, but when the patient can be helped to a comfortable acceptance of his homosexual feelings as a normal and healthy facet of his personality, very often the dysfunction is relieved. (Author)

  8. Characteristics and allowed behaviors of gay male couples’ sexual agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jason W.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that gay male couples’ sexual agreements may affect their risk for HIV. Few U.S. studies have collected dyadic data nationally from gay male couples to assess what sexual behaviors they allow to occur by agreement type and the sequence of when certain behaviors occur within their relationships. In our cross-sectional study, dyadic data from a convenience sample of 361 male couples were collected electronically throughout the U.S. by using paid Facebook ads. Findings from ou...

  9. Males as sexual assault victims: multiple levels of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L

    The definite and persistent phenomenon of sexual assault upon males is virtually ignored in the literature, although incidence data reported here suggest the greater scope of the problem. The avoidance of the subject of sexual assault on males creates a negative environment for victims. While the motivation of assailants is briefly discussed, the article focuses on the psychological aftermath for sexual assault victims. A paradigm is offered, consisting of "Set-up," "Attack," and "Aftermath" phases. Male victims suffer "Rape Trauma Syndrome" as described for females, as well as various forms of stigmatization and secondary trauma. Differences and similarities between male and female victims are identified. Victim responses are discussed as they proceed through several stages, with implications for appropriate interventions on both the clinical and community levels. The article concludes with an extensive bibliography.

  10. The diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male and the paths of male sexual desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Tramontano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM and the controversies and disputes over it, based on the re-medicalization of sexuality. The analysis is based on interviews with urologists and endocrinologists, and the different approaches of these two medical specialties elucidate divergent conceptions of body and sexuality present in the biomedical knowledge, and the struggle for hegemony in the scientific field. By comparing the meanings attributed to ADAM and to another male sexual dysfunction, the Erectile Dysfunction (ED, we intend to reflect about the difficulties inherent in the biological reduction of sexuality and the reiteration of gender norms in the medical discourse concerning the male body and sexuality.

  11. Homeless and incarcerated: an epidemiological study from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Fliers, Joelle M; Frankish, Jim; Somers, Julian; Schuetz, Christian G; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Incarceration and homelessness are closely related yet studied rarely. This article aimed to study the incarcerated homeless and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the nonincarcerated homeless. It also aimed to describe the homeless population and its significant involvement with the criminal justice and enforcement system. Data were derived from the British Columbia Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban center Vancouver (n = 250), Victoria (n = 150) and Prince George (n = 100). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Incarcerated homeless were more often male (66.6%), were in foster care (56.4%) and had greater substance use especially of crack cocaine (69.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (78.7%). They also had greater scores on emotional and sexual abuse domains of CTQ, indicating greater abuse. A higher prevalence of depression (57%) and psychotic disorders (55.3%) was also observed. Risk factors identified which had a positive predictor value were male gender (p Homeless individuals may be traumatized at an early age, put into foster care, rendered homeless, initiated into substance use and re-traumatized on repeated occasions in adult life, rendering them vulnerable to incarceration and mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Detained Male Adolescent Offender's Emotional, Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Profiles and Their Associations to Psychiatric Disorders and Criminal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.

  13. Male mate choice, male quality, and the potential for sexual selection on female traits under polygyny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Servedio, Maria R

    2017-01-01

    Observations of male mate choice are increasingly common, even in species with traditional sex roles. In addition, female traits that bear the hallmarks of secondary sexual characters are increasingly reported. These concurrent empirical trends have led to the repeated inference that, even under polygyny, male mate choice is a mechanism of sexual selection on female traits. It is often either assumed or argued that in these cases females are competing for males of superior "quality"; females might experience sexual selection under polygyny if they compete for mates that provide either direct or indirect benefits. However, the theoretical foundation of this testable hypothesis remains largely uninvestigated. We develop a population genetic model to probe the logic of this hypothesis and demonstrate that, contrary to common inferences, male mate choice, variation in male quality (in the form of a direct fecundity benefit to females), and female ornamentation can coexist in a population without any sexual selection on female ornamentation taking place at all. Furthermore, even in a "best case scenario" where high quality males with a preference for ornamented females are able to mate disproportionately more often with them, the evolution of female traits by sexual selection may be relatively weak. We discuss the implication of these findings for ongoing empirical and theoretical research on the evolution of sexual-signaling in females. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Prenatal Hypoxia Ischemia Increases Male Rat Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcia M D; Sab, Ive M; Silva, Monique A; Santos, Denyse A S; Ferraz, Marcos R

    2015-10-01

    Research consistently indicates an association between prenatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and mortality and chronic neurological diseases in newborns. HI can cause permanent effects, including mental retardation, motor impairment, learning disabilities, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy. Moreover, little is known about the relationship between HI and sexual behavior. The aims of this study are to examine whether HI is associated with changes in sexual behavior. HI was induced by clamping the uterine arteries of pregnant rats. The arteries were clamped for 45 minutes on the 18th day of gestation (HI group). Shams received laparotomy and anesthesia only. Pups were born at term. At 90 days of age, sexual behavior was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferonni correction. The main outcome measures of sexual response were standard sexual behavior, homosexual behavior, and sexual attempt on nonreceptive females. The stimulatory effect of HI on male rat sexual behavior has been shown in various experimental models; these animals showed reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies; increased copulatory efficiency; and homosexual mounting. Additionally, there was an increase in fighting in trying to mount an unreceptive female. Our results indicate that HI had a long-term effect on sexual behavior despite exhibiting motor skill impairment. Accordingly, injuries during the fetal period may cause behavioral problems in adulthood. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Allometry and sexually dimorphic traits in male anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Hostedde, A I; Kuula, S; Martin, C; Schank, C C M; Lesbarrères, D

    2011-05-01

    Allometry of secondary sexual traits has been the subject of recent debate, and the generality of positive allometry and its association with sexual selection have been recently questioned. Whereas some studies suggest an almost universal positive allometry for traits under sexual selection and isometry or a negative allometry for traits not under such pressure, other studies argue that this pattern results from the study of exaggerated (ornamental) traits. To answer the call for an examination of the allometry of less-exaggerated sexually selected traits, we have examined morphological data from 14 sexually dimorphic traits and six monomorphic traits from three anuran species. Although we found evidence of positive allometry in male secondary sexual traits of several species and populations, not all nonsexual traits were isometric or exhibited negative allometry. Furthermore, our results indicate that larger traits in the populations that we studied were not associated with greater allometric slopes. Therefore, our study is in line with the contention suggesting no specific kind of allometric pattern for sexual and nonsexual characters, and we can only advocate for further investigation of trait allometry and sexual selection to understand the complexity underlying the evolution of allometry in sexual traits. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Holden, Alan E C; Shain, Rochelle N; Perdue, Sondra T

    2009-12-01

    We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls of age 15 to 19 years, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women of age 20 to 41 years, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone, a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (P sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was "really important" for the teen to have their baby (P = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (P = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention.

  17. Divergent sexual selection via male competition: ecology is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, A C R; Boughman, J W

    2013-08-01

    Sexual selection and ecological differences are important drivers of speciation. Much research has focused on female choice, yet the role of male competition in ecological speciation has been understudied. Here, we test how mating habitats impact sexual selection and speciation through male competition. Using limnetic and benthic species of threespine stickleback fish, we find that different mating habitats select differently on male traits through male competition. In mixed habitat with both vegetated and open areas, selection favours two trait combinations of male body size and nuptial colour: large with little colour and small with lots of colour. This matches what we see in reproductively isolated stickleback species, suggesting male competition could promote trait divergence and reproductive isolation. In contrast, when only open habitat exists, selection favours one trait combination, large with lots of colour, which would hinder trait divergence and reproductive isolation. Other behavioural mechanisms in male competition that might promote divergence, such as avoiding aggression with heterospecifics, are insufficient to maintain separate species. This work highlights the importance of mating habitats in male competition for both sexual selection and speciation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin

  19. Epidemiology of sexual dysfunction in the male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, M E; Weidner, W; Brähler, E

    2006-08-01

    Sexual dysfunctions have found an increasing attention in recent epidemiological studies of the ageing male. The purpose of this paper is to review the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and risk factors based on community samples. Studies have not only demonstrated a strong age-related incline of erectile dysfunction (ED), but also of ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders (particularly a reduced or absent ejaculation). Despite a declining sexual desire, sexual interest remains present in old age. Lower urinary tract symptoms have been identified as strong risk factors for ED along with cardiovascular, metabolic, psychiatric disorders and lifestyle factors. The wide range of prevalence rate estimates is likely because of different definitions and criteria of sexual dysfunctions. More research is needed on other dysfunctions besides ED and on the partner relationship as a major determinant of sexual activity and satisfaction. The interrelationship between risk factors calls for interdisciplinary prevention and treatment approaches. As disability-free life expectancy keeps increasing, the need to identify, adequately assess and treat male sexual dysfunction as an important impediment to quality of life most likely will become even more pressing.

  20. Sexually antagonistic selection on genetic variation underlying both male and female same-sex sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; You, Tao; Minano, Maravillas R; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-05-13

    Intralocus sexual conflict, arising from selection for different alleles at the same locus in males and females, imposes a constraint on sex-specific adaptation. Intralocus sexual conflict can be alleviated by the evolution of sex-limited genetic architectures and phenotypic expression, but pleiotropic constraints may hinder this process. Here, we explored putative intralocus sexual conflict and genetic (co)variance in a poorly understood behavior with near male-limited expression. Same-sex sexual behaviors (SSBs) generally do not conform to classic evolutionary models of adaptation but are common in male animals and have been hypothesized to result from perception errors and selection for high male mating rates. However, perspectives incorporating sex-specific selection on genes shared by males and females to explain the expression and evolution of SSBs have largely been neglected. We performed two parallel sex-limited artificial selection experiments on SSB in male and female seed beetles, followed by sex-specific assays of locomotor activity and male sex recognition (two traits hypothesized to be functionally related to SSB) and adult reproductive success (allowing us to assess fitness consequences of genetic variance in SSB and its correlated components). Our experiments reveal both shared and sex-limited genetic variance for SSB. Strikingly, genetically correlated responses in locomotor activity and male sex-recognition were associated with sexually antagonistic fitness effects, but these effects differed qualitatively between male and female selection lines, implicating intralocus sexual conflict at both male- and female-specific genetic components underlying SSB. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that widespread pleiotropy generates pervasive intralocus sexual conflict governing the expression of SSBs, suggesting that SSB in one sex can occur due to the expression of genes that carry benefits in the other sex.

  1. Pelvic floor and sexual male dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pischedda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito- urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life.

  2. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  3. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  4. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  5. Sexual Dysfunction and Sexual Behaviors in a Sample of Brazilian Male Substance Misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between self-reported sexual dysfunction, sexual behavior, and severity of addiction of drug users. A cross-sectional design study was conducted at an inpatient addiction treatment unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 508 male drug users. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and severity of dependence were evaluated.The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 37.2% and premature ejaculation was 63.8%. Men with sexual dysfunction presented from moderate to severe level of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs of dependence. The findings from this study are particularly relevant identifying those sociodemographic factors, severity of drug use, and sexual behavior are related to men who experience sexual dysfunction. Health promotion and motivational interventions on sexual health targeted to male drug users can contribute in reducing these at-risk behaviors. More interdisciplinary research is desirable in future in considering men's sexual health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Sexual coercion and courtship by male western gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Robbins, Andrew M; Robbins, Martha M

    2016-01-01

    Sexual coercion and courtship are possible explanations for why male primates may direct agonistic behavior towards females. If so, then in species where females exhibit mate choice by transferring between males: (a) females who are not lactating (potential migrants) should receive more agonistic behavior than other females, (b) males should exhibit more agonistic behavior towards females during intergroup encounters than when no rival males are nearby, and (c) males should show more herding behavior when their group contains potential migrant females. We tested those hypotheses in a population of approximately 150 western gorillas at Mbeli Bai, northern Congo. We also tested whether difference in male phenotypic traits influenced their rates of agonistic behavior towards females. Of the 332 observed cases of male agonistic behavior towards females, 29% represented feeding competition, 7 % involved interventions in conflicts between females, and the remaining 64 % were considered potential evidence of sexual coercion and/or courtship. After excluding the cases of feeding competition and intervention, a multivariate analysis indicated that potential migrant females received agonistic behavior at a statistically significantly higher rate than other adult females. Females also received agonistic behavior at a significantly higher rate during intergroup encounters than at other times. Herding occurred during 22% of the 292 dyadic interunit encounters, and was significantly more likely to occur when the group contained a potential migrant female, but was not influenced by the number of adult females or the type of group encountered. Males with shorter body lengths had significantly higher rates of aggression, but phenotypic traits were not significantly correlated with herding. Collectively, our results are consistent with sexual coercion and/or courtship as an explanation for male-to-female agonistic behavior, but we are unable to distinguish between those two male

  7. Quality of Sexual Life in Males with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of sexual life of males with allergic rhinitis(AR. Material and Method: 40 patients with AR diagnosed with skin prick test and 40 control subjects with no evidence of allergy completed the study. International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire (IIEF was used to evaluate the quality of sexual life of the subjects. Results: The mean scores of erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction for AR group were significantly lower than control group(p=0.0001. Discussion: AR has negative effects on quality of life. The effective treatment of AR by the clinician will also avoid these concomitting social, sexual and sleep disturbances.

  8. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background- Sexual abuse and exploitation of male children is one of the emerging social problems affecting the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of children in Addis Ababa. The magnitude of the problem seems much worse among the street boys because of their precarious living conditions. However, very ...

  9. Living with a Female Sexual Abuse Survivor: Male Partners' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Brenda; Lein, Laura

    1996-01-01

    Reports the results of a qualitative study which addressed the effects of women's childhood sexual abuse on male partners and the couple relationship. Partners (n=6) expressed concerns about individually-focused survivors' therapy which can create strains in already burdened relationships. Suggestions are presented for a more systemic approach…

  10. Fear of sexually transmitted infections among women with male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fear of sexually transmitted infections among women with male migrant partners – relationship to oscillatory migration pattern and risk-avoidance behaviour. ... and their rural partners, the social and economic dependency of the women on their migrant partners, and the women's social responsibility to bear children.

  11. Male secondary sexual characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bálint, Zsolt; Heath, Alan; Katona, Gergely; Kertész, Krisztián; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera). Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  12. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    discuss matters of sexuality with his female children. This cultural belief not only protects men from discussing issues of reproductive health; it contributes to the general lack of male involvement in reproductive health. Although the majority of participants mentioned that most married men. (especially the older generation) ...

  13. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... selection. Using a set of experimental populations in which the transmission of genetic material had been restricted to males for 82 generations, we show that CHCs did not evolve, providing experimental evidence for the absence of current intralocus sexual conflict over these traits. The absence of ongoing ...

  14. Antihypertensive Drugs and the Sexually Active Hypertensive Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) has made the initiations of therapy and continued therapy increasingly problematic in the management of the hypertensive male. There are reports suggesting beneficial effects of angiotensin II antagonists on sexual function. The effects of losartan on ED in Nigerian hypertensive men ...

  15. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  16. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, DMAB; Wijesinghe, PS; Ratnasooriya, WD; Wimalasena, S

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. AIM: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. RESULTS: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47) vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66), P libido was evident in the same group, but this effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction. PMID:19881149

  17. Males that drop a sexually selected weapon grow larger testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Emberts, Zachary; Sasson, Daniel A; Miller, Christine W

    2018-01-01

    Costly sexually selected weapons are predicted to trade off with postcopulatory traits, such as testes. Although weapons can be important for achieving access to females, individuals of some species can permanently drop (i.e. autotomize) their weapons, without regeneration, to escape danger. We capitalized on this natural behavior to experimentally address whether the loss of a sexually selected weapon leads to increased testes investment in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae). In a second experiment, we measured offspring production for males that lost a weapon during development. As predicted, males that dropped a hind limb during development grew significantly larger testes than the control treatments. Hind-limb autotomy did not result in the enlargement of other nearby traits. Our results are the first to experimentally demonstrate that males compensate for natural weapon loss by investing more in testes. In a second experiment we found that females paired with males that lost a hind limb had 40% lower egg hatching success than females paired with intact males, perhaps because of lower mating receptivity to males with a lost limb. Importantly, in those cases where viable offspring were produced, males missing a hind limb produced 42% more offspring than males with intact limbs. These results suggest that the loss of a hind-limb weapon can, in some cases, lead to greater fertilization success. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  19. DIFFERENCES IN PREDICTORS OF SEXUAL SATISFACTION AND IN SEXUAL SATISFACTION BETWEEN FEMALE AND MALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ziherl, Slavko; Masten, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper reports on some factors correlated with sexual satisfaction and on differences between female and male university students. Subjects and methods: A convenience sample of 174 female and 74 male Slovene undergraduate university students was studied. Results: It has been found that an increased frequency of sexual interaction and agreeableness in sexual interactions increase sexual satisfaction, while a desired frequency of sexual interactions and estimation of...

  20. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Family Roles: A Comparison of Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others

    This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…

  1. Analysis of sexual behaviour in male rabbits across successive tests leading to sexual exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Various parameters of sexual behaviour were studied in ten male rabbits daily tested with sexually receptive females (ovariectomized, given estradiol benzoate s.c. 5 µg/day.  The aim of this study was to analyse rabbit sexual behaviour during successive tests leading to sexual exhaustion.  We allowed copulation ad libitum and determined if sexual satiety was reached within a day and sexual exhaustion across several days.  The pair was allowed to copulate freely until the male failed to show sexual interest in that female for 30 minutes. The female was then removed and replaced by another; this procedure was repeated using as many does as needed, until the male showed no interest in any female for 2 hours. Scent-marking (chinning was also recorded, before and after the copulation test.  This whole procedure was repeated daily until the male showed no sexual behaviour at all on a given day.  Within a test, copulation ad libitum led to a gradual increase in the time interval between successive mounts and ejaculations, regardless of the day of testing.  Such increments predicted that the buck was reaching sexual satiety.  The “miss” rate (i.e., the proportion of mounts that did not culminate in ejaculation significantly increased from a median of 25 on the first day to 55 on the last day of testing.  The mean time to reach copulatory inactivity decreased from 4 hrs on the first day to 1 hr on the last day.  The total number of ejaculations within a test decreased from an average of 22 to 6 (first vs last day, respectively and the number of chin marks was reduced by 69% compared with pre-mating values, regardless of the day of testing.  All bucks eventually stopped copulating after a variable number of days (range=2-15 days.  We concluded that, following copulation ad libitum with  several females, male rabbits reach sexual satiety (i.e., they are unable to continue copulating on the same day and, after several days, they also attain

  2. Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

    2004-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  3. Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Guren, Marianne G.; Dahl, Alv A.; Skovlund, Eva; Balteskard, Lise; Carlsen, Erik; Fossa, Sophie D.; Tveit, Kjell Magne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

  4. Selection for alternative male reproductive tactics alters intralocus sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesnar Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Miler, Krzysztof; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) arises when fitness optima for a shared trait differ between the sexes; such conflict may help maintain genetic variation within populations. Sex-limited expression of sexually antagonistic traits may help resolve the conflict, but the extent of this resolution remains a subject of debate. In species with alternative male reproductive tactics, unresolved conflict should manifest more in a more sexually dimorphic male phenotype. We tested this prediction in the bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini), a species in which aggressive fighters coexist with benign scramblers. To do this, we established replicated lines in which we increased the proportion of each of the alternative male morphs using artificial selection. After approximately 40 generations, the proportion of fighters and scramblers stabilized at >0.9 in fighter- and scrambler-selected lines, respectively. We then measured several female fitness components. As predicted by IASC theory, female fecundity and longevity were lower in lines selected for fighters and higher in lines selected for scramblers. This finding indicates that sexually selected phenotypes are associated with an ontogenetic conflict that is not easily resolved. Furthermore, we suggest that IASC may be an important mechanism contributing to the maintenance of genetic variation in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Sexual orientation related differences in cortical thickness in male individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Abé

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.

  6. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females.

  7. CE: Military Sexual Trauma in Male Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerlin, Denise M; Kovalesky, Andrea; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    : The experience of military sexual trauma (MST), which can result from assault, battery, or harassment of a sexual nature, may jeopardize the mental health of service members as well as that of their family members, colleagues, and community members. Although a greater proportion of female than male service members are subjected to MST, the Department of Defense estimates that the absolute numbers of affected men and women, across all ranks and branches of military service, are nearly equal because roughly 85% of military members are men. Little research has explored the effects of MST on men. This article discusses the unique ways in which men may experience MST, and examines how social stereotypes of masculinity, myths surrounding sexual assault, and military culture and structure often influence a man's interpretation of an attack and his likelihood of reporting the incident or seeking treatment. It describes current treatments for MST-related mental health conditions and addresses implications for nurses and other health care professionals.

  8. Male Japanese quails with female brains do not show male sexual behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.

    2003-01-01

    During embryonic development, gonadal steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens) are thought to organize the sexual differentiation of the brain in the heterogametic sexes of higher vertebrates (males in mammals, females in birds). Brain differentiation of the homogametic sexes is thought to proceed

  9. Promoting sexual health: practical guidance on male condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, Jason

    Condoms are the only form of contraception that, when used correctly, can reduce the risk of pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted infections. This article outlines strategies for promoting correct male condom use. The availability, variety and history of condoms are explored. Possible reasons for people not wanting to use condoms are examined and advantages of condom use are provided. The author suggests ways in which healthcare workers can promote condom use and improve the experience and efficacy of this contraceptive device.

  10. Promiscuity Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescent in Wirobrajan

    OpenAIRE

    Isnugroho, Hernawan; Triratnawati, Atik; Supriyati, Supriyati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of obtain a description of the factors that encourage the emergence of sexual behavior promiscuity and its impact on male adolescent in Wirobrajan, Yogyakarta. A case study was conducted in this study. The subject selection was done by snowball sampling technique. The data were collected by observation in August 2013. Research showed that first, the influence of peer group or peers is very dominant in the behavior of teen promiscuity. Secondly, the lack of adolescent awareness abo...

  11. SRY alone can induce normal male sexual differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.; Torres, L.; Cervantes, A. [HGM SSa. Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-30

    Most individuals with the rare 46,XX male {open_quotes}syndrome{close_quotes} arise due to an unequal interchange between Xp and Yp termini during paternal meiosis. The pattern of Y-sequences in these patients varies considerably, but very few cases have been reported showing only SRY. The phenotype in these patients is also variable ranging from severe impairment of the external genitalia through hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism to occasional normal male phenotype. We report a Mexican 46,XX male patient without genital ambiguities in whom DNA analysis showed the presence of SRY and the absence of ZFY. We conclude that in this case SRY alone was enough for complete male sexual differentiation. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Prenatal undernutrition disrupted the sexual maturation, but not the sexual behavior, in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Iwasa, Takeshi; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tokui, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Sumika; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group. The mUN mothers received 50% of the amount of the daily food intake of the mNN mothers. Preputial separation and sexual behavior were observed in randomly selected pups of the mNN and mUN groups. The body weight of the mothers was significantly lighter in the mUN group than in the mNN group. Similarly, the pups in the mUN group showed a significantly lower body weight than those in the mNN group from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 15. The preputial separation day was significantly delayed in the mUN group, compared to the mNN group. Sexual behavior did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition delayed sexual maturation, but did not suppress sexual behavior, in mature male rats.

  13. Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ortiz-López, P; Gutiérrez-Ortíz, J; Martínez-Mota, L

    2009-06-25

    In folk medicine, Turnera diffusa Wild (Turnera diffusa, Turneraceae) is considered as an aphrodisiac, but its ability to restore copulation in sexually inhibited subjects has not been reported. To determine whether Turnera diffusa recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats and to identify the main components in an aqueous extract. SExh males were treated with Turnera diffusa, 20-80 mg/kg, yohimbine, 2 mg/kg, or vehicle. Yohimbine and Turnera diffusa (80 mg/kg) significantly increased the percentage of males achieving one ejaculatory series and resuming a second one. In addition, Turnera diffusa significantly reduced the post-ejaculatory interval. These effects were not associated to an increase in locomotor activity or anxiety-like behaviors. The HPLC-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence of caffeine, arbutine, and flavonoids as the main compounds in the active extract. The results support the use of Turnera diffusa as an aphrodisiac in traditional medicine and suggest possible therapeutic properties of Turnera diffusa on sexual dysfunction. The flavonoids present in active extract may participate in its pro-sexual effect, which is analogous to those produced by yohimbine, suggesting a shared mechanism of action.

  14. Differences in predictors of sexual satisfaction and in sexual satisfaction between female and male university students in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Slavko; Masten, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on some factors correlated with sexual satisfaction and on differences between female and male university students. A convenience sample of 174 female and 74 male Slovene undergraduate university students was studied. It has been found that an increased frequency of sexual interaction and agreeableness in sexual interactions increase sexual satisfaction, while a desired frequency of sexual interactions and estimation of a partner's agreeableness in sexual interactions decrease sexual satisfaction. Sex was not found to be an important predictor of sexual satisfaction. Male students' agreeableness in sexual interaction is significantly higher than that of female students. Male students are significantly more conservative in their attitudes towards abortion and concerning sexual myths. Female students are less satisfied with their sexual life than their male colleagues. In conclusion, the findings of the study demonstrate that there are some differences in problems with sexuality between both sexes. Female students are in general more dissatisfied. On the basis of the findings of the present research it should be possible to plan interventions for increasing satisfaction with sexuality, specifically for each gender.

  15. Intrasexual competition underlies sexual selection on male breeding coloration in the orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Muchu; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Elaborate, sexually dimorphic traits are widely thought to evolve under sexual selection through female preference, male?male competition, or both. The orangethroat darter (Etheostoma spectabile) is a sexually dichromatic fish in which females exhibit no preferences for male size or coloration. We tested whether these traits affect individual reproductive success in E.?spectabile when multiple males are allowed to freely compete for a female. The quality and quantity of male colorati...

  16. Pheromone evolution and sexual behavior in Drosophila are shaped by male sensory exploitation of other males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soon Hwee; Shankar, Shruti; Shikichi, Yasumasa; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Mori, Kenji; Yew, Joanne Y

    2014-02-25

    Animals exhibit a spectacular array of traits to attract mates. Understanding the evolutionary origins of sexual features and preferences is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, and the mechanisms remain highly controversial. In some species, females choose mates based on direct benefits conferred by the male to the female and her offspring. Thus, female preferences are thought to originate and coevolve with male traits. In contrast, sensory exploitation occurs when expression of a male trait takes advantage of preexisting sensory biases in females. Here, we document in Drosophila a previously unidentified example of sensory exploitation of males by other males through the use of the sex pheromone CH503. We use mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and behavioral analysis to demonstrate that an antiaphrodisiac produced by males of the melanogaster subgroup also is effective in distant Drosophila relatives that do not express the pheromone. We further show that species that produce the pheromone have become less sensitive to the compound, illustrating that sensory adaptation occurs after sensory exploitation. Our findings provide a mechanism for the origin of a sex pheromone and show that sensory exploitation changes male sexual behavior over evolutionary time.

  17. The association of adverse childhood experiences with mid-life depressive symptoms and quality of life among incarcerated males: exploring multiple mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Parisi, Jeanine M; Thorpe, Roland; Tanner, Elizabeth; Gross, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To explore the association of experiencing death, trauma, and abuse during childhood with depressive symptoms and quality of life at mid-life among incarcerated men and to understand how current social support and coping strategies mediate the impact of childhood trauma histories on mental health. Study participants were 192 male inmates in a maximum security prison. Participants completed measures of adverse childhood experiences related to death, trauma, and abuse, and depressive symptoms and quality of life. Data were analyzed using multiple mediation modeling. Men who reported having experienced adverse childhood experiences reported more depressive symptoms and lower quality of life than their counterparts. The results showed that in models both unadjusted and adjusted for age, race, education, number of years served, and whether the inmate had a life sentence, the association between adverse childhood experiences and quality of life were partially explained by the total of the indirect effects (point estimate = -.5052; CI.95 = -1.0364, -.0429 and point estimate = -.7792; CI.95 = -1.6369, -.0381), primarily via social support. However, the associations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms were not explained by social support and coping. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with deleterious mental health effects in later life. Social support and coping partially mediate the association between adverse childhood experiences and quality of life. The high prevalence of childhood trauma among aging prison inmates warrants attention to increasing social support mechanisms to improve mental health.

  18. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos,Jesús L.; Salazar,Victor C.; Brindis,Claire D.

    2000-01-01

    To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was l...

  19. Nervous control of male sexual drive in the hermaphroditic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, P. A.C.M.; Jansen, R. F.; Koene, J. M.; Ter Maat, A.

    We studied the role of the prostate gland in determining the level of male sexual drive in the hermaphroditic pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Male sexual drive is high after a period of social isolation and decreases after copulation as a male. A positive correlation exists between the level of male

  20. Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus Operandi: Victims' Reports of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Keith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences in modus operandi of female and male child sexual abusers by comparing victims of female and male perpetrators. Females were more often involved with males in co-offender situations and were more likely to exploit victims. Males were more sexually invasive and more likely to use bribes to obtain victim…

  1. Correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism and male dimorphism in a clade of neotropical harvestmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Tomkins, Joseph L; Simmons, Leigh W; Machado, Glauco

    2014-06-01

    Secondary sexual traits increase male fitness, but may be maladaptive in females, generating intralocus sexual conflict that is ameliorated through sexual dimorphism. Sexual selection on males may also lead some males to avoid expenditure on secondary sexual traits and achieve copulations using alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). Secondary sexual traits can increase or decrease fitness in males, depending on which ART they employ, generating intralocus tactical conflict that can be ameliorated through male dimorphism. Due to the evolutionary forces acting against intralocus sexual and tactical conflicts, male dimorphism could coevolve with sexual dimorphism, a hypothesis that we tested by investigating these dimorphisms across 48 harvestman species. Using three independently derived phylogenies, we consistently found that the evolution of sexual dimorphism was correlated with that of male dimorphism, and suggest that the major force behind this relationship is the similarity between selection against intralocus sexual conflict and selection against intralocus tactical conflict. We also found that transitions in male dimorphism were more likely in the presence of sexual dimorphism, indicating that if a sexually selected trait arises on an autosome and is expressed in both sexes, its suppression in females probably evolves earlier than its suppression in small males that adopt ARTs. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  3. EFFECT OF MICROSURGICAL VARICOCELECTOMY ON SEXUAL FUNCTIONS OF INFERTILE MALES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Gamidov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicosity of testicular veins is a widespread urological disease and one of the most common reasons of male infertility. In 40-80% changes in sperm parameters may be the only clinical sign of varicocele. Some literature data report on the fact that varicocele leads to the decrease of testosterone level and worsening of erectile function, and varicocelectomy contributes to testosterone levels elevation and improvement of erection. We compared the effect of microsurgical varicocelectomy and stimulation of spermatogenesis on the sperm parameters, sexual function and hormonal levels in males with varicocele suffering from sexual disorders and infertility.Microsurgical varicocelectomy leads to testosterone elevation by 47.2%, decrease of estradiol by -3.1%, of progesterone by -2.3% by the end of the 12th month after operation, and stimulation of spermatogenesis increases testosterone levels by 10.8%, decreases estradiol by -8%, progesterone by -2.8% during the same period. In the group of surgical treatment concentration of spermatozoa increased 2.5 –fold as much, and in the group of stimulation 1.5-fold only. Questionnaire data demonstrated that the mean index “erectile function” in operated patients increased by 46.2%, “orgasm” increased by 21.5%, index “general satisfaction” by 39.3%, index “satisfaction with sexual act” by 35%, index “libido” improved by 26.6%. In the group of stimulation of spermatogenesis similar indexes were as follows: erectile function improved by 20.6%, orgasm by 7.4%, general satisfaction by 8%, satisfaction with sexual act by 13.6%, libido by 8.9%. According to AMS questionnaire in the group of varicocelectomy summarized scores decreased by 8%, in stimulation group only by 2%. Moreover a summarized enlargement of testicular volume was by 41.1% better in the group of operative interventions and by 5.2% in the group of spermatogenesis stimulation.  

  4. Operational sex ratio and density do not affect directional selection on male sexual ornaments and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Lindholm, Anna K; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Demographic parameters including operational sex ratio (OSR) and population density may influence the opportunity for, and strength of sexual selection. Traditionally, male-biased OSRs and high population densities have been thought to increase the opportunity for sexual selection on male sexual traits due to increased male competition for mates. Recent experimental evidence, however, suggests that male-biased OSRs might reduce the opportunity for sexual selection due to increased sexual coercion experienced by females. How OSR, density, and any resultant changes in the opportunity for sexual selection actually affect selection on male sexual traits is unclear. In this study, we independently manipulated OSR and density in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) without altering the number of males present. We recorded male and female behavior and used DNA microsatellite data to assign paternity to offspring and estimate male reproductive success. We then used linear selection analyses to examine the effects of OSR and density on directional sexual selection on male behavioral and morphological traits. We found that females were pursued more by males in male-biased treatments, despite no change in individual male behavior. There were no differences in sexual behavior experienced by females or performed by males in relation to density. Neither OSR nor density significantly altered the opportunity for sexual selection. Also, Although there was significant multivariate linear selection operating on males, neither OSR nor density altered the pattern of sexual selection on male traits. Our results suggest that differences in either OSR or density (independent of the number of males present) are unlikely to alter directional evolutionary change in male sexual traits.

  5. Allocation, not male resistance, increases male frequency during epidemics: a case study in facultatively sexual hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jessica L; Penczykowski, Rachel M; Shocket, Marta S; Griebel, Katherine A; Strauss, Alexander T; Duffy, Meghan A; Cáceres, Carla E; Hall, Spencer R

    2017-11-01

    Why do natural populations vary in the frequency of sexual reproduction? Virulent parasites may help explain why sex is favored during disease epidemics. To illustrate, we show a higher frequency of males and sexually produced offspring in natural populations of a facultative parthenogenetic host during fungal epidemics. In a multi-year survey of 32 lakes, the frequency of males (an index of sex) was higher in populations of zooplankton hosts with larger epidemics. A lake mesocosm experiment established causality: experimental epidemics produced a higher frequency of males relative to disease-free controls. One common explanation for such a pattern involves Red Queen (RQ) dynamics. However, this particular system lacks key genetic specificity mechanisms required for the RQ, so we evaluated two other hypotheses. First, individual females, when stressed by infection, could increase production of male offspring vs. female offspring (a tenant of the "Abandon Ship" theory). Data from a life table experiment supports this mechanism. Second, higher male frequency during epidemics could reflect a purely demographic process (illustrated with a demographic model): males could resist infection more than females (via size-based differences in resistance and mortality). However, we found no support for this resistance mechanism. A size-based model of resistance, parameterized with data, revealed why: higher male susceptibility negated the lower exposure (a size-based advantage) of males. These results suggest that parasite-mediated increases in allocation to sex by individual females, rather than male resistance, increased the frequency of sex during larger disease epidemics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Adrenal Steroids Uniquely Influence Sexual Motivation Behavior in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 4α-androstenedione (4-A have significant biological activity, but it is unclear if the behavioral effects are unique or only reflections of the effects of testosterone (TS. Gonadally intact male Long-Evans rats were assigned to groups to receive supplements of DHEA, 4-A, TS, corticosteroid (CORT, all at 400 µg steroid/kg of body weight, or vehicle only for 5 weeks. All males were tested in a paradigm for sexual motivation that measures time and urinary marks near an inaccessible receptive female. It was found that DHEA and 4-A supplements failed to influence time near the estrous female in the same way TS supplements did, and, indeed, 5 weeks of 4-A administration reduced the time similar to the suppressive effects of CORT after 3 weeks. Further, animals treated with DHEA or 4-A left fewer urinary marks near an estrous female than TS and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA and 4-A are not merely precursors of sex hormones, and provide support for these steroids influencing the brain and behavior in a unique fashion that is dissimilar from the effects of TS on male sexual behavior.

  7. Male Japanese quails with female brains do not show male sexual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Gahr, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    During embryonic development, gonadal steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens) are thought to organize the sexual differentiation of the brain in the heterogametic sexes of higher vertebrates (males in mammals, females in birds). Brain differentiation of the homogametic sexes is thought to proceed by default, not requiring sex hormones for sex-specific organization. In gallinaceous birds such as the Japanese quail, female brain organization is thought to develop via estrogen-dependent...

  8. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    OpenAIRE

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been inv...

  9. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  10. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  11. Exploring Family Factors and Sexual Behaviors in a Group of Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege; Modeste, Naomi; Montgomery, Susan; Fox, Curtis A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined family factors influencing sexual behavior among black and Hispanic adolescent males from San Bernardino County, California's 1996 Youth Survey. Family structure, parent sexual behaviors, and peer sexual norms closely associated with adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Having a sibling who was a teen parent significantly associated…

  12. Pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection favor aggressive, young males in polyandrous groups of red junglefowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Grant C; Spurgin, Lewis G; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-06-01

    A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioral information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection). Pre- and postcopulatory components of male reproductive success covaried positively; males with high mating success also had high paternity share. Two male phenotypes affected male pre- and postcopulatory performance: average aggressiveness toward rival males and age. Aggressive males mated with more females and more often with individual females, resulting in higher sexual exclusivity. Similarly, younger males mated with more females and more often with individual females, suffering less intense sperm competition than older males. Older males had a lower paternity share even allowing for their limited sexual exclusivity, indicating they may produce less competitive ejaculates. These results show that-in these populations-postcopulatory sexual selection reinforces precopulatory sexual selection, consistently promoting younger and more aggressive males. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Sexual selection and the evolution of visually conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits in male monkeys, apes, and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Alan; Dixson, Barnaby; Anderson, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Striking secondary sexual traits, such as brightly colored "sexual skin," capes of hair, beards, and other facial adornments occur in adult males of many anthropoid primate species. This review focuses upon the role of sexual selection in the evolution of these traits. A quantitative approach is used to measure sexually dimorphic characters and to compare their development in the monogamous, polygynous, and multimale-multifemale mating systems of monkeys, apes, and human beings.

  14. Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

    2014-01-01

    Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

  15. Sexual selection on plumage and behavior in an avian hybrid zone: experimental tests of male-male interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D B; Clay, R P; Brumfield, R T; Braun, M J

    2001-07-01

    In western Panama, an unusual hybrid zone exists between white-collared manakins, Manacus candei, and golden-collared manakins, M. vitellinus. Unidirectional introgression of plumage traits from vitellinus into candei has created a region in which all definitively plumaged males have a collar that is lemon-colored. These males are nearly indistinguishable from white-collared candei genetically and morphometrically, but strongly resemble golden-collared vitellinus due to the introgression of secondary sexual plumage traits, particularly the lemon-colored collar. The introgression could be explained by sexual selection for golden-collared traits or by a series of mechanisms that do not invoke sexual selection (e.g., neutral diffusion, dominant allele). Sexual selection on male-male interactions implies behavioral differences among the plumage forms--specifically that golden- and lemon-collared males should be more aggressive than white-collared males. In contrast, the nonsexual hypotheses predict behavioral similarity between lemon- and white-collared males, based on their nearly identical genetics. We tested the sexual selection hypothesis experimentally, by presenting males with taxidermic mounts of the three forms. As response variables, we monitored vocalizations and attacks on the mounts by replicate subject males. Both golden-collared and lemon-collared males were more likely to attack than were white-collared males, as predicted under sexual selection but not by the nonsexual hypotheses. Lemon-collared males were more vocally reactive than either parental form, contrary to the prediction of the nonsexual hypotheses. Our study demonstrates that sexual selection on male-male interactions may play an important role in the dynamics of character evolution and hybrid zones.

  16. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Male Escorts' and Male Clients' Sexual Behavior During Their Last Commercial Sexual Encounter: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Two Online Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

    2016-05-01

    Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission.

  18. Characteristic male urine microbiomes associate with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Nelson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome of the male urogenital tract is poorly described but it has been suggested that bacterial colonization of the male urethra might impact risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI. Previous cultivation-dependent studies showed that a variety of non-pathogenic bacteria colonize the urethra but did not thoroughly characterize these microbiomes or establish links between the compositions of urethral microbiomes and STI.Here, we used 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing to identify bacteria in urine specimens collected from men who lacked symptoms of urethral inflammation but who differed in status for STI. All of the urine samples contained multiple bacterial genera and many contained taxa that colonize the human vagina. Uncultivated bacteria associated with female genital tract pathology were abundant in specimens from men who had STI.Urine microbiomes from men with STI were dominated by fastidious, anaerobic and uncultivated bacteria. The same taxa were rare in STI negative individuals. Our findings suggest that the composition of male urine microbiomes is related to STI.

  19. Male circumcision to reduce sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David J

    2010-07-01

    Three large trials among African heterosexual men in the last decade have confirmed that male circumcision reduces HIV acquisition. This review summarizes recent data regarding circumcision performed primarily to reduce HIV in high-prevalence settings. Male circumcision more than halved the acquisition of HIV in the trials, and was associated with few adverse events and high levels of satisfaction. An additional trial found no direct reduction in HIV risk for female partners of circumcised men. Evidence for an HIV-protective effect of circumcision in men who have sex with men is weak and inconclusive. Acquisition of HSV-2 and high-risk human papillomavirus are both reduced in circumcised heterosexual men, whereas acquisition of common male urethral pathogens are not. Concerns exist that behavioural disinhibition could offset benefits of this intervention, and it remains to be seen whether the low rate of adverse events and adoption of safer sexual practices observed in the trials will be maintained in circumcision programmes outside trial settings. The evidence that circumcision reduces HIV in African heterosexual men is clear. The impedance of political, cultural and logistic factors on expansion of much-needed African circumcision services requires urgent attention.

  20. Parental incarceration and child mortality in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-03-01

    We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent.

  1. Sexual desire in female-to-male transsexual persons: exploration of the role of testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Van Caenegem, Eva; Van De Peer, Fleur; Dedecker, David; Van Houdenhove, Ellen; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2011-08-01

    To describe sexual desire in female-to-male transsexual persons post sex reassignment surgery (SRS). The associations between serum androgen levels and sexual desire are examined. Single center cross-sectional study. Forty-five female-to-male transsexual persons post SRS completed a standardized questionnaire assessing sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory). In addition, participants were asked questions on sexual desire before starting hormone treatment and having SRS. Serum levels of testosterone, LH and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured on fasting morning serum samples. In retrospect, 73.9% of the participants reported an increase in sexual desire after hormone treatment and SRS. Solitary sexual desire scores were significantly correlated with frequency of masturbation (r=0.835; Pfemale-to-male transsexual persons with elevated levels of LH, indicating suboptimal testosterone therapy, reported significantly lower solitary sexual desire levels (than those with low LH levels; P=0.007). Suppressed LH levels were also associated with having a higher need for sexual activities (P=0.009) and a higher frequency of excessive sexual desire (P=0.007). Most female-to-male transsexual persons report on a marked increase in sexual desire after testosterone treatment and SRS. No direct associations between levels of testosterone and solitary or dyadic sexual desire were found. However, measures of sexual desire were inversely associated with LH levels.

  2. Measurement of sexual arousal in postoperative male-to-female transsexuals using vaginal photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Anne A; Latty, Elizabeth M; Chivers, Meredith L; Bailey, J Michael

    2005-04-01

    Men's sexual arousal patterns are category-specific: Men typically display significantly greater physiological responses to sexual stimuli depicting members of their preferred gender category. Category-specific patterns of sexual arousal have not been consistently reported in natal women. We used vaginal photoplethysmography to examine patterns of sexual arousal in 11 male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals following sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and in 72 natal women. Subjective arousal was measured with a continuous response lever. Video clips depicting sexual activity between two males, two females, or one male and one female were used as erotic stimuli. All transsexual participants displayed category-specific sexual arousal. Five homosexual transsexual participants (attracted exclusively to males before sex reassignment) showed greater genital and subjective responses to male than to female stimuli, while six nonhomosexual transsexual participants showed the opposite pattern. Vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) was lower in transsexual participants than in natal women. The mean correlation between VPA and subjective responses was high in nonhomosexual transsexuals, but was significantly lower in homosexual transsexuals and in natal women. One transsexual participant who reported a change in sexual orientation following sex reassignment displayed VPA and subjective responses consistent with her pre-reassignment sexual orientation. We conclude that male-to-female transsexuals display male-typical category-specific sexual arousal following SRS, and that vaginal photoplethysmography is a promising methodology for studying patterns of sexual arousal in postoperative transsexuals.

  3. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  4. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R

    2017-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.

  5. Olfactory discrimination and incentive value of non copulating and sexually sluggish male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gasperín-Estrada, G P; Camacho, F J; Paredes, R G

    2008-03-18

    Some apparently healthy male rats fail to copulate despite being tested on repeated occasions with receptive females and are called non copulating (NC) rats. NC rats sniff and lick the female genitals, and show normal erectile and ejaculatory functions and hormonal levels. Sexually sluggish (S) male rats take a long time to ejaculate or sometimes they don't achieve ejaculation when tested repeatedly with receptive females. The aim of the present study was to determine if NC and S males can discriminate sexually relevant olfactory cues such as urine from estrous or anestrous female and urine from sexually experienced males. We also tested odors like amyl acetate and mint using an olfactory discrimination test. In a second experiment we evaluated if a sexually receptive female has a preference for a copulating (C) male, for a NC male, or for a S male in a sexual incentive motivation test. This would let us determine if a NC and an S male are equally attractive than a C male to a sexually receptive female. The olfactory test revealed that C, NC and S males have the same ability to discriminate sexually relevant odors. As well, all males clearly discriminate non sexual odors like amyl acetate and mint suggesting that NC and S male rats do not have alterations in their olfactory system. With respect to the sexual incentive motivation test, females spend the same time in the incentive zone of the NC and C males. As well, females spent the same time in the incentive zone of S and C males. These results demonstrate that NC, S and C males are equally attractive to receptive females.

  6. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Youth engage in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family planning. Youth sexual behavior is important not only because of the possible reproductive outcomes, but also because of sexually transmitted infections. The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different ...

  7. Sexual conflict and ecology: Species composition and male density interact to reduce male mating harassment and increase female survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Llano, Miguel A; Bensch, Hanna M; Svensson, Erik I

    2018-02-21

    Sexual conflict is a pervasive evolutionary force that can reduce female fitness. Experimental evolution studies in the laboratory might overestimate the importance of sexual conflict because the ecological conditions in such settings typically include only a single species. Here, we experimentally manipulated conspecific male density (high or low) and species composition (sympatric or allopatric) to investigate how ecological conditions affect female survival in a sexually dimorphic insect, the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens). Female survival was strongly influenced by an interaction between male density and species composition. Specifically, at low conspecific male density, female survival increased in the presence of heterospecific males (C. virgo). Behavioral mating experiments showed that interspecific interference competition reduced conspecific male mating success with large females. These findings suggest that reproductive interference competition between con- and heterospecific males might indirectly facilitate female survival by reducing mating harassment from conspecific males. Hence, interspecific competitors can show contrasting effects on the two sexes thereby influencing sexual conflict dynamics. Our results call for incorporation of more ecological realism in sexual conflict research, particularly how local community context and reproductive interference competition between heterospecific males can affect female fitness. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachments in Childhood and Adulthood, and Coercive Sexual Behaviors in Community Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Calvin M; Murad, Zuwaina; Humbert, Bianca

    2017-04-01

    Associations between self-reported coercive sexual behavior against adult females, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and child-parent attachment styles, as well as attachment with adult romantic partners, were examined among 176 adult community males. Attachment style with each parent and with romantic partners was also investigated as a potential moderator. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, avoidant attachment with mothers in childhood (and also with fathers, in a second model) accounted for a significant amount of the variance in coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on anxious ambivalent and disorganized/disoriented attachment scales, as predicted. Similarly, in a third model, avoidance attachment in adulthood was a significant predictor of coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on the anxiety attachment in adulthood scale. These main effects for avoidant and avoidance attachment were not statistically significant when CSA and control variables (other types of childhood adversity, aggression, antisociality, and response bias) were added in each of the models. But the interaction between scales for CSA and avoidance attachment in adulthood was significant, demonstrating incremental validity in a final step, consistent with a hypothesized moderating function for attachment in adulthood. The correlation between CSA and coercive sexual behavior was .60 for those with the highest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most insecurely attached on this scale), .24 for those with scores in the middle range on the scale, and .01 for those with the lowest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most securely attached). Implications for study design and theory were discussed.

  9. Administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist attenuates sexual motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzer, D S; Wells, T E; Hawley, W R

    2017-08-01

    In male rats, oxytocin impacts both sexual arousal and certain types of consummatory sexual behaviors. However, the role of oxytocin in the motivational aspects of sexual behavior has received limited attention. Given the role that oxytocin signaling plays in consummatory sexual behaviors, it was hypothesized that pharmacological attenuation of oxytocin signaling would reduce sexual motivation in male rats. Sexually experienced Long-Evans male rats were administered either an oxytocin receptor antagonist (L368,899 hydrochloride; 1mg/kg) or vehicle control into the intraperitoneal cavity 40min prior to placement into the center chamber of a three-chambered arena designed to assess sexual motivation. During the 20-minute test, a sexually experienced stimulus male rat and a sexually receptive stimulus female rat were separately confined to smaller chambers that were attached to the larger end chambers of the arena. However, physical contact between test and stimulus rats was prevented by perforated dividers. Immediately following the sexual motivation test, test male rats were placed with a sexually receptive female to examine consummatory sexual behaviors. Although both drug and vehicle treated rats exhibited a preference for the female, treatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist decreased the amount of time spent with the female. There were no differences between drug and vehicle treated rats in either general activity, exploratory behaviors, the amount of time spent near the stimulus male rat, or consummatory sexual behaviors. Extending previous findings, these results indicate that oxytocin receptors are involved in sexual motivation in male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathologising white male sexuality in late nineteenth-century Australia through the medical prism of excess and constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore the constructions of white male sexuality in late nineteenth-century Australia by the medical profession. In a period where female sexuality was always suspect, male sexuality, too, was brought into question, and the male body was increasingly constructed as vulnerable to sexual excess and sexual pathology. If male sexuality was to be active and dynamic, this could readily go too far, rendering men merely a slip away from deviance. Here, I will consider these notions of excess and constraint through an examination of sexual norms and perceived perversions, including sexual excess, sodomy and masturbation.

  11. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  12. Sexpectations: male college students' views about displayed sexual references on females' social networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Swanson, Michael J; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Linda J

    2011-04-01

    Sexual reference display on a social networking web site (SNS) is associated with self-reported sexual intention; females are more likely to display sexually explicit content on SNSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate male college students' views towards sexual references displayed on publicly available SNSs by females. Focus groups. One large state university. Male college students age 18-23. All tape recorded discussion was fully transcribed, then discussed to determine thematic consensus. A trained male facilitator asked participants about views on sexual references displayed on SNSs by female peers and showed examples of sexual references from female's SNS profiles to facilitate discussion. A total of 28 heterosexual male participants participated in seven focus groups. Nearly all participants reported using Facebook to evaluate potential female partners. Three themes emerged from our data. First, participants reported that displays of sexual references on social networking web sites increased sexual expectations. Second, sexual reference display decreased interest in pursuing a dating relationship. Third, SNS data was acknowledged as imperfect but valuable. Females who display sexual references on publicly available SNS profiles may be influencing potential partners' sexual expectations and dating intentions. Future research should examine females' motivations and beliefs about displaying such references and educate women about the potential impact of these sexual displays. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

    2012-01-01

    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.

  14. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  15. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  16. Attitudes of Dutch citizens towards male victims of sexual coercion by a female perpetrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Anneloes; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This vignette study examines the differences in Dutch people's attitudes towards sexual coercion perpetrated by a male against a female versus sexual coercion perpetrated by a female against a male. In total, 583 Dutch citizens (16–86 years, 59.7% female) evaluated a control scenario and three

  17. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  18. Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

  19. Concurrent exposure to methamphetamine and sexual behavior enhances subsequent drug reward and causes compulsive sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Lehman, Michael N; Laviolette, Steven R; Coolen, Lique M

    2011-11-09

    Methamphetamine (Meth) users report having heightened sexual pleasure, numerous sexual partners, and engaging in unprotected sex due to loss of inhibitory control. This compulsive sexual behavior contributes to increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, but the neural basis for this is unknown. We previously established a paradigm for compulsive sexual behavior in male rats in which visceral illness induced by lithium chloride was paired with sexual behavior (Davis et al., 2010; Frohmader et al., 2010a). The current study examined the effects of repeated Meth administration on sexual performance, compulsive sexual behavior, and sex or Meth reward. First, results demonstrated that seven daily administrations of 2 mg/kg, but not 1 mg/kg, Meth increased latencies to initiate mating. This impairment was evident 30 min after last Meth administration, but dissipated after 1 or 7 d of subsequent drug abstinence. Repeated 1 mg/kg Meth exposure resulted in compulsive sex-seeking behavior 2 weeks following last Meth administration. This effect was dependent on Meth administration being concurrent with sexual experience and was not observed in sexually experienced animals that received Meth alone. Moreover, concurrent Meth and sexual experience enhanced conditioned place preference (CPP) for Meth, and for concurrent Meth and mating compared with Meth or mating alone. In contrast, CPP for mating alone was decreased. Together, these data indicate that the association between drug use and mating may be required for expression of compulsive sexual behavior and is correlated with increased reward seeking for concurrent Meth exposure and mating.

  20. Eurycoma Longifolia as a potential adoptogen of male sexual health: a systematic review on clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Hnin Ei; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Hussain, Zahid; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2017-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well recognized as a booster of male sexual health. Over the past few decades, numerous in vivo animal studies and human clinical trials have been conducted across the globe to explore the promising role of EL in managing various male sexual disorders, which include erectile dysfunction, male infertility, low libido, and downregulated testosterone levels. The aim of the present review is to analyze and summarize the literature on human clinical trials which revealed the clinical significance and therapeutic feasibility of EL in improving male sexual health. This systematic review is focused on the following databases: Medline, Wiley Online Library, BioMed Central, Hindawi, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central and Google Scholar, using search terms such as "Eurycoma longifolia", "EL", "Tongkat Ali", "male sexual health", "sexual infertility", "erectile dysfunction", "male libido", and "testosterone levels". Notably, only human clinical studies published between 2000 and 2014 were selected and thoroughly reviewed for relevant citations. Out of 150 articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of articles included were randomized placebo-controlled trials, multiple cohort studies, or pilot trials. All these studies demonstrated considerable effects of EL on male sexual health disorders. Among them, 7 studies revealed remarkable association between the use of EL and the efficacy in the treatment of male sexual disorders, and remaining 4 studies failed to demonstrate sufficient effects on male sexual health. In summary, there is convincing evidence for the prominence of EL in improving the male sexual health. The review also substantiates the use of current methodology in the development of novel and more rationale natural herbal medicines for the management of male sexual disorders. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and...

  2. Military Personnel: Actions Needed to Address Sexual Assaults of Male Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    can lead to confusion over sex roles as well as sexual orientation for heterosexual males and to feelings of self-blame and self-loathing in...collaboration call for organizations to leverage each others’ resources and thereby obtain additional benefits that would not have been available if they...Their Sexuality. Providers also told us that, following an assault, heterosexual male victims may face questions about their sexuality. For example

  3. Rethinking Sexual Initiation: Pathways to Identity Formation among Gay and Bisexual Mexican Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzed the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation-- one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice-- which inform the men’s interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups. PMID:20838869

  4. The Invisible Victims of Sexual Violence : A Qualitative Analysis of Male Rape in the Congolese Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Salome

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against men is a reality. What happens to women and children during wartime also happens to men: perhaps less often, probably more brutal, but definitely less visible than sexual violence committed against women. This thesis analyses the reasons and effects of sexual violence against men in the DRC conflict. Based on 27 interviews with both male survivors and experts conducted in Uganda, the thesis concludes that sexual violence against men is perpetrated for th...

  5. Intrasexual competition underlies sexual selection on male breeding coloration in the orangethroat darter,Etheostoma spectabile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Muchu; Fuller, Rebecca C

    2016-06-01

    Elaborate, sexually dimorphic traits are widely thought to evolve under sexual selection through female preference, male-male competition, or both. The orangethroat darter ( Etheostoma spectabile ) is a sexually dichromatic fish in which females exhibit no preferences for male size or coloration. We tested whether these traits affect individual reproductive success in E. spectabile when multiple males are allowed to freely compete for a female. The quality and quantity of male coloration were associated with greater success in maintaining access to the female and in spawning as the primary male (first male to participate). On the other hand, sneaking behavior showed little correlation with coloration. Male breeding coloration in E. spectabile may therefore demonstrate how intrasexual competition can be a predominant factor underlying the evolution of male ornaments.

  6. Contraception services for incarcerated women: a national survey of correctional health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Creinin, Mitchell D; Chang, Judy C

    2009-12-01

    Incarcerated women have had limited access to health care prior to their arrest. Although their incarceration presents an opportunity to provide them with health care, their reproductive health needs have been overlooked. We performed a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 950 correctional health providers who are members of the Academy of Correctional Health Providers. A total of 405 surveys (43%) were returned, and 286 (30%) were eligible for analysis. Most ineligible surveys were from clinicians at male-only facilities. Of eligible respondents, 70% reported some degree of contraception counseling for women at their facilities. Only 11% provided routine counseling prior to release. Seventy percent said that their institution had no formal policy on contraception. Thirty-eight percent of clinicians provided birth control methods at their facilities. Although the most frequently counseled and prescribed method was oral contraceptive pills, only 50% of providers rated their oral contraceptive counseling ability as good or very good. Contraception counseling was associated with working at a juvenile facility, and with screening for sexually transmitted infections. Contraception does not appear to be integrated into the routine delivery of clinical services to incarcerated women. Because the correctional health care system can provide important clinical and public health interventions to traditionally marginalized populations, services for incarcerated women should include access to contraception.

  7. Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Becoming Gender-Sensitive and Trauma-Informed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is a wide body of literature examining the behavioral, emotional, and social consequences associated with being sexually abused, comparatively few studies have focused on males. Sexual abuse victimization among males remains largely under-reported, under-treated, and under-recognized by researchers, practitioners, and the public. Researchers trying to clarify why sexual abuse in males has been overlooked point to prevailing cultural norms, myths, assumptions, stigma, and biases about masculinity. Consequently, there is often an assumption that males are not negatively affected by sexual abuse. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article provides a critical review of: (1 the nature, experience and impact of sexual abuse victimization for males; and (2 the multidimensional processes that promote and inhibit resilient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of trauma-informed and gender-responsive recommendations and future directions for social work practice, policy, and research.

  8. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, J L; Salazar, V C; Brindis, C D

    2000-01-01

    To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%). Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.

  9. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirinos Jesús L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.

  10. Female Sexual Dysfunction Among the Wives of Opioid-Dependent Males in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvar Abnavi, Marjan; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Hamidian, Sajedeh; Ghaffarpour, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Opiate abuse in males has significant effects on their sexual functions. In contrast, sexuality in females is a multidimensional issue that can strongly be affected by several factors in their partners. However, only a limited number of studies have assessed the role of males' opioid dependency in their female partners' sexual function. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of males' opioid dependency on their wives' sexual function compared to the sexual function of the females whose husbands were not opioid dependent. This study included 340 women who were selected through convenience sampling and divided into a control (females whose husbands were not opioid dependent) and a case group (women whose husbands were opioid dependent). The data were collected through an interview according to the DSM-IV-R criteria for female sexual dysfunctions by a senior female medical student who was one of the researchers. Finally, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 15) and analyzed using the t-test and chi-square test. According to the results, the frequency of hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder in the control group was significantly higher than that of the case group (P sexual domains in women. It could change the pattern of desire and motivation for sexual contact in females and alter their attitude toward the sexual relationship, thereby causing disturbances in the females' normal sexual function.

  11. Selection for costly sexual traits results in a vacant mating niche and male dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Vanthournout, Bram; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The expected strong directional selection for traits that increase a male's mating ability conflicts with the frequent observation that within species, males may show extreme variation in sexual traits. These male reproductive polymorphisms are usually attributed to direct male-male competition. It is currently unclear, however, how directional selection for sexually selected traits may convert into disruptive selection, and if female preference for elaborate traits may be an alternative mechanism driving the evolution of male polymorphism. Here, we explore this mechanism using the polyandric dwarf spider Oedothorax gibbosus as a model. We first show that males characterized by conspicuous cephalic structures serving as a nuptial feeding device ("gibbosus males") significantly outperform other males in siring offspring of previously fertilized females. However, significant costs in terms of development time of gibbosus males open a mating niche for an alternative male type lacking expensive secondary sexual traits. These "tuberosus males" obtain virtually all fertilizations early in the breeding season. Individual-based simulations demonstrate a hitherto unknown general principle, by which males selected for high investment to attract females suffer constrained mating opportunities. This creates a vacant mating niche of unmated females for noninvesting males and, consequently, disruptive selection on male secondary sexual traits. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Effects of methamphetamine on sexual performance and compulsive sex behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Bateman, Katherine L; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-09-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a highly addictive psychostimulant associated with enhanced sexual desire, arousal, and sexual pleasure. Moreover, Meth abuse is frequently linked with the practice of sexual risk behavior and increased prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus. Currently, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of Meth on maladaptive sexual behavior under controlled experimental settings in animal studies. The overall objective of the current study was to examine the effects of Meth on various aspects of male sexual behavior including maladaptive sex-seeking behavior. First, a dose-response curve of the effects of Meth (0, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; s.c.) on sexual motivation and performance was conducted in sexually naïve and experienced male rats. Next, the effects of Meth (1 mg/kg; s.c.) on inhibition of maladaptive sexual behavior was tested using a sex aversion conditioning paradigm, in which visceral illness induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) was paired with sexual behavior. Meth administration inhibited sexual performance in a dose-dependent matter as evidenced by the decreased percentages of males that mated and increased latencies to initiate sexual behavior when injected with 2 or 4 mg/kg Meth. Moreover, an acute dose of Meth prior to or following sex aversion conditioning resulted in disrupted conditioned inhibition of sexual behavior. These data suggest that Meth administration in male rats impairs sexual motivation and performance. In addition, low doses of Meth that do not disrupt sexual function may result in maladaptive seeking of sexual behavior.

  13. Condom use and incarceration among STI clinic attendees in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarceration history is associated with lower rates of condom use and increased HIV risk. Less is known about duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations’ impact on condom use post-release. Methods In the current study, we surveyed 1,416 adults in Mississippi about their incarceration history and sexual risk behaviors. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to test associations between duration of incarceration, multiple incarcerations, socio-demographic factors, substance use, sexual behavior, and event level condom use at last sex. Results After adjusting for covariates, having been incarcerated for at least 6 months two or more times remained significantly associated with condomless sex. Conclusions This study found a strong, independent relationship between condom use and multiple, long-term incarceration events among patients in an urban STI clinic in the Deep South. The results suggest that duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations have significant effects on sexual risk behaviors, underscoring the deleterious impact of long prison or jail sentences on population health. Our findings also suggest that correctional health care professionals and post-release providers might consider offering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services and those providing community care should consider screening for previous incarceration as a marker of risk.

  14. Hair whorl direction and sexual orientation in human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Clarke, Kenneth; Morera, Tirma

    2009-04-01

    Hair whorl direction is a somatic feature that is organized early during neurodevelopment and unlikely to be influenced by social factors. This study aimed to replicate a widely reported association by A. J. S. Klar (2003) between counterclockwise hair whorl direction and homosexuality in men, using more objective methodology. The authors took digital photographs of parietal surface hair whorls from 100 heterosexual men and 100 homosexual men who were predominantly right-handed. These images were rated for clockwise and counterclockwise direction (for which no more than 1 hair whorl was present) by 2 raters unaware of sexual orientation. The authors found no significant difference between heterosexual and homosexual men in hair whorl direction, but the authors did replicate the fraternal birth order effect (more older brothers for homosexual men). Number of older sisters was positively correlated with counterclockwise hair whorls in heterosexual men. These data were discussed in relation to prenatal factors assumed to play a role in the neurodevelopment of male homosexuality. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Sexually selected nest-building--Pomatoschistus minutus males build smaller nest-openings in the presence of sneaker males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O; Kvarnemo, C

    2003-09-01

    Both natural selection and sexual selection may act on nest-building. We tested experimentally how different regimes of egg-predation and male-male competition influence nest-building before mating, using the marine fish sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Males with sneaker males present built the smallest nest-openings, smaller than males held alone or with Pomatoschistus microps males (which may predate eggs and compete over nest-sites but not compete over fertilizations). Males with visual access to other nest-building males tended also to build smaller openings than males held alone or with P. microps. Males with egg-predators present built nests with openings not differing significantly from any other treatment. Our results indicate that the small nest-openings found in the sneaker male treatment are sexually selected through protection against sneaking or by female choice. Across treatments, time span before a male started to build his nest also explained variation in nest-opening width; males starting late built larger nest-openings.

  16. Sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use among male trekking guides in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R; Bhatta, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour.

  17. Genetic biases for showy males: are some genetic systems especially conducive to sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Hudson Kern; Pfennig, David W

    2003-02-04

    Male secondary sexual characters (conspicuous ornaments, signals, colors) are among nature's most striking features. Yet, it is unclear why certain groups of organisms are more likely than others to evolve these traits. One explanation for such taxonomic biases is that some genetic systems may be especially conducive to sexual selection. Here, we present theory and simulation results demonstrating that rare alleles encoding either male ornaments or female preferences for those ornaments are better protected against random loss in species with ZZZW or ZZZO sex chromosome systems (male homogamety) than in species with XXXY or XXXO systems (male heterogamety). Moreover, this protection is much stronger in diploid than haplodiploid species. We also present empirical data showing that male secondary sexual characters are better developed in diploid than haplodiploid species and in diploid species with male homogamety than in those with male heterogamety. Thus, taxonomic biases for showy males may stem from differences in sex chromosome systems.

  18. Carceral Dis/Continuities: Masculinities, Male Same- Sex Desire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I explore the disruption of regulatory boundaries of the body that clearly define heterosexual in opposition to homosexual and examine the function of prison as carceral space in the constitution of masculinity and male, same sex desire. It will examine the sexual practices and performances of incarcerated sex ...

  19. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Quan; Song, Yuanquan; Yang, Chung-Hui; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific male-male aggression, important for sexual selection, is regulated by environment, experience and internal states through largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. To understand the basic neural pathway underlying the modulation of this innate behavior, we established a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated the relationship between sexual experience and aggression. In the presence of mating partners, adult male flies exhibited elevated levels...

  20. Nuclear medicine procedures for the evaluation of male sexual organs: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Carter, Kevin; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2008-01-01

    Sexuality consists of three aspects that are interrelated and inseparable, biological, physiological and social. The biological aspect considers the individual's capability to give and to receive pleasure. In consequence, it covers the functionality of the sexual organs and the physiology of human sexual response cycle. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been used to evaluate clinical disorders of the male reproductive system. PET and SPECT procedures basically involve the administration of a radiopharmaceutical that has a higher uptake in a specific tumor or tissue. The aim of this brief review is to present some radiopharmaceuticals that have been used in the clinical evaluation of the male sexual organs (testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, penis) related with male sexuality. This information could be useful in better understanding the male sexual response cycle, as well as the sexual disorders, when considering the male sexual organs and the pelvic floor. Moreover, the findings obtained with PET and SPECT imaging could help to evaluate the efficacy of clinical results of therapeutic procedures. In conclusion, the knowledge from these images could aid in better understanding the physiology of the different organs related with sexuality. Furthermore, they could be important tools to evaluate the physiological integrity of the involved organs, to improve clinical strategies and to accompany the patients under treatment. (author)

  1. Nuclear medicine procedures for the evaluation of male sexual organs: a brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Carter, Kevin [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Brigham and Women' s Hospital. Dept. of Radiology; Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    Sexuality consists of three aspects that are interrelated and inseparable, biological, physiological and social. The biological aspect considers the individual's capability to give and to receive pleasure. In consequence, it covers the functionality of the sexual organs and the physiology of human sexual response cycle. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been used to evaluate clinical disorders of the male reproductive system. PET and SPECT procedures basically involve the administration of a radiopharmaceutical that has a higher uptake in a specific tumor or tissue. The aim of this brief review is to present some radiopharmaceuticals that have been used in the clinical evaluation of the male sexual organs (testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, penis) related with male sexuality. This information could be useful in better understanding the male sexual response cycle, as well as the sexual disorders, when considering the male sexual organs and the pelvic floor. Moreover, the findings obtained with PET and SPECT imaging could help to evaluate the efficacy of clinical results of therapeutic procedures. In conclusion, the knowledge from these images could aid in better understanding the physiology of the different organs related with sexuality. Furthermore, they could be important tools to evaluate the physiological integrity of the involved organs, to improve clinical strategies and to accompany the patients under treatment. (author)

  2. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, Jan G.; Coolen, LM; de Jong, TR; Joosten, Henk W.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Olivier, B; Coolen, Lique M.; Boer, Sietze F. de

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared

  4. Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Jong, T.R. de; Joosten, H.W.M.; Boer, S.F. de; Koolhaas, J.M.; Olivier, B.

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared

  5. Contrasting adolescent female and male sexual aggression: a selfreport study on prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n= 219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)

  6. Male circumcision and sexual function in men and women: a survey-based, cross-sectional study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Morten; Lindholm, Morten; Grønbæk, Morten

    2011-01-01

    One-third of the world's men are circumcised, but little is known about possible sexual consequences of male circumcision. In Denmark (~5% circumcised), we examined associations of male circumcision with a range of sexual measures in both sexes.......One-third of the world's men are circumcised, but little is known about possible sexual consequences of male circumcision. In Denmark (~5% circumcised), we examined associations of male circumcision with a range of sexual measures in both sexes....

  7. Toward improved interpretation and theory building of African American male sexualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Linwood J; Kertzner, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    This paper examined five challenges to clear understanding of African American male sexualities: incorrect assumptions of African American homogeneity; an underemphasis on developmental change, the contexts and the meanings of sexual behaviors; and a lack of compelling theoretical grounding for African American sexualities. Critical elements for effective theorizing and research about African American sexualities (i.e. multiple levels of analysis, examination of phenomenological meaning of sexuality, measurement of dynamic/developmental change) were outlined and candidate theories within sexual science (social exchange theories, symbolic interactionism, sexual scripting theory) were analyzed in light of these elements. It is suggested that a re-orientation of sex research about African American men using these elements will result in improved understanding of African American sexualities in multiple contexts.

  8. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  9. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: A comparison of six species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of 6 poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii and Xiphophorus mayae that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females’ social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  10. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  11. Lesions of orexin neurons block conditioned place preference for sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) mediates reward related to drugs of abuse and food intake. However, a role for orexin in sexual reward has yet to be investigated. Orexin neurons are activated by sexual behavior, but endogenous orexin does not appear to be essential for sexual performance and motivation in male rats. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that orexin is critically involved in processing of sexual reward in male rats. First, it was demonstrated following exposure to conditioned contextual cues associated with sexual behavior in a conditioned place preference paradigm that cFos expression is induced in orexin neurons, indicating activation of orexin neurons by cues predicting sexual reward. Next, orexin-cell specific lesions were utilized to determine the functional role of orexin in sexual reward processing. Hypothalami of adult male rats were infused with orexin-B-conjugated saporin, resulting in greater than 80% loss of orexin neurons in the perifornical-dorsomedial and lateral hypothalamus. Orexin lesions did not affect expression of sexual behavior, but prevented formation of conditioned place preference for a sexual behavior paired chamber. In contrast, intact sham-treated males or males with partial lesions developed a conditioned place preference for mating. Orexin lesioned males maintained the ability to form a conditioned place aversion to lithium chloride-induced visceral illness, indicating that orexin lesions did not disrupt associative contextual memory. Overall, these findings suggest that orexin is not essential for sexual performance or motivation, but is critical for reward processing and conditioned cue-induced seeking of sexual behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histories of Childhood Victimization and Subsequent Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Sexual Victimization for a Sample of Incarcerated Women in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood vict...

  13. Perceived Challenges and Rewards of Forming a Sexual Agreement Among HIV-Negative Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    Sexual agreements, explicit mutual understandings made between two partners about which sexual and related behaviors they agree to engage in within and/or outside of their relationship, are common among male couples. However, little is known about the perceived rewards and challenges partnered men face in the process of forming a sexual agreement. Such knowledge may be useful for the development of future HIV preventive and sexual health programs that encourage male couples to establish a sexual agreement in their relationship. By using qualitative dyadic data from a sample of 29 self-reported concordant HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement, the present qualitative study sought to assess partnered men's perceived rewards and challenges of forming a sexual agreement in their relationship and examine whether both men in the couple concurred about their perceived rewards and challenges of forming a sexual agreement. Themes for perceived rewards were (1) being honest, (2) improving communication, (3) increasing understanding about expectations and permitted behaviors, (4) enhancing intimacy and relational bond, and (5) building trust. Themes for perceived challenges were: (1) stigma about having an open agreement; (2) awkwardness about the topic and talking about it; (3) jealousy; and (4) no perceived challenges. Few couples had both partners concur about their perceived rewards or challenges toward establishing a sexual agreement. The variety of perceived rewards and challenges highlight the need for tailoring given that a variety of factors may influence partnered men's establishment of a sexual agreement in their relationship.

  14. Perceived Challenges and Rewards of Forming a Sexual Agreement among HIV-Negative Male Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Sexual agreements, explicit mutual understandings made between two partners about which sexual and related behaviors they agree to engage in within and/or outside of their relationship, are common among male couples. However, little is known about the perceived rewards and challenges partnered men face in the process of forming a sexual agreement. Such knowledge may be useful for development of future HIV preventive and sexual health programs that encourage male couples to establish a sexual agreement in their relationship. By using qualitative dyadic data from a sample of 29 self-reported concordant HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement, the present qualitative study sought to: assess partnered men’s perceived rewards and challenges of forming a sexual agreement in their relationship; and examine whether both men in the couple concurred about their perceived rewards and challenges of forming a sexual agreement. Themes for perceived rewards were: 1) being honest, 2) improving communication, 3) increasing understanding about expectations and permitted behaviors, 4) enhancing intimacy and relational bond, and 5) building trust. Themes for perceived challenges were: 1) stigma about having an open agreement; 2) awkwardness about the topic and talking about it; 3) jealousy; 4) no perceived challenges. Few couples had both partners concur about their perceived rewards or challenges toward establishing a sexual agreement. The variety of perceived rewards and challenges highlight the need for tailoring given that a variety of factors may influence partnered men’s establishment of a sexual agreement in their relationship. PMID:26964794

  15. Sexual Harassment by Males Reduces Female Fecundity in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...

  16. Sexual cooperation in two male-diphenic Cardiocondyla species

    OpenAIRE

    Füßl, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterised by a remarkable male diphenism, with "normal" winged males that often co-occur with "worker-like" (ergatoid) males, which is extraordinary in social insects. These male phenes represent different reproductive tactics. The peaceful winged males are the disperser phene, even though they got lost in some Cardiocondyla species. Ergatoid males mate intranidal and are in many species aggressive fighters that show a striking adaptation to their behaviour....

  17. The Role of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Male Sexual Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah; Gonzalez, Joshua; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual function is essential to good health and well-being in men. The relationship between male sexual function, pelvic floor function, and pelvic pain is complex and only beginning to be appreciated. The objectives of the current review are to examine these complex relationships, and to demonstrate how pelvic floor physical therapy can potentially improve the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction and dysfunction of ejaculation and orgasm. Contemporary data on pelvic floor anatomy and function as they relate to the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions were reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between the male pelvic floor and erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory/orgasmic dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, respectively. Evidence suggests a close relationship between the pelvic floor and male sexual dysfunction and a potential therapeutic benefit from pelvic floor therapy for men who suffer from these conditions. Pelvic floor physical therapy is a necessary tool in a more comprehensive bio-neuromusculoskeletal-psychosocial approach to the treatment of male sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  19. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    the victims. Such victim-blaming approach discourages survivors of sexual abuse from reporting the incidence or seeking treatment. The researcher, however, understands that it is always difficult to convict perpetrators beyond reasonable doubt as sexual offence takes place in the absence of witnesses. This creates ...

  20. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanner staging and testicular volume assessment were both used as models for evaluating stages of sexual maturation among SCA patients and their normal counterparts matched for age and socioeconomic status. Results. SCA patients showed delayed onset and completion of sexual maturation. TV of subjects was ...

  1. Sexual harassment and health among male and female police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Stans; Hoing, Mechtild; Timmerman, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more

  2. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical changes of adolescence progress sequentially until a sexually mature adult results. Assessment of sexual maturation is essential in the clinical evaluation of adolescents, allowing evaluation of their developmental stage. Chronological age is not a reliable parameter for biological, psychological, and social.

  3. Competing dwarf males: sexual selection in an orb-weaving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foellmer, M W; Fairbairn, D J

    2005-05-01

    Hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) generally assume that in dimorphic species males rarely interfere with each other. Here we provide the first multivariate examination of sexual selection because of male-male competition over access to females in a species with 'dwarf' males, the orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia. Male A. aurantia typically try to mate opportunistically during the female's final moult when she is defenceless. We show that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the local operational sex ratio (males per female on the web) is male-biased most of the season. Both interference and scramble competition occur during opportunistic mating, the former leading to significant selection for large male body size. Male condition and leg length had no effect on mating success independent of size. We discuss these findings in the context of the evolution of extreme female-biased SSD in this clade.

  4. Sexuality after spinal cord injury: the Greek male's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dikaios; Sawada, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    This study explored how Greek men with spinal cord injury experience sexuality. Six men with spinal cord injury acted as key informants and data collection consisted of in-depth unstructured interviews, field notes, and a reflective log. The transcribed interviews were analyzed thematically. The themes that emerged were: Barriers, Metamorphoses, and Enjoying. Sexuality was important in the life of the informants and they were engaged in various patterns of adaptation. Rather than impairment as such, certain social beliefs and values prevalent in Greek society were found to act upon the informants in compromising ways. The results suggest that the process of reclaiming one's sexuality is a process of meaning-finding. The data support a conclusion that occupational therapists should respect the cultural nature of sexuality. Moreover, the topic of sexuality should be approached in a holistic manner, perceiving it as extending in a continuum, which may be positively or negatively affected as a result of an acquired impairment.

  5. Methods and methodology of sexual dysfunctions with males. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Examination of patients (liquidators of Chernobyl accident) was carried out in Republican Hospital for Great War Invalids. Sexual function of patients was estimated with help G.V. Vasilenko's questionnaire 'Men's sexual function'. For consideration of sexual dysfunctions the scale for qualitative estimation of potention dysfunction level was used. For revealing of vegetative nervous system dysfunction with examined patients the Ashner effect was studied. The functional status of pituitary gland - gonad system was studied by content of hormones in blood (follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones). Results of investigations of both the sexual function and hormone level in blood were processed by method of variation statistics. For determination of each factors influence from all acting factors on sexual function the multifactorial dispersion analysis was carried out

  6. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an ... of viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  7. Intimate strangers: Eritrean male asylum seekers' perceptions of marriage and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birger, Lior; Peled, Einat

    2017-12-01

    This study examined perceptions of marriage and sexuality among male asylum seekers from Eritrea. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 men living in Israel. Their perceptions of marriage and sexuality were found to be influenced by their life as asylum seekers, and particularly by their encounter with a different culture, by their lack of legal status, and by the marked numerical imbalance between women and men within their community. Changes in their perceptions occurred after their arrival in Israel, and included greater relaxing of social codes and the transition from a relatively 'closed' sexual mindset to a more 'open' one. It is important to understand how lack of status affects male asylum seekers' intimate relationships with women, and to recognise such men as subjects with legitimate sexual and partnering needs, thereby broadening existing discourse in this field, which tends to present male asylum seekers primarily as sources of cheap labour and as sexual Others.

  8. Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xiaoxing; Liu, Dingzhen; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three). Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species.

  9. Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Bian

    Full Text Available Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three. Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species.

  10. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged b...

  11. Sexual behaviour of male rats after gamma-irradiation: some radiobiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, I.B.; Rogacheva, I.V.; Stroganova, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A pronounced and stable decrease in sexual motivation of male rats immediately after γ-irradiation of the head with a dose of 2.58 C/kg is shown. Exposure of the body to 1.29-2.58 C/kg radiation also inhibited sexual behaviour but only by the 45th-55th minute following irradiation: with higher doses some increase in sexual activity was observed immediately after irradiation

  12. Perspectives on Sexual Health and Function of Recent Male Combat Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Helmer, MD, MS

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Sexual dysfunction in recent combat veterans can have important negative effects on their health and relationships. Our findings elucidate perceived contributory factors and preferred solutions, which can be applied by health‐care providers to improve the management of sexual dysfunction in these patients. Helmer DA, Beaulieu G, Powers C, Houlette C, Latini D, and Kauth M. Perspectives on sexual health and function of recent male combat veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan. Sex Med 2015;3:137–146.

  13. Examining the association between male circumcision and sexual function: evidence from a British probability survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homfray, Virginia; Tanton, Clare; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Miller, Robert F; Field, Nigel; Macdowall, Wendy; Wellings, Kaye; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H

    2015-07-17

    Despite biological advantages of male circumcision in reducing HIV/sexually transmitted infection acquisition, concern is often expressed that it may reduce sexual enjoyment and function. We examine the association between circumcision and sexual function among sexually active men in Britain using data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 asked about circumcision and included a validated measure of sexual function, the Natsal-SF, which takes into account not only sexual difficulties but also the relationship context and overall level of satisfaction. A stratified probability survey of 6293 men and 8869 women aged 16-74 years, resident in Britain, undertaken 2010-2012, using computer-assisted face-to-face interviewing with computer-assisted self-interview for the more sensitive questions. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) to examine the association between reporting male circumcision and aspects of sexual function among sexually active men (n = 4816). The prevalence of male circumcision in Britain was 20.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-21.8]. There was no association between male circumcision and, being in the lowest quintile of scores for the Natsal-SF, an indicator of poorer sexual function (adjusted OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.76-1.18). Circumcised men were as likely as uncircumcised men to report the specific sexual difficulties asked about in Natsal-3, except that a larger proportion of circumcised men reported erectile difficulties. This association was of borderline statistical significance after adjusting for age and relationship status (adjusted OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.99-1.63). Data from a large, nationally representative British survey suggest that circumcision is not associated with men's overall sexual function at a population level.

  14. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  15. Male sexually coercive behaviour drives increased swimming efficiency in female guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Croft, Darren P; Salin, Karine; Darden, Safi K

    2016-04-01

    Sexual coercion of females by males is widespread across sexually reproducing species. It stems from a conflict of interest over reproduction and exerts selective pressure on both sexes. For females, there is often a significant energetic cost of exposure to male sexually coercive behaviours.Our understanding of the efficiency of female resistance to male sexually coercive behaviour is key to understanding how sexual conflict contributes to population level dynamics and ultimately to the evolution of sexually antagonistic traits.Overlooked within this context are plastic physiological responses of traits within the lifetime of females that could moderate the energetic cost imposed by coercive males. Here, we examined whether conflict over the frequency and timing of mating between male and female guppies Poecilia reticulata can induce changes in swimming performance and aerobic capacity in females as they work to escape harassment by males.Females exposed to higher levels of harassment over a 5-month period used less oxygen to swim at a given speed, but displayed no difference in resting metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, maximal sustained swimming speed or aerobic scope compared to females receiving lower levels of harassment.The observed increase in swimming efficiency is at least partially related to differences in swimming mechanics, likely brought on by a training effect of increased activity, as highly harassed females spent less time performing pectoral fin-assisted swimming.Sexual conflict results in sexually antagonistic traits that impose a variety of costs, but our results show that females can reduce costs through phenotypic plasticity. It is also possible that phenotypic plasticity in swimming physiology or mechanics in response to sexual coercion can potentially give females more control over matings and affect which male traits are under selection.

  16. Correlates of sexual faithfulness among low-literate rural males in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efficacy and social norms pertaining to faithfulness, sexual abstinence and condom use are needed to halt the spread of HIV among low-literate males in rural Amhara. Keywords: attitudes, behaviour, East Africa, HIV prevention, men, ...

  17. Association analysis between the tag SNP for sonic hedgehog rs9333613 polymorphism and male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Zhou, Sirui; Hong, Fuchang; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xiaoli; Cai, Yumao; Wang, Feng; Feng, Tiejian; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Male sexual orientation has been proposed to have genetic components, but previously suggested candidate genes have all received negative results. The human sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene is located in the 7q36 region, which was linked to male sexual orientation in a previous genome-wide association study. SHH is known to play an important role in embryo patterning, and there is evidence connecting it to sexual orientation. In this study, we performed an association analysis of the SHH tag single nucleotide polymorphism rs9333613 in 361 subjects and 319 Chinese male controls. We find a significant difference in genotype and allele distribution between identified homosexuals and heterosexual control subjects, suggesting that the SHH gene could potentially be associated with male sexual orientation.

  18. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Amo de Paz, L.; López, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception,

  19. Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…

  20. Effects of repeated questionnaire administration in longitudinal studies of adolescent males' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Suchindran, C

    1994-02-01

    By comparing four similar groups of young adolescent males who completed questionnaires about their sexual behavior different numbers of times at various intervals, we explore the hypothesis that repeated questionnaire completion will affect sexual behavior. We find little support for the hypothesis even when the number of questionnaire administrations is very high.

  1. Lesions of the SDN-POA inhibit sexual behavior of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, F H; Louwerse, A L; Ooms, M P; Evers, P; Endert, E; van de Poll, N E

    1989-12-01

    Discrete bilateral lesions in the SDN-POA of sexually naive adult male rats were found to decrease the number of animals ejaculating and/or to increase latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation. The deleterious effects of the lesions disappeared after 4 tests for sexual behavior but were reinstated when the males were tested under suboptimal conditions, i.e., when they were tested with a marginally receptive female or when they had only limited access to the stimulus female. It was subsequently shown that males with a bilaterally lesioned SDN-POA still showed an increase in plasma testosterone. LH and prolactin levels in response to sexual stimulation. Effects of the lesions on scent marking were not found. Together with previous data indicating that SDN-POA-lesions disrupt masculine sexual behavior in females, these data are taken as evidence that the SDN-POA plays a role in the regulation of masculine sexual behavior. The data further suggest that previously reported negative results of SDN-POA-lesions on masculine sexual behavior in male rats might be attributed to the use of sexually experienced instead of sexually inexperienced animals.

  2. Gender Differences in Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Data from a Male-Dominated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Amy E.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental…

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  4. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Herrera-Mundo, Nieves; Kane, Michael J; Sykes, Catherine E; Anneken, John H; Francescutti, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT) lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100), suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female) or animate (male or female mouse in estrus) sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference.

  5. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angoa-Pérez

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100, suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE. Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female or animate (male or female mouse in estrus sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference.

  6. Male Sexual Quality Of Life Is Maintained Satisfactorily Throughout Life In The Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Thiago; Nazima, Maira; Hallak, Jorge

    2018-03-06

    The Amazon Rainforest is a cradle of biodiversity, where different ethnic groups have specific sexual habits. To define the average sexual quality of life of Amazonian men 18 to 69 years old, evaluate the influence of aging on their sexual function, and calculate the prevalence of premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, and hypoactive sexual desire disorder. A cross-sectional quantitative probability sample study was performed with a demographically representative population (N = 385), with data collected privately at participants' houses, including men who had been sexually active for a minimum of 6 months. The Male Sexual Quotient (MSQ) was used to measure sexual satisfaction and function. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 21.0 using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P Amazon Rainforest. Sex Med 2018;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Male group size, female distribution and changes in sexual segregation by Roosevelt elk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M Peterson

    Full Text Available Sexual segregation, or the differential use of space by males and females, is hypothesized to be a function of body size dimorphism. Sexual segregation can also manifest at small (social segregation and large (habitat segregation spatial scales for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, the connection between small- and large-scale sexual segregation has rarely been addressed. We studied a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti across 21 years in north coastal California, USA, to assess small- and large-scale sexual segregation in winter. We hypothesized that male group size would associate with small-scale segregation and that a change in female distribution would associate with large-scale segregation. Variation in forage biomass might also be coupled to small and large-scale sexual segregation. Our findings were consistent with male group size associating with small-scale segregation and a change in female distribution associating with large-scale segregation. Females appeared to avoid large groups comprised of socially dominant males. Males appeared to occupy a habitat vacated by females because of a wider forage niche, greater tolerance to lethal risks, and, perhaps, to reduce encounters with other elk. Sexual segregation at both spatial scales was a poor predictor of forage biomass. Size dimorphism was coupled to change in sexual segregation at small and large spatial scales. Small scale segregation can seemingly manifest when all forage habitat is occupied by females and large scale segregation might happen when some forage habitat is not occupied by females.

  8. Relational and sexual fluidity in females partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu Alegría, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  9. Male victims of sexual assault; 10 years' experience from a Danish Assault Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene

    2016-01-01

    included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator....... Of the 62% of male victims who gave information on sexual orientation, 36% reported themselves as heterosexuals. A total of 45.5% had an alcohol intake of more than 5 units in the hours before the assault. Forty two percent reported the assault to the police. The male victims differed from female victims...

  10. Adolescent male sexual offenders' perceptions of their family characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Gary Paul

    1991-01-01

    Literature on families of adolescent sexual offenders is sparse. Adolescents' perception of family structure, family adaptability and cohesion, parent-child communication, and family communication about sexuality are considered in an effort to identify family characteristics that distinguish families of adolescent sex offenders (n=39) from violent juvenile delinquents (n=25), non-violent juvenile delinquents (n=41), and from non-problem families (normative data). Families of sex offende...

  11. Sexual harassment and health among male and female police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Stans; Timmerman, Greetje; Höing, Mechtild

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, and whether victims who report being bothered by the harassment experience more health problems compared to victims who did not feel bothered. A representative sample of 3,001 policemen and 1,295 policewomen in the Dutch police force filled out an Internet questionnaire. It appeared that women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, but gender did not moderate the relation between sexual harassment and mental and physical health. In addition, victims who felt bothered by the harassing behaviors reported more mental and physical health problems than victims who did not feel bothered. The distinction between bothered and nonbothered victims is important because appraisal is an essential aspect in the operationalization of sexual harassment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifru Berhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.

  13. Postmating sexual selection favors males that sire offspring with low fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Foged, Anne; Schilling, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the costs of mating, females of most taxa mate with multiple males. Polyandrous females are hypothesized to gain genetic benefits for their offspring, but this assumes paternity bias favoring male genotypes that enhance offspring viability. We determined net male genetic effects on female...... results imply that sexually antagonistic adaptations have a major and unappreciated influence on male postmating fertilization success. Such genetic variation renders indirect genetic benefits an unlikely driver of the evolution of polyandry....

  14. Sexual Health Risk Behavior Disparities Among Male and Female Adolescents Using Identity and Behavior Indicators of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis

    2017-12-04

    Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.

  15. The relationship of male self-report of rape supportive attitudes, sexual fantasy, social desirability and physiological arousal to sexually coercive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J; Bigwood, S J

    1997-12-01

    Studies have supported the finding that sexually coercive behavior exists between males and females on college campuses and that when women say "no" to sexual behavior, men do not believe them. This study utilized penile plethysmography to investigate male sexual arousal to rape myth scenarios in a college population. The scenarios portrayed a woman who said "no" to sexually coercive intercourse behavior by a male. Results indicated that a low level of social desirability, sexual fantasies involving group sexual activity, as well as hurting and being hurt by a partner were associated with greater levels of physiological responding to coercive stimuli. Supportive attitudes about rape showed no relationship with physiological responding, yet did correlate with the sexual fantasy of being hurt by a partner, which was itself related to increased sexual arousal to sexually coercive audio stimuli.

  16. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Song, Yuanquan; Yang, Chung-Hui; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific male-male aggression, which is important for sexual selection, is regulated by environment, experience and internal states through largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. To understand the basic neural pathway underlying the modulation of this innate behavior, we established a behavioral assay in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated the relationship between sexual experience and aggression. In the presence of mating partners, adult male flies exhibited elevated levels of aggression, which was largely suppressed by prior exposure to females via a sexually dimorphic neural mechanism. The suppression involved the ability of male flies to detect females by contact chemosensation through the pheromone-sensing ion channel ppk29 and was mediated by male-specific GABAergic neurons acting on the GABAA receptor RDL in target cells. Silencing or activating this circuit led to dis-inhibition or elimination of sex-related aggression, respectively. We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression.

  17. Sexual dysfunction in male stroke patients: correlation between brain lesions and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jea-Hun; Kam, Sung-Chul; Choi, Sae-Min; Jae, Sung-Uk; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Hyun, Jae-Seog

    2008-01-01

    To identify the sexual function of, and effect of the location of brain lesions on sexual function in, stroke patients. We conducted a survey on 109 stroke patients (64.93 +/- 8.81 years) and 109 age-matched controls (64.69 +/- 8.85 years). We used a questionnaire that included the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and questions about changes in sexual desire, ejaculatory function, and sexual satisfaction after a stroke. We analyzed the correlation between the results of the questionnaire and the locations of brain lesions. Erectile function was significantly decreased in the stroke patient group (IIEF-5, 5.89 +/- 7.08) compared with the control group (IIEF-5, 10.67 +/- 7.10). In most patients, the frequency of intercourse and sexual desire decreased after stroke, and an ejaculation disorder accompanied intercourse, but fear regarding intercourse was not severe. A lack of sexual desire was the largest cause (59.4%) of an absence of sexual intercourse. In cases with lesions in the right cerebellum and the left basal ganglia, a significant ejaculation disorder and decrease of sexual desire were more likely to occur, respectively. The sexual desire, erectile function, and ejaculatory function were impaired after stroke. A lack of sexual desire was the major cause of an absence of sexual intercourse. The specific locations of the stroke lesions, such as the left basal ganglia and right cerebellum, might be associated with sexual desire and ejaculation disorder, respectively.

  18. The role of estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and sexual experience in sexual incentive motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, W R; Battista, C; Divack, S R; Morales Núñez, N B

    2017-08-01

    Male rats exhibit reductions in sexual motivation following systemic administration of drugs that inhibit the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, which indicates that estrogen signaling plays a role in male rat sexual motivation. Given that estrogen G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is expressed in brain areas that are important for male sexual behaviors and endocrine function, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the role that GPR30 plays in sexual motivation in both sexually naïve and sexually experienced male rats. Following the final treatment with either a GPR30 antagonist (G-15) or vehicle control, male rats were placed into the center chamber of a larger three-chambered testing arena that was designed to assess sexual incentive motivation. A sexually receptive stimulus female rat and a stimulus male rat were individually confined to one of the two smaller chambers that were each separated by a perforated partition from the larger end chambers, which test rats had access to. Relative to vehicle treated rats, male rats treated with G-15 exhibited a reduction in the percentage of time spent in the vicinity of a sexually receptive female rat. Although G-15 reduced sexual incentive motivation independent of sexual experience, only sexually-naïve rats treated with G-15 did not exhibit a preference for the sexually receptive stimulus female rat. Collectively, these results indicate that interference with estrogen signaling at GPR30 reduces sexual motivation and that the lack of preference for a sexually receptive female rat over a male rat following G-15 treatment is abrogated by previous sexual experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual function in male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea after 1 year of CPAP treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marian Christin; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). RESULTS: Response rate was 76%. We found no significant changes in satisfaction with relation to partner or life as a whole, but satisfaction with sexual life (LiSat-11) and both general and functional aspects of sexuality (BSFI) were significantly improved after 1 year...... year of CPAP treatment, a total of 207 CPAP-compliant male patients (age 26-77) received a survey with questions drawn from two self-administered questionnaires on sexuality - Life Satisfaction 11 (LiSat-11) and brief sexual function inventory (BSFI). For assessment of daytime sleepiness, we used...

  20. Female sexual polymorphism and fecundity consequences of male mating harassment in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Gosden

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict.

  1. Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500μgmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500μgmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Standards for Clinical Trials in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction: II. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Gruenwald, Ilan; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Lowenstein, Lior; Pyke, Robert E; Reisman, Yakov; Revicki, Dennis A; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio

    2016-12-01

    The second article in this series, Standards for Clinical Trials in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction, focuses on measurement of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Together with the design of appropriate phase I to phase IV clinical trials, the development, validation, choice, and implementation of valid PRO measurements-the focus of the present article-form the foundation of research on treatments for male and female sexual dysfunctions. PRO measurements are assessments of any aspect of a patient's health status that come directly from the patient (ie, without the interpretation of the patient's responses by a physician or anyone else). PROs are essential for assessing male and female sexual dysfunction and treatment response, including symptom frequency and severity, personal distress, satisfaction, and other measurements of sexual and general health-related quality of life. Although there are some relatively objective measurements of sexual dysfunction (ie, intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, frequency of sexual activity, etc), these measurements do not comprehensively assess the occurrence and extent of sexual dysfunction or treatment on the patient's symptoms, functioning, and well-being. Data generated by a PRO instrument can provide evidence of a treatment benefit from the patient's perspective. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring Implicit Sexual Response Biases to Nude Male and Female Pictures in Androphilic and Gynephilic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Cullen, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Snowden, Wichter, and Gray (2008) demonstrated that an Implicit Association Test and a Priming Task both predicted the sexual orientation of gynephilic and androphilic men in terms of their attraction biases towards pictures of nude males and females. For both measures, relative bias scores were obtained, with no information on the separate response biases to each target gender. The present study sought to extend this research by assessing both relative and individual implicit biases using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). An explicit measure screened for men with androphilic (n = 16) or gynephilic (n = 16) orientations on the dimensions of "sexual attraction," "sexual behavior," "sexual fantasies," "hetero/gay lifestyle," and "self identification." The IRAP involved responding "True" or "False" to pictures of nude males and females as either attractive or unattractive. Participants were required to respond in a manner consistent with their reported sexual orientation for half of the IRAP's test blocks and inconsistent for the other half. Response latencies were recorded and analyzed. The IRAP revealed a non-orthogonal pattern of biases across the two groups and had an excellent ability to predict sexual orientation with areas under the curves of 1.0 for the relative bias score and .94 and .95 for the bias scores for the male and female pictures, respectively. Correlations between the IRAP and explicit measures of sexual orientation were consistently high. The findings support the IRAP as a potentially valuable tool in the study of sexual preferences.

  4. Evolution of male sexual characters in the oriental Drosophila melanogaster species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Artyom; True, John R

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution is one of the greatest challenges in evolutionary biology. Sexually dimorphic traits, which often evolve at a high rate due to their involvement in mate choice and sexual selection, present unique opportunities for investigating changes in development over short evolutionary distances. Phylogenetic analysis is essential to provide a historical framework for comparative studies of development by establishing the order and polarity of morphological changes. In this report, we apply a new molecular phylogeny to reconstruct the evolution of male sexual characters in a group of species closely related to the model species Drosophila melanogaster. These highly variable traits include wing melanin patterns, the sex comb, and the structure of external genitalia and analia. We show that sexually dimorphic characters can diverge very rapidly among closely related species. More surprisingly, we also find a pervasive pattern of independent origin and secondary loss of male sexual traits in different evolutionary lineages.

  5. Men's constructions of masculinity and male sexuality through talk of buying sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysamen, Monique; Boonzaier, Floretta

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sex is an everyday occurrence across a range of contexts in South Africa. In this paper we turn our attention to the often-marginalised role of the buyers of sex by drawing on narrative interviews with male clients of female sex workers recruited through online advertisements in order to explore the ways in which heterosexual men construct, negotiate and perform their masculinity and sexuality through talking about their experiences of paying for sex. We highlight parallels between men's narratives of paying for sex and dominant discourses of gender and heterosexuality. We show how men draw on heteronormative sexual scripts in constructing and making sense of paid sexual encounters and how men are simultaneously able to construct and enact a particular idealised version of masculinity and male sexuality through their talk on paying for sex. Finally, we discuss how online resources could be used more extensively in future research with the male clients of sex workers.

  6. The influence of male and female best friends on adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, J O; Udry, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using panel data from a junior high school system in an urban area of Florida, we examine whether adolescents' best same-sex and best opposite-sex friends' sexual intercourse behavior increases the likelihood that respondents who are virgins at round 1 will make the transition to intercourse between rounds of our study. We find no significant influence effects of friends of either sex for black males or females, or white males. In contrast, white females are influenced by the sexual behavior of both their best female friend and best male friend. A virgin white female whose best friends of both sexes were sexually experience at round 1 was almost certain to have sexual intercourse within the two years of our study.

  7. Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Rice, Beth Ann; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2×2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc→Sal or Sal→Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal→Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc→Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperito......Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic...... and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation...

  9. The effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ji Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty” and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”. We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors.ResultsEarly first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08. After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20. Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables.ConclusionThere is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early.

  10. Sexual Risk Behavior among Male and Female Truant Youths: Exploratory, Multi-Group Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Krupa, Julie; Winters, Ken C

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of sexual risk behaviors among truant youths across gender. This study utilized latent class analysis to examined heterogeneity of sexual risk behaviors across gender among a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Results revealed two latent subgroups within gender: low vs. high sexual risk behaviors. There were gender differences in baseline covariates of sexual risk behaviors, with male truants in higher risk group experiencing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) problems, and female truants in higher risk group experienced marijuana use and depression symptoms. African-American race was a significant covariate for high sexual risk behaviors for both genders. Service and practice implications of sexual risk issues of truant youth are discussed.

  11. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrusiveness of rheumatoid arthritis on sexuality in male and female patients living with a spouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaimaat, F. W.; Bakker, A. H.; Janssen, E.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether physical disability, pain, depressive mood, and criticism by the spouse are differentially related to intrusiveness of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on sexuality in male and female patients. Physical and psychological aspects of health were assessed in 102 male and 118 female RA

  13. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  14. Influential Factors on Adolescent Males' Non-Relational Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…

  15. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamara L.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  16. Prevalence and pattern of misconceptions about semen loss and sexual prowess among male medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajish G Mangot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual misconceptions have been around in India for a very long time. Growing liberal attitudes toward sex and sexual permissiveness can be expected to occur in the context of improved sexual knowledge among people. However, sexual myths continue to remain rampant. Therefore, the present study was planned with the aim to assess the level of sexual misconceptions regarding semen loss prevalent among male medical interns. Participants and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among unmarried male medical students doing an internship. Eighty-one interns were recruited after fulfilling predecided inclusion/exclusion criteria and were asked to complete a specially made questionnaire to assess their sexual beliefs anonymously in complete privacy. Responses were analyzed using frequency distribution. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the participants believed that loss of semen can lead to reduction in the size of the penis, while 44.44% (n = 36 believed that it leads to sexual weakness, 56.8% (n = 46 believed it can lead to physical weakness, and 56.8% (n = 46 believed that excess masturbation can decrease sexual prowess. Discussion: This study helps bring to light the prevalence of sexual misconceptions among medical interns in spite of reaching a stage where they are expected to have sound conceptual, theoretical, and practical knowledge about sexual health and wellbeing. There is a dearth of national and international studies exploring the sociocultural aspects of sexuality specifically among medical students. The findings from this study are expected to stimulate researchers and academicians into further exploring the aspect of sexuality among the young medical fraternity.

  17. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  18. Non-monogamy and sexual relationship quality among same-sex male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Grov, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Relationship arrangements about sex with outside partners are common among gay couples, and meaningful distinctions in psychological and behavioral health correlates have been found among nonmonogamous agreement types. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual agreements and partners' sexual relationship quality. Data were collected from both members of 161 gay male couples (n = 322 individuals). Couples were categorized as monogamous (52.8%), open (13.0%), monogamish (14.9%), and discrepant (19.3%). We used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to assess associations of relationship arrangement with four aspects of sexual relationship quality: sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, sexual jealousy, and the occurrence of at-least weekly sex between main partners. We found that sexual arrangements were not associated with sexual satisfaction, communication, or frequency. However, monogamous men reported significantly higher levels of sexual jealousy. Our findings indicate that gay men engage in a range of relationship agreements, and nonmonogamous agreements are associated with levels of sexual relationship quality equivalent to monogamous agreements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Thomas; Schiffer, Boris; Zwarg, Thomas; Krüger, Tillmann H C; Karama, Sherif; Schedlowski, Manfred; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2008-06-01

    Although heterosexual and homosexual individuals clearly show differences in subjective response to heterosexual and homosexual sexual stimuli, the neurobiological processes underlying sexual orientation are largely unknown. We addressed the question whether the expected differences in subjective response to visual heterosexual and homosexual stimuli may be reflected in differences in brain activation pattern. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers, 12 heterosexuals and 12 homosexuals, were included in the study. BOLD signal was measured while subjects were viewing erotic videos of heterosexual and homosexual content. SPM02 was used for data analysis. Individual sexual arousal was assessed by subjective rating. As compared to viewing sexually neutral videos, viewing erotic videos led to a brain activation pattern characteristic for sexual arousal in both groups only when subjects were viewing videos of their respective sexual orientation. Particularly, activation in the hypothalamus, a key brain area in sexual function, was correlated with sexual arousal. Conversely, when viewing videos opposite to their sexual orientation both groups showed absent hypothalamic activation. Moreover, the activation pattern found in both groups suggests that stimuli of opposite sexual orientation triggered intense autonomic response and may be perceived, at least to some extent, as aversive. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Male-Partnered Sexual Minority Women: Sexual Identity Disclosure to Health Care Providers During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Ross, Lori E; Manley, Melissa H; Mohr, Jonathan J

    2017-03-01

    Male-partnered sexual minority women (SMW) have received little research attention, despite the fact that they represent a large proportion of SMW - particularly child-bearing SMW. Male-partnered SMW are less "out" than female-partnered SMW and will likely be "read" as heterosexual by perinatal providers. Given this, and evidence that pregnant women have unique mental health care needs, the current study focuses on male-partnered SMW ( n = 28) during the perinatal period, recruited from Toronto, Canada and Massachusetts, USA, in an effort to understand disclosure and concealment processes in general and to perinatal heath care providers specifically. Women generally reported that they did not disclose (but made no effort to conceal) their sexual identities and histories in new or unfamiliar relationships, largely because the topic rarely came up, although some women highlighted bisexual invisibility and fear of biphobia as reasons for non-disclosure. Despite overall positive experiences with perinatal providers, less than one-quarter of the sample ( n = 6) had disclosed their sexual identities and histories to them. Most women felt that this information was generally not relevant to their health care, and particularly their reproductive/obstetric care, although some believed that disclosure would be appropriate under conditions of sexual health risk ( n = 8). Others noted that although they did not feel the need to disclose, they did prefer an LGBQ-affirming provider ( n = 7). Findings provide insight into male-partnered SMW's views and patterns of disclosure during the perinatal period, and have implications for providers, organizations, and scholars who interface with SMW. Pregnant sexual minority women with male partners are often assumed to be heterosexual, raising questions about whether and when these women disclose their sexual minority status in the perinatal context. This qualitative study of 28 women found that most participants did not share their sexual

  1. Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Using sexually active rats for experiments the influence of chronic combined internal and external irradiation at low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl external zone studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexually active animals and suppression sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. Dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the function of the sexual behavior regulatory mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in clean females coupled with irradiated males. Irradiation of males at total absorbed dose to gonads 0.23 c Gy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 c Gy on male gametes [ru

  2. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Sexual Aggression Among Male College Students: The Protective Influence of Church Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingree, J B; Thompson, Martie; Ruetz, Emily

    2015-05-22

    Much research has examined personal characteristics that increase the risk of men engaging in sexual aggression. Heavy episodic drinking, typically operationalized for males as consuming five or more standard drinks of alcohol in a 2-hr period, is one factor that has been found in most studies to be associated with higher risk for sexual aggression. Although relatively little empirical attention has been given to personal characteristics that can protect men from perpetrating sexual aggression, research on factors that are tied to less alcohol use may be fruitful in this regard. Accordingly, the current study examined if church attendance protected against sexual aggression perpetration by reducing heavy episodic drinking among male students who completed survey questionnaires during their first, second, and third years of college. The results showed increased church attendance over the first and second years of college was associated with lower levels of subsequent, heavy episodic drinking and sexual aggression. Moreover, the results indicated lower levels of heavy episodic drinking mediated the protective effect of church attendance on sexual aggression. These findings can inform sexual aggression prevention efforts in the male, college student population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Male Participation in Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Fayoyin

    Introduction. International development platforms stress the need to mobilize the male gender as a critical ... the power of male participation and partnership in challenging stereotypes, addressing inequalities .... identifies inadequate engagement of men as a hindrance in Africa; a view consistent with Skovdal et al. (2011) ...

  4. Male participation in promoting sexual and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper suggests the design and execution of male participation grounded in human rights based approach to program for wider development agenda and good governance initiatives in Africa.` Keywords: social mobilization, male engagement, social change, reproductive health, gender equality, social innovation ...

  5. The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, James; Dey, Cody J; Delhey, Kaspar; Kempenaers, Bart; Valcu, Mihai

    2015-11-19

    Classical sexual selection theory provides a well-supported conceptual framework for understanding the evolution and signalling function of male ornaments. It predicts that males obtain greater fitness benefits than females through multiple mating because sperm are cheaper to produce than eggs. Sexual selection should therefore lead to the evolution of male-biased secondary sexual characters. However, females of many species are also highly ornamented. The view that this is due to a correlated genetic response to selection on males was widely accepted as an explanation for female ornamentation for over 100 years and current theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that genetic constraints can limit sex-specific trait evolution. Alternatively, female ornamentation can be the outcome of direct selection for signalling needs. Since few studies have explored interspecific patterns of both male and female elaboration, our understanding of the evolution of animal ornamentation remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we use a new method to quantify plumage colour of all ~6,000 species of passerine birds to determine the main evolutionary drivers of ornamental colouration in both sexes. We found that conspecific male and female colour elaboration are strongly correlated, suggesting that evolutionary changes in one sex are constrained by changes in the other sex. Both sexes are more ornamented in larger species and in species living in tropical environments. Ornamentation in females (but not males) is increased in cooperative breeders--species in which female-female competition for reproductive opportunities and other resources related to breeding may be high. Finally, strong sexual selection on males has antagonistic effects, causing an increase in male colouration but a considerably more pronounced reduction in female ornamentation. Our results indicate that although there may be genetic constraints to sexually independent colour evolution

  6. Do Males Form Social Associations Based on Sexual Attractiveness in a Fission-Fusion Fish Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christine Auge

    Full Text Available Recent theory predicts that males should choose social environments that maximize their relative attractiveness to females by preferentially associating with less attractive rivals, so as to enhance their mating success. Using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a highly social species, we tested for non-random social associations among males in mixed-sex groups based on two phenotypic traits (body length and coloration that predict relative sexual attractiveness to females and sexual (sperm competitiveness. Based on a well-replicated laboratory dichotomous-choice test of social group preference, we could not reject the null hypothesis that focal males chose randomly between a mixed-sex group that comprised a female and a rival male that was less sexually attractive than themselves and another mixed-sex group containing a sexually more attractive male. The same conclusion was reached when females were absent from the two groups. As might be expected from these laboratory findings, free-ranging males in the field were not assorted by either body length or colour in mixed-sex shoals. The apparent lack of an evolved and expressed preference in wild male guppies from our study population to form social associations with other males based on their relative sexual attractiveness and competitiveness might be due to the fission-fusion dynamics of guppy shoals in nature. Such social dynamics likely places constraints on the formation of stable phenotype-based social associations among males. This possibility is supported by a simulation model which assumes group departure rules based on relative body size and coloration in males.

  7. Do Males Form Social Associations Based on Sexual Attractiveness in a Fission-Fusion Fish Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auge, Anne-Christine; Auld, Heather L.; Sherratt, Thomas N.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory predicts that males should choose social environments that maximize their relative attractiveness to females by preferentially associating with less attractive rivals, so as to enhance their mating success. Using the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly social species, we tested for non-random social associations among males in mixed-sex groups based on two phenotypic traits (body length and coloration) that predict relative sexual attractiveness to females and sexual (sperm) competitiveness. Based on a well-replicated laboratory dichotomous-choice test of social group preference, we could not reject the null hypothesis that focal males chose randomly between a mixed-sex group that comprised a female and a rival male that was less sexually attractive than themselves and another mixed-sex group containing a sexually more attractive male. The same conclusion was reached when females were absent from the two groups. As might be expected from these laboratory findings, free-ranging males in the field were not assorted by either body length or colour in mixed-sex shoals. The apparent lack of an evolved and expressed preference in wild male guppies from our study population to form social associations with other males based on their relative sexual attractiveness and competitiveness might be due to the fission-fusion dynamics of guppy shoals in nature. Such social dynamics likely places constraints on the formation of stable phenotype-based social associations among males. This possibility is supported by a simulation model which assumes group departure rules based on relative body size and coloration in males. PMID:26986565

  8. Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chyng; Bridges, Ana; Johnson, Jennifer A; Ezzell, Matthew B

    2016-05-01

    Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters.

  9. The effects of sildenafil after chronic L-NAME administration in male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcia M D; Quintella, Suelen L; Parcial, André L N; Ferraz, Marcos R

    2016-01-01

    Ferraz MMD, Quintella SL, Parcial ALN, Ferraz MR. The effects of sildenafil citrate and L-NAME on male rat sexual behaviour. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV. Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects up to 50% of men between 40 and 70years of age. Significant advances in the pharmacological treatment of ED occurred in recent years, most notably the introduction of the first oral selective phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, sildenafil. This study investigated the effectiveness of chronic oral treatment with L-NAME in rats as an experimental model of erectile dysfunction to evaluate new pharmacological agents that affect the sexual response. The effects of chronic oral L-NAME treatment, separately or in combination with sildenafil, on the sexual behaviour of male rats were evaluated. Filtered water was used as a control. Acute administration of L-NAME did not alter the sexual response compared with control, but sildenafil administration facilitated sexual behaviour after acute and chronic administration. Chronic L-NAME treatment inhibited motivational and consummatory measures of male rat sexual behaviour. Sildenafil prevented the inhibitory effects of L-NAME. The present results confirm that chronic oral treatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor may be a relevant peripheral ED model to evaluate the effects of drugs on erectile function of male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coercive forms of sexual risk and associated violence perpetrated by male partners of female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Partner violence is associated with STDs among female adolescents, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Sexually coercive and deceptive behaviors of male partners that increase female STD risk may be factors in this relationship. A sample of 356 females aged 14-20 who attended adolescent health clinics in Greater Boston between April and December 2006 were assessed for physical and sexual violence perpetrated by male partners and for exposure to sexual risk factors. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between intimate partner violence and standard sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple partnerships) and coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors (e.g., coerced condom nonuse). More than two-fifths of the sample had experienced intimate partner violence. In adjusted analyses, adolescents reporting intimate partner violence were more likely than others to report standard sexual risk behaviors--multiple partners, anal sex and unprotected anal sex (odds ratios, 1.7-2.2). They also were more likely to report coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors--partner sexual infidelity, fear of requesting condom use, negative consequences of condom request, and coerced condom nonuse (2.9-5.3). The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against young women attending adolescent clinics strongly indicates the need to target this population for abuse-related interventions. This need is underlined by the observed association between partner violence and sexual risk involving coercion or deception by male partners. Clinic-based STD and pregnancy prevention efforts should include assessment of sexual risk factors that are beyond the control of young women, particularly for those experiencing abuse. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  11. Trait-affect, depressed mood, and male sexual functioning: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between trait-affect, depressed mood, and sexual functioning has been studied; however, the nature of that relation is not yet well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediator role that depressed mood plays in the relation between trait-affect and sexual functioning in men. A total of 205 men from the general population participated in the study and completed self-reported measures assessing trait-affect, depressed mood, and sexual functioning. Trait-affect was measured by the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale-Expanded Version, depressed mood was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and male sexual function was measured by the International Index of Erectile Function. Regression analysis showed that negative trait-affect and depressed mood were significant predictors of sexual functioning. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that depressed mood partially mediate the relationship between negative trait-affect and sexual functioning in men. Findings support the role of negative trait-affect and depressed mood on male sexual functioning. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Crowd control: sex ratio affects sexually selected cuticular hydrocarbons in male Drosophila serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Rundle, H D

    2017-03-01

    Although it is advantageous for males to express costly sexually selected signals when females are present, they may also benefit from suppressing these signals to avoid costly interactions with rival males. Cuticular chemical profiles frequently function as insect sexual signals; however, few studies have asked whether males alter these signals in response to their social environment. In Drosophila serrata, an Australian fly, there is sexual selection for a multivariate combination of male cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Here, we show that the ratio of females to males that an adult male experiences has a strong effect on his CHC expression, with female-biased adult sex ratios eliciting greater expression of CHC profiles associated with higher male mating success. Classical models predict that male reproductive investment should be highest when there is a small but nonzero number of rivals, but we found that males expressed the most attractive combination of CHCs when there were no rivals. We found that male CHCs were highly sensitive to adult sex ratio, with males expressing higher values of CHC profiles associated with greater mating success as the ratio of females to males increased. Moreover, sex ratio has a stronger effect on male CHC expression than adult density. Finally, we explore whether sex ratio affects the variance among a group of males in their CHC expression, as might be expected if individuals respond differently to a given social environment, but find little effect. Our results reveal that subtle differences in social environment can induce plasticity in male chemical signal expression. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Male-specific protein (MSP): a new gene linked to sexual behavior and aggressiveness of tilapia males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnes, Ziv; Avtalion, Ramy; Shirak, Andrey; Trombka, David; Wides, Ron; Fellous, Marc; Don, Jeremy

    2008-08-01

    MSP is a male-specific protein initially identified in the serum of sexually active Sarotherodon galilaeus males, and is shown herein to be present in the serum of sexually mature males, but not females, of three other tilapia species. Cloning of the MSP cDNA and analysis of its predicted amino-acid sequence revealed that it is an outlier lipocalin that contains a signal peptide in its N-terminal region. The abundance of highly homologous sequences found in fish and the monophyletic relationship to tetrapod Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) places it as a clade XII lipocalin. MSP was shown to undergo major N-glycosylation, characteristic of many lipocalins. The expression pattern of MSP, as determined at both the RNA and protein levels, points to the liver, head kidney and testis as production tissues, and resembles a pattern typical of some hormones. We found that MSP is secreted in urine and seminal fluids, and is present in the skin mucus of socially dominant males. Moreover, we discovered a positive correlation between MSP levels in the serum and the dominance and aggressive behavior displayed by socially dominant males. Based on these data, we suggest that MSP is a novel male-specific lipocalin that may function in intra and inter-sex communication.

  15. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  16. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.

  17. Psychosocial determinants of risky sexual behaviour amongst South African male prison inmates in KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifunda, Sibusiso; Reddy, Priscilla; Braithwaite, Ronald L; Stephens, Torrance; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart

    2012-01-01

    To inform future intervention programmes, the purpose of this paper is to explore the psychosocial and contextual determinants of intention to reduce risky sexual behaviour amongst inmates in South African prisons. A cross sectional study using interviewer administered questionnaires was conducted with 357 inmates across four prison facilities in South Africa that were involved in a pre-release health education intervention for parolees in two provinces. About 65 per cent of participants were first time offenders. Almost 50 per cent were unemployed prior to arrest and 66 per cent were married at time of incarceration. Self-efficacy, general life skills efficacy and sexual communication were the strongest predictors of intention to reduce risky behaviour upon release. High intenders were significantly different from low intenders in their self-efficacy, sexual communication, attitudes towards condom use and the perceived norm of sex being a non-utilitarian transaction. One of the key limitations is the low literacy levels amongst prison inmates. Data also relied heavily on self reports of behaviours that may have occurred prior to the participants being incarcerated. It is concluded that the exploration of subpopulation specific behavioural determinants is a critical step in the development of effective, contextually-relevant, health education interventions.

  18. Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

  19. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  20. Cross-sectional study of male sexual function in bariatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał R. Janik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities and affects various aspects of life, including sexual functioning. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obese people. Male sexual function after bariatric surgery is not well known. Aim: To compare male sexual function and sexual quality of life after surgical weight loss with controls seeking bariatric surgery. Material and methods : International Index of Erectile Function and Sexual Quality of Life-Male (SQoL-M questionnaires were administered by e-mail to 152 men who had undergone weight-loss surgery. The control group consisted of 44 obese men who completed the questionnaires during their preoperative evaluation. Results : Fifty-six percent of men in the control group and 20% of men in the postoperative group reported erectile dysfunction (ED (OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.6–16.0, p = 0.005. The median (Q1, Q3 total International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score did not show a significant difference between the control (62.0 (37.5, 66.5 and postoperative groups (67.0 (57.0, 70.0. However, median scores in domains of erectile function (EF, sexual desire (SD, and overall satisfaction (OS were significantly higher in the postoperative group. The median SQoL-M was significantly higher (81.8 (51.5, 89.4 vs. 88.6 (84.8, 90.9; p < 0.05 in the postoperative group. Conclusions : A lower prevalence of erectile dysfunction and better sexual quality of life were observed in the patients after surgical weight loss. The improvement in male sexual function may be considered as an advantage of bariatric surgery.

  1. TRAINING IN MALE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH FOR A PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN

    OpenAIRE

    SHAIFUL BI

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, I was awarded a scholarship from Universiti Sains Malaysia for Fellowship training at Monash University (MU) for one year. The objective of the training programme was to develop knowledge and skills in several areas, including androgen deficiency, male infertility, prostate disease, testicular tumours, sexual dysfunction and sexually transmitted diseases. The training programme consisted of attachments with clinical specialists, completion of a course work module and a research proje...

  2. Heterospecific exposure affects the development of secondary sexual traits in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrold, Andrea; Leitner, Stefan; Laucht, Silke; Derégnaucourt, Sébastien

    2013-03-01

    In many animal species, social signals can affect the reproductive physiology and behaviour of conspecifics. In a few species that exhibit vocal learning, exposure to conspecific and sometimes heterospecific sounds can also influence their vocal development. Here we show that heterospecific exposure can affect the development of secondary sexual traits of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In a first experiment, we trained young males with a passive playback of domesticated canary (Serinus canaria) song. Song playback enhanced the sexual development of the birds: they started to sing during the presentation of a video clip of a female earlier during development and exhibited secondary sexual plumage ornaments faster than males of the control group kept in silence. Two out of five birds exhibited clear evidence of imitation of canary song. In a second experiment, we raised young male finches with young male canaries in pairs until adulthood. Again, the live contact with a heterospecific companion affected the development of plumage ornaments in finches. We also observed some evidences of vocal convergence, both for calls and song. Moreover, young males of both species could recognize the call of their heterospecific companion when adults. These results suggest that heterospecific exposure can affect both the sexual and the vocal development of the zebra finch and can have long lasting effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood sexual victimization, pedophilic interest, and sexual recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; Renee Malcom, J; Lavoie, Kayla

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the extent to which child sexual abuse (CSA) and particular characteristics of CSA are associated with pedophilic interest and sexual recidivism. Subjects were 462 adult male sexual offenders who had been incarcerated in Canadian federal prisons. Compared to sexual offenders who had not been sexually abused, those who had been sexually abused before age 16 sexually offended against significantly younger victims and had significantly more indicators of pedophilic interest. This was the case whether we examined self-reported or officially documented CSA. Offenders who had been sexually abused exclusively by a male had significantly more indicators of pedophilic interest than those who had been sexually abused exclusively by a female. These findings are consistent with past research and theory suggesting that CSA may play a role in pedophilia and sexual offending against children. CSA exclusively by a female abuser predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism than abuse by a male or both a male and female abuser. Among offenders with victims 15 years old or younger, a closer relationship between offender and abuser predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism. The relationship between CSA and sexual recidivism was significantly moderated by actuarial risk. More specifically, CSA predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism among higher risk offenders, but CSA did not predict sexual recidivism among lower risk offenders. This novel finding raises the possibility that CSA may play a role in sexual recidivism for some offenders. If future research replicates this CSA by risk interaction and identifies the constructs and processes involved, CSA may be worth considering in risk assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual experience increases oxytocin receptor gene expression and protein in the medial preoptic area of the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mario; Bhatt, Renu; Picotte, Katie B; Hull, Elaine M

    2013-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) promotes social and reproductive behaviors in mammals, and OT deficits may be linked to disordered social behaviors like autism and severe anxiety. Male rat sexual behavior is an excellent model for OT regulation of behavior, as its pattern and neural substrates are well characterized. We previously reported that OT microinjected into the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a major integrative site for male sexual behavior, facilitates copulation in sexually experienced male rats, whereas intra-MPOA injection of an OT antagonist (OTA) inhibits copulation. In the present studies, copulation on the day of sacrifice stimulated OTR mRNA expression in the MPOA, irrespective of previous sexual experience, with the highest levels observed in first-time copulators. In addition, sexually experienced males had higher levels of OTR protein in the MPOA than sexually naïve males and first-time copulators. Finally, intra-MPOA injection of OT facilitated mating in sexually naive males. Others have reported a positive correlation between OT mRNA levels and male sexual behavior. Our studies show that OT in the MPOA facilitates mating in both sexually naive and experienced males, some of the behavioral effects of OT are mediated by the OTR, and sexual experience is associated with increased OTR expression in the MPOA. Taken together, these data suggest a reciprocal interaction between central OT and behavior, in which OT facilitates copulation and copulation stimulates the OT/OTR system in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, and devaluation of emotions in sexual trauma sequelae: Findings from a sample of male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Emily; Polusny, Melissa A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Street, Amy; Grill, Joseph; Murdoch, Maureen

    2015-11-01

    Sexual trauma is an understudied but regrettably significant problem among male Veterans. As in women, sexual trauma often results in serious mental health consequences for men. Therefore, to guide potential future interventions in this important group, we investigated associations among self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, devaluation of emotions, and psychiatric symptom severity after male sexual victimization. We collected data from 1,872 Gulf War era Veterans who applied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability benefits using standard mailed survey methods. The survey asked about history of childhood sexual abuse, sexual assault during the time of Gulf War I, and past-year sexual assault as well as Veterans' perceived self-efficacy, male rape myth acceptance, devaluation of emotions, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy partially mediated the association between participants' sexual trauma history and psychiatric symptoms. Greater male rape myth acceptance and greater devaluation of emotions were directly associated with lower self-efficacy, but these beliefs did not moderate associations between sexual trauma and self-efficacy. In this population, sexual trauma, male rape myth acceptance, and devaluation of emotions were associated with lowered self-efficacy, which in turn was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms. Implications for specific, trauma-focused treatment are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Alterations of male sexual behavior by learned aversions to hamster vaginal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R E; Zahorik, D M; Immler, K; Zakon, H

    1978-02-01

    Male hamsters poisoned after their first adult exposure to the vaginal secretion of female hamsters became hesitant to approach and ingest the secretion. The same aversion-training procedure also altered the responses of males to estrous females, changing the latency, frequency, and duration of a variety of behaviors that are commonly taken as indexes of sexual attraction or arousal and of copulatory performance. The effects suggest that the aversions to vaginal secretion alter the perceived meaning of the secretion for male hamsters, and analysis of the correlations between various measures of sexual arousal and performance support the hypothesis that separate mechanisms underlie the effects of the secretion on appetitive and consummatory sexual behavior.

  8. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  9. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p benefits from condom use (p benefits of condom use (p = 0.016), and perceived risk for HIV (p = 0.033). They explained 36% of behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  10. Male Sexual Dysfunction, Leptin, Pituitary and Gonadal Hormones in Nigerian Males with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Unyime Aniekpon; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebatonyo; Fasanmade, Adesoji Adedipe; Olaniyi, John Ayodele; Oyewole, Oyediran Emmanuel; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Adebusuyi, Jane Roli; Hassan, Olufunke Olayemi; Ajobo, Babatunde Mohammed; Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Adigun, Kehinde; Akinlade, Kehinde Sola; Arinola, Olatubosun Ganiyu; Agbedana, Emmanuel Oluyemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pituitary and gonadal dysfunctions resulting from increased adiposity leading to disturbances of sexual and reproductive functions have been reported in males with metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dysfunction, leptin, and reproductive hormones in Nigerian males with MS and DM2. Methods: Participants were 104 men (34 males with DM2, 17 men with MS and 53 men with normal body mass index (18.5–24.9 Kg/m2) without MS (controls)). The International Diabetes Federation (2005) criteria were used for MS diagnosis. Reproductive history, anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and 10 ml fasting blood samples were obtained by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined by enzymatic methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated. Leptin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, testosterone and oestrogen were determined by enzyme immunoassay (leptin by Diagnostic Automation, Inc.; others by Immunometrics (UK) Ltd.) while oestrogen-testosterone ratio was calculated. Data analyzed using ANOVA, Chi square and multiple regression were statistically significant at plibido was observed in men in MS than controls and DM2 groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Sexual and reproductive dysfunction may be related to increased conversion of testosterone to oestrogen in increased adipose mass in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26962479

  11. Let’s Talk About Sex: Parental Communication and Sexual Behavior of Male Filipino Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldilyn D. Gumban

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the sexual behavior of young people is important in pursuing health development in our society. In the Philippines, current data shows that there is a drastic increase in sex related activities concerning our youths. According to past studies, strong familial relationship and parent-child connectedness decrease the likelihood of a child to engage in risky sex. Furthermore, families with strong communication and are open to sexual topics became closer, and more comfortable with each other. This quantitative, correlational study was designed to describe the level of parental communication in terms of sexual health issues and its relationship to the sexual behaviorsof male Filipino youths in Metro Manila. A total of 143 male respondents ages 18-25 from Metro Manila participated in the study through an online survey. Results suggest that that majority of the respondents reported low level of parental communication in terms of sexual health issues and a large number reported risky sexual behaviors. The results of this study suggested no significant relationship between the respondent‟s level of parental communication and their sexual behavior.

  12. Testosterone profiles and their correlation with sexual libido in male camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Aminu

    2008-10-01

    The study was conducted on 4 male Jaisalmeri camels (Camelus dromedarius) on their circulating testosterone (T) profiles and correlation with sexual libido. The average T concentration was low during hot months of April to September, started increasing in the months of October and November, continued to increase steadily in the months of December, January and February followed by decline in the ensuing months. Individual variations in onset and cessation of T surge were observed. Sexual libido as indicated by copulation time (CT) and volume of semen ejaculated (V) was high during January to April months, declined slowly over May month followed by complete cessation in later half of June. Sexual libido was almost negligible during July to November months. The sexual libido was also low during December month. Like circulating T profiles, individual variations were also observed in sexual libido. Data indicated that onset as well as cessation of T surge preceded the onset and cessation of sexual libido in all the animals. A positive correlation was found among circulating T (concentration), CT and V of semen. It is concluded that seasonal changes in circulating testosterone governs sexual libido in male camels.

  13. Varieties of Male-Sexual-Identity Development in Clinical Practice:A Neuropsychoanalytic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans eStortelder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations of sexual-identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy.In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual-identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship.This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vugnettes from clinical practice.

  14. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  15. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  16. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P.; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model.Methods: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5).Results: Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect...

  17. The Effect of Mood on Opposite-Sex Judgments of Males' Commitment and Females' Sexual Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikkiah de Quadros-Wander

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in perceptions of sexual intent and commitment have been the subject of formal and informal inquiry for considerable time. One evolutionary theory, Error Management Theory (EMT, predicts that opposite-sex perceptions of female sexual intent and male commitment intent reflect intrinsic biases that minimize gender-specific evolutionary costs. The results supporting these hypotheses were obtained from subjects regardless of mood. We hypothesized that mood would influence ratings of sexual and commitment intent. Sixty participants (30 males, 30 females were recruited and exposed to a positive and negative mood condition in counterbalanced groups using video stimuli. Preliminary analyses found an unexpected effect of order of mood induction, necessitating separate analyses of the Positive-Negative (PN and Negative-Positive (NP groups. Contrary to the original study, there were no gender effects. Positive moods led to increased ratings of both sexual and commitment intent across genders. Further, negative to positive mood-change was associated with significantly increased ratings. Both males and females attributed significantly higher sexual intent to same-sex rivals than themselves, but only males assessed themselves as having significantly higher commitment intent than same-sex rivals. The EMT model may require adaptation to acknowledge effects of variables such as mood on its predictions of gender-specific biases.

  18. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Holm Bramsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5. Results: Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions: Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth.

  19. Sexualized Branded Entertainment and the Male Consumer Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. McAllister

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the “male consumer gaze” – integrating work influenced by Erving Goffman and Laura Mulvey – to two branded televised events: the 2011 Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show and the 2012 Hooters International Swimsuit Pageant. Critiqued elements include gendered body positioning, televisual and narrativizing techniques, social and integrated media, and branding strategies that combine to create a flow of consumption-based male gazing. Such trends may intensify with changes in media economics and niche marketing.

  20. Clinical characteristics and service use of incarcerated males with severe mental disorders: a comparative case-control study with patients found not criminally responsible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Alexandre; Côté, Gilles; Larue, Caroline; Goulet, Marie-Hélène; Pelletier, Jean-François

    2014-08-01

    Since the drop in the bed capacity of civil psychiatric hospitals, an increase in the bed capacity of forensic psychiatric care and prison units has been reported in the United States and Europe. However, in Canada, a decrease in the number of people with severe mental illness (SMI) during the last two decades in penitentiaries has been reported. At the same time, an increase in individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) was observed in forensic hospitals. The aim of this study is to compare incarcerated severely mentally ill (I-SMI) individuals with forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals in terms of their clinical profiles and service use in the province of Quebec (Canada). A case-control study design was selected using a sample of 44 I-SMI individuals and 59 forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. Important findings include the following: I-SMI persons had less schooling; they more often reported suicide attempts and violent and non-violent crimes; and they had a higher level of comorbidity involving Cluster B personality disorders and substance-use disorders. Forensic-hospitalized SMI persons were more likely to have been receiving psychiatric follow-up before hospitalization. The final logistic regression model showed that lifetime suicide attempts, non-violent crimes, and psychopathic traits were higher among I-SMI individuals than among forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. In contrast, receiving regular psychiatric follow-up was associated with forensic-hospitalized SMI individuals. Differences in psychopathological characteristics and the use of mental health services were found for I-SMI persons. More research is needed to determine which new initiatives might be efficacious in addressing the mental health needs of I-SMI individuals.

  1. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This study explored factors that influence male involvement in reproductive health in western Kenya. Qualitative study design was used. From December 2008 to February 2009, data were collected via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) at three provinces of western Kenya. Twelve in-depth interviews ...

  2. Fear of sexually transmitted infections among women with male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-18

    Apr 18, 2006 ... migrant man to the rural woman, but in the opposite direction too.10 The role of migration in the spread of STIs and HIV is complex and not yet well understood.1 Certainly the disruptive effects of enforced mobility per se contribute to vulnerability, while the social conditions associated with male migration.

  3. Aphrodisiac and Male Sexual Characteristics in Albino Rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plants and herbs to boost libido, induce erection, and as an aphrodisiac agent has been in existence for long. The root of Parquetina nigrescens is one of such acclaimed aphrodisiac but there is no scientific documentation to back this up, thus the need for this study. Eighty male rats were completely randomized ...

  4. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities ( N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration

  5. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration Among Male and Female College Students in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Schuster

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1,136, to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S, which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure, three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers, and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts such as oral sex. Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration

  6. Coercive sexual experiences, protective behavioral strategies, alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies, alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female college students. We surveyed 370 college students regarding their past year experiences and found that 34% of women and 31% of men reported unwanted sexual contact, 6% of women and 13% of men reported engaging in sexually coercive behavior, and 4% of women and 9% of men reported experiencing both unwanted contact and engaging in sexually coercive behavior. Findings indicated students who experienced unwanted sexual contact reported significant differences in alcohol expectancies. More specifically those who engaged in sexually coercive behaviors had significantly higher sex related alcohol expectancies. Additionally, recipients of unwanted contact reported higher alcohol consumption, utilized fewer protective strategies when drinking, and experienced more negative consequences due to their alcohol use. Results suggest that campus alcohol and sexual assault prevention efforts should include information on alcohol expectancies and use of protective strategies. PMID:20040711

  7. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Proietti, Marco; Ciocca, Giacomo; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Romanelli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Videogame use is increasingly prevalent in people of all ages, and despite the wide amount of scientific evidence proving a role for electronic entertainment in human health, there is no evidence about the relation between use of videogames and sexual health. To investigate the association between use of videogames and male sexual health. We administered the two validated questionnaires, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15), to men 18 to 50 years old recruited through social networks and specific websites. In addition to the questionnaires, volunteers were asked to provide information on their gaming habit and lifestyle. An extended version of the IIEF-15 and PEDT, including data about gaming habits and relevant lifestyles. From June 18, 2014 through July 31, 2014, 599 men 18 to 50 years old completed the questionnaires. One hundred ninety-nine men reported no sexual activity during the previous 4 weeks; four records were rejected because of inherent errors. The remaining 396 questionnaires were analyzed, with 287 "gamers" (playing >1 hour/day on average) and 109 "non-gamers" providing all the required information. We found a lower prevalence of premature ejaculation in gamers compared with non-gamers (mean PEDT score = 3.57 ± 3.38 vs 4.52 ± 3.7, P videogame use and male sexual health. Compared with non-gamers, men playing videogames for more than 1 hour/day were less likely to have premature ejaculation but more likely to have decreased sexual desire. This is the first study aimed to assess male sexual health in gamers. We identified an association between PEDT and IIEF scores and videogame use; however, these findings require validation through interventional studies. Furthermore, volunteers were recruited through social networks, thus increasing the risk of recruitment bias. To our knowledge, this is the first observational study investigating the link between electronic entertainment and

  8. Youth assets and sexual risk behavior: differences between male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-06-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from parent-adolescent dyads, including 1,219 females and 1,116 males. Important differences exist between male and female adolescents. Females with the nonparental role models or the family communication resource were more likely to report never having had sexual intercourse than were females without the resources. Among males, the aspirations for the future and responsible choices assets were associated with never having had sexual intercourse. Males and females had two assets or resources in common that were protective of never having had sex: peer role models and use of time (religion). Considering which youth assets and resources are more likely to positively influence sexual behaviors of males and females may be important when planning prevention programs with youth.

  9. The acute effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on endocrine and sexual function in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Heinrichs, Markus; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2008-06-01

    The role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) ranges from the modulation of neuroendocrine physiological effects to the establishment of complex social and bonding behaviours. Experimental studies in animals, as well as case reports in humans, suggest that OT affects different aspects of sexual behaviour and has predominantly facilitating properties for sexual appetence and performance. Using a previously established experimental paradigm of sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm, this study investigated the acute effects of intranasal OT application (24I.U.) on endocrine parameters and measures of sexual appetence and function in healthy men (n=10). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced cross-over design, sexual arousal, and orgasm were induced by an erotic film and masturbation. In addition to the continuous recording of endocrine (OT, cortisol, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine) and cardiovascular data (heart rate), parameters of appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behaviour were assessed using the acute sexual experience scale (ASES). OT plasma levels were significantly elevated after intranasal OT throughout the whole experiment (>60 min). In addition, OT treatment induced significantly higher increases in epinephrine plasma levels during sexual activity without affecting cortisol levels, prolactin levels or heart rate. OT treatment did not alter appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behaviour according to the ASES. However, when subjects were asked about their subjective perception of whether OT or placebo had been applied, eight out of 10 subjects in the OT group answered correctly, thus pointing to an altered perception of arousal. In conclusion, intranasally administered OT leads to a marked increase in OT plasma levels together with increased secretion of catecholamines when subjects are engaged in sexual activity in a laboratory setting. As the effects of OT on sexual behaviour were equivocal, future studies

  10. Influence of Eurycoma longifolia on the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, P; Zavatti, M; Montanari, C; Baraldi, M

    2009-11-12

    The root of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, native to South East Asia, has long been used as a male aphrodisiac remedy to treat sexual disorders. In the study we evaluated the influence of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual behavior (including both motivation and copulatory performance) of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats. The root powder of the plant was orally administered to adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, classified as sexually sluggish or impotent taking in account their behavior in pre-experimental tests. Groups of 8 animals each were submitted to three different types of treatment: (1) acute at 3 dose levels (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg); (2) subacute (daily for 6 days) at the dose of 500 mg/kg and (3) subchronic (daily for 12 days) at the same dose (500 mg/kg). Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies and post-ejaculatory interval were recorded during the mating test in order to evaluate sexual performance. In addition the partner preference test was used to assess sexual motivation. Testosterone serum levels were measured in subacutely treated rats and compared with the values of controls receiving vehicle. Concerning the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish rats, both acute (dosed at 500 and 1000 mg/kg) and subacute treatments with the root powder significantly reduced ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating animals; in addition the subacute administration reduced post-ejaculatory interval. In impotent rats both subacute and subchronic treatments increased the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The motivational behavior of sluggish rats during the partner preference test was not affected by the treatments. Testosterone serum levels were increased in rats subacutely treated in comparison with controls. Eurycoma longifolia root improved sexual performance but not motivation in sluggish rats after acute or subacute administration. The effect could be mainly ascribed to increased testosterone levels.

  11. Effects of petroleum ether extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. on sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2010-08-01

    The roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. (Compositae) are employed in Ayurvedic system of medicine as "Vajikaran Rasayana"--a category of drugs for vitality and virility. They are believed to have aphrodisiac action. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate their effects on sexual behavior in male rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control group, testosterone group, low-dose (50 mg/kg) petroleum ether extract (PEE) group and high-dose (100 mg/kg) PEE group. PEE obtained from the roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum was administered orally to albino rats once daily, and 0.5 mg/kg (body weight) of testosterone was given intramuscularly twice weekly and served as positive control. The course of treatment was 28 days. The effects of PEE and testosterone on changes in body and accessory sexual organ weights, sexual behavior, penile erection and sexual performance were studied before treatment, after 15 and 28 days of treatment and 7 and 15 days after treatment. After 28 days of treatment, PEE and testosterone had a marked influence on body and accessory sexual organ weights as compared with arachis oil. The treated male rats were more receptive and oriented towards female rats and increased precopulatory activities like licking and sniffing of female anogenital were observed. The penile erection index was significantly increased with reduction in mount latency and intromission latency period. There were four-fold increase in mount and three-fold increase in intromission frequency in treated rats reflecting improved sexual performance. The behavioral and sexual parameters were also observed after a lapse of 7 and 15 days of discontinuance of drug treatment. Unlike testosterone, the PEE of Anacyclus pyrethrum shows efficacy in rats tested after the lapse of 7 and 15 days of discontinuation of treatment. This suggests that the drug has prolonged effect and capacitate the treated rats for improved sexual potential.

  12. The adrenergic alpha2 receptor and sexual incentive motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitamaa, Timo; Haapalinna, Antti; Agmo, Anders

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of the present series of experiments was to determine whether drugs acting at the alpha2-adrenoceptor modify unconditioned sexual incentive motivation in the male rat. To that end a highly specific agonist, dexmedetomidine, a corresponding antagonist, atipamezole, and a less specific antagonist, yohimbine, were administered to groups of sexually inexperienced male rats. The subjects were tested in a large rectangular arena, where a sexually receptive female and an intact male were employed as incentives. The incentive animals were confined behind a wire mesh in opposite corners of the arena. The animals could see, hear and smell each other, but no sexual interaction was possible. Approach to the incentives constituted the measure of incentive motivation. In addition, the test provided data on ambulatory activity and general arousal. Dexmedetomidine, at a dose of 8 microg/kg, produced a slight reduction of sexual incentive motivation. Ambulatory activity and general arousal were also inhibited. Atipamezole, in doses of 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg enhanced the positive incentive properties of the receptive female. A high dose of 1mg/kg did not have any significant effect. Ambulatory activity was slightly reduced by the two larger doses of atipamezole. Yohimbine had a slight stimulatory effect on sexual incentive motivation at a dose (4 mg/kg) that also reduced ambulatory activity and general arousal. It is concluded that blockade of the adrenergic alpha2 receptor stimulates sexual incentive motivation in the male rat whereas stimulation of it has the opposite effect. At present it is not clear if these drug effects are caused by pre- or postsynaptic actions of the drugs, and the importance of secondary changes in other neurotransmitter systems remains unknown.

  13. Sigmund Freud and his impact on our understanding of male sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Uwe

    2009-08-01

    Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential thinkers and theorists of the 20th century. His groundbreaking work laid the foundation to many concepts and theories relevant to modern sexual medicine. To evaluate Freud's approaches to the understanding of male sexual dysfunction both in their historical context and with respect to their significance for contemporary research and therapy of sexual problems. After a brief biographical sketch, two of Freud's writings, the widely acclaimed "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" from 1905, and a short article entitled "The Most Prevalent Form of Degradation in Erotic Life" from 1912, were analyzed, especially for their relevance to present treatment concepts of male sexual dysfunction. In Freud's clinical practice "psychical impotence" was a highly prevalent complaint. In his view, this dysfunction was caused by an inhibition due to an unresolved neurotic fixation leading to an arrest of the libidinal development. The result is a splitting of the tender and the sensual dimension of sexuality, most notably in the so-called madonna-whore complex. The degree of this dissociation (total or partial) determines the severity of the ensuing sexual dysfunction. In Freud's rather pessimistic view, the erotic life of civilized people tends to be characterized by some degree of this condition. While some of Freud's theories are obsolete today, many parts of his work appear to be astonishingly modern, even in the light of current neurobiological research and recent models of sexual dysfunction. Above all, Freud was an extremely gifted observer of human behavior who shows us that in many cases, sexual dysfunctions are no isolated phenomena, but have their roots in biographically based intrapsychic or interpersonal conflicts.

  14. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. [Psycho-social factors of sexual failure among newly married Uyghur young males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Ashim; Hamrajan, Memtili; Kadirjan, Mijit; Adil, Eli; Elijan, Abdureshit; Ibrahim, Ubul; Abdulla, Tursun; Hasanjan, Abdurehim; Turgun, Hekim; Eli, Ablet; Eset, Metmusa

    2016-08-01

    To study the psycho-social risk factors of sexual failure among newly married young males in the Uyghur population. We conducted a paired case control study of 186 newly married Uyghur young males (aged 17-30 [23.4±2.9] yr) with sexual failure and another 186 (aged 18-34 [24.0±3.1] yr) with no such problem as controls. We performed a logistic regression analysis on the possible psycho-social risk factors of this condition. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of sexual failure among the newly married men included personality (OR=0.271, 95% CI 0.176-0.420), income (OR=0.391, 95% CI 0.264-0.580), history of masturbation (OR=0.824, 95% CI 0.710-0.956), premarital sex (OR=0.757, 95% CI 0.677-0.847), sense of obligation (OR=1.756, 95% CI 1.157-2.693), equality of the social status (OR=0.574, 95% CI 0.435-0.756), degree of mutual care (OR=1.605, 95% CI 1.268-2.032), female's psychological obstacle (OR=2.832, 95% CI 1.221-6.569), and religion (OR=0.643, 95% CI 0.472-0.967). There was a statistical significance in the correlation between these factors and sexual failure in the newly married males (all Ppsycho-social factors, which necessitates sexual education among young males and particularly pre-marriage sexual education and psychological guide among both males and females.

  16. Exploring the Sexual Development Experiences of Black Bisexual Male Adolescents Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Saunders, Brianna; Dodge, Brian; Harper, Gary; Arrington Sanders, Renata

    2018-01-03

    Scant research has sought to explore the development of dimensions of sexual orientation among Black bisexual male adolescents (BBMA). Understanding how sexual attractions, behaviors, and identities evolve among BBMA over time is crucial to understanding the most appropriate support strategies to provide during this developmental period. We sought to understand and describe the sexual orientation development experiences in a sample of BBMA over the course of 1 year. We further sought to understand the sociocontextual factors that may play a role during this development process. Fifteen BBMA, aged 15-19 years, were interviewed about sexual debut experiences (baseline) and were re-interviewed three times over a 1-year period about sexual attractions, behaviors, and identity at each follow-up point. A three-person team used inductive open coding to analyze each participant's data set. The mean Kinsey scale score for the sample was 2.93 (SD = 1.2) most closely translating to "heterosexual/gay-equally." A case study analysis was used to identify themes related to sexual attractions, behavior, and identity over time, within and across participants. Among the sample of young men, two unique groups were identified based on self-reported sexual identity and experiences of same- and other-sex sexual attractions and behaviors over time. The first group consisted of seven young men who consistently described their sexual identity as bisexual from baseline to the final follow-up. These young men also described similar experiences related to same- and other-sex sexual and romantic attractions and more consistently described same- and other-sex sexual behaviors. The second group consisted of eight young men that described changing sexual identity and same- and other-sex sexual romantic attractions over time. Participants described sociocontextual factors such as religion, masculinity, and homophobia played during their development. Findings from this study underscore the

  17. Androgenic Regulation of Male Sexual Behavior and Physiology in the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarski, David John

    2012-01-01

    The androgen testosterone (T) and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are released from the gonads and act in the brain and periphery to control many male-typical traits, including male sexual behavior (MSB). The classical model of androgenic action asserts that T, or DHT binds to a single species of intracellular androgen receptor (AR), that acts as a transcription factor to induce transactivation of androgen-regulated genes. Accordingly, androgens may take hours or days to assert t...

  18. The Blood Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    privileged”. Our focus has been on the blood- spinal cord barrier (BSCB) and how trauma collapses this important spinal vascular specialization...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0481 TITLE: The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...21702-5012 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Nearly 70% of males exhibit a profound loss of fertility following spinal cord injury

  19. Comparisons Between Smoking Patterns Among Sexual Minority Females and Males in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mitchell, Jason W

    2018-03-01

    Several studies have noted sexual minority disparities in tobacco smoking; however, few studies have examined the role of intimate partners in these different smoking behaviors among sexual minority men and women. Furthermore, few studies distinguish between intermittent and daily smokers. Thus, this study sought to examine whether perceptions of their partner's smoking behaviors were associated with their own smoking behaviors in a sample of sexual minority adults in romantic relationships. In total, 898 participants (413 sexual minority females and 485 sexual minority males) completed a one-time online anonymous survey. Approximately one third of the sample reported smoking, with 21.2% daily smokers and 9.8% intermittent smokers. Multinomial regression results revealed that for both sexual minority females and males having a partner who was a daily or intermittent smoker was associated with an increased odds of being a daily smoker, whereas having a partner who was an intermittent smoker was associated with an increased odds of being an intermittent smoker. These findings provide valuable information on the need to attend to romantic partners and consider tailored programming to account for different smoking patterns and partners' potential role in reinforcing smoking.

  20. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  1. Monthly measures of salivary testosterone predict sexual activity in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Suchindran, C

    1998-10-01

    Strong relationships between one-time serum testosterone (T) measures and sexual activity have been demonstrated in cross-sectional analyses of adolescent males. However, a subsequent longitudinal study of a separate adolescent sample, using semiannual plasma measures, failed to replicate cross-sectional findings. The present study reexamined the relationship between T and sexual activity using more frequently collected measures of salivary T and behavior. Saliva samples and weekly behavior checklists were collected over a 2-year period from the same panel sample of males on which semiannual analyses were based. Saliva samples representing measures approximately every fourth week of study participation were selected for T assay. The association between these monthly salivary T measures and weekly reports of incidents of sexual activity was assessed with repeated measures analyses. Higher levels of salivary T were significantly associated with an increasing hazard of coital initiation, and with more frequent coital and noncoital activity. Within-individual change analyses demonstrated that increases in salivary T were associated with increased sexual activity. Comparisons of models that varied specimen type, schedule of T measurement, and type of behavioral report indicated that all three factors contribute to the varying magnitude of hormone/behavior relationships that are demonstrated. These findings are consistent with a biosocial model of adolescent sexual development that pubertal changes in T are a causal factor in the timing of sexual initiation and the frequency of activity during adolescence.

  2. Males Resemble Females: Re-Evaluating Sexual Dimorphism in Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maiorino

    Full Text Available Protoceratops andrewsi (Neoceratopsia, Protoceratopsidae is a well-known dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. Some previous workers hypothesized sexual dimorphism in the cranial shape of this taxon, using qualitative and quantitative observations. In particular, width and height of the frill as well as the development of a nasal horn have been hypothesized as potentially sexually dimorphic.Here, we reassess potential sexual dimorphism in skulls of Protoceratops andrewsi by applying two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to 29 skulls in lateral and dorsal views. Principal Component Analyses and nonparametric MANOVAs recover no clear separation between hypothetical "males" and "females" within the overall morphospace. Males and females thus possess similar overall cranial morphologies. No differences in size between "males" and "females" are recovered using nonparametric ANOVAs.Sexual dimorphism within Protoceratops andrewsi is not strongly supported by our results, as previously proposed by several authors. Anatomical traits such as height and width of the frill, and skull size thus may not be sexually dimorphic. Based on PCA for a data set focusing on the rostrum and associated ANOVA results, nasal horn height is the only feature with potential dimorphism. As a whole, most purported dimorphic variation is probably primarily the result of ontogenetic cranial shape changes as well as intraspecific cranial variation independent of sex.

  3. Effects of circumcision on male sexual functions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jian-Zhong; Wazir, Romel; Yue, Xuan; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-09-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to assess sexual functions following adult male circumcision. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review and Web of Science from their inception until January 2013 to identify all eligible studies that reported on men's sexual function after circumcision. The Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software was employed for data analysis, and the fixed or the random effect model was selected depending on the proportion of heterogeneity. We identified 10 studies, which described a total of 9317 circumcised and 9423 uncircumcised men who were evaluated for the association of circumcision with male sexual function. There were no significant differences in sexual desire (odds ratio (OR): 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.06), dyspareunia (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.52-2.44), premature ejaculation (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.83-1.54), ejaculation latency time (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.69-1.97), erectile dysfunctions (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.65-1.25) and orgasm difficulties (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.83-1.13). These findings suggest that circumcision is unlikely to adversely affect male sexual functions. However, these results should be evaluated in light of the low quality of the existing evidence and the significant heterogeneity across the various studies. Well-designed and prospective studies are required for a further understanding of this topic.

  4. The Impact of Illicit Use of Amphetamine on Male Sexual Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Nan-Hua; Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Data concerning the impact of amphetamine on male sexual functions are limited, although amphetamine has been used as an aphrodisiac. This cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions. Male illicit drug users in a Drug Abstention and Treatment Center were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and data were compared with age-matched controls. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and global assessment questions were used to assess sexual functions. Of 1,159 amphetamine mono-illicit drug users, the mean age was 31.9 ± 7.5 (18-57) years, and mean duration of drug use was 30.7 ± 52.2 (median 9, range 0.1-252) months. Half of them reported that drug use had no impact on their sexual functions. The other half reported drug impacts as reduced erectile rigidity and sexual life satisfaction, enhanced orgasmic intensity, and prolonged ejaculation latency time more often than the opposite effects, while they reported enhanced or reduced effect equally on sexual desire. Dosing frequency of amphetamine was associated with its impact on sexual functions, but duration of its use had little association with that. Compared with 211 age-matched controls, the amphetamine mono-illicit drug users had lower IIEF scores in the domains of erectile function, orgasmic function, and overall satisfaction, but there are no significant differences in intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire scores. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) was significantly higher in the drug users than in the controls (29.3% vs. 11.9%). The odds ratio of ED for amphetamine use was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.6) after adjustment for other risk factors. The impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions varied among users, and their ED prevalence was higher than the controls. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The New Eugenics: Black Hyper-Incarceration and Human Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Oleson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the early twentieth century, the eugenics movement exercised considerable influence over domestic US public policy. Positive eugenics encouraged the reproduction of “fit” human specimens while negative eugenics attempted to reduce the reproduction of “unfit” specimens like the “feebleminded” and the criminal. Although eugenics became a taboo concept after World War II, it did not disappear. It was merely repackaged. Incarceration is no longer related to stated eugenic goals, yet incapacitation in prisons still exerts a prophylactic effect on human reproduction. Because minorities are incarcerated in disproportionately high numbers, the prophylactic effect of incarceration affects them most dramatically. In fact, for black males, the effect of hyper-incarceration might be so great as to depress overall reproduction rates. This article identifies some of the legal and extralegal variables that would be relevant for such an analysis and calls for such an investigation.

  7. AB033. Comparing male and female sexual arousal, utilizing fMRI: a theoretical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The goal of this research was to define to mechanism of action for sexual arousal between the mind and the body for young men and women in the San Francisco Bay area. Working within the paradigm of the Sexual Response Cycle, helped to create the framework for understanding the male and female sexual response with sexual function and dysfunction at the core. The young male cohort was a group of heterosexual men who had experienced sexual function previously. The young female cohort was a group of heterosexual women who had experienced hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) previously. To review the fMRI research with male and female sexual arousal conducted at Stanford Medical Center and to propose some new research hypotheses. Methods Young (between the ages of 18 and 30), heterosexual, right-handed (for the sake of research consistency) men and women were recruited for this research, after obtaining IRB approval and Informed Consent. The young male study was completed within one month of initiating recruitment. The initial female study took six months and over 280 applicants to find 20 participants for the initial study. This cohort was used to define the stimuli for the women because we thought it might be different than it was for the men. The second female study took over a year to complete and included 20 young women with no history of sexual dysfunction (NHSD) as compared to 16 women with HSDD. Each group included approximately 20 participants initially, after the phone screening, completing the Informed Consent, and remaining in the 3T fMRI scanner at Stanford Medical Center to view and respond to the various stimuli as it was presented to them. The protocol called for them to receive the stimuli in various orders between relaxation, sports stimuli, and sexual stimuli. Their heart rate, respiration, sexual/genital responses were monitored with either a turgometer (male) or vaginal photoplethysomograph (VPP-female), behavioral

  8. Studies on thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Bengal goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, V.P.; Pande, J.K.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Black Bengal goats was investigated. No change could be recorded at the attainment of sexual maturity in either of the sexes. The cyclic female goats also failed to reflect any change in the thyroid activity during any phase of the oestrous cycle. Again the male goats also failed to reflect any differences in the thyroid activity from the females, either during their immature, or during their mature life. The observations presented thus reflect that the thyroid activity in goats is not influenced by the attainments of sexual maturity or by the sex, in this species. The thyroid gland activity was assessed by using the in vitro technique of triiodothyronine- 125 I uptake by resin. (author)

  9. Associations between stress reactivity and sexual and nonsexual risk taking in young adult human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Campbell, Benjamin; Agnew, Christopher R; Thompson, Vaida; Udry, J Richard

    2002-12-01

    Release of the hormone cortisol represents a distress response to novel or stressful situations. Individual differences in such reactivity have been conceptualized as representing a relatively enduring, generalizable trait. In this study, cortisol responses to two experimentally manipulated "sexual" and "nonsexual" stressors were used to examine whether stress reactivity is related to sexual and nonsexual risk behavior in young adult males. Analyses were based on 150 males 18 to 25 years old; risk behavior was assessed in confidential, self-administered questionnaires. Analyses indicated that both stressors effectively elicited cortisol increases. Generalized reactivity, defined as a cortisol response to both stressors, was inversely associated with deviance (e.g., theft, substance use) and with two indicators of sexual risk taking (lifetime number of intercourse partners and frequency of condom use). Findings are discussed in terms of cross-situational consistency of stress responses, the utility of stress reactivity for understanding individual differences in risk taking, and the interpretive limitations imposed by study design.

  10. Effects of Microdesmis keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamblé, A; Sahpaz, S; Brunet, C; Bailleul, F

    2008-08-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard root extract and major isolated alkaloids were evaluated by observing the sexual behavior of male rats. Aqueous extract (150mg/kg body weight) and pure alkaloids (3mg/kg body weight) were administered orally by gavage to male rats. Latent times of observation, intromission and ejaculation, mounting behavior, number of intromissions and mating performances were evaluated and compared to those obtained with untreated rats in the presence of receptive and non-receptive females. The results have shown that aqueous extract and alkaloids of M. keayana stimulate sexual parameters in rats' sexual behavior. A short-term toxicity study undertaken to establish the therapeutic index of aqueous extract, showed that a high dose of the extract (2g/kg body weight) caused no mortality or changes in rats' behavior.

  11. Prevalence of consensual male-male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Dunkle

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non

  12. Effects of fenfluramine and para-chloroamphetamine on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M M; Hall, J L; Love, R L

    1992-01-01

    The present studies have evaluated the effects of pharmacologically induced release serotonin on sexual responses of male rats during exposure to a sexually receptive female rat. Following acute administration of fenfluramine or para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), significant dose-related decreases in copulatory rate and copulatory efficiency, and increases in ejaculatory latency were observed. These effects were not observed when the animals were pretreated with LY53857, a 5-HT1c/2 antagonist. These studies indicate that acute release of serotonin evoked by these releasing agents has inhibitory effects on sexual sexual drive, capacity to achieve erection and threshold for ejaculation, and these effects are mediated by either the 5-HT1c or 5-HT2 receptor.

  13. Calling Attention to the Importance of Assisting Male Survivors of Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jordana N.; Clevenger, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    Most of the research focusing on sexual victimization on college campuses has focused on females as victims. This attention is warranted given that studies have consistently found that females are at more risk of experiencing victimization compared to males. However, a drawback of this emphasis is that laypersons may incorrectly believe that men…

  14. Sexual conflict and the evolution of female preferences for indicators of male quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, G.S.; Weissing, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Males and females have opposing interests when it comes to the honesty of signals used in mate choice. The existence of this sexual conflict has long been acknowledged, but its consequences have not been fully investigated. By applying adaptive dynamics methods and individual-based computer

  15. Correlates of condom use among sexually experienced secondary-school male students in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yotebieng, M.; Halpern, C. T.; Mitchell, E. M. H.; Adimora, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine perceptual factors associated with condom use, and the relationship between condom use and the timing of sexual debut among male secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. Data are from the TeenWeb study, a school-based project that used the World Wide Web to assess the

  16. Correlates of condom use among sexually experienced secondary school male students in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yotebieng, M.; Halpern, C.T.; Mitchell, E.M.H.; Adimora, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine perceptual factors associated with condom use, and the relationship between condom use and the timing of sexual debut among male secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. Data are from the TeenWeb study, a school-based project that used the World Wide Web to assess the

  17. Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Semple, Shirley J; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-20

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011.

  18. The Influence of Age and Body Mass on Male Sexual Function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot cross sectional survey was designed to appraise the growing concern about the relationship between age, body weight, and sexual function. A total of 100 adult males between the ages of 18 to 40 years, and who are indigenes of Ekpoma, in Esan West Local Government of Edo State, Nigeria, participated in this ...

  19. Negotiating Race and Sexual Orientation in the College Choice Process of Black Gay Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…

  20. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder.

  1. Enhancement of Sexual Behavior in Female Rats by Neonatal Transplantation of Brain Tissue from Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendash, Gary W.; Gorski, Roger A.

    1982-09-01

    Transplantation of preoptic tissue from male rat neonates into the preoptic area of female littermates increased masculine and feminine sexual behavior in the recipients during adulthood. This suggests that functional connections develop between the transplanted neural tissue and the host brain. A new intraparenchymal brain transplantation technique was used to achieve these results.

  2. A Neutral Odor May Become a Sexual Incentive through Classical Conditioning in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitvik, Inger-Line; Berg, Kristine Marit; Agmo, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A neutral olfactory stimulus was employed as CS in a series of experiments with a sexually receptive female as UCS and the execution of an intromission as the UCR. Each experimental session lasted until the male ejaculated. The time the experimental subject spent in a zone adjacent to the source of the olfactory stimulus during the 10 s of CS…

  3. "That's so Gay": Heterosexual Male Undergraduates and the Perpetuation of Sexual Orientation Microagressions on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R.; Howell, Michael L.; Kulick, Alex; Silverschanz, Perry

    2013-01-01

    "That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who…

  4. Examining weight and eating behavior by sexual orientation in a sample of male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Richards, Lauren K; Bartlett, Brooke; Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S

    2016-07-01

    Eating disorders are understudied in men and in sexual minority populations; however, extant evidence suggests that gay men have higher rates of disordered eating than heterosexual men. The present study examined the associations between sexual orientation, body mass index (BMI), disordered eating behaviors, and food addiction in a sample of male veterans. Participants included 642 male veterans from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel. They were randomly selected from a larger study based on previously reported trauma exposure; 96% identified as heterosexual. Measures included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, and self-reported height and weight. Heterosexual and sexual minority men did not differ significantly in terms of BMI. However, gay and bisexual men (n=24) endorsed significantly greater eating disorder symptoms and food addiction compared to heterosexual men. Our findings that sexual minority male veterans may be more likely to experience eating disorder and food addiction symptoms compared to heterosexual male veterans highlight the importance of prevention, assessment, and treatment efforts targeted to this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Sexual Encounters: Gay Male College Students' Use of the Internet and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Rinardo Lamon

    2012-01-01

    There have been many studies that focus on understanding various aspects of human sexuality and how it relates to college students. However, the current research focuses on heterosexual students, leaving a void in the research that focuses on gay male college students. Even more crucially, there is a void in research that focuses on the sexual…

  6. Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

    1983-01-01

    A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

  7. Sexual Health Among Male College Students in the United States and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Yarber, William L.; de Wit, John

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess differences in sexual health behaviors, outcomes, and potential sociocultural determinants among male college students in the United States and the Netherlands. Methods: Survey data were collected from random samples of students from both national cultures. Results: American men were more likely to report inadequate…

  8. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours.

  9. Tethered spinal cord: the effect of neurosurgery on the lower urinary tract and male sexual function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemers, T. M.; van Gool, J. D.; de Jong, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effect of neurosurgical untethering on the lower urinary tract and male sexual function, in patients with tethered spinal cord. Thirty-six children with tethered spinal cord due to neurospinal dysraphism were assessed clinically and urodynamically before and after surgical

  10. Characterization of a novel bile alcohol sulfate released by sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    Full Text Available A sulphate-conjugated bile alcohol, 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DKPES, was identified using bioassay-guided fractionation from water conditioned with sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus. The structure and relative stereochemistry of DKPES was established using spectroscopic data. The electro-olfactogram (EOG response threshold of DKPES was 10(-7 Molar (M and that of 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3 KPZS; a known component of the male sea lamprey sex pheromone was 10(-10 M. Behavioural studies indicated that DKPES can be detected at low concentrations by attracting sexually mature females to nests when combined with 3 KPZS. Nests baited with a mixture of DKPES and 3 KPZS (ratio 1∶29.8 attracted equal numbers of sexually mature females compared to an adjacent nest baited with 3 KPZS alone. When DKPES and 3 KPZS mixtures were applied at ratios of 2∶29.8 and 10∶29.8, the proportion of sexually mature females that entered baited nests increased to 73% and 70%, respectively. None of the sexually mature females released were attracted to nests baited with DKPES alone. These results indicated that DKPES is a component of the sex pheromone released by sexually mature male sea lamprey, and is the second biologically active compound identified from this pheromone. DKPES represents the first example that a minor component of a vertebrate pheromone can be combined with a major component to elicit critical sexual behaviors. DKPES holds considerable promise for increasing the effectiveness of pheromone-baited trapping as a means of sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  11. The Subjective Sexual Arousal Scale for Men (SSASM): preliminary development and psychometric validation of a multidimensional measure of subjective male sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C

    2011-08-01

    Sexual arousal is a multifaceted process that involves both mental and physical components. No instrument has been developed and validated to assess subjective aspects of male sexual arousal. To develop and psychometrically validate a self-administered scale for assessing subjective male sexual arousal. Using recommendations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on patient-reported outcome instruments, important aspects of male sexual arousal were identified via qualitative research (focus groups and interviews) of U.S. men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and healthy controls. After a preliminary questionnaire was developed by a panel of experts, a quantitative study of men with ED and controls was conducted to psychometrically validate the Subjective Sexual Arousal Scale for Men (SSASM). To develop a male sexual arousal scale and determine its factor structure, reliability, and construct validity. Five aspects of male sexual arousal were identified from the qualitative focus groups and cognitive interviews. Men's preferred language for describing sexual arousal and preferred response formats were incorporated into the questions. Factor analysis of data from the quantitative study of 304 men aged 21 to 70 years identified five domains with eigenvalues >1: sexual performance (six items), mental satisfaction (five items), sexual assertiveness (three items), partner communication (three items), and partner relationship (three items). The five domains had a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha values 0.88-0.94). Test-retest reliability over a 2- to 4-week period was high-moderately high (r values 0.75-0.88) for the five domain scores. Correlations between SSASM domain scores and standardized scale scores for social desirability, general health, life satisfaction, and sexual function demonstrated the construct validity of the scale. Preliminary validation data suggest that the 20-item SSASM scale may be useful as a multidimensional, reliable

  12. The impact of parenting on gay male couples' relationships, sexuality, and HIV risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood changes couples' relationships across multiple domains, generally decreasing relationship quality, sexual satisfaction, and sexual frequency. Emerging research suggests that gay couples who are parenting might experience similar challenges. However, such changes might have even more profound implications for gay couples' health, and in particular their HIV risk, given the somewhat different ways in which they negotiate and tolerate sexual behaviors with outside partners. We aimed to examine these issues in a qualitative analysis of interviews from 48 gay male couples who were actively parenting children. Findings suggest that parenthood increases men's commitment to their primary relationship while simultaneously decreasing time and energy for relationship maintenance, and generally decreasing sexual satisfaction. These challenges alone did not generally result in greater infidelity or HIV risk, as most men reported successfully coping with such changes through a combination of acceptance and revaluing what is important in their relationships. Additionally, couples reported negotiating agreements regarding sex with outside partners that closely resemble those documented in studies of gay couples who are not parents. Men reported that parenthood typically decreased their opportunities to engage in sex with outside partners, but also posed barriers to talking about these behaviors with their partners and healthcare providers. HIV-related sexual risk behavior was relatively rare, but nevertheless present in some men. Providers should assess sexual function as a regular part of their work with gay couples who parent, and facilitate opportunities for men to discuss their sexual agreements both with their primary partners and with relevant healthcare providers. PMID:25674355

  13. High male sexual investment as a driver of extinction in fossil ostracods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria João Fernandes; Puckett, T Markham; Lockwood, Rowan; Swaddle, John P; Hunt, Gene

    2018-04-01

    Sexual selection favours traits that confer advantages in the competition for mates. In many cases, such traits are costly to produce and maintain, because the costs help to enforce the honesty of these signals and cues 1 . Some evolutionary models predict that sexual selection also produces costs at the population level, which could limit the ability of populations to adapt to changing conditions and thus increase the risk of extinction 2-4 . Other models, however, suggest that sexual selection should increase rates of adaptation and enhance the removal of deleterious mutations, thus protecting populations against extinction 3, 5, 6 . Resolving the conflict between these models is not only important for explaining the history of biodiversity, but also relevant to understanding the mechanisms of the current biodiversity crisis. Previous attempts to test the conflicting predictions produced by these models have been limited to extant species and have thus relied on indirect proxies for species extinction. Here we use the informative fossil record of cytheroid ostracods-small, bivalved crustaceans with sexually dimorphic carapaces-to test how sexual selection relates to actual species extinction. We show that species with more pronounced sexual dimorphism, indicating the highest levels of male investment in reproduction, had estimated extinction rates that were ten times higher than those of the species with the lowest investment. These results indicate that sexual selection can be a substantial risk factor for extinction.

  14. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  15. A web-based sexual violence bystander intervention for male college students: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Laura F; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Hardin, James; Berkowitz, Alan

    2014-09-05

    Bystander intervention approaches offer promise for reducing rates of sexual violence on college campuses. Most interventions are in-person small-group formats, which limit their reach and reduce their overall public health impact. This study evaluated the efficacy of RealConsent, a Web-based bystander approach to sexual violence prevention, in enhancing prosocial intervening behaviors and preventing sexual violence perpetration. A random probability sample of 743 male undergraduate students (aged 18 to 24 years) attending a large, urban university located in the southeastern United States was recruited online and randomized to either RealConsent (n=376) or a Web-based general health promotion program (n=367). Participants were surveyed online at baseline, postintervention, and 6-months postintervention. RealConsent was delivered via a password-protected Web portal that contained six 30-minute media-based and interactive modules covering knowledge of informed consent, communication skills regarding sex, the role of alcohol and male socialization in sexual violence, empathy for rape victims, and bystander education. Primary outcomes were self-reported prosocial intervening behaviors and sexual violence perpetration. Secondary outcomes were theoretical mediators (eg, knowledge, attitudes). At 6-month follow-up RealConsent participants intervened more often (P=.04) and engaged in less sexual violence perpetration (P=.04) compared to controls. In addition, RealConsent participants reported greater legal knowledge of sexual assault (Pgender ideology (Pbased format, RealConsent has potential for broad-based dissemination thereby increasing its overall public health impact on sexual violence. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01903876; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01903876 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6S1PXxWKt).

  16. Environmentally realistic exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters some sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2012-01-01

    Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments) and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species.

  17. Environmentally realistic exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters some sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausalya Shenoy

    Full Text Available Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species.

  18. Sexual Solicitation of Latino Male Day Laborers by Other Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the likelihood of Latino day laborers being solicited for sex by other men. Material and Methods 450 Latino day laborers were recruited in Los Angeles, California, from July to September 2005. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which day laborers were more likely to be solicited and subsequently to have sex. Results Thirty-eight percent reported being solicited for sex by another man while seeking work. Those solicited were more likely to live longer in the U.S., be more educated and screen positive for drug dependence. Of those solicited, 9.4% had sex with their solicitors. Those screening positive for drug dependence were more likely to have sex. Most of the day laborers who had anal sex with their solicitors did not always use condoms. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts should target drug dependent day laborers, who may place themselves at risk for HIV through sex with male solicitors. PMID:19039432

  19. Do male secondary sexual characters signal ejaculate quality? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, Brian S; Møller, Anders P; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and 'ejaculate quality' (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a direct benefit by choosing more attractive males for fertility assurance reasons ('the phenotype-linked fertility' hypothesis). Second, there is much interest in the direction of the correlation between traits favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. affecting mating success) and those favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. increasing sperm competitiveness). If the relationship is negative this could lead to the two forms of selection counteracting each other. Theory predicts that the direction of the relationship could be either positive or negative depending on the underlying genetic variance and covariance in each trait, the extent of variation among males in condition (resources available to allocate to reproductive traits), and variation among males in the cost or rate of mating. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the average relationship between the expression of behavioural and morphological male secondary sexual characters and four assays of ejaculate quality (sperm number, viability, swimming speed and size). Regardless of how the data were partitioned the mean relationship was consistently positive, but always statistically non-significant. The only exception was that secondary sexual character expression was weakly but significantly positively correlated with sperm viability (r = 0.07, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the strength or direction of the relationship between behavioural and morphological SSCs, nor among relationships using the four ejaculate quality assays. The implications of our findings are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews

  20. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  1. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  2. Early maternal effects mediated by immunity depend on sexual ornamentation of the male partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saino, Nicola; Ferrari, Raffaella Paola; Martinelli, Roberta; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Møller, Anders Pape

    2002-05-22

    Vertebrates have an immature immune system soon after birth, and parasites can therefore be particularly virulent to young hosts. Transfer of immune factors via the egg can give rise to early maternal effects with important consequences for offspring fitness, as maternally derived immunity confers anti-parasite protection. Mothers are expected to allocate immunity differentially to the eggs according to the reproductive value of their offspring as influenced by the quality of their father. In this study, we analysed transmission to the yolk of antibodies specific to an antigen (Newcastle disease virus vaccine, NDV) by vaccinated female barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) mated to males whose secondary sexual characteristics had been manipulated. Concentration of anti-NDV antibodies in the yolk positively covaried with that in maternal plasma. Anti-NDV antibodies were more concentrated in the first but not the fourth eggs laid by females mated with tail-elongated males compared with those mated with tail-shortened and control males. This experiment shows that allocation of maternal immune factors to the eggs is affected by quality of the male, as signalled by its secondary sexual characteristic. Thus, early maternal effects are influenced by sexual attractiveness of male mates and are mediated by immunity.

  3. Sexual Dysfunction and Hyperprolactinemia in Male Psychotic Inpatients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Johnsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexual dysfunction (SD and hyperprolactinemia are frequently reported in patients with psychotic disorders and have the potential for severe complications but investigations in males are particularly scarce. The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of SD and hyperprolactinemia in male patients and to investigate whether associations exist between SD and prolactin levels. Methods. Cross-sectional data were obtained at discharge from the hospital or 6 weeks after admittance for patients acutely admitted for psychosis and treated with a second-generation antipsychotic drug. Results. Half the patients reported diminished sexual desire and more than a third reported erectile and ejaculatory dysfunctions with no differences among the drugs. More than half the sample was hyperprolactinemic. No association was found between prolactin levels and SD. Conclusion. High rates of SD and hyperprolactinemia were found in male patients and should be a treatment target. SD and hyperprolactinemia were not correlated.

  4. Female condition influences preferences for sexual dimorphism in faces of male humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton-Voak, I S; Little, A C; Jones, B C; Burt, D M; Tiddeman, B P; Perrett, D I

    2003-09-01

    In some species, female condition correlates positively with preferences for male secondary sexual traits. Women's preferences for sexually dimorphic characteristics in male faces (facial masculinity) have recently been reported to covary with self-reported attractiveness. As women's attractiveness has been proposed to signal reproductive condition, the findings in human (Homo sapiens) and other species may reflect similar processes. The current study investigated whether the covariation between condition and preferences for masculinity would generalize to 2 further measures of female attractiveness: other-rated facial attractiveness and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Women with high (unattractive) WHR and/or relatively low other-rated facial attractiveness preferred more "feminine" male faces when choosing faces for a long-term relationship than when choosing for a short-term relationship, possibly reflecting diverse tactics in female mate choice. Copyright 2003 APA, all rights reserved

  5. 46, XX Sry(+ Male Sexual Differentiation Disorder with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Coşar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In disorders of sexual differentiation, sexual development may not be in accordance with chromosomal structure. 46,XX male syndrome is one of these kind of situations of which most of the patients are in normal male phenotype at birth. These patients are diagnosed while investigating for gynecomastia during puberty or infertility at older ages. One of the comorbidities of testosterone deficiency is metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome. A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of gynecomastia. Based on laboratory tests results, he was diagnosed with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism accompanied by metabolic syndrome. Chromosomal analysis showed 46,XX SRY (+ genotype. Turk Jem 2014; 1: 28-30

  6. Learning and male-male sexual competition in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G; Domjan, M

    1996-06-01

    Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were trained individually to discriminate between 2 sounds presented at opposite ends of an outdoor aviary. One of the sounds (the positive conditioned stimulus [CS+]) was associated with the release of a female, and the other (the negative CS [CS-]) was presented alone. Which of the 2 sounds served as the CS+ (and which served as the CS-) was counterbalanced across subjects. The subjects came to approach their CS+ but did not move away from their CS-. After having been conditioned individually, the subjects were tested in pairs, with a single female released after the presentation of a stimulus that was the CS+ for one of the males and the CS- for the other male. During most of these tests, the male for whom the prefemale stimulus was the CS+ copulated with the female before the male for whom the prefemale stimulus was the CS-. These results indicate that learning can have an important role in competition for access to a reproductive partner.

  7. Sexual behavior and fertility of male rats submitted to prolonged immobilization-induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Almeida

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate whether prolonged stress interferes with the onset of sexual behavior at puberty and with fertility at adulthood, prepubertal male Wistar rats (40 days of age were immobilized 6 h a day for 15 days (up to early puberty or for 60 days (until sexual maturity. Pubertal stressed rats showed a two-fold increase in the latency for the first mount (probably due to repeated aversive experience in which a change of environment was always followed by immobilization and a 2.5-fold increase in the frequency of thrusting (indicative of enhanced sexual performance. The apparently stimulatory effect of prolonged stress on the onset of sexual behavior is discussed in terms of increased testosterone level and interference with the complex interchanges between the neurotransmitters/neuropeptides involved in the central control of male sexual activity. Adult stressed animals were mated with normal females, which became pregnant but exhibited a more than two-fold increase in both pre-implantation and post-implantation loss, probably due to a smaller rate of fertilization and/or fertilization with damaged spermatozoa.

  8. Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons of male sagebrush crickets in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sandra; Ower, Geoffrey D; Stökl, Johannes; Mitchell, Christopher; Hunt, John; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2013-12-22

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an essential role in mate recognition in insects but the form and intensity of sexual selection on CHCs has only been evaluated in a handful of studies, and never in a natural population. We quantified sexual selection operating on CHCs in a wild population of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males. Multivariate selection analysis revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface, suggesting a complex interplay between the total abundance of CHCs and specific CHC combinations in their influence on female choice. The fitness surface resulting from two axes of disruptive selection reflected a trade-off between short- and long-chained CHCs, suggesting that males may be sacrificing some level of desiccation resistance in favour of increased attractiveness. There was a significant correlation between male body size and total CHC abundance, suggesting that male CHCs provide females with a reliable cue for maximizing benefits obtained from males. Notwithstanding the conspicuousness of males' acoustic signals, our results suggest that selection imposed on males via female mating preferences may be far more complex than previously appreciated and operating in multiple sensory modalities.

  9. The Effects of False Physiological Feedback on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Dysfunctional and Functional Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    eroticism . Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 37-44. Hoon, P., Wincze, J., & Hoon, E. (1977). A test of reciprocal inhibition: Are anxiety and sexual...tension Visual and auditory acuity are diminished Onset of powerful involuntary rhythmic contractions of the prosUtc. seminal vesicles. rectum. and penis...and auditory acuity return to usual levels Note. From Heterosexuality (p. 55), by W. H. Masters. V. E. Johnson, and R. C. Kolodny, 1994, New York

  10. Methylmercury Exposure Induces Sexual Dysfunction in Male and Female Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ved; Srikumar, Syian; Aamer, Sarah; Pandareesh, Mirazkar D; Chauhan, Abha

    2017-09-24

    Mercury, an environmental health hazard, is a neurotoxic heavy metal. In this study, the effect of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure was analyzed on sexual behavior in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), because neurons play a vital role in sexual functions. The virgin male and female flies were fed a diet mixed with different concentrations of MeHg (28.25, 56.5, 113, 226, and 339 µM) for four days, and the effect of MeHg on copulation of these flies was studied. While male and female control flies (no MeHg) and flies fed with lower concentrations of MeHg (28.25, 56.5 µM) copulated in a normal manner, male and female flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg (113, 226, and 339 µM) did not copulate. When male flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg were allowed to copulate with control female flies, only male flies fed with 113 µM MeHg were able to copulate. On the other hand, when female flies exposed to higher concentrations of MeHg were allowed to copulate with control male flies, none of the flies could copulate. After introduction of male and female flies in the copulation chamber, duration of wing flapping by male flies decreased in a MeHg-concentration-dependent manner from 101 ± 24 seconds (control) to 100.7 ± 18, 96 ±12, 59 ± 44, 31 ± 15, and 3.7 ± 2.7 seconds at 28.25, 56.5, 113, 226, and 339 µM MeHg, respectively. On the other hand, grooming in male and female flies increased in a MeHg-concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that MeHg exposure causes sexual dysfunction in male and female Drosophila melanogaster . Further studies showed that MeHg exposure increased oxidative stress and decreased triglyceride levels in a concentration-dependent manner in both male and female flies, suggesting that MeHg-induced oxidative stress and decreased triglyceride levels may partly contribute to sexual dysfunction in fruit flies.

  11. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation.

  12. Lesions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Abolish Conditioned Aversion Associated with Sexual Behavior in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon F.; Loos, Maarten; Di Sebastiano, Andrea R.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An inability to inhibit behaviors once they become maladaptive is a component of several psychiatric illnesses and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was identified as a potential mediator of behavioral inhibition. The current study tested if the mPFC is involved in inhibition of sexual behavior when associated with aversive outcomes. METHODS Using male rats, effects of lesions of the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) areas of the mPFC on expression of sexual behavior and ability to inhibit mating were tested using a paradigm of copulation-contingent aversion. RESULTS mPFC lesions did not alter expression of sexual behavior. In contrast, mPFC lesions completely blocked the acquisition of sex-aversion conditioning and lesioned animals continued to mate, in contrast to the robust behavioral inhibition towards copulation in mPFC intact males, resulting in only 22% of intact males continuing to mate. However, rats with mPFC lesions were capable of forming a conditioned place preference to sexual reward and conditioned place aversion for lithium chloride, suggesting that these lesions did not alter associative learning or sensitivity for lithium chloride. DISCUSSION The current study indicates that animals with mPFC lesions are likely capable of forming the associations with aversive outcomes of their behavior, but lack the ability to suppress seeking of sexual reward in the face of aversive consequences. These data may contribute to a better understanding of a common pathology underlying impulse control disorders as compulsive sexual behavior has a high prevalence of comorbidity with psychiatric disorders and Parkinson’s Disease. PMID:20346444

  13. Lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex cause maladaptive sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon F; Loos, Maarten; Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Brown, Jennifer L; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-15

    An inability to inhibit behaviors once they become maladaptive is a component of several psychiatric illnesses, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was identified as a potential mediator of behavioral inhibition. The current study tested if the mPFC is involved in inhibition of sexual behavior when associated with aversive outcomes. Using male rats, effects of lesions of the infralimbic and prelimbic areas of the mPFC on expression of sexual behavior and ability to inhibit mating were tested using a paradigm of copulation-contingent aversion. Medial prefrontal cortex lesions did not alter expression of sexual behavior. In contrast, mPFC lesions completely blocked the acquisition of sex-aversion conditioning and lesioned animals continued to mate, in contrast to the robust behavioral inhibition toward copulation in mPFC intact male animals, resulting in only 22% of intact male animals continuing to mate. However, rats with mPFC lesions were capable of forming a conditioned place preference to sexual reward and conditioned place aversion for lithium chloride, suggesting that these lesions did not alter associative learning or sensitivity for lithium chloride. The current study indicates that animals with mPFC lesions are likely capable of forming the associations with aversive outcomes of their behavior but lack the ability to suppress seeking of sexual reward in the face of aversive consequences. These data may contribute to a better understanding of a common pathology underlying impulse control disorders, as compulsive sexual behavior has a high prevalence of comorbidity with psychiatric disorders and Parkinson's disease.

  14. Sexual incentive motivation, olfactory preference, and activation of the vomeronasal projection pathway by sexually relevant cues in non-copulating and naive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raúl G

    2004-09-01

    There are some apparently healthy male rats that fail to mate after repeated testing with receptive females. We have previously shown that these "non-copulator (NC)" males show no partner preference for a receptive female when given the opportunity to physically interact with a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male. We also demonstrated that although NC males prefer odors from estrous females to odors from anestrous females, this preference is significantly reduced in comparison to the preference displayed by copulating (C) males. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in NC males sexual incentive motivation, that is, the approach behavior of male rats to either a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male in a test where the subjects can smell, hear, and see the stimulus animal but prevents their physical interaction. In addition, we determined whether NC rats have alterations in their ability to detect odors from conspecifics or odors related to food. In the detection of odors from conspecifics, we determined if these NC males are sexually attracted toward odors from receptive females or sexually active males. For food-related odors, we quantified the time it took the subjects to locate a hidden a piece of apple. Finally, using the induction of Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) as an index of neuronal activation, we compared the response of the vomeronasal projection pathway (VN pathway) of C and NC male rats exposed to estrous bedding. Males without sexual experience (WSE) were included in all experiments to determine the importance of previous heterosexual experience in the different behavioral tests and in the activity of the VN pathway. In the sexual incentive motivation test, we found that C and WSE male rats have a clear preference for estrous females over sexually active males, whereas NC male rats showed no preference. In odor tests, our results showed that C males had a clear preference for odors from estrous females as opposed

  15. Effect of Chlorophytum Borivilianum Santapau and Fernandes on sexual dysfunction in hyperglycemic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Bhargava, Shilpi; Praznik, Werner; Loeppert, Renate; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) on sexual dysfunction, loss of body weight, and lack of libido in hyperglycemic rats induced with streptozotocin or alloxan. Wistar strain male albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each: the control group (2% polyvinylpyrollidone solution), the streptozotocin control group (50 mg/kg), the alloxan control group (100 mg/kg), the streptozotocin + CB treated group (200 mg/kg), and the alloxan + CB treated group (200 mg/kg). Only after confirming the induction of diabetes, the animals of test groups were treated with CB. The sexual behavior of male rats of in presence of female rat in a special cage was recorded. The effects of induced diabetes in control groups and on simultaneous extract treatment in CB treated groups were tested for sexual parameters. The parameters evaluated included mount, ejaculation, and intromission latencies/frequencies, hesitation time, and penile erection index. Parallel to this, using a separate set of similarly treated animals, the influence of diabetes and CB treatment on anabolism and weight of secondary sexual organs were determined on day 0 and day 28 of the treatment. CB extract treatment ameliorated the diabetes-induced dysfunction at 200 mg/kg dose. There was very low weight loss (P<0.05) in CB-treated animals as compared to the diabetic control. There was a very high latency time (P<0.05) in the diabetic animals, whereas the latency time was very low in CB-treated animals. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies were very high (P<0.01) in CB-treated animals, while streptozotocin and alloxan groups animals had a very significantly lower sexual behavior (P<0.05) compared to the normo-glycemic control group animals. CB can significantly ameliorate diabetes-induced sexual dysfunction. Polysaccharide and saponin-rich aqueous extract appears to have the most suitable effects on diabetes and its associated effects on sexual functionality.

  16. The ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism of a moth: when do males and females grow apart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig Stillwell

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high. We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults.

  17. Effects of Terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Dharmasiri, M G

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Tenminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. Male rats were orally treated with 1,500 mg/kg or 3,000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3,000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. The 1,500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3,000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation.

  18. Effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum on sexual behaviour and sperm count in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenjale, Rakesh; Shah, Riddhi; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of the aqueous extract of dried roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Rats were orally treated with (1) CONTROL GROUP: distilled water; (2) CB 125 mg/kg/day; (3) CB 250 mg/kg/day; and (4) Viagra((R)) group: 4 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Their sexual behaviour was evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of treatment by pairing with a pro-oestrous female rat. For sperm count the treatment was continued further in all groups except the Viagra((R)) group for 60 days. At 125 mg/kg, CB had a marked aphrodisiac action, increased libido, sexual vigor and sexual arousal. Similarly, at the higher dose (250 mg/kg) all the parameters of sexual behaviour were enhanced, but showed a saturation effect after day 14. On day 60 the sperm count increased significantly in both the CB groups, 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, in a dose dependent manner. Thus, roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum can be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation and oligospermia. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Which are the male factors associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, E; Fanni, E; Mannucci, E; Fambrini, M; Jannini, E A; Maggi, M; Vignozzi, L

    2016-09-01

    It has been generally assumed that partner's erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation play a significant role in determining female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This study aimed to evaluate the role of the male partner's sexual function, as perceived by women, in determining FSD. A consecutive series of 156 heterosexual women consulting our clinic for FSD was retrospectively studied. All patients underwent a structured interview and completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). FSFI total score decreased as a function of partner's age, conflicts within the couple, relationship without cohabitation and the habit of engaging in intercourse to please the partner; FSFI total score increased as a function of frequency of intercourse, attempts to conceive and fertility-focused intercourse. FSFI total score showed a negative, stepwise correlation with partner's perceived hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) (r = -0.327; p libido, FSFI total score was significantly lower when their partner's libido was low (p = 0.041); the correlation disappeared if the patient also experienced HSD. In conclusion, the presence of erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation of the partner may not act as a primary contributing factor to FSD, as determined by FSFI scores; conversely, women's sexuality seems to be mostly impaired by the perceived reduction in their partner's sexual interest. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Health issues of incarcerated women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Mignon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world.

  1. Sexual competion of irradiated males of the cowpea weevil, callosobruchus maculatus (F. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Younes, M.W.F. (Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiobiology Dept.)

    1981-07-01

    When unmated males of Callosobruchus maculatus were irradiated with 7.5 or 10 Krad and confined with normal females, 97.90 and 89.32%, respectively, of the eggs did not hatch, compared with 15.49% infertility of the control eggs. Increasing the dose to 12.5 or 15 Krad induced 99.44 and 100%, respectively, sterility in the irradiated (I) males. When males treated with 7.5, 10 or 12.5 Krad were confined with unirradiated (U) males and females (1:1:1 ratio), infertility of the resulting eggs were 60.06, 67.96 and 69.04%, respectively. The competitiveness values of irradiated males with the above doses and ratio were 1.2, 1.6 and 1.8. Thus, males treated with substerilizing doses (7.5, 10 or 12.5 Krad) competed favourably with (U) males, and males treated with the sterilizing dose (15 Krad) were also fully competitive with (U) males. These results indicated that irradiation with 15 Krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease sexual competitiveness of irradiated males.

  2. Nuclear medicine procedures for the evaluation of male sexual organs: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bernardo-Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexuality consists of three aspects that are interrelated and inseparable, biological, physiological and social. The biological aspect considers the individual's capability to give and to receive pleasure. In consequence, it covers the functionality of the sexual organs and the physiology of human sexual response cycle. Diagnostic imaging modalities, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET have been used to evaluate clinical disorders of the male reproductive system. PET and SPECT procedures basically involve the administration of a radiopharmaceutical that has a higher uptake in a specific tumor or tissue. The aim of this brief review is to present some radiopharmaceuticals that have been used in the clinical evaluation of the male sexual organs (testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, penis related with male sexuality. This information could be useful in better understanding the male sexual response cycle, as well as the sexual disorders, when considering the male sexual organs and the pelvic floor. Moreover, the findings obtained with PET and SPECT imaging could help to evaluate the efficacy of clinical results of therapeutic procedures. In conclusion, the knowledge from these images could aid in better understanding the physiology of the different organs related with sexuality. Furthermore, they could be important tools to evaluate the physiological integrity of the involved organs, to improve clinical strategies and to accompany the patients under treatment.A sexualidade consiste de três aspectos que são inter-relacionados e inseparáveis: biólogico, fisiológico e social. O aspecto biológico considera a capacidade individual de dar e receber prazer. Em consequência, envolve a funcionalidade dos órgãos sexuais e a fisiologia do ciclo da resposta sexual humana. As imagens cintilográficas single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT e positron emission tomography (PET têm sido

  3. Correlates of condom self-efficacy in an incarcerated juvenile population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Sharon; Childs, Gwendolyn; Cook-Heard, Dayna; Sturdevant, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of modes of HIV transmission and increase HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STD) prevention efforts for incarcerated youth through use of an HIV/STD prevention program guided by the Making Proud Choices! curriculum. A convenience sample of 662 youth aged 13 to 18 was recruited from Alabama juvenile detention facilities. Participants took part in three 2-hour sessions. Baseline and postintervention data were collected. There was no significant difference between males and females in intent to use condoms at baseline and postintervention. Intent to use condoms was the most influential predictor of condom self-efficacy. However, there was little change in condom self-efficacy among males and females at baseline and postintervention.

  4. Listening, Writing, Drawing: The Artistic Response of Incarcerated Youth to Young-Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the types of artistic responses and personal interpretations that incarcerated male youths make as they listen and respond to selected pieces of young adult literature. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methodology to gather information about incarcerated youth and their…

  5. Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.

  6. The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate...

  7. Risk factors associated with primary and secondary reduced libido in male patients with sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Vignozzi, Linda; Monami, Matteo; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire is defined as a persistent or recurrent deficient or absent sexual fantasies or desire for sexual activity that should not be comorbid with other medical conditions or with the use of psychoactive medications. Reduced libido is a symptom referring more to a reduction in sexual drive for sexual activity. To investigate the risk factors of primary reduced libido (i.e., not associated with conditions causing loss of libido such as hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, psychopathology, and/or psychoactive medications) or secondary reduced libido (i.e., with aforementioned conditions) in male patients with sexual dysfunction. A consecutive series of 3,714 men (mean age 53.2 ± 12.5 years) was retrospectively studied. Patient's reduced libido was evaluated using question #14 of structured interview for erectile dysfunction (SIEDY) ("Did you have more or less desire to make love in the last 3 months?"). Reduced libido was comorbid with erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and delayed ejaculation in 38%, 28.2%, and 50%, respectively, whereas it was isolated in 5.1%. Reduced libido prevalence was substantially increased by hypogonadism, almost doubled by psychopathology and universally present in subjects with hyperprolactinemia (secondary reduced libido). Subjects with primary reduced libido are characterized by higher postschool qualification, more disturbances in domestic and dyadic relationships, and an overall healthy body (lower glycemia and triglyceride levels). Accordingly, in patients with primary reduced libido, the risk of major cardiovascular events as calculated with the Progetto Cuore algorithm was lower than in the rest of the sample. Features of hypogonadism- or psychopathology-associated reduced libido essentially reflect their underlying conditions. Comorbidity with other sexual dysfunctions did not affect the main characteristics of primary or secondary reduced libido. Primary and secondary reduced libido have different

  8. Environmental stress affects the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait in male zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraud, Cyril; Devevey, Godefroy; Gaillard, Maria; Prost, Josiane; Sorci, Gabriele; Faivre, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    Abiotic factors including thermal stress are suggested to exert constrains on sexual ornaments through trade-offs between sexual displays and physiological functions related to self-maintenance. Given the health properties of carotenoid pigments, carotenoid-based ornaments offer a relevant context in which to investigate the effect of environmental stress, such as ambient temperature, on the production and maintenance of secondary sexual traits and, also, to explore the proximate mechanisms shaping their expression. In this study, we exposed male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to environmental stress by exposing them to two temperature regimes (6 and 26 degrees C) over a 4 week period. Simultaneously, half of the males in each temperature group were supplemented with carotenoids, whereas the other half were not. The expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait (bill colour) and the amount of circulating carotenoids were assessed before and at the end of the experiment. Carotenoid-supplemented males developed a redder bill, but the effect of supplementation was reduced under cold exposure. However, we found evidence that birds facing a cold stress were carotenoid limited, since supplemented males developed redder bills than the non-supplemented ones. Interestingly, while cold-exposed and non-supplemented males developed duller bills, they circulated a higher amount of carotenoids at the end of the experiment compared to the pre-experimental values. Together, these results suggest that ambient temperature might contribute to the modulation of the expression of carotenoid-based ornaments. Our findings suggest that carotenoids are a limiting resource under cold exposure and that they might be prioritized for self-maintenance at the expense of the ornament. The physiological functions related to self-maintenance that might have benefited from carotenoid saving are discussed.

  9. Multivariate sexual selection on male tegmina in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, Cyphoderris strepitans (Orthoptera: Haglidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ower, G D; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2017-02-01

    Although the strength and form of sexual selection on song in male crickets have been studied extensively, few studies have examined selection on the morphological structures that underlie variation in males' song, particularly in wild populations. Geometric morphometric techniques were used to measure sexual selection on the shape, size and symmetry of both top and bottom tegmina in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males. The size of the tegmina negatively covaried with song dominant frequency and positively covaried with song pulse duration. Sexual selection was more intense on the bottom tegmen, conceivably because it interacts more freely with the subtegminal airspace, which may play a role in song amplification. An expanded coastal/subcostal region was one of the phenotypes strongly favoured by disruptive selection on the bottom tegmen, an adaptation that may form a more effective seal with the thorax to prevent noise cancellation. Directional selection also favoured increased symmetry in tegminal shape. Assuming more symmetrical males are better able to buffer against developmental noise, the song produced by these males may make them more attractive to females. Despite the strong stabilizing selection documented previously on the dominant frequency of the song, stabilizing selection on the resonator that regulates dominant frequency was surprisingly absent. Nonetheless, wing morphology had an important influence on song structure and appears to be subject to significant linear and nonlinear sexual selection through female mate choice. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Food fight: sexual conflict over free amino acids in the nuptial gifts of male decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2013-04-01

    In decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, the spermatophore that a male transfers at mating includes a gelatinous spermatophylax that the female consumes, delaying her removal of the sperm-filled ampulla. Male fertilization success increases with the length of time females spend feeding on the spermatophylax, while females may benefit by prematurely discarding the spermatophylaxes of undesirable males. This sexual conflict should favour males that produce increasingly appealing spermatophylaxes, and females that resist this manipulation. To determine the genetic basis of female spermatophylax feeding behaviour, we fed spermatophylaxes to females of nine inbred lines and found that female genotype had a major influence on spermatophylax feeding duration. The amino acid composition of the spermatophylax was also significantly heritable. There was a positive genetic correlation between spermatophylax feeding duration and the gustatory appeal of the spermatophylax. This correlation suggests that genes expressed in males that produce more manipulative spermatophylaxes are positively linked to genes expressed in females that make them more vulnerable to manipulation. Outbred females spent less time feeding on spermatophylaxes than inbred females, and thus showed greater resistance to male manipulation. Further, in a nonspermatophylax producing cricket (Acheta domesticus), females were significantly more prone to feeding on spermatophylaxes than outbred female Gryllodes. Collectively, these results suggest a history of sexually antagonistic coevolution over the consumption of nuptial food gifts. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Changes in the secondary sexual adornments of male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are associated with gain and loss of alpha status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, J M; Dixson, A F

    2001-05-01

    Two semifree-ranging mandrill groups, inhabiting large, naturally rainforested enclosures in Gabon, were studied to measure morphological, endocrine, and behavioral changes that occurred when adult males rose, or fell, in dominance rank. Gaining alpha rank (N = 4 males) resulted in increased testicular size and circulating testosterone, reddening of the sexual skin on the face and genitalia, and heightened secretion from the sternal cutaneous gland. Blue sexual skin coloration was unaffected. New alpha males increased in rump "fattedness," but not in body mass, and spent more time associated with other group members, rather than ranging alone. Loss of alpha position (N = 4 males) resulted in less pronounced effects than those that occurred after males had risen to alpha positions. Deposed alpha males showed decreased testicular volume, decreased body mass, a reduction in the extent of red (but not blue) sexual skin coloration, and decreased sternal gland activity. Deposed males did not decrease in the brightness of sex skin coloration. These results demonstrate that male-male competition and rank reversals have remarkable effects upon testicular function, secondary sexual traits, and behavior in the adult male mandrill. Secondary sexual traits respond to changes in male social status and therefore may be important as intrasexual signals of dominance rank. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. A cause for concern: male couples' sexual agreements and their use of substances with sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-07-01

    Substance use is strongly associated with HIV risk among gay men. Many gay couples establish sexual agreements. However, little is known about gay couples' use of substances with sex, and whether substance use is associated with couples' agreements. The present study assessed whether gay couples' use of substances with sex was associated with their establishment of, type of, and adherence to, a sexual agreement. Dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative US gay couples were collected online in a nation-wide, cross-sectional study, and analyzed at the couple-level. Findings revealed that couples with an established agreement, and a recently broken agreement, were more likely to have used amyl nitrates and marijuana with sex within their relationship. This same trend was also noted, but for alcohol use with sex outside of couples' relationships. Further research is urgently needed to examine the fluidity of HIV-negative gay male couples' sexual agreements and substance use with sex.

  13. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  14. Gender-atypical personality or sexual behavior: What is disgusting about male homosexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, T Andrew; Sackett-Fox, Kyrsten

    2018-01-15

    Research consistently finds that homosexuality elicits strong feelings of disgust, but the reasons remain unclear. In the current research, we investigate responses to gay men who violate social norms governing the expression of gender and sexuality. Two hundred forty-three college undergraduates read a vignette about a gay male college student whose personality traits (masculine, feminine, or neutral) and sexual behavior (active vs. passive) varied and reported their affective responses to and cognitive appraisals of the target. The gay target who displayed a feminine personality elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who displayed a masculine personality. Similarly, the gay target who assumed a passive sex role elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who assumed an active sex role. The sexual behavior/disgust relationship was mediated by perceived gender role conformity.

  15. TRAINING IN MALE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH FOR A PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAIFUL BI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, I was awarded a scholarship from Universiti Sains Malaysia for Fellowship training at Monash University (MU for one year. The objective of the training programme was to develop knowledge and skills in several areas, including androgen deficiency, male infertility, prostate disease, testicular tumours, sexual dysfunction and sexually transmitted diseases. The training programme consisted of attachments with clinical specialists, completion of a course work module and a research project. After completion of the training programme, I believe that Primary Care Physicians (PCPs will benefit from undertaking the training programme that I had completed. It will enable PCPs to assume leadership roles in this multidisciplinary area. The ability of PCPs in handling sexual and reproductive health issues in men will definitely be a more cost effective form of care for patients, particularly as the number of specialists is limited, and even more importantly, it will be satisfying for the patient and the physician.

  16. Training in male sexual and reproductive health for a primary care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, Bi

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, I was awarded a scholarship from Universiti Sains Malaysia for Fellowship training at Monash University (MU) for one year. The objective of the training programme was to develop knowledge and skills in several areas, including androgen deficiency, male infertility, prostate disease, testicular tumours, sexual dysfunction and sexually transmitted diseases. The training programme consisted of attachments with clinical specialists, completion of a course work module and a research project. After completion of the training programme, I believe that Primary Care Physicians (PCPs) will benefit from undertaking the training programme that I had completed. It will enable PCPs to assume leadership roles in this multidisciplinary area. The ability of PCPs in handling sexual and reproductive health issues in men will definitely be a more cost effective form of care for patients, particularly as the number of specialists is limited, and even more importantly, it will be satisfying for the patient and the physician.

  17. Testosterone and religiosity as predictors of sexual attitudes and activity among adolescent males: a biosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C; Mason, G A

    1994-04-01

    A biosocial model of the effects of early adolescent testosterone levels and religiosity on adolescent males' sexual attitudes and activity over a 3-year period was examined. Using panel data for approximately 100 boys who were 12.5/13.0 years old at study entry, significant additive effects of free testosterone and frequency of attendance at religious services were demonstrated on the transition to first intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour and attitudes. No interactive effects of the two predictors were found. Boys with higher free testosterone levels at study entry who never or infrequently attended religious services were the most sexually active and had the most permissive attitudes. Boys with lower free testosterone who attended services once a week or more were the least active and reported the least permissive attitudes. For some behaviours, differences between free testosterone/attendance groups increased over time, resulting in substantial behavioural differences by the final round of measurement 3 years later.

  18. Pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol by males enhances sexual selection of Bactrocera carambolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2007-06-01

    After pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol (ME), males of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) produced (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF) along with its endogenously synthesized pheromonal compounds. CF was shown to be released into the air by the ME-fed males only during the courtship period at dusk and attracted significantly more males and females than the ME-deprived males in wind tunnel assays. However, earlier onset of sexual attraction and a higher mating success were observed only in the wind tunnel and field cage assays on the third day posttreatment of ME. Field cage observations on the male-to-male interaction indicated that the ME-deprived males did not exhibit aggregation behavior, but that ME feeding promoted aggregation behavior in B. carambolae. Field cage observations revealed that the ME-deprived males were not only attracted to the ME-fed males, but also appeared to feed on their anal secretions. The secretions were subsequently confirmed to contain CF along with endogenously produced pheromonal compounds. Results obtained for B. carambolae were compared to those previously obtained from its sibling species, Bactrocera dorsalis, and are discussed in light of species advancement in fruit fly-plant relationships.

  19. Indiscriminate males: mating behaviour of a marine snail compromised by a sexual conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N; Jonsson, Per R

    2010-08-09

    In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings.

  20. Indiscriminate males: mating behaviour of a marine snail compromised by a sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Johannesson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted.Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females, but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail.We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings.

  1. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  2. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  3. Evolution of male life histories and age-dependent sexual signals under female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel J. Adamson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection theory models evolution of sexual signals and preferences using simple life histories. However, life-history models predict that males benefit from increasing sexual investment approaching old age, producing age-dependent sexual traits. Age-dependent traits require time and energy to grow, and will not fully mature before individuals enter mating competition. Early evolutionary stages pose several problems for these traits. Age-dependent traits suffer from strong viability selection and gain little benefit from mate choice when rare. Few males will grow large traits, and they will rarely encounter choosy females. The evolutionary origins of age-dependent traits therefore remain unclear. I used numerical simulations to analyze evolution of preferences, condition (viability and traits in an age-structured population. Traits in the model depended on age and condition (“good genes” in a population with no genetic drift. I asked (1 if age-dependent indicator traits and their preferences can originate depending on the strength of selection and the size of the trait; (2 which mode of development (age-dependent versus age-independent eventually predominates when both modes occur in the population; and (3 if age-independent traits can invade a population with age-dependent traits. Age-dependent traits evolve under weaker selection and at smaller sizes than age-independent traits. This result held in isolation and when the types co-occur. Evolution of age-independent traits depends only on trait size, whereas evolution of age-dependent traits depends on both strength of selection and growth rate. Invasion of age-independence into populations with established traits followed a similar pattern with age-dependence predominating at small trait sizes. I suggest that reduced adult mortality facilitates sexual selection by favoring the evolution of age-dependent sexual signals under weak selection.

  4. Sexual and urinary dysfunction following laparoscopic total mesorectal excision in male patients: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak George

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Even with the use of nerve-sparing techniques, there is a risk of bladder and sexual dysfunction after total mesorectal excision (TME. Laparoscopic TME is believed to improve this autonomic nerve dysfunction, but this is not demonstrated conclusively in the literature. In Indian patients generally, the stage at which the patients present is late and presumably the risk of autonomic nerve injury is more; however, there is no published data in this respect. Materials and Methods: This prospective study in male patients who underwent laparoscopic TME evaluated the bladder and sexual dysfunction using objective standardised scores, measuring residual urine and post-voided volume. The International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS and International Index of Erectile Function score were used respectively to assess the bladder and sexual dysfunction preoperatively at 1, 3, 6 months and at 1 year. Results: Mean age of the study group was 58 years. After laparoscopic TME in male patients, the moderate to severe bladder dysfunction (IPSS <8 is observed in 20.4% of patients at 3 months, and at mean follow-up of 9.2 months, it was seen only in 2.9%. There is more bladder and sexual dysfunction in low rectal tumours compared to mid-rectal tumours. At 3 months, 75% had sexual dysfunction, 55% at median follow-up of the group at 9.2 months. Conclusion: After laparoscopic TME, bladder dysfunction is seen in one-fifth of the patients, which recovers in the next 6 months to 1 year. Sexual dysfunction is observed in 75% of patients immediately after TME which improves to 55% over 9.2 months.

  5. The Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Men: Toward a Male Sensitive Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Patrick; Easton, Scott D; Gould, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a trauma that affects males in substantial numbers, sometimes in ways that are gender-specific (e.g., compromised masculine identity, confusion regarding sexuality). Much of the identification of the male-specific outcomes has been derived from practitioner experience and small qualitative studies. The current study explores gender-specific outcomes and describes the development of a scale to measure the effects of CSA on men. First, qualitative interviews with 20 men who were sexually abused in childhood were thematically analyzed. The emergent themes of sexuality, self-concept, psychological and emotional well-being, and social functioning were used to construct a 30-item instrument which was later completed by 147 men with histories of CSA. The dimensionality of the 30 items was then assessed for suitability as scales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The final instrument, the Male Sexual Abuse Effects Scale (MSAES), combines three subscales: Negative Identity, Guilt and Self-Blame, and Psychological and Emotional Well-Being. Items concerning masculine identity were shown to be valid in the scale. MSAES scores were compared with the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and found to be significantly correlated. GHQ-28 clinical thresholds were applied to differentiate clinical from nonclinical cases; an independent-samples t test showed that the clinical cases from the GHQ-28 had high scores on the MSAES. The new scale has the potential to help clinicians and researchers identify men who have been severely affected by CSA and who should be of clinical concern. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Is Perceived Parental Monitoring Associated with Sexual Risk Behaviors of Young Black Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Terrell, Ivy; Pasternak, Ryan

    This study determined whether perceived parental monitoring (PPM) is associated with any of twelve selected outcomes related to sexual risk behaviors of young Black males (YBM). Recruitment occurred in clinics diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted infections. YBM living with a parent or guardian (N = 324) were administered a 9-item scale assessing level of PPM. The obtained range was 10 - 45, with higher scores representing more frequent monitoring. The mean was 29.3 (sd=7.0). Eight of the twelve outcomes had significant associations with PPM (all in a direction indicating a protective effect). Of these eight, five retained significance in age-adjusted models were ever causing a pregnancy, discussing pregnancy prevention, safer sex, and condom use with sex partners, and using a condom during the last act of penile-vaginal sex. Monitoring by a parent figure may be partly protective against conceiving a pregnancy for Black males 15-23 years of age.

  7. Minimization of Male Suffering: Social Perception of Victims and Perpetrators of Opposite-Sex Sexual Coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinska, Anna Magda; Hilton, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Studies show equal impact of sexual harassment (SH) on men and women, whereas lay perceptions are that women suffer more. We identify the phenomenon of minimization of male suffering (MMS), which occurs when people assume that SH has less effect on men's well-being and which results in the perpetrators of SH on men being evaluated less harshly. To verify whether these effects occur, we conducted two studies in which we presented stories describing acts of sexual coercion (SC, study 1) and SC or financial coercion (FC, study 2) and measured the perceived suffering of victims and the perception of the perpetrators. Both studies showed that female victims were perceived to suffer more from SC and FC and that perpetrators of both acts on women were evaluated more negatively. The results support our hypothesis that the suffering of male victims is minimized as they are perceived to suffer less than women.

  8. Accuracy and awareness in the perception and categorization of male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini; Adams, Reginald B; Macrae, C Neil

    2008-11-01

    For clear and unambiguous social categories, person perception occurs quite accurately from minimal cues. This article addresses the perception of an ambiguous social category (male sexual orientation) from minimal cues. Across 5 studies, the authors examined individuals' actual and self-assessed accuracy when judging male sexual orientation from faces and facial features. Although participants were able to make accurate judgments from multiple facial features (i.e., hair, the eyes, and the mouth area), their perceived accuracy was calibrated with their actual accuracy only when making judgments based on hairstyle, a controllable feature. These findings provide evidence that suggests different processes for extracting social category information during perception: explicit judgments based on obvious cues (hairstyle) and intuitive judgments based on nonobvious cues (information from the eyes and mouth area). Differences in the accuracy of judgments based on targets' controllability and perceivers' awareness of cues provides insight into the processes underlying intuitive predictions and intuitive judgments. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Relationship Power, Sociodemographics, and Their Relative Influence on Sexual Agreements Among Gay Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicholas S; Huebner, David M; Baucom, Brian R; Hoff, Colleen C

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary relationships engage in condomless sex both within and outside their relationships and a majority of HIV transmission risk may actually occur within primary relationships. Sexual agreements regarding non-monogamy are a critical component to understanding HIV prevention in male couples. Relationship factors have been associated with how sexual agreements function and power is one dyadic construct likely to affect couple's maintenance of non-monogamy agreements. Multilevel modeling was used in a cross-sectional study of gay male couples (N = 566 couples) to examine associations between partners' demographic characteristics traditionally used to define relationship power, a scale of decision-making power, and outcomes related to sexual agreements, including investment, agreement breaks, and break disclosure. Results indicated that decision-making power relative to one's partner was not associated with any agreement outcome, contrary to hypotheses. However, controlling for decision-making power, demographic bases of power were variably associated with sexual agreements' functioning. Younger partners were less invested in and more frequently broke their agreements. Lower-earning partners broke their agreements more frequently, but also disclosed breaks more often. White men in white-minority relationships broke their agreement more often than their partners. Concordant HIV-positive couples were less invested in their agreements and HIV-positive men disclosed breaks more frequently. HIV prevention efforts for same-sex couples must attend to the social, developmental, and cultural influences that affect their agreements around non-monogamy.

  10. Evidence against a relationship between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastieri, Válter; Andrade, Cristiane Pinto; Souza, Adriana Lima V; Silva, Monica Santana; El-Hani, Charbel Niño; Moreira, Lília Maria de Azevedo; Mott, Luiz Roberto de Barros; Flores, Renato Zamora

    2002-12-01

    Hall and Kimura (1994) studied the relation between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and male sexual orientation in a sample of 66 homosexual and 182 heterosexual men. They found that more homosexual men possessed a leftward dermatoglyphic asymmetry than did heterosexual men. In this paper, we report a comparative study about the relationship between sexual orientation and dermatoglyphic characteristics, including 60 homosexual men, 76 heterosexual men, and 60 heterosexual women, recruited from the general population, and also from a gay-rights nongovernmental organization, in Salvador, Brazil. Ulnar loops were the most frequent dermatoglyphic pattern in all groups, followed by whorls, arches, and radial loops. A chi-square analysis comparing the frequencies of the patterns in the three groups only showed an excess of ulnar loops in women (p differences between homosexuals and the other groups studied. There was no significant difference between gay and straight men on total ridge count. We found a preponderance of rightward asymmetry in homosexual and heterosexual men, as well as in heterosexual women. Our results do not agree with Hall and Kimura's data indicating that more gay men possessed the minority leftward asymmetry than did straight men. There was no significant difference in leftward asymmetry in the sample studied. The results reported in this paper do not support any relation between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and male sexual orientation, and, thus, any hypothesis concerning a biological intrauterine contribution to adult sexual orientation somehow associated with dermatoglyphic development.

  11. Change in male secondary sexual characters in artificial interspecific hybrid populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, H L; Val, F C; Templeton, A R

    1994-01-01

    The interfertile Hawaiian species Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura were hybridized, forming reciprocal populations; the SH hybrid line was begun with D. silvestris female parents, and the HS hybrid line was begun with D. heteroneura female parents. Mass laboratory cultures were maintained for 14 generations without artificial selection. The species differ strikingly in two male secondary sexual characters, head shape and foreleg tibial cilia number. These characters are known ...

  12. Ethnic differences in sexual dysfunction among diabetic and nondiabetic males: the Oxford Sexual Dysfunction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavige, Lasantha S; Wijesekara, Pabasi; Seneviratne Epa, Danesha; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Levy, Jonathan C

    2013-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE), and reduced libido are common yet poorly investigated complications of diabetes especially among South Asians (SA). To determine possible variations in prevalence and interassociations of ED, PE, and reduced libido among SA and Europids with and without diabetes. Men with diabetes and a randomly selected sample of age-matched nondiabetic men from 25 general practitioners in eight primary care trusts in the United Kingdom were invited to participate in a linguistically validated questionnaire-based study in English, Hindi, Urdu, Panjabi, Tamil, and Sinhala languages. ED, assessed by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), PE, evaluated using the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, and libido, assessed by asking participants to grade their desire for sexual activity. Sample size was 510 (SA: 184, Europid: 326). Mean age was 56.9 ± 9.7 years. There was no difference in erectile function when assessed by IIEF between SA and Europids with diabetes (84.8% and 84.1%, respectively). The overall prevalence of PE was 28.8% (32.6% and 25.8% in those with and without diabetes, respectively, P = NS). Among men with diabetes, the prevalence of PE was 45.8% and 22.4% for SA and Europids, respectively (P libido was reported by 26.9% men (32.8% and 22.0% in those with and without diabetes, respectively, P libido and increasing severity grades of ED was also significant (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of ED between SA and Europid men with diabetes. PE was significantly more common in the SA men irrespective of their diabetes status. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Disruption of a Plasmodium falciparum gene linked to male sexual development causes early arrest in gametocytogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Tetsuya; Mu, Jianbing; Hayton, Karen; Liu, Anna; Duan, Junhui; Nkrumah, Louis; Joy, Deirdre A; Fidock, David A; Fujioka, Hisashi; Vaidya, Akhil B; Wellems, Thomas E; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2005-11-15

    A male gametocyte defect in the Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 parasite was previously discovered through the observation that all progeny clones in a Dd2 x HB3 genetic cross were the result of fertilization events between Dd2 female and HB3 male gametes. A determinant linked to the defect in Dd2 was subsequently mapped to an 800-kb segment on chromosome 12. Here, we report further mapping of the determinant to an 82-kb region and the identification of a candidate gene, P. falciparum male development gene 1 (pfmdv-1), that is expressed at a lower level in Dd2 compared with the wild-type normal male gametocyte-producing ancestor W2. Pfmdv-1 protein is sexual-stage specific and is located on the gametocyte plasma membrane, parasitophorous vacuole membrane, and the membranes of cleft-like structures within the erythrocyte. Disruption of pfmdv-1 results in a dramatic reduction in mature gametocytes, especially functional male gametocytes, with the majority of sexually committed parasites developmentally arrested at stage I. The pfmdv-1-knockout parasites show disturbed membrane structures, particularly multimembrane vesicles/tubes that likely derive from deformed cleft-like structures. Mosquito infectivity of the knockout parasites was also greatly reduced but not completely lost. The results suggest that pfmdv-1 plays a key role in gametocyte membrane formation and integrity.

  14. Evidence That the Microbiota Counteracts Male Outbreeding Strategy by Inhibiting Sexual Signaling in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Heys

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota is increasingly being recognized as having important impacts on many host biological processes. However, evidence of its effects on animal communication and breeding strategy is lacking. In this three-factorial study, we show that females were more willing to mate with related males, with relatedness likely being assessed through the microbiota. By contrast, male mating investment is concurrently determined by both the relatedness and microbiota status of the female. When the microbiota in female Drosophila melanogaster is altered by an antibiotic, male investment in sperm number increased when mating with unrelated females compared to related ones. Contrastingly, the presence of an intact microbiota in females canceled this male outbreeding strategy. As a consequence, the microbiota, when intact, decreased the fitness of the mating couple. Furthermore, we showed that female sexual signaling (cuticular hydrocarbons, with regards to kin recognition, significantly interacts with microbiota. Interestingly, the interaction is significant for hydrocarbons expressed by both sexes, but not for female-specific compounds. Taken together, our results suggest that microbiota can influence kin recognition by disfavoring male outbreeding strategies, likely by inhibiting key olfactory sexual signaling. This represents the first evidence of a host outbreeding strategy counteracted by their microbiota.

  15. Circannual changes in the secondary sexual adornments of semifree-ranging male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, J M; Dixson, A F

    2001-03-01

    Male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) have spectacular secondary sexual adornments. These include red and blue sexual skin on the face, rump, and genitalia; a sternal scent-marking gland; and a "fatted" rump. Mandrills are seasonal breeders, and in other seasonally-breeding primate species members of both sexes may show increased expression of secondary sexual characteristics during the mating season. We examined changes in male secondary sexual adornments and testosterone levels, in relation to seasonal changes in the female reproductive cycle and sexual skin morphology, in two semifree-ranging mandrill groups. Females showed circannual changes in sexual skin tumescence, and periods of tumescence peaked from May-July in a long-established group. However, formation of a second, smaller group, two years previous to commencement of the study, disrupted the seasonal pattern of sexual skin tumescence and births. As the groups occupied adjacent enclosures, it appears that social factors, as well as physical environment, affected the seasonal patterning of reproduction in females. Male mandrills, by contrast, did not exhibit marked circannual changes in secondary sexual traits. Although adult male testicular volume and circulating testosterone levels increased significantly during the mating season, sexual skin coloration and rump "fattedness" showed no consistent changes with season. There was some evidence to suggest that maturing males (ages 5-8 yr) showed increased development of red sexual skin during mating periods, but once males had fully developed secondary sexual adornments, they remained stable throughout the year. The possible reasons for this are discussed in relation to intermale competition and social organization in mandrills.

  16. Impairment of couple relationship in male patients with sexual dysfunction is associated with overt hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Lotti, Francesco; Boddi, Valentina; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Fisher, Alessandra D; Monami, Matteo; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2009-09-01

    Couple sexual dysfunction is a common, but not often studied, problem. We have previously reported that disturbance in the relational domain, as measured by SIEDY Scale 2 (exploring, as reported by the patient, menopausal symptoms, partner's medical illness interfering with sexual activity, and reduced partner desire and climax), is associated with different sexual dysfunctions, such as hypoactive sexual desire, erectile dysfunction (ED), delayed ejaculation, and psychological disturbances. As all of these symptoms could be associated with hypogonadism, we have investigated the possible relationship between androgen levels and an unhappy couple relationship. A consecutive series of 2,302 (mean age 53.2 +/- 12.5 years) male patients with ED was studied. Several hormonal parameters were investigated, along with penile Doppler ultrasound (PDU) and the Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) and ANDROTEST. Higher ANDROTEST score identifies a higher prevalence of hypogonadism-related symptoms and signs. SIEDY Scale 2 score was associated with decreased intercourse frequency, severe ED, lower dynamic peak systolic velocity at PDU, and clinical (ANDROTEST score) and biochemical (low total and free testosterone) hypogonadism, even after adjusting for cofounders, such as patient's and partner's age, waist circumference, and smoking habit. Alternative models were explored using these different factors as dependent variables in order to evaluate the specific relationship among the parameters studied. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that low penile blood flow and decreased intercourse frequency are bi-directionally coupled to poor relational domain, while the association with hypogonadism was mediated through sexual hypoactivity or inertia. Our data suggest that, in subjects consulting for sexual dysfunction, a deterioration of the couple's relationship is associated with impairment in sexual activities, which, in turn, can lead to a mild

  17. Testosterone and pubertal development as predictors of sexual activity: a panel analysis of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C

    1993-01-01

    Strong cross-sectional relationships between testosterone (T) and sexual activity have been found for human adolescent males, even when level of pubertal development is controlled; however, it has not been demonstrated that sexual behavior increases over time as a consequence of hormonal changes. The purpose of this paper was to extend previous cross-sectional findings by demonstrating that sexual behavior is initiated and increases within individuals over time as a direct function of changes in T levels, rather than indirectly through pubertal development. Analyses are based on a 3-year panel study of about 100 7th- and 8th-grade adolescent boys. Pubertal development and changes in pubertal development were significantly and positively related to changes in sexual ideation, noncoital behavior, and to the transition to sexual intercourse. Testosterone levels at study entry were significantly related to coital status at Time 1 and also predicted the transition to nonvirgin status. However, changes in hormone levels during the 3 years of study participation did not predict changes in ideation or noncoital sexual activity, regardless of the period of change or the lag time to effects. The panel data suggest, in contrast to earlier cross-sectional results, that change in pubertal development is related to the initiation of sexual activity because of its social stimulus value, and not solely because it is determined by, or is a proxy for, changing hormone levels. Possible causes of the different findings in the cross-sectional and panel data are examined, and the implications and meaning of hormone/behavior relationships based on single measures are discussed.

  18. Positive genetic correlation between brain size and sexual traits in male guppies artificially selected for brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, A; Corral-Lopez, A; Zajitschek, S; Immler, S; Maklakov, A A; Kolm, N

    2015-04-01

    Brain size is an energetically costly trait to develop and maintain. Investments into other costly aspects of an organism's biology may therefore place important constraints on brain size evolution. Sexual traits are often costly and could therefore be traded off against neural investment. However, brain size may itself be under sexual selection through mate choice on cognitive ability. Here, we use guppy (Poecilia reticulata) lines selected for large and small brain size relative to body size to investigate the relationship between brain size, a large suite of male primary and secondary sexual traits, and body condition index. We found no evidence for trade-offs between brain size and sexual traits. Instead, larger-brained males had higher expression of several primary and precopulatory sexual traits--they had longer genitalia, were more colourful and developed longer tails than smaller-brained males. Larger-brained males were also in better body condition when housed in single-sex groups. There was no difference in post-copulatory sexual traits between males from the large- and small-brained lines. Our data do not support the hypothesis that investment into sexual traits is an important limiting factor to brain size evolution, but instead suggest that brain size and several sexual traits are positively genetically correlated. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  20. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  1. Raspberry ketone supplement promotes early sexual maturation in male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Humayra; Mendez, Vivian; Morelli, Renata; Pérez, Jeanneth; Taylor, Phillip W

    2017-08-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is highly attractive to sexually mature, but not immature, males of many Bactrocera species, including Queensland fruit fly ('Qfly', Bactrocera tryoni), and acts as a metabolic enhancer in a wide diversity of animals. We considered the possibility that, as a metabolic enhancer, RK in adult diet might accelerate sexual maturation of male Qflies. Recently emerged adult Qfly males (0-24 h old) were exposed to RK-treated food for 48 h and were then provided only sugar and water. Four doses of RK (1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%) along with control (0%) were tested with two types of food: sugar alone and sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate (3:1). For flies tested when 4-10 days old all RK doses increased mating probability of flies fed sugar mixed with yeast hydrolysate but did not show any effect on mating probability of flies fed only sugar. No effects of RK were found for flies tested when 10-30 days old for either diet group. There was no evidence that RK affected longevity at any of the doses tested. Feeding of RK together with yeast hydrolysate to immature Qfly increases mating propensity at young ages and accordingly shows significant potential as a pre-release supplement that might increase the proportion of released flies that attain sexual maturation in Sterile Insect Technique programmes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Critical role of androgen receptor in the postnatal period in male sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunji; Ohoya, Miku; Takanami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-11-16

    Gonadal hormones have a developmental role in organization of the nervous system that regulates sexually dimorphic behavior. It is well known that androgen secreted from testes in the perinatal period is converted to estrogen by aromatase in rodent brain, and that estrogen and its receptor play a pivotal role in masculinization of brain structure and function. Treatment with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, during the perinatal period inhibits development of malespecific brain structure and function, suggesting that androgen signaling via AR also influences brain masculinization. In this study, we investigated which stage during the postnatal period is critical for androgen signaling in brain masculinization. The postnatal period was designated as postnatal days (PD) 0-22, and divided into stages I (PD 0-7), II (PD 8-14), and III (PD 15-22). Newborn male rats were given flutamide subcutaneously in each stage. After adulthood, the effects of postnatal flutamide treatment on brain masculinization were evaluated byanalysis of male sexual behavior. Continuous inhibition of AR throughout stages I and II caused a robust reduction of the intromission ratio and ejaculation frequency compared with other groups. AR inhibition in stage I, II, or III did not cause any change. AR inhibition had no effect onmount behavior. These results show that stage-specific AR activation in the first two postnatal weeks may contribute to brain masculinization mediating male sexual behavior in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual function, relationship adjustment, and the relational impact of pain in male partners of women with provoked vulvar pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly B; Pukall, Caroline F

    2014-05-01

    Despite the impact of provoked vulvar pain on women's sexuality and the partnered sexual context in which the pain typically occurs, partners have not been included widely in research. To examine sexual and relationship functioning of male partners of women with provoked vulvar pain symptoms using a controlled design and to assess the impact of the pain on their relationship. Fifty male pain partners and 56 male controls completed questionnaires to assess sexual communication, sexual functioning/satisfaction, sexual esteem, relationship adjustment, and psychological health. Participants also completed numeric rating scales to assess the importance of sex to them and the extent to which they felt their relationship matched a satisfying relationship. To assess the relational impact of vulvar pain, pain partners were asked to indicate whether the pain had impacted their relationship, and, if yes, rated this impact. Main outcome measures included the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Sexuality Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and numeric rating scales. Pain partners reported significantly poorer sexual communication and erectile function and less sexual satisfaction compared with controls. They also reported significantly less affectional expression within their relationships and were more likely than controls to report a discrepancy between their relationship and their idea of a satisfying relationship. Almost 73% (n = 32/44) of pain partners reported a negative relational impact of vulvar pain. No significant differences in sexual desire, orgasmic function, sexual esteem, relationship satisfaction and consensus, psychological health, or importance of sex were found between groups. Provoked vulvar pain partners appear negatively impacted with regard to some sexual and physical aspects of their relationship. As one of the few controlled studies to investigate partner

  4. Sexually explicit media on the internet: a content analysis of sexual behaviors, risk, and media characteristics in gay male adult videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy.

  5. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Haskins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  6. A review of the potential of medicinal plants in the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, N; Malviya, S; Jain, S; Vyas, S

    2016-10-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a common disorder that appears to be a consequence of a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Due to mental stress, insufficient physical exercise and various aetiological factors, human being's life is becoming less pleasant, which leads to incapability to have sexual pleasure. The allopathic drugs used for sexual dysfunction are believed to produce a variety of side effects and affect other physiological processes and, ultimately, general health. Therefore, the search for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified probably because of less side effects availability and affordability. Ethnobotanical surveys have indicated a large number of plants traditionally used as aphrodisiacs but only few of them are scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. This article has summarised the medicinal plants traditionally recommended and scientifically validated for the management and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Sexual characteristics and spermatogenesis in males of the parthenogenetic gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Reptilia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, Beate; von Düring, Monika U G

    2008-01-01

    Obligately parthenogenetic lizards usually are all-female populations of hybrids producing diploid oocytes by premeiotic endomitosis and quasi-normal meiosis. In an all-female strain of the gekkonid lizard Lepidodactylus lugubris several phenotypic males arose spontaneously. The sexual characteristics of these males were studied using light and electron microscopy and compared with normal males of the bisexual genus Lygodactylus. Emphasis was layed on morphology of seminiferous tubules, occurrence of spermatogenic stages and ultrastructure of spermatozoa. The phenotypic males possessed preanal pores filled with secretions and a sexual nephric segment which were exactly the same as in normal, reproductively active males. In the testes, density and morphology of non-spermatogenic cell types, the Leydig and Sertoli cells, indicate a normal production of testicular testosterone and a normal function of the blood-testis barrier, respectively. Both in the normal and the phenotypic males, all meiotic cell types of spermatogenesis can be recognised in the seminiferous tubules and are apparently identical, indicating a normal meiosis without impairment in the phenotypic males. In contrast, the differentiation process of spermatids is markedly disturbed in the phenotypic males of L. lugubris. In the normal male, spermiogenesis results in mature spermatids and spermatozoa with small elongated nuclei, an acrosomal complex, and a flagellar tail possessing one axoneme. Spermatozoa fill both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens. In the phenotypic male, spermiogenesis results in seemingly normal spermatids and in spermatozoa with large, non-elongated, deformed nuclei and/or irregular tails possessing more than one axoneme. Both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of the ductus epididymidis and the ductus deferens contain relatively few spermatozoa. We suggest that the phenotypic males inherited the

  8. The sexuality and disability of males with multiple sclerosis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Popek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system. In the world 2.1 mil­lion people suffer from MS. Usually MS is diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 50 years old and may be the cause of disability. Sexual problems are very common in male patients with MS although they are less frequent than they used to be. Aim of the research study: To describe the level of disability and sexual life in males with MS. Material and methods: The study was carried out on a total of 72 MS patients. MS subtypes included 30.55% (n = 22 secondary progressive; 27.77% (n = 20 relapsing-remitting; 22.22% (n = 16 primary progressive; and 16.66% (n = 12 progressive relapsing. The research tools consisted of our own questionnaires. Neurological disability was assessed by the Regional Committee for Adjudication of Disability and by the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Results: 8.33% (n = 6 of patients reported sexual activity every day, most reported either several times a week 25% (n = 18, several times a month 33.33% (n = 24, once a month 16.66% (n = 12, a few times a year 5.55% (n = 4 or once a year 11.11% (n = 8. Our findings conclude that neurological disability, low sexual activity and frequent use of sildenafil citrate or similar were common in the patients tested. Conclusions: These problems are permanently overlooked by medical professionals. In this aspect, cooperation between neurologists and sexologists could be important. Further research is needed for better understanding of the sexuality of this particular population.

  9. Male midwives: preferred managers of sexually transmitted infections in men in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Evelyn J; García, Patricia J; Roca, Sayda La Rosa

    2008-10-01

    To describe demographic and practice characteristics of male and female midwives in private practice (MIPPs) in 10 cities of Peru, and their role in the delivery of reproductive health care, specifically management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). As part of an intervention trial in 10 cities in the provinces of Peru designed to improve STI management, detailed information was collected regarding the number of midwives in each city working in various types of practices. A door-to-door survey of all medical offices and institutions in each city was conducted. Each MIPP encountered was asked to answer a questionnaire regarding demographics, training, practice type(s), number of STI cases seen per month, and average earnings per consultation. Of the 905 midwives surveyed, 442 reported having a private practice, either exclusively or concurrently with other clinical positions; 99.3% of these MIPPs reported managing STI cases. Andean cities had the highest density of MIPPs, followed by jungle and coastal cities, respectively. Jungle cities had the largest proportion of male MIPPs (35.5%). While both male and female MIPPs reported seeing male patients, male MIPPs saw a significantly greater number than their female counterparts. In areas of Peru where physicians are scarce, MIPPs provide needed reproductive health services, including STI management. Male MIPPs in particular appear to serve as health care providers for male patients with STIs. This trend, which may exist in other developing countries with similar healthcare workforce demographics, highlights the need for new areas of training and health services research.

  10. Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Amat, Juan A.

    2007-11-01

    Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with extensive carotenoid-dependent plumage colouration. We also measured the cost of mounting a humoral response in terms of circulating carotenoids. Finally, we examined the relationship between plumage colour, immune response and circulating carotenoids. We found that males with carotenoid-supplemented diets showed stronger antibody response than non-supplemented birds. We also found that activation of the immune system significantly reduced circulating carotenoids (24.9% lower in immune-challenged birds than in control birds). Finally, intensity (chroma) of ventral plumage colouration of males, a character directly related to concentration of total carotenoids in feathers, was negatively correlated with the immune response and circulating carotenoids in winter. These results support the idea that carotenoids are a limiting resource and that males trade ornamental colouration against immune response.

  11. Sexual characteristics of male guppies Poecilia reticulata serve as effect biomarkers of estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Gao, Su; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-10-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are considered a candidate model species for the identification and testing of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Male guppies may be used to address the challenge of making potential linkages between alterations of biomarkers, both at the cellular and organ level, and adverse outcomes. In the present study, a predictive relationship between sex characteristics and reproductive output was observed in male guppies that underwent a long-term toxicity test with 0.5 μg/L 17β-estradiol administered during the juvenile period. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that 17β-estradiol exposure caused a significant increase in testicular 17β-estradiol levels as well as the induction of exposure biomarkers, namely hepatic vitellogenin. Exposure to 17β-estradiol also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently reduced the gonadosomatic index, sperm counts, and the coloration index. These changes of male sexual characteristics further translated into adverse influences on reproduction, as measured by a decrease in off spring production and survival rate. Our results suggest that the above-mentioned sexual characteristics of male guppies may be considered potential in vivo biomarkers of estrogen effects on reproduction.

  12. Aggression toward gay men as gender role enforcement: effects of male role norms, sexual prejudice, and masculine gender role stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement.

  13. Male Infertility and Its Impact on Women’s Sexual Behaviors: Need Attention to Psychological Problem as A Psychological Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghavi

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Male infertility may be associated with sexual disorders in the partner. Attention to psychological need and rehabilitation in infertile couples may be helping them to increase mental health and quality of life in these people.

  14. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  15. Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Functional Hypercortisolism Impairs Sexual Function in Male Late-Onset Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; Corona, G; Lamonica, G R; Lenzi, A; Maggi, M; Balercia, G

    2016-01-01

    Functional hypercortisolism is generated by conditions able to chronically activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and has been proven to have a negative role in several complications. However, no study has evaluated the possible influence of diabetes mellitus-associated functional hypercortisolism on male hypogonadism and sexual function. We aimed to identify any association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation measures with testosterone and sexual function in men simultaneously affected by diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism. Fifteen diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism subjects suffering from functional hypercortisolism and fifteen diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism subjects who were free of functional hypercortisolism were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, hormonal, and sexual parameters were considered. Hypercortisolemic subjects showed higher values of body mass index, waist, and glycated hemoglobin and lower ones of testosterone compared to normocortisolemic ones. All sexual parameters, except for orgasmic function, were significantly worse in hypercortisolemic than in normocortisolemic subjects. Hypercortisolemic patients showed higher values of cortisol after dexamethasone and urinary free cortisol as well as a lesser ACTH response after corticotropin releasing hormone test (ACTH area under curve) compared to normocortisolemic ones. No significant association was found at Poisson regression analysis between hormonal and sexual variables in normocortisolemic patients. In hypercortisolemic subjects, negative and significant associations of cortisol response after corticotropin releasing hormone (cortisol area under curve) with erectile function (β: -0.0008; p: 0.015) and total international index of erectile function score (β: -0.0006; p: 0.001) were evident. This study suggests for the first time the impairing influence of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis on sexual function in

  16. The sexual preference of female rats is influenced by males' adolescent social stress history and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa

    2017-03-01

    Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru Perfil de los adolescentes varones sexualmente activos en colegios secundarios de Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús L. Chirinos; Victor C. Salazar; Claire D. Brindis

    2000-01-01

    To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was l...

  18. Between contradictions and risks: Mexican male adolescents’ views about teenage pregnancy and its association with sexual behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Quiroz; Erika E Atienzo; Lourdes Campero; Leticia Suárez-López

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore the opinions of Mexican male adolescents regarding teenage pregnancy and analyze its association with sexual behavior. Materials and methods. This is a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among a conventional sample of male students (15-19 years old) in eight public schools in Morelos and Mexico City. Analyses include multivariate models to identify the association between opinions and sexual behaviors. Results. Overall, 68% agree that a teenage...

  19. Oxotremorine delays and scopolamine accelerates sexual exhaustion when applied to the preoptic area in male hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floody, Owen R

    2013-09-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has not been tested for a role in the development of sexual exhaustion in males. However, male hamsters receiving infusions into the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (OXO) or antagonist scopolamine (SCO) show changes in the postejaculatory interval, one of the measures that changes most consistently as exhaustion approaches. In addition, central SCO treatments cause changes in the patterning of intromissions that resemble those signaling exhaustion. To extend these observations and more thoroughly test the dependence of sexual exhaustion on ACh, male hamsters received MPOA treatments of OXO, SCO or the combination of the two before mating to exhaustion. Relative to placebo, OXO infusions caused small but consistent increases in ejaculation frequency and long intromission latency, delaying the appearance of exhaustion. Scopolamine treatments did the reverse, dramatically accelerating the development of exhaustion. Consistent with and possibly responsible for these changes were effects on the quality of performance prior to exhaustion. These included differences in overall copulatory efficiency (e.g., ejaculations/intromission), which was increased by OXO and decreased by SCO. They also extended to several standard measures of copulatory behavior, including intromission frequency, ejaculation latency and the postejaculatory interval: Most of these were increased by SCO and decreased by OXO. Finally, whereas most or all effects of OXO were counteracted by SCO, most or all of the responses to SCO resisted change by added OXO. This asymmetry in the responses to combined treatment raises the possibility that the effects of these drugs on sexual exhaustion and other elements of male behavior are mediated by distinct muscarinic receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexualidades interditadas: loucura e gênero masculino Forbidden sexualities: madness and the male gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Gouveia Engel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo identifica e estuda as sexualidades e afetividades masculinas interditadas e aprisionadas nos hospícios brasileiros, durante as primeiras décadas republicanas. Busca-se problematizar a idéia de que os comportamentos sexuais e afetivos não teriam grande relevância na construção de perfis masculinos considerados 'desviantes' e/ou 'patológicos', por meio da análise de registros psiquiátricos da época. Trata-se, pois, de propor uma reflexão que desloque o eixo da análise para as especificidades de gênero que determinam as diferentes feições assumidas pelos 'distúrbios mentais' atribuídos a certos comportamentos sexuais e afetivos.The article identifies and studies male sexuality and affectivity as forbidden and imprisoned in Brazilian asylums in the first decades of the Republic. By analyzing psychiatric records from that era, it explores the notion that sexual and affective behavior had little to do with the construction of male profiles deemed 'deviant' and/or 'pathological'. This reflection shifts the focus of analysis to the gender specificities that determine the various traits displayed in 'mental disturbances' attributed to certain sexual and affective behavior.

  1. A study to assess the knowledge about sexual health among male students of junior colleges of an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Ramchandra Kalkute

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of personality of adolescents. The age of sexual debut is falling globally. The subject of adolescent sexuality is taboo in most societies. Since 2007 sexual health education program has been banned in six states including Maharashtra and Karnataka. This may lead to misconceptions about sexual heath knowledge and practices among young people. Objective: The aim was to assess the knowledge about sexual health among male students of junior colleges of an urban area and to evaluate the change in their knowledge after imparting sexual health education. Settings and Design: Pre-post-intervention study. Materials and Methods: All 245 male students of 11 th standard of all three educational streams of two junior colleges were included in the study. The data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 18. Results: Science students had "adequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared to arts and commerce students (P = 0.004. Students whose parents were unskilled and semiskilled by occupation had "inadequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared with students whose parents were skilled by occupation (P < 0.05. Education of parents had positive effect on the knowledge about sexual health of students (P = 0.062. In posttest, the knowledge about sexual health of students was found to have increased significantly when compared to pretest. The mean posttest score was 12.61 (standard deviation [SD] 3.12, which was significantly higher than the mean pretest score of 6.34 (SD 3.23 (P < 0.001. Students from nuclear families had "adequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared to students from joint families (P = 0.158 Conclusion: Imparting knowledge about sexual health in adolescent age will be beneficial to the students in avoiding risky sexual behavior. Such educational programs must be given due importance to achieve desirable behavior change among them.

  2. 'Boys will be boys': traditional Xhosa male circumcision, HIV and sexual socialisation in contemporary South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Louise

    2008-06-01

    Ritual male circumcision is among the most secretive and sacred of rites practiced by the Xhosa of South Africa. Recently, the alarming rate of death and injury among initiates has led to the spotlight of media attention and government regulation being focused on traditional circumcision. While many of the physical components of the ritual have been little altered by the centuries, its cultural and social meanings have not remained unchanged. This paper attempts to understand how some of these cultural and social meanings have shifted, particularly with respect to attitudes towards sex and the role that circumcision schools traditionally played in the sexual socialisation of Xhosa youth. Ritual circumcision is often defended on the basis of its usefulness as a mechanism for the maintenance of social order, particularly in relation to the perceived crisis in youth sexuality marked by extremely high levels of gender-based violence as well as HIV infection. However, the paper suggests two key ways in which traditional Xhosa circumcision has changed. These include the erosion of the role which circumcision schools once played in the sexual socialisation of young men and the emergence of the idea that initiation gives men the unlimited and unquestionable right to access to sex rather than marking the point at which sexual responsibility and restraint is introduced into the lifestyle of young men.

  3. Negotiating the Edge: The Rationalization of Sexual Risk Taking Among Western Male Sex Tourists to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark

    2017-09-08

    Every year thousands of Western men travel to Thailand as sex tourists to participate in paid-for sex. Although many of these men will use condoms to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), others will not, despite the risks. By applying Steven Lyng's (1990) concept of edgework to data collected from 14 face-to-face interviews with male sex tourists in Pattaya, Thailand, and 1,237 online discussion board posts, this article explores the ways in which these men understood and sought to rationalize the sexual risks they took. We argue that notions of likelihood of infection and significance of consequence underpin these behaviors, and we identify the existence of understandings of sexual risk that reject mainstream safer-sex messages and frame condomless sex as a broadly safe activity for heterosexual men. The article concludes by summarizing the difficulties inherent in driving behavior change among this group of men, for whom sexual risks appear to be easily rationalized away as either inconsequential or irrelevant.

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M. T.; Akanji, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D) of 15 each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle) while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose), day 3 (after three doses, once daily), and day 5 (after five doses, once daily) by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis) by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting) by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P male rats. The improved sexual appetitive behaviour in male rats at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of Massularia acuminata stem may be attributed, at least in part, to the alkaloids, saponins, and/or flavonoids since these phytochemicals has engorgement, androgen enhancing, and antioxidant properties. PMID:21253466

  5. The Impact of Incarceration on Children of Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Susan Hoffman

    1982-01-01

    Discusses impact of parent's imprisonment on children of male and female inmates at four crisis points: (1) arrest and pretrial; (2) sentencing day; (3) initial incarceration; and (4) pre/post release. Describes Sesame Street projects, designed to provide educational and entertaining activities for children on prison visiting days. (CMG)

  6. An Evaluation of Intimate Partner Violence Intervention with Incarcerated Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Angela D.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Gray, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    The following study is an evaluation of the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP). The sample consisted of 298 male federal offenders who participated in the MIFVPP while incarcerated or on release within the community. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of…

  7. A qualitative study of sexual behavior change and risk compensation following adult male circumcision in urban Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Jonathan M; Hennink, Monique M

    2012-01-01

    Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in men by up to 60% in three randomized controlled trials. Less is known, however, about sexual behavior change in men who have been circumcised and whether male circumcision's protective effect leads to riskier sexual behaviors. This study used qualitative in-depth interviews to understand men's sexual behavior after circumcision and to determine whether and how men participated in riskier sexual behaviors following male circumcision. Men in urban Swaziland, circumcised in the previous 12 months, were recruited and asked about their perceptions of sexual risk and sexual behavior post-circumcision. Results showed that following circumcision, men experience changes in both their sexual attitudes and behavior, which can be considered both protective and risky for HIV transmission. Most of them described protective changes (e.g., more responsible attitudes towards safe sex, reducing sexual temptation and partners, easier condom use). A minority, however, experienced increased sexual risk-taking, typically during a brief period of sexual experimentation shortly after circumcision. HIV counseling and counseling throughout the circumcision process is shown to be critical in influencing protective behaviors. Findings in this study confirm the existence of risk compensation following circumcision; however, this study adds important contextual insight about precisely when and why such risk-taking occurs. Nevertheless this study suggests that male circumcision scale-up as an HIV prevention strategy is likely to foster protective behavior change among men. The integration of HIV counseling with circumcision provision remains critical for effectively mitigating HIV risk behavior as male circumcision gains momentum as a viable HIV prevention tool.

  8. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling Regulates Sexual Preference for Females in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny-Shefer, Yamit; Zilkha, Noga; Lavi-Avnon, Yael; Bezalel, Nadav; Rogachev, Ilana; Brandis, Alexander; Dayan, Molly; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-12-12

    Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2 -/- and wild-type male mice. TrpC2 -/- males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2 -/- males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA-NAcc dopaminergic neurons in TrpC2 -/- males during exposure to a female promoted preference response to female pheromones and elevated copulatory behavior toward females. Additionally, we found that signaling through the D1 receptor in the NAcc is nec