Bortot, Andrea T; Risser, William L; Cromwell, Polly F
Information is limited on how well adolescents use condoms and where they learn how. The objective of this study was to determine how often incarcerated males used condoms incorrectly and where, how, and from whom they learned condom use. This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey during intake physicals at a juvenile detention center. Results were based on self-report; condom use models were not used. During usual use among 141 males, errors included failure to secure the condom to the penis on withdrawal (37%), loss of erection before condom removal (18%), and failure to leave space at the tip (14%). Learning occurred at home (27%), school (23%), probation/detention facilities (14%), and community programs (3.4%). Subjects learned from educators/counselors (37%), family (27%), and friends (6.9%). Methods of learning included reading the package insert (45%), demonstrations (39%), explanations (33%), and media (19%). These adolescents had relatively few condom errors. Common methods of learning correct condom use included observing a demonstration, reading the package insert, and hearing an explanation. The last 2 methods are easy to implement.
Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert
This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Perkins, Suzanne C.; Cortina, Kai S.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
This article investigates the relation between history of intrafamilial violence and self-regulatory capacity, cognitive processing, and mental health adjustment in incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents were incarcerated at the time of the study for various violent offenses, ranging from persistent delinquency to sexual assault (n = 115). A model…
McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R
Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.
Erdelja, Stanislava; Vokal, Petra; Bolfan, Marija; Erdelja, Sergej Augustin; Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan
To assess the relationships between delinquency and demographic and family variables, academic performance, war stressors, home/community, school, and media violence exposure, self-image, and psychopathology. This cross-sectional study included 100 delinquent, incarcerated male adolescents and 100 matched schoolchildren from Croatia. It lasted from January 2008 to June 2009, and used socio-demographic questionnaire, questionnaire on children's stressful and traumatic war experiences, exposure to violence scale, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and Youth Self-Report Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis showed that delinquency in incarcerated adolescents was more likely related to having parents who did not live together (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.90, P=0.015), being more exposed to violence at home/community (OR 3.84; CI 1.58-9.34, P=0.003), and having poorer self-image (OR 1.09; CI=1.03-1.16, P>0.002). Preventive and therapeutic interventions in incarcerated delinquents should be specifically targeted toward single parenthood, family factors, trauma oriented interventions, and focused on multiple dimensions of self-concept of adolescents.
Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie
This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…
Hudley-Paul, Cynthia A.
Two studies investigate causal attributions among minority adolescents. The first investigates attributions for the emotions of anger, pride, and guilt among 26 incarcerated male adolescents. Relatively few causes are found for anger and guilt, and a larger variety of causes are cited for pride. A follow-up study then compares causal attributions…
Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker
This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J
Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vreugdenhil, Coby; van den Brink, Wim; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) among incarcerated boys, and comorbidity patterns and the relationship between SUDs and violent offending and criminal recidivism. The presence of SUDs and other psychiatric disorders was
Vreugdenhil, C.; van den Brink, W.; Ferdinand, R.; Wouters, L.; Doreleijers, T.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the empirical or DSM-oriented scales of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) can be used to screen for DSM psychiatric disorders among incarcerated boys. DSM-oriented scales have recently been developed by Achenbach to enhance comparability of YSR results with DSM diagnostic
Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.
Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compar...
Johnson, Megan; Vitacco, Michael J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A
The stress response system is highly plastic, and hormone rhythms may "adaptively calibrate" in response to treatment. This investigation assessed whether stress and sex hormone diurnal rhythms changed over the course of behavioral treatment, and whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits and history of early adversity affected treatment results on diurnal hormone functioning in a sample of 28 incarcerated adolescent males. It was hypothesized that the treatment would have beneficial effects, such that healthier diurnal rhythms would emerge post-treatment. Diurnal cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were sampled two weeks after admission to the correctional/treatment facility, and again approximately four months later. Positive treatment effects were detected for the whole sample, such that testosterone dampened across treatment. CU traits predicted a non-optimal hormone response to treatment, potentially indicating biological preparedness to respond to acts of social dominance and aggression. The interaction between CU traits and adversity predicted a promising and sensitized response to treatment including increased cortisol and a steeper testosterone drop across treatment. Results suggest that stress and sex hormones are highly receptive to treatment during this window of development.
Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J
Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compared adolescents with a currently incarcerated parent to those with a formerly incarcerated parent and those with no history of parental incarceration on self-reported indicators of mental health, and examined whether strong parent-child relationships were protective against mental health concerns. Results indicate that adolescents with incarcerated parents are at elevated risk for mental health problems, and strong parent-child relationships partially buffer children from risk. Findings underscore the need for more investment in effective early interventions for adolescents in highly adverse contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tangeman, Keegan R.; Hall, Susan R.
This research investigated the role of general and specific self-efficacy factors in positive family relationships and perceived social support within an U.S. incarcerated adolescent population. One hundred African American and Hispanic male adolescent participants, randomly selected from a southern California Probation Department, were included…
Vannoy, Steven D.; Hoyt, William T.
An anger therapy intervention was developed for incarcerated adult males. The therapy was an extension of cognitive-behavioral approaches, incorporating principles and practices drawn from Buddhist psychology. Adult males from a Midwestern low-security prison were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (n= 16) or a waiting list control…
Jillani, Sarah; Patel, Prina; Trestman, Robert; Kamath, Jayesh
Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Evidence suggests that adolescents with ADHD have a higher risk of arrest and incarceration during adulthood. The present report examines evidence related to efficacy of atomoxetine, a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of adolescent ADHD, and presents data from a case series evaluating the effectiveness of atomoxetine for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the Connecticut correctional setting. The results from the case series suggest that atomoxetine is effective for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the context of significant past substance use. In summary, adolescents with ADHD have an elevated risk of incarceration and developing substance use disorders. The present review and pilot case series suggest that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for adolescents with ADHD in the correctional setting. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Shade, Kate; Kools, Susan; Weiss, Sandra J; Pinderhughes, Howard
Little is known about teen fathers though they are found to be disproportionately represented among incarcerated youth. SOURCE USED: This article is developed from a qualitative pilot study of adolescent fathers in the justice system. The authors theorize about teen fathers and the process by which they accept, reject, or are "barriered" from a father identity and role. Adolescence as a developmental period during which an identity is forming is viewed in concert with the concept of hegemonic masculinity and the concept of intersectionality. Risk factors in childhood and adolescence complete the conceptual model through which incarcerated adolescent fathers can be examined. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Garrett, Linda H
While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.
Robillard, Alyssa G; Holliday, Rhonda C; DeHart, Dana D; Lewis, Kaleea; Rutherford, Yamisha; Amutah, Ndidi N
Adolescent children of incarcerated mothers (ACIM) are typically left in the care of adults (primary caregivers) who play a crucial role in children's care and guidance, as well as in the facilitation of contact and communication with incarcerated mothers. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of relationships and communication among adolescent children of incarcerated mothers, primary caregivers, and incarcerated mothers using pilot data. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with youth aged 12-17 (n=7) and caregivers (n=6) recruited through a non-profit organization working with incarcerated mothers and their children. Incarcerated mothers and primary caregivers represent an important family unit for ACIMs and may play a role in preventing risk behavior. A conceptual framework is offered for further consideration of mother and caregiver communication with youth and youth risk.
Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.
Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon
The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…
Venkata K Mukku
Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K
Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration.
Carla L. Harenski
Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on “moral violation severity”. Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits-Youth Version (ICU-Y. While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment.
Harenski, Carla L; Harenski, Keith A; Kiehl, Kent A
Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on "moral violation severity". Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL) Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits-Youth Version (ICU-Y). While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.
Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…
Conclusion: IH occurs mainly in male infants. Prematurity and male gender were identified as risk factors of incarceration. Contralateral metachronous hernia was reported, especially in female infants and after a left side surgical repair of the hernia.
Smith, Angie J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…
Pridemore, William Alex
There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Simonsen, Erik; Kongerslev, Mickey; Moran, Paul
Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routin......Background: Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time...... in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS) for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after......, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting...
Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.
The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
Data from the study, Transition Research on Adjudicated Youth in Community Settings, were used to examine community integration outcomes for the subgroup of adolescent fathers. Juvenile offenders who were fathers were found to return to the correctional system at a higher rate than nonfathers, but fathers who remained in the community were…
Ter Laak, Jan; de Goede, Martijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Brugman, Gerard; van Leuven, Miranda; Hussmann, Judith
Study investigated personality traits and social competence as predictors of delinquency in adolescent girls. Agreeableness did not correlate with the overall delinquency score. The more crimes reported, the less conscientious, more neurotic, and more open the girls were. Correlation between delinquency and extroversion was not statistically…
McGarvey, E L; Canterbury, R J; Waite, D
In this retrospective study of incarcerated adolescents, inhalants were used by significantly more nonminority than minority youth. Among both minority and nonminority groups, family problems and delinquent behaviors were higher among those youth with a history of inhalant use than those who reported no use. Family problems included history of running away from home, breaking rules, fighting with parents, and having relatives who had attempted suicide. Delinquent behavior included earlier personal use of drugs, selling illegal drugs, buying drugs from dealers, committing crimes while under the influence, committing crimes to get money to buy drugs, and threatening to hurt people.
Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik
Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating pr...
Pechorro, Pedro; Jiménez García, Lucía; Hidalgo García, María Victoria; Nunes, Cristina
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relevance of the DSM-5's Conduct Disorder new Limited Prosocial Emotions (CD LPE) specifier in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. A sample of 201 males and 98 females from the Juvenile Detention Centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice diagnosed with Conduct Disorder (CD) was used. Results showed that male juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU), general psychopathic traits, ps...
Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.
The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)
Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S
Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation. Indeed, repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic stress situations may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation and lead to psychological difficulties. It was also shown that basal cortisol levels are lower in adolescents with externalizing behaviors. This study aims to assess the links between constructive thinking and neuroendocrine regulation in adolescent offenders and their association with externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, delinquency, psychopathic traits, substance use). Identifying particular biopsychological patterns can help to better understand stress management in youth with externalizing behaviors and to improve clinical treatments. Sixteen adolescent males aged from 12 to 18 years were recruited in an institution for juvenile offenders. Exclusion criteria were insufficient reasoning abilities assessed using the Raven Matrices Test. Regarding psychological dimensions, constructive thinking was assessed through the Constructive thinking inventory (CTI), psychopathic traits through the Youth psychopathic traits inventory (YPI), externalizing behaviors through 30 items (out of 113) and 2 subscales (aggressive behavior and delinquency problems) from the Child behavior checklist-youth self-report (CBCL), and substance use through the Dep-ado. Regarding biological dimensions, cortisol daily secretion and regulation were assessed through saliva samples
Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Laura S; Tesema, Lello; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Nelson, Bergen B; Coker, Tumaini; Bath, Eraka; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J
Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated. Findings Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated. Research limitations/implications Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population. Practical implications Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children's health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed. Social implications Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children. Originality/value No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.
Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc
Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.
Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul
We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…
Favril, Louis; Vander Laenen, Freya; Vandeviver, Christophe; Audenaert, Kurt
Prisoners constitute a high-risk group for suicide. As an early stage in the pathway leading to suicide, suicidal ideation represents an important target for prevention, yet research on this topic is scarce in general prison populations. Using a cross-sectional survey design, correlates of suicidal ideation while incarcerated were examined in a sample of 1203 male prisoners, randomly selected from 15 Flemish prisons. Overall, a lifetime history of suicidal ideation and attempts was endorsed b...
Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul
Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741
Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Perez-Cabello, M Arturo; Brabham-Hollis, Tamika; Lanza, A Stephen; Dyson, William J
The adherence to masculine norms has been suggested to be influenced by social settings and context. Prisons have been described as a context where survival is dependent on adhering to strict masculine norms that may undermine reintegration back into the larger society. This study attempted to examine the relationship between masculine norms, peer support, and an individual's length of incarceration on a sample of 139 African American men taking part in a pre-release community re-entry program. Results indicate that peer support was associated with length of incarceration and the interaction between the endorsement of masculine norms and peer support significantly predicted the length of incarceration for African American men in this sample. Implications for incarcerated African American men and future research directions are discussed.
Hudak, Steven J; McGeady, James; Shindel, Alan W; Breyer, Benjamin N
Self-insertion of penile foreign bodies is performed worldwide, largely due to a perception that it will enhance sexual performance and virility. There are relatively few cases reported in the United States. We report three cases of Hispanic men incarcerated in separate southwest United States prisons who utilized a similar technique to insert foreign bodies fabricated out of dominos into the subcutaneous tissues of the penis. Details of the three cases were retrospectively reviewed. Resolution of the case. In each case, an incarcerated Hispanic male or fellow inmate filed a domino into a unique shape for placement under the penile skin. Utilizing the tip of a ballpoint pen or a sharpened shard of plastic to create a puncture wound, each man inserted the domino fragment into the subcutaneous tissue of the penis. All three men presented with infection requiring operative removal. Incarcerated males put themselves at risk for injury and infection when attempting penile enhancement with improvised equipment. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Pechorro, Pedro; Jiménez, Lucía; Hidalgo, Victoria; Nunes, Cristina
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relevance of the DSM-5's Conduct Disorder new Limited Prosocial Emotions (CD LPE) specifier in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. A sample of 201 males and 98 females from the Juvenile Detention Centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice diagnosed with Conduct Disorder (CD) was used. Results showed that male juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU), general psychopathic traits, psychopathy taxon membership, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness, and lower on prosocial behavior and social desirability, while female juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU) and general psychopathic traits, and lower on prosocial behavior. Significant associations for both genders were found between the CD LPE specifier and age of crime onset and first problems with the law. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silverman-Retana, Omar; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Bertozzi, Stefano M
Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5%) and diabetes (1.8%) compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086). Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group. This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.
Full Text Available Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5% and diabetes (1.8% compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086. Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group.This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.
Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O
Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.
Rothstein, A A
The event of elective abortion to terminate unplanned pregnancies brought to the fore and allowed exploration of issues of fatherliness normally latent and, therefore, not observable in adolescence. This is consistent with the psychoanalytic view that fatherly development is an ongoing process begun long before actual parenthood, encompassing an array of conflicts and themes which are conscious to varying degrees in different developmental stages. Issues expressed by the group of adolescent boys studied were compared with those described in the psychoanalytic literature. Most prominent were regressive wishes for nurturance, competition with one's own father, and efforts to meet paternal ego ideals of maturity and responsibility. Parturition envy and strivings for immortality through offspring were not expressed in this group. Themes of fatherliness were not exclusive; they became intertwined with normal tasks of adolescence and individual dynamics as is illustrated with a clinical case.
Carli, Vladimir; Jovanović, Nikolina; Podlesek, Anja; Roy, Alec; Rihmer, Zoltan; Maggi, Stefania; Marusic, Dragan; Cesaro, Caterina; Marusic, Andrej; Sarchiapone, Marco
We explored differences between high and low-impulsive incarcerated individuals in the context of lifetime self-mutilation, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. A total of 1265 males detained in Italian penitentiary institutions were studied between January 2006 and December 2008. The study raters were specifically trained to discriminate between suicide attempters, ideators and self-mutilators. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Based on BIS 7 total score distribution, two extreme quarters - high-impulsive group (n=306) and low-impulsive group (n=285) - were compared. Over 42% of participants had lifetime suicide ideation, 13% attempted suicide and 17% were self-mutilators. High-impulsive subjects were younger, more often single and with more prominent psychoticism, extraversion, aggression, hostility and resilience capacity. They were more frequently diagnosed with substance use disorders and engaged in self-mutilating behaviour. There was no difference in the rate of suicide attempts between the two groups. Although high-impulsive subjects were more prone to suicidal behaviour, it was not predicted by higher impulsivity when other psychological variables were accounted for. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vreugdenhil, Coby; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; van den Brink, Wim
Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated male adolescents and to investigate the influence of psychopathology on allocation to either plain detention or detention with compulsory treatment. Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample (N = 204)
Zare, Elham; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Alavi Majd, Hamid
Health in the adolescence period guarantees the next generation's health. The assessment of health needs is the first stage for the implementation of health promotion interventions. This study aimed to assess the priorities of male adolescent's health needs in Tehran, Iran, in year 2015. This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 1,200 male adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years. Single male adolescents studying in public guidance and high schools in Tehran, Iran, in year 2015 were chosen using a random multistage sampling method. Data were collected using the male adolescent health need assessment scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. It was found that while the lowest score was for the domain of sexual health, other domains had average or higher than average scores. More attention should be paid to the sexual health needs of male adolescents. Policy makers need to design strategies that help meet the health needs of male adolescents.
Sanik, Margaret Mietus; Stafford, Kathryn
Develops a model to predict the contribution adolescent males and females make to household work, based upon family characteristics, human capital of the adolescent, geographic location, and societal expectations. Adolescent females worked longer than males, regardless of birth order. Time use for household work was largely unaffected by family…
Todis, Bonnie; Bullis, Michael; Waintrup, Miriam; Schultz, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Ryan
A 5-year qualitative study examined resilience among 15 adolescents transitioning from youth correctional facilities back into their communities. Topics addressed include: pre-delinquent histories, experiences in the correctional system, and post-corrections transition. Currently about half the respondents are successful (employed, going to…
Data from a nationally representative sample of 1,880 young men aged 15-19 reveal that neighborhood quality, parental education, race or ethnicity, and attitudes about male gender roles are related to young men's attitudes toward an unplanned pregnancy and to their contraceptive experiences. Young men who live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to be pleased about an unplanned pregnancy than those who have better living conditions (12% vs. 2%) and are also more likely to view impregnating a woman as enhancing their masculinity (8% vs. 3%). Among men with average living conditions, 12% of black adolescents view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity, compared with 6% of white adolescents; among those with very good living conditions, these proportions were 10% and 2%, respectively. Young men whose parents had less education and those who held traditional male gender role attitudes were also more likely than their counterparts to view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity. Regarding contraceptive behavior, sexually active black men and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to have discussed contraception with their last partner; black men were more likely to have used an effective contraceptive method the last time they had intercourse; and black men were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse. However, young men who were aware that they had been responsible for a previous pregnancy were less likely than those who reported no pregnancies to have used an effective contraceptive the last time they had intercourse. These same young men were also more likely to report that fathering a child would please them and enhance their masculinity.
McLean, Ann L.; Flanigan, Beverly J.
Examined male transition-marking behaviors from adolescence into adulthood at first intercourse. Findings from 80 adolescent males revealed that alcohol use at first intercourse was unrelated to use of contraceptives at that time but was inversely related to whether first intercourse was planned. Planning was positively related to contraceptive…
Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins
In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…
Marcell, Arik V; Ford, Carol A; Pleck, Joseph H; Sonenstein, Freya L
Male adolescents frequently become disconnected from health care, especially as they get older, which limits physicians' abilities to address their health needs and results in missed opportunities to connect them to the health care system as they enter adulthood. In this study we tested the ability of modifiable (beliefs about masculinity, parental communication, sex education, and health insurance) and nonmodifiable (age, race/ethnicity, and region of residence) factors to prospectively predict health care use by male adolescents. We conducted a prospective analysis of data from 1677 male participants aged 15 to 19 years who completed the National Survey of Adolescent Males, a household probability survey conducted throughout the United States in 1988 (wave 1, participation rate: 74%) and in 1990-1991 (wave 2, follow-up rate: 89%). We present percentages and adjusted relative risks of the factors that predict male adolescents' self-report of a physical examination by a regular provider in the past year measured at wave 2. On average, 1067 (66%) of 1677 male adolescents at wave 2 reported having a physical examination within the last year. Factors associated with a lower likelihood of a physical examination included living in the South, Midwest, and West; being older in age; and holding more traditional masculine beliefs. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of a physical examination included communicating about reproductive health with both parents and being insured. Male adolescents who were sexually active or engaged in > or = 2 other risk behaviors had neither a higher nor lower likelihood of a physical examination. Efforts to enhance male adolescents' health through health care should include work to modify masculine stereotypes, improve mothers' and fathers' communication about health with their sons, expand health insurance coverage, and identify interventions to connect male adolescents at increased risk for health problems with health care.
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher
Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…
D'Amato, Christopher P; Denney, Robert L
The purpose of this study was to utilize a known-group research design to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the Rarely Missed Index (RMI) of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition [Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-3rd Edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation] in assessing response bias in an adult male incarcerated setting. Archival data from a sample of 60 adult male inmates who presented for neuropsychological testing were reviewed. Evaluees were assigned to one of two groups; probable malingerers (PM; n=30) and a group of valid test responders (n=30) (1999). Using the recommended cut-off score of 136 or less, the sensitivity of the RMI was extremely low at 33%. Its specificity was 83%. The positive predictive power of the RMI with the published base rate of 22.8 was 38%; with a negative predictive power of 81%. The positive predictive power of the RMI with a published base rate of 70.5 was 82%. The negative predictive power using a base rate of 70.5% was 34%. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis indicated that the RMI score with a cut-off 136 or less performed only slightly better than chance in delineating probable malingerers from valid responders in this setting. Overall, the findings suggest that the RMI may not be a reliable index for detecting response bias in this setting and perhaps in similar settings.
Soltis, Samuel L; Probst, Janice; Xirasagar, Sudha; Martin, Amy B; Smith, Bradley H
Analyze diagnostic and demographic factors to identify predictors of delinquency resulting in incarceration within a group of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. The study followed a cohort of 15,472 Medicaid covered children/adolescents with ADHD, ages 6 to 15 inclusive, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev. [ DSM-IV-TR]), 2000 Codes were used for qualifying diagnosis codes. Available demographic characteristics included race, sex, and residence. The outcome was incarceration at the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice during 2005-2006. Among youth with ADHD, incarceration was more likely among black, male, and urban youth. Children/adolescents with comorbid ODD and/or CD were at greater risk compared with those with ADHD alone. Within ADHD-diagnosed youth, comorbid conditions and demographic characteristics increase the risk of incarceration. Intervention and treatment strategies that address behavior among youth with these characteristics are needed to reduce incarceration.
Thijssen, Sandra; Rashid, Barnaly; Gopal, Shruti; Nyalakanti, Prashanth; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin. All participants were scanned at the maximum-security facilities using The Mind Research Network's 1.5T Avanto SQ Mobile MRI scanner. Information on cannabis and alcohol regular use duration was collected using self-report. Resting-state networks were computed using group independent component analysis in 201 participants. Associations with cannabis and alcohol use were assessed using Mancova analyses controlling for age, IQ, smoking and psychopathy scores in the complete case sample of 180 male juvenile delinquents. No associations between alcohol or cannabis use and network spatial maps were found. Longer cannabis use was associated with decreased low frequency power of the default mode network, the executive control networks (ECNs), and several sensory networks, and with decreased functional network connectivity. Duration of alcohol use was associated with decreased low frequency power of the right frontoparietal network, salience network, dorsal attention network, and several sensory networks. Our findings suggest that adolescent cannabis and alcohol use are associated with widespread differences in resting-state time course power spectra, which may persist even after abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shearin, Sherin A
As the achievement gap between African American and while students persists, an examination of factors outside the school setting are essential. Acknowledging the dynamics of family environment as perceived by African American adolescent males is apposite to understanding the relationship between family environment and academic achievement. Utilizing an ecological perspective, this study describes the characteristics of family process variables and analyzes the adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent interaction and its influence on their psychological well-being. Results indicate that a substantial proportion of the 179 adolescent males who perceived parent-adolescent interaction as positive and were identified as having a stable psychological well-being, were more likely to have average to above-average grade point averages, high Stanford Nine scores and high achievement group membership, than those adolescent males who did not perceive parent-adolescent interaction as positive.
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
Moore, Sharon E.
Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)
Banks, Andrae; Fields, Lashawnda; O'Dwyer, Curtis; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Joe, Sean
Objective: To examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatment evidence for Black male adolescents suffering from comorbid mental illness and diabetes mellitus. Method: A review of the studies published in English-language journals was conducted. Results: We found no RCT focused on Black males with diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2).…
Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy
Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544
Ott, Mary A
A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care, and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing published data, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys' sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental "readiness" for sex and curiosity; (3) boys' need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys' communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including human papillomavirus vaccination.
Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.
Vreugdenhil, Coby; Vermeiren, Robert; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van den Brink, Wim
This study investigated the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among incarcerated boys as well as the relationship between these symptoms and violent offending and criminal recidivism. The presence of psychotic symptoms was assessed in a representative sample of 204 incarcerated boys aged 12-18 using
Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C; Comfort, Megan
Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.
When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…
Reis, Janet; And Others
Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
LEONARDO DE SOUSA FORTES
Full Text Available Background Evidence indicates a relationship between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms (EDS. However, there is no such empirical evidence in Brazilian scientific literature. Moreover, studies of EDS in the male sex are scarce. Objective To analyze a possible association between EDS and perfectionism traits in adolescent males. Methods Participants were 368 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale to assess EDS and perfectionism traits, respectively. Results The results indicated a statistically significant association between the high perfectionism trait and EDS (X2 = 16.40; Wald = 15.92; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings showed no difference in the scores of the Diet (F(1, 367 = 2.14; p = 0.23 or Concern for Food and Bulimia (F(1, 367 = 2.44; p = 0.19 subscales according to groups of perfectionism. However, we identified a higher score on the Oral Self-Control subscale of the EAT-26 in the group with high perfectionism trait than adolescents with a low perfectionism trait (F(1, 367 = 13.88; p = 0.02. Discussion: EDS were associated with perfectionism in adolescent males.
Lindberg, Claire E
To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.
Pustivšek, Suzana; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin
Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15-17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6-44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future.
Saunders, E B; Awad, G A
Clinical assessment of 19 male adolescent sexual offenders who had committed exhibitionism or telephone scatologia showed that the majority were maladjusted, had committed numerous sexual offenses and came from multi-problem families. Several of them appeared to be sexually deviant, although they did not meet DSM-III-R criteria for a diagnosis of paraphilia. Anti-social traits, sexual deviance in the family, homosexual conflicts, repressed sexuality and sexual deviance were considered to be contributory factors.
Gao, Yidian; Chen, Haiyan; Jia, Huiqiao; Ming, Qingsen; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao
Abnormalities in neural feedback-processing systems may play a role in the development of dysfunctional behavior in individuals diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD). The present study investigated the relation between CD adolescents and feedback processing by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in a single outcome gambling task, which included reward valence (loss and gain) and reward magnitude (10 and 50cents) as outcomes. N2 and P3 components have been established as effective indicators in studies of behavioral disinhibition, reward processing, and decision-making. Eighteen adolescent males (age: 13-17years) diagnosed with CD and 19 healthy age-matched male controls were recruited. Compared to healthy controls, CD individuals exhibited reduced N2 amplitudes in response to loss condition. There was also a significant decreased P3 amplitude in all conditions. The amplitudes of P3 were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups, and the amplitudes of N2 were positively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups. Our findings suggest that adolescents with CD may be impaired in neural sensitivity feedback and the processing of environmental cues compared to healthy controls. Moreover, N2 and P3 may be reliable indices to detect different sensitivity in reward and punishment feedback processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda
The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.
Abdulhai, Sophia A; Glenn, Ian C; Ponsky, Todd A
Indirect inguinal hernias are the most commonly incarcerated hernias in children, with a higher incidence in low birth weight and premature infants. Contralateral groin exploration to evaluate for a patent processus vaginalis or subclinical hernia is controversial, given that most never progress to clinical hernias. Most indirect inguinal hernias can be reduced nonoperatively. It is recommended to repair them in a timely fashion, even in premature infants. Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair is considered a safe and effective alternative to conventional open herniorrhaphy. Other incarcerated pediatric hernias are extremely rare and may be managed effectively with laparoscopy. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.
The current study examined a model of desensitization to community violence exposure—the pathologic adaptation model—in male adolescents of color. The current study included 285 African American (61%) and Latino (39%) male adolescents (W1 M age = 12.41) from the Chicago Youth Development Study to examine the longitudinal associations between community violence exposure, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior. Consistent with the pathologic adaptation model, results indicated a linear, positive association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence, as well as a curvilinear association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and depressive symptoms in late adolescence, suggesting emotional desensitization. Further, these effects were specific to cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and not somatic symptoms. Emotional desensitization outcomes, as assessed by depressive symptoms, can occur in male adolescents of color exposed to community violence and these effects extend from middle adolescence to late adolescence. PMID:27653968
Sandel, Aaron A; Reddy, Rachna B; Mitani, John C
Dominance hierarchies are a prominent feature of the lives of many primate species. These hierarchies have important fitness consequences, as high rank is often positively correlated with reproduction. Although adult male chimpanzees strive for status to gain fitness benefits, the development of dominance relationships is not well understood. While two prior studies found that adolescent males do not display dominance relationships with peers, additional research at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda, indicates that adolescents there form a linear dominance hierarchy. These conflicting findings could reflect different patterns of rank acquisition across sites. An alternate possibility arises from a recent re-evaluation of age estimates at Ngogo and suggests that the report describing decided dominance relationships between adolescent males may have been due to the accidental inclusion of young adult males in the sample. To investigate these issues, we conducted a study of 23 adolescent male chimpanzees of known age during 12 months at Ngogo. Adolescent male chimpanzees exchanged pant grunts, a formal signal of submission, only 21 times. Recipients of pant grunts were late adolescent males, ranging between 14 and 16 years old. In contrast, younger adolescent males never received pant grunts from other males. Aggression between adolescent males was also rare. Analysis of pant grunts and aggressive interactions did not produce a linear dominance hierarchy among adolescent males. These data indicate that adolescent male chimpanzees do not form decided dominance relationships with their peers and are consistent with the hypothesis that the hierarchy described previously at Ngogo resulted from inaccurate age estimates of male chimpanzees. Because dominance relationships develop before adulthood in other primates, our finding that adolescent male chimpanzees do not do so is surprising. We offer possible explanations for why this is the case and suggest future studies
Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha
`The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity.
Richards, Molly J; Peters, Marissa; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Kaul, Paritosh
To examine young men's awareness of emergency contraception (EC) and its association with their contraceptive decision-making contributions within a relationship. A convenience sample of English-speaking male patients aged 13-24 years were surveyed regarding their childbearing intentions, contraceptive awareness (including EC), perceived contraceptive knowledge, and communication about birth control with providers and within a relationship. An ethnically diverse sample of adolescent males was recruited with a mean age of 18.9 years. Most had previously been sexually active (75%) and felt it was important to avoid pregnancy (84%) and 61% reported ever having spoken to a health care provider about birth control (other than condoms), but only 42% had heard of EC. Participants who had heard of EC were more likely to have spoken to a health care provider about contraception in the past (51.5% vs. 29.8%; p = .050), to feel they should participate in contraceptive decisions in a relationship (97.4% vs. 76.5%; p = .006), and to have discussed contraception with a partner (76.9% vs. 29.2%; p contraceptive decisions within a relationship if they do not desire fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males ( N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W
This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.
Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu
A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.
Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu
A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.
Earls, Melissa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…
Wilson, Michele D.; And Others
Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…
Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie
This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…
Drew, Cathy L.
Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…
Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.
This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…
Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi; Kanters, Steve; Druyts, Eric; Toor, Kabirraaj; Muldoon, Katherine A; Farquhar, John W; Mills, Edward J
Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated "years of life lost to incarceration" for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8-1443.4). The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.
Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P
Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.
Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt
Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916
Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L
The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB.
Zehr, Mary Ann
It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…
Simmons, Charlene Wear
This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…
Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R
There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American
DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel
The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Chirdan, L B; Uba, A F; Kidmas, A T
Umbilical hernia is common in children. Complications from umbilical hernias are thought to be rare and the natural history is spontaneous closure within 5 years. A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of a series of 23 children who presented with incarcerated umbilical hernias at our institution over an 8-year period. Fifty-two children with umbilical hernias were seen in the hospital over the period. Twenty-three (44.2%) had incarceration. Seventeen (32.7%) had acute incarceration while 6 (11.5%) had recurrent incarceration. There were 16 girls and 7 boys. The ages of the children with acute incarceration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 years (median 4 years), while the ages of those with recurrent incarceration ranged from 3-15 years (median 8.5 years). Incarceration occurred in hernias of more than 1.5 cm in diameter (in those whose defect size was measured). Twenty-one children (15 with acute and all six with recurrent incarceration) underwent repair of the umbilical hernia using standard methods. The parents of two children with acute incarceration declined surgery after spontaneous reduction of the hernia in one and taxis in the other. One boy had gangrenous bowel containing Meckel's diverticulum inside the sac, for which bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis was done. Operation led to disappearance of pain in all 6 children with recurrent incarceration. Superficial wound infection occurred in one child. There was no mortality. Incarcerated umbilical hernia is not as uncommon as thought. Active observation of children with umbilical hernia is necessary to prevent morbidity from incarceration.
Couch, Elizabeth T.; Darius, Ellen F.; Walsh, Margaret M.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.
Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of…
Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien
Peer influence has a profound impact on decision-making in typically developing adolescents. In this study, we examined to what extent adolescent males (age 11-17 years; N = 144) with and without autism (ASD) were influenced by peer feedback on prosocial behavior, and which factors were related to individual differences in peer feedback…
This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…
Brain germinoma presenting as a first psychotic episode in an adolescent male phone: +34-93-2275477 (Undurraga, Juan) (Undurraga, Juan) Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona - Servicio de Psiquiatria (Escalera 9, Planta 6), Calle Villarroel, 170 - 08036 - Barcelona - SPAIN (Undurraga, Juan) Department of Child and Adolescent Psychology and Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona - Barc...
Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth
Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…
Kiselica, Mark S
The purpose of this article is to describe a "male-friendly" therapeutic process with troubled adolescent boys. A male-friendly process is one in which the therapist employs a wide variety of strategies and activities that are likely to appeal to male youth and that facilitate the establishment and maintenance of rapport. The nuances of practicing a male-friendly approach are highlighted and then applied in a case study of psychotherapy with a depressed adolescent boy. The implications of this approach for redefining professional conceptions about boundaries in the client-therapist relationship and reexamining inaccurate stereotypes about the emotional lives of boys are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Al-Natour, Sahar H.
INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574
Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel
A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.
Slotboom, A.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.
In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n= 219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)
Bahrami, Nasim; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Bukowski, William M; Panarello, Bianca
The aim of this study was to identify the primary reasons why male Iranian adolescents enter into other-gender friendships. A qualitative study was conducted with a sample of 21 male adolescents recruited in public places in Tehran, Iran. Information about each boy's experiences with other-gender friends was collected via semi-structured interviews whose contents were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Five reasons were identified for engaging in other-gender friendships: (a) for the purpose of entertainment, (b) financial benefits, (c) increased popularity with peers, (d) sensation seeking and (e) sexual experiences. This study revealed that adolescent males do not follow appropriate goals for communicating with the other-gender. In many cases, these goals could endanger their own health and the health of their other-gender friends. Future researchers must focus on identifying and understanding the factors that influence an adolescent to enter into an other-gender friendship.
Gurpreet Singh Chhabra
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.
Blanchard, Ray; And Others
Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)
MacKenzie, Doris Layton; And Others
Reviews Louisiana's shock incarceration program used as alternative to standard prison incarceration. Program involves short period of imprisonment in a "boot camp" type atmosphere followed by three phases of intensive parole supervision. Examines the program in regard to its rehabilitative potential and compares program elements to…
Rikke Holm Bramsen
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5. Results: Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions: Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth.
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth.
Bos, H.; Goldberg, N.; van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.
This article focuses on the influence of male role models on the lives of adolescents (N = 78) in the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. Half of the adolescents had male role models; those with and those without male role models had similar scores on the feminine and masculine scales
Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel
Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.
Anna R Haskins
Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratiﬁcation, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age ﬁve is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.
Haskins, Anna R
Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.
Richmond, Tracy K; Subramanian, S V
To determine whether school context influences the BMI of adolescent males and females. Our sample was 17,007 adolescents (aged 12-19) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We used gender-stratified multilevel modeling to examine the contribution of schools to the overall variance in adolescent BMIs, calculated from self-reported weight and height. We then examined the associations of individual attributes with BMI after controlling for the average BMI of the school and the association of two school-level variables with BMI. Participants attended schools that were segregated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In females, when controlling only for individual-level attributes, individual household income was inversely associated (beta = -0.043, P = 0.01) while Hispanic (beta = 0.89, P school racial/ethnic makeup and the school level median household income, the relationship between individual race/ethnicity and BMI was attenuated in both male and female adolescents. Higher school level median household income was associated with lower individual BMIs in adolescent girls (gamma = -0.37, P school. Male and female adolescents attending schools with higher median household incomes have on average lower BMIs. Resources available to or cultural norms within schools may constitute critical mechanisms through which schools impact the BMI of their students.
Hock, R A; Curry, J F
The historical view of masculinity/femininity posited essentially bipolar opposites, with the presence of one set of characteristics precluding the other. More recent studies of sex-role stereotypes have defined sexual orientation within clusters of socially desirable attributes which males and females perceive as differentiating males from females. This view negates the contention that psychological sex roles are composed of bipolar opposites, and concludes that the constructs of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions rather than a single bipolar dimension. Little is known about the sex-role functioning of adolescents, yet it is during adolescence that qualitative shifts occur in interpersonal relationships and concurrent changes occur in cognitive functioning, with adolescents shifting toward hypothetical thinking and abstract ideal notions. In view of these changes, much can be learned about adult functioning by studying the sex-role perceptions of adolescents related to familial and social variables. This study examines the sex-role perceptions that adolescents hold of fathers, mothers, ideal males, ideal females, and selves. Differences exist between male and female adolescents, and significant linkages exist between sex-role identification and academic achievement.
Landis, Kathryn; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Gaydos, Laura M
Vaccination is a safe and effective way to prevent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cancers; however, HPV vaccine uptake remains low in the US. After the 2011 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation for routine HPV vaccination of adolescent males, several studies have examined predictors for initiating the vaccine series in this population of interest, particularly with regard to provider recommendations. This study examined racial and ethnic differences for HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation in male adolescents. Based on prior HPV vaccine uptake estimates and healthcare utilization data, we hypothesized that minority adolescents would be more likely to initiate HPV vaccines, but less likely to receive a provider recommendation compared to white counterparts. We analyzed the 2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen), which included 10,753 male adolescents with provider-verified vaccination data in 50 US states, using multivariate logistic regression models to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in HPV vaccine initiation and provider recommendation. The odds of HPV vaccine initiation were 76 percent higher for Hispanic adolescents and 43 percent higher for non-Hispanic Other or Multiple race adolescents compared to white adolescents. Approximately half of parents reported receiving a provider recommendation for vaccination, with no significant difference in the odds of receiving a provider recommendation across racial/ethnic groups. Despite similar frequency of recommendations across racial and ethnic groups, male adolescents who are racial/ethnic minorities are more likely to initiate vaccination. Future research should focus on developing tailored interventions to increase HPV vaccine receipt among males of all racial/ethnic groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delinquent youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits may have a unique social-cognitive processing pattern that perpetuates their violent behavior. The current study examined the association between CU traits and the endorsement of deviant social goals during peer conflicts as well as expectancies and values regarding victim suffering following aggression. Participants included 156 (84 males, 72 females) adjudicated juveniles residing at two gender-specific residential facilities in an urban city within the southeastern United States. The association between CU traits and participants' ratings of their social goals in hypothetic conflict situations and outcome expectancies/values regarding victim suffering were examined after controlling for prior violence, intelligence, and demographic covariates. CU traits were associated with an increased endorsement of social goals associated with revenge, dominance, and forced respect in social conflict situations. Adjudicated youth with CU traits were also less likely to endorse conflict avoidance and friendship building as important social goals when provoked by peers. There was no association between CU traits and expectations for victim suffering following aggression, but CU traits were significantly associated with lower levels of concern about victim suffering. These findings were significant after controlling for participants' prior history of violence, intelligence, and demographic covariates. Adjudicated youth with CU traits tend to emphasize power-oriented goals when provoked by peers and have little interest in rectifying social conflicts to build potential friendships with others. Juveniles with CU traits seem to be aware that their aggressive behavior will cause others to suffer, but they do not care when it does. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Full Text Available The paper examines the antecedents of criminal behavior through the process of retrospective family and life course histories in which incarcerated male inmates and male university students are compared. The main focus is on early childhood experiences and parental behaviors. The study data derive from intensive, face-to-face interviews with 38 men incarcerated for violent offences and a matched group of 66 men attending university at the same time. The interviews focus on the relative importance of adverse childhood experiences and linkages with adolescence. The interviews demonstrated that nearly four-fifths of the inmates experienced toxic family environments by the time they reached adolescence, as compared with only two of the university students. Qualitative analyses flesh out the major themes, experiences, and “risk factors” that helped shape the trajectories of both groups of men. The socially toxic family environments and sub-optimal parenting practices that most inmates endured produced long-term, adverse effects in reducing their capacities for resilience, forging healthy relationships with their peers, and remaining in school.
Dossanova, ?ssem; Lozovoy, Vasiliy; Wood, Dan; ??nekenova, ?enzhekyz; Botabayeva, ?igul; Dossanov, Bolatbek; Lozovaya, Yelena; ?marov, ?algat
The reproductive system of adolescents is exposed to a high risk of anomalies. In spite of the successes of surgical correction, the percentage of postoperative complications remains high. Special attention should be paid to circumcision, which is regarded as a religious tradition in many countries and carried out with sanitary violations. This…
Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth
Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…
Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr
The cultural disconnect between black males and the school environment has been correlated with poor academic achievement and high discipline rates for Black males. Instructional strategies that draw upon the learner?s cultural background hold promise as one means for intervention. This paper addresses the social skills needs of black adolescent…
Discusses rarity of anorexia nervosa among male population with primary reference to differences from female symptomatology. Presents case which implies that anorexia nervosa in the male may be a marker for other more severe pathology. Presents findings which suggest a diagnostic strategy based on familial, behavioral, environmental, educational,…
Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon
Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511
Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.; Paduch, Darius A.
Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtain...
Vaca, Federico E.; Anderson, Craig L.
The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections...
Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon
In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13–17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 paren...
Napolitano, Susan; Brown, Lillian G.
Incarcerated male murderers manifested consistent changes in attitudes toward treatment efficacy and their culpability as function of participating in 12-week anger management groups. Four qualitatively different stages were evident during treatment as prisoners' resistive responses were actively encouraged: initial apathy, emerging interest in…
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.
Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study evaluating sexual maturation of male patients with sickle cell anaemia and those .... statistical location were calculated for continuous data and ..... Butterworth's Medical Dictionary.
Adeniran, Abiodun S; Ijaiya, Munirdeen A; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Balogun, Olayinka R; Adesina, Kikelomo T; Olatinwo, Abdul Waheed O; Olarinoye, Adebunmi O; Adeniran, Peace I
The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents. Statistical analysis was with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Of 1 536 male adolescents (mean age 15.09 (standard deviation 1.84) years, range 14 - 19), 1 184 (77.1%) were aware of FGM/C, 514 (33.5%) supported female circumcision, 362 (23.6%) would circumcise their future daughters, 420 (27.3%) were of the opinion that FGM/C had benefits, mostly as a necessity for womanhood (109, 7.1%), and 627 (40.8%) perceived it as wickedness against females; 546 (35.5%) were aware of efforts to eradicate FGM/C, and 42.2% recommended education as the most important intervention to achieve this. Education and involvement in advocacy may transform male adolescents into agents for eradication of FGM/C.
Lee, Courtland C.
This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…
Nederlof, E; Van der Ham, J M; Dingemans, P M J A; Oei, T I
The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to measure pathological personality dimensions, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess childhood maltreatment. The five maltreatment subtypes were found to be differentially and uniquely related to the normal and pathological personality dimensions in juvenile delinquents. The association between the abusive subtypes and Emotional Dysregulation depended on the co-occurrence of neglect. It was concluded that subtypes of maltreatment are distinctively related to dimensions of personality and personality pathology, possibly due to specific gene-environment interactions. Further research on this interplay is needed to be able to recognize genetic vulnerability. Early identification of children at risk could aid to limit the long-term consequences of maltreatment.
Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of contraceptive intention in adolescent males in Taiwan. It used a cross-sectional design and a sample of 1,000 vocational high school male students to determine the potential factors associated with contraceptive intention. Data were collected on an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire, including personal background variables, prior sexual experience, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive attitude, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' contraceptive behavior, perception of support from significant others, and parental-adolescent communication about contraception. A total of 230 participants (23% had prior sexual experience, 13% (30 of whom reported being involved in their girlfriends' pregnancies. Of the participants, 45% recognized the use of condoms as the most favorable contraceptive method for future sexual intercourse. Second to condom use, the combination of the calendar method and condom use was also popular (13.1%. Multiple stepwise regression indicated that better contraceptive attitudes, higher contraceptive self-efficacy, no prior sexual experience, more perception of peers' contraceptive behavior, and higher perception of support from significant others were predictors of higher contraceptive intention. The above predicting factors explained 31.9% of the total variance for contraceptive intention among adolescents. These results provide health professionals with important information to understand the reality adolescents encounter and to design effective contraceptive programs for male adolescents.
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
Clark, Eddie, Jr.
African American adolescent males are significantly more likely than their Caucasian peers to receive a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. In contrast, their Caucasian peers are more often diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Discrepancies in the way diagnosis is made cause more African American adolescent males to be classified …
van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.
This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents
Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others
Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…
Chandy, Joseph M.; Blum, Robert Wm.; Resnick, Michael D.
Examined the suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, delinquent behaviors, substance use, and school performance of male teenagers (N=370) with a reported history of sexual abuse. Results show that, except for school performance, this group had higher rates of adverse correlates in the above areas than did a control…
Full Text Available Social class, gender, and migration status notably influence social inequalities in the German educational system. Empirical studies reveal that especially male students from Turkish immigrant families belong to the most disadvantaged group with regard to educational opportunities. In order to identify causes for this we reconstruct and contrast biographies of successful and less successful educational careers of male adolescents from Turkish immigrant families. Our theoretical framework is based on the assumption that educational careers depend decisively on the way youths master the twofold challenge connected with adolescence and migration. Adolescent detachment processes are conceived as intergenerational occurrences (cf. King 2002, in which the quality of intergenerational family relationships as well as the biographical treatment of a particular migration project on the part of the parents play a significant role.
Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Condon, John T.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.
Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a…
Howerton, D. Lynn; And Others
The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of at-risk adolescent black males was studied for 42 students in grades 6, 7, and 8. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to provide global measures of self-esteem. School grades and scores from the Stanford Achievement Test battery were used to measure academic…
Harris, Allyssa L; Sutherland, Melissa A; Hutchinson, M Katherine
This study examined the influence of parental marital status, parent-child sexual communication, parent-child closeness on the HIV-related knowledge, safer-sex intentions, and behaviors of late adolescent urban African American males. The study employed a cross-sectional design with retrospective recall of salient parental influences and behaviors. Data were collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaire from 134 late adolescent African American males, 18 to 22 years of age, recruited from urban communities in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations, paired t tests, and regression modeling. Young men reported greater amounts of sexual communication with mothers than fathers (p fathers (p permissive sexual attitudes (p father-son communication and develop strategies to help parents communicate effectively with sons. Evidence has shown that African American adolescent males are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Understanding the sexual risk communication between African American adolescent males and their parents is important to developing strategies in reducing sexual risk behavior. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok
Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been associated with many negative health outcomes, especially for youth; however, few studies have examined the physiological parameters and personality features related to this addiction. This study aimed to identify differences in autonomic functions and distressed (type D) personality traits among Korean adolescent males with and without IGA. In a cross-sectional study, 68 adolescent males were recruited in a Korean city using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For each subject, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were measured as autonomic functions and questionnaires were used to identify IGA and type D personality traits. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t tests, χ 2 tests, and Pearson's correlation. Most HRV parameters significantly differed between the IGA and non-IGA groups (all p gaming was related to alterations in autonomic functions and distressed personality traits in male adolescents. These findings provide further understanding of the IGA phenomenon and highlight the need for interventions that address male adolescents with IGA.
Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan
Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…
Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.
One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…
Pruden, Manning; Kerkhoff, Shea N.; Spires, Hiller A.; Lester, James
The aim of this study was to explore how "Narrative Theatre," a narrative-centered digital learning environment, supported the writing processes of 3 struggling adolescent male writers. We utilized a multicase study approach to capture 3 sixth-grade participants' experiences with the digital learning environment before, during, and after…
Liddell, T. Michael; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson
This study assessed the impact of a school-based group intervention, "The Council for Boys and Young Men," specifically designed for adolescent males. The participants who attended an alternative school in a metropolitan area were randomly assigned to the intervention or to waitlist control groups. Measures assessed self-esteem, future…
Joe, Sean; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Banks, Andrae
We reviewed the controlled studies that report outcome findings for Black adolescent males 24 years of age and younger at risk of suicide. Our review identified 48 articles published from 2000 to 2015, 33 that met our initial criteria for full-text articles review, resulting in 6 that met all inclusion criteria. We sought to understand what works…
Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposureTy T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni11Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort
Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S
Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.
Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P
The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.
Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, E S; Abd El-Moneim, S
Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2. The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program.
Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G
To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Couch, Elizabeth T; Darius, Ellen F; Walsh, Margaret M; Chaffee, Benjamin W
Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools. ST users were asked about their experiences and perceptions related to product characteristics. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a general inductive approach. Participants associated flavored ST with appealing non-tobacco products, such as chewing gum and alcohol. Availability of different varieties and flavors stimulated interest and curiosity in sampling or switching between ST products. Time-limited promotional flavors and packaging also enhanced product appeal. Adolescent ST users preferred certain brands based on perceived brand features and perceived nicotine content, associating higher-strength brands as better suited for experienced ST users. Brand preferences frequently reflected perceived ST brand popularity within peer groups. Based on these observations, potential ST regulation and health education campaigns to address misconceptions about ST characteristics could influence adolescents' ST-related perceptions and reduce ST use among this vulnerable population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon
In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.
Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.
Klosky, James L; Flynn, Jessica S; Lehmann, Vicky; Russell, Kathryn M; Wang, Fang; Hardin, Robin N; Eddinger, Jasmine R; Zhang, Hui; Schenck, Lauren A-M; Schover, Leslie R
To investigate the influence of parental sociodemographic, communication, and psychological factors on sperm collection attempts among at-risk adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. Prospective, single group, observational study design. Pediatric oncology centers. Parents (N = 144) of 122 newly diagnosed adolescent males at increased risk for infertility secondary to cancer therapy. Survey-based assessment of parent factors associated with adolescent collection attempts. Attempt of manual collection of sperm. Parental recommendation to bank sperm (odds ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-11.76) and perceived self-efficacy to facilitate banking (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.41) were associated with an increased likelihood of making a collection attempt. Parental recommendation to bank is a critical influence for sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer. These findings highlight the importance of effective communication between parents, patients, and health-care teams when discussing preservation options. Parent perceptions of their ability to facilitate sperm banking at the time of diagnosis should also be targeted in future interventions. NCT01152268. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando
From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.
Izugbara, Chimaraoke Otutubikey; Nwabuawele Modo, Felicia
Drawing on interview data from rural Nigeria, the article explores male youth perceptions of the risks and benefits of multiple sexual partnerships. Participants associated having multiple sexual partners with several harmful health and nonhealth outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections, and frequently confirmed that the practice also bolsters their sense of maleness and boosts their acceptance and ranking among peers. Young males' involvement in multiple sexual partnerships should not be seen as always consequent on their ignorance of and/or indifference to the risks inherent in the behavior. It could also result from the integrality of the behavior to the social processes through which male youths validate their masculinity, mark their transition from boyhood to malehood, and configure their identities to gain acceptance into a local male peer community. Sexuality education curricula that ignore adolescents' understandings of the benefits of their sexual practices may not deliver expected objectives.
Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Khader, Yousef S; Shah, Smita; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Gallagher, Robyn
Arabic male adolescents have a high smoking prevalence. Introduction of "Class smoke-free" pledges have been successful amongst European adolescents but have not been evaluated using objective valid measures. We tested the impact of adding a smoke free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma and smoking prevention program on breath carbon monoxide level (BCO) in male high-school students in Jordan. We enrolled male students from four high-schools in Irbid, Jordan. Schools were randomly assigned to receive either TAJ (Triple A in Jordan, n = 218) or TAJ-Plus (with added class smoke-free pledge, n = 215). We hypothesized that students receiving TAJ-Plus would have greater reduction in BCO levels than those only receiving the TAJ intervention. Asthma and smoking status were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Smoking outcomes were collected using a BCO Monitor. Both groups had significant reductions in BCO levels post-intervention (p smoking status (p = .085), asthma status (p = .602), or a combination of the two (p = .702). An added smoke-free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma education program appears to be a promising approach to motivate adolescents to abstain from smoking in Jordan. Future research is required to determine if these results can be extended to Jordanian adolescent females. A commitment by students via a "class smoke-free" pledge can be an added incentive to motivate adolescents in Arabic-speaking countries to abstain from smoking. Social influence approaches in schools can be useful in countering the aggressive tobacco marketing campaigns targeting Jordanian and other Arabic-speaking youth. The combination of "class smoke-free" pledges and an evidence-based peer-led asthma and smoking education can be implemented in schools to influence adolescents with asthma to abstain from smoking.
DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance
During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…
Varnier, Giulia Camilla; Sebire, Neil; Christov, Georgi; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare but serious small vessel vasculitis with heterogeneous clinical presentation ranging from mainly localised disease with a chronic course, to a florid, acute small vessel vasculitic form characterised by severe pulmonary haemorrhage and/or rapidly progressive vasculitis or other severe systemic vasculitic manifestations. Cardiac involvement is, however, uncommon in the paediatric population. We report a case of a 16-year-old male who presented with peripheral gangrene and vegetation with unusual location on the supporting apparatus of the tricuspid valve, initially considered to have infective endocarditis but ultimately diagnosed with GPA. We provide an overview of the limited literature relating to cardiac involvement in GPA, and the diagnostic challenge relating to infective endocarditis in this context, especially focusing on the interpretation of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and the characteristic clinical features to identify in order to promptly recognise GPA, since timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for this potentially life-threatening condition.
Carmeli, Eli; Klein, Neomy; Sohn, Mordechai
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a correlation between social skills and ADHD among adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). The study concerns the specific cognitive and adaptive skills of adolescents dually diagnosed with mild intellectual disabilities and comorbid pathology as ADHD. Three age-and IQ-match groups (males, n = 12 in each group) were investigated. Group I--composed of adolescent diagnosed with mild ID, group II--adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, and group III--adolescents diagnosed with ID and ADHD. The instruments used in the study were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC, according to the chronological age of the subjects) and the short version of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). Results confirm that comorbidity is a factor differentiating. ADHD strongly increased the impairment of social skills, while behavioral disorders were less damaging in ID performance. The WISC and DBC instruments should be used with confidence in clinical and service settings, to allow a better assessment of co-occurrence morbidity in adolescents with ID. The interactions between intellectual disability and psychopathology behavior highlight the need to plan a more accurate diagnosis and appropriate rehabilitative intervention program, essential for improving the quality of life of the ID population.
Giedd Jay N
Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.
Humphreys, Paul; Paxton, Susan J
Research examining the impact on adolescent boys of exposure to muscular, athletic, idealised male images has been limited. This research had two aims (i) to investigate the mean effect on state body satisfaction and mood of exposure to idealised male images in adolescent boys, and, (ii) to identify individual attributes that predicted change in state body satisfaction, depression and anxiety following image exposure. One hundred and six boys (mean age=15.6 years) completed a self-report questionnaire on body image attitudes and psychological status. One week later, participants were divided into two groups, one that viewed idealised male images (experimental condition) while the other viewed non-figure advertising images (control condition). Three body satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and a depression and anxiety VAS were completed immediately prior to and following image exposure. In the experimental compared to control condition, there were no significant changes on Want Toned Body, Want to Change Body Shape, Depression and Anxiety VAS following image exposure. However, there was a significant improvement in Like Body Shape VAS. In the experimental group, high internalisation of the muscular, athletic ideal predicted more negative response to viewing images on the body image and Depression VAS. Prior body dissatisfaction significantly predicted negative response to Body Shape Liking and Anxiety VAS. While on average, adolescent boys in this research were not negatively affected by exposure to idealised male images, reaction to exposure is dependent on individual attributes.
Saxena, Vartika; Saxena, Yogesh; Kishore, Gaurav; Kumar, Pratap
Adolescent boys are recognized as a vulnerable group to substance abuse. The present study has the objective to study the biosocial profile and habit pattern of substance abusers. The study was conducted on 511 male adolescents, students of 10 th to 12 th class from the four intermediate schools of the Doiwala block of Dehradun district. 46.9% students accepted substance abuse. In 75.5% cases, friends were providing the substances. 80.2% substance abusers expressed their desire to quit the habit. The study is indicative of need for developing a supportive environment involving both parents and teachers so that adolescent can decide and sustain with the right choices for healthy life.
Tertia D Purves-Tyson
Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen
Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide
Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä
The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to 19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995-2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents or near relatives than the
Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä
Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents
Hirschler, Valeria; Meroño, Tomas; Maccallini, Gustavo; Gomez Rosso, Leonardo; Aranda, Claudio; Brites, Fernando
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been proposed to be associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Increased CETP activity was previously reported in obese adults, although its association with lifestyle behaviors has not been assessed in healthy adolescents. We undertook this study to determine the association between CETP activity and overweight/obesity, insulin resistance markers, components of the metabolic syndrome and lifestyle behaviors in healthy adolescent males. Data were collected from 164 adolescents from an amateur rugby club. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), Tanner stages, lipids, glucose, insulin and CETP activity were measured. Questionnaires for daily intake of breakfast, sweet drinks, milk, and hours of TV watching were completed. About 26% of the adolescents were obese and 23% overweight. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.7%. CETP activity was higher in obese than in normal and overweight adolescents (174 ± 35, 141 ± 30, and 149 ± 38%/ml/min, respectively; p 2 h/day (r = 0.17; p 0.02), and milk intake >3 glasses/day (r = 0.16; p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, TV watching >2 h/day, milk intake >3 glasses/day and BMI were significant independent predictors for CETP (R(2) = 0.41). Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as TV watching >2 h daily and milk intake higher than three glasses per day and the increase in BMI were shown to be closely associated with high CETP activity in apparently healthy adolescent males. Future longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif
A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronu......A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis...... of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g...
Reiner, Iris; Tibubos, Ana N; Hardt, Jochen; Müller, Kai; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E
Problematic internet use may lead to serious psychosocial dysfunction. Recent studies have found comparable prevalence in both male and female adolescents. We pursue the neglected questions how male and female adolescents differ regarding their patterns of internet use and how gender, peer attachment and patterns of use are related to pathological internet use. In 2410 adolescents (1307 girls and 1103 boys) aged 12-18 years from different types of school we assessed peer attachment, frequency and use of eight specific applications and indicators of pathological internet use. Three patterns of internet use, 'social'; 'sex and games" and 'functional' were identified and connections between variables were modeled by ordered sequences of regression. We found that problematic internet use-sex and games as well as social usage-was more prevalent in boys. Insecure peer attachment predicted problematic internet use in both sexes. Also, excessive usage of internet games and sex mediated the influence of peer attachment insecurity on problematic internet use, but only for boys. Our study identified that adolescents with insecure peer attachment are at higher risk for problematic internet use. With regard to specific types of internet use, the consumption of online games and sex was identified as risk factor in boys with increasing age. Further studies are needed to understand and possibly subgroup problematic internet use behavior in girls. Our findings suggest that increasing the quality of peer relationships may be promising approach in the prevention and treatment of problematic internet use.
Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F
Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.
Rice, Timothy R; Shah, Lesha D; Trelles, Pilar; Lin, Shih-Ku; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund; Walther, Andreas; Sher, Leo
Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health. These experts were select members of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry's Task Force on Men's Mental Health. They convened to present two symposia on the topic of men's mental health at the 13th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry (WCBP) in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2017. In these works, a special focus is paid to addictive disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, aggression, and brain development. Collectively, the authors present an argument for the merits of a male-specific model of mental health care to advance the overall well-being of this population. Men's mental health should be recognized as a social issue as much as a medical issue, with special attention paid to problems such as unemployment, familial disruption, and substance abuse. These problems, and especially those of major societal impact including violence and suicide which are much more frequently the product of male youth and men, should have more male-tailored options for service provision that respond to men's mental health needs.
Wildeman, Christopher; Western, Bruce
Since the mid-1970s the U.S. imprisonment rate has increased roughly fivefold. As Christopher Wildeman and Bruce Western explain, the effects of this sea change in the imprisonment rate--commonly called mass imprisonment or the prison boom--have been concentrated among those most likely to form fragile families: poor and minority men with little schooling. Imprisonment diminishes the earnings of adult men, compromises their health, reduces familial resources, and contributes to family breakup. It also adds to the deficits of poor children, thus ensuring that the effects of imprisonment on inequality are transferred intergenerationally. Perversely, incarceration has its most corrosive effects on families whose fathers were involved in neither domestic violence nor violent crime before being imprisoned. Because having a parent go to prison is now so common for poor, minority children and so negatively affects them, the authors argue that mass imprisonment may increase future racial and class inequality--and may even lead to more crime in the long-term, thereby undoing any benefits of the prison boom. U.S. crime policy has thus, in the name of public safety, produced more vulnerable families and reduced the life chances of their children. Wildeman and Western advocate several policy reforms, such as limiting prison time for drug offenders and for parolees who violate the technical conditions of their parole, reconsidering sentence enhancements for repeat offenders, and expanding supports for prisoners and ex-prisoners. But Wildeman and Western argue that criminal justice reform alone will not solve the problems of school failure, joblessness, untreated addiction, and mental illness that pave the way to prison. In fact, focusing solely on criminal justice reforms would repeat the mistakes the nation made during the prison boom: trying to solve deep social problems with criminal justice policies. Addressing those broad problems, they say, requires a greater social
Reigeluth, Christopher S; Pollastri, Alisha R; Cardemil, Esteban V; Addis, Michael E
Decades of masculinity research have concluded that society places higher demands on males to adhere to norms for low emotional expression; yet, countless studies find that emotional expression is integral to well-being. Unfortunately, this contradiction places boys and men in a tenuous position as they must navigate a bombardment of societal messages about the importance of emotional stoicism and invincibility. For urban adolescents, the situation is more complicated as they encounter environmental stressors that place greater emphasis on projecting a tough façade. Thus, our primary aim was to assess to what degree dyads of close adolescent male friends from urban, low-income neighborhoods are able to engage in emotional expression and response and to explore some of the underlying mechanisms and interpersonal processes. Qualitative findings from our sample suggest that urban boys exhibit a wide range of behaviors when participating in dyadic emotional disclosure and response, including being highly emotionally expressive and supportive in the context of close male friendship. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Lalla, Osama
The aim of this study was to highlight the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes among male adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 731 male students aged 15-18 years from five Emirates of the UAE. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in students. The findings revealed that the proportion of disordered eating attitudes in the UAE was relatively high compared with many developing and developed countries and ranged from 33.1% to 49.1%. Moreover, students living in the Emirates of Dubai and Al-Fujairah have double the risk of having disordered eating attitudes compared with students living in the other Emirates. The results suggest the need for screening adolescents for eating disorders, as well as for increased awareness and understanding of eating disorders and their associated risk factors in all male adolescents in the UAE. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. A qualitative study using the thematic analysis approach was conducted. Data were collected by semi-structured, digitally recorded interviews from 32 male adolescents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and after collecting the data, the thematic analysis process was started and conducted in six phases. After data collection, the interview texts were transcribed, and approximately 800 initial codes were extracted. The initial codes were reevaluated to yield 48 main themes. Hence, the final thematic map was created as having 5 overarching themes and 12 subthemes, showing that interviewees emphasized unhealthy lifestyle. The components of unhealthy lifestyle seem important to them because they consider that they could lead a healthy lifestyle through elimination of negative behaviors.
Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L
Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mehrnoosh Mohammadi; Abdollah RezaeiDehaghani; Tayebeh Mehrabi; Ali RezaeiDehaghani
Background: As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez socia...
Szobot, C. M.; Ketzer, C.; Parente, M. A.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A.
Objective: To evaluate the acute efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in Brazilian male children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: In a 4-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fix dose escalating, parallel-group trial, 36 ADHD children and adolescents were allocated to two groups: MPH (n = 19) and placebo (n = 17). Participants were…
Literacy rates among male adolescents continue to fall below those of female adolescents, and this trend shows no indication of improving (Cheung & Slavin, 2014; Gurian & Stevens, 2007; Weins, 2005; Clark, 2006; Cantrell & Carter, 2009). This study aims to examine this trend by measuring the effects of extended literacy learning…
Jong, T.R. de; Snaphaan, L.J.A.E.; Pattij, T.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.; Cools, A.R.; Olivier, B.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to treat adults, but are increasingly prescribed for adolescents. SSRIs might cause permanent changes in serotonin-related behavior in adolescents, since their serotonergic system is still developing. Male Wistar rats were treated with
Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.
Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt
A 59-year-old male with history of hepatitis C, refractory ascites requiring multiple paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement presented to the emergency department with 2 days of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 104/66 and pulse of 94. The abdomen was remarkable for distention and a tender incarcerated umbilical hernia. The skin overlying the hernia was pale with areas of necrosis. The patient immediately underwent laparotomy which was successful.
Mirzaei, Amin; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Zavareh, Mohammad Sadegh Abedzadeh; Jalilian, Mohsen; Mansourian, Morteza; Mazloomi, Sajad; Mokhtari, Neda; Mokhtari, Fariba
Every year many people around the world become infected with food-borne infections. Insufficient knowledge and skills related to food safety and hygiene are among the factors affecting the incidence of food-borne diseases, especially in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices associated with food safety and hygiene in Ilam city male adolescents. Three hundred and eighty of male adolescents aged 13 to 19 were selected randomly and entered the cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire From December 2016 to February 2017. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyse the data in SPSS software (version 19.0). The findings of the study showed a positive and significant relationship between knowledge and practices related to food safety and hygiene (r = 0.122; p = 0.018). Also, the findings showed that food safety knowledge and practice of adolescents were significantly affected by the level of their education, parental education level, parental employment status and household economic conditions, (p < 0.005). Also, the results showed that the participants generally obtained 57.74% of the knowledge score and 57.63% of practices score. The subjects had the most knowledge about food supply and storage (60%), and the highest practice was related to personal and environmental hygiene, (61.73%). The inadequacy of knowledge and performance of adolescents about food safety and hygiene shows the need for implementation of health education interventions in this area.
Eva M. Marco
Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.
Erling David Kaunang
Full Text Available Background Systematic exercise leads to increased left ventricular mass, which may be misleading in a differential diagnosis of heart disease in athletes (physiologic hypertrophy versus pathologic hypertrophy. T he cause of left ventricular hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, analytic study, from September to December 2012 in male adolescents aged 15-18 years. The case group included athletes from the Bina Taruna Football Club Manado, while the control group included non-athlete adolescents. All subjects underwent history-taking, physical examinations and further supporting examinations. Left ventricular mass was measured by cardiovascular echocardiography (Esaote Mylab 4.0 and calculated based on a formula. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass of > 134 g/m2 body surface area. Results Subjects' mean left ventricular masses were 359.69 (SD 188.4; 95%CI 283.58 to 435.81 grams in the athlete group and 173.04 (SD 50.69; 95%CI 152.56 to 103.51 grams in the non· athlete group, a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001. Ventricular hypertrophy was found 76.9% compared to 11.5% in the non-athlete group (P= 0.0001. Conclusion Left ventricular mass in athletes is bigger than in non-athletes. In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy is more cornmon in male adolescent athletes than in non-athletes.
Logan, Greig Robert Melrose; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Plank, Lindsay D; Merien, Fabrice; Schofield, Grant
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potential alternative to traditionally recommended steady state exercise for providing health benefits in adolescents, yet its dose-response relationship in this cohort remains unclear, as does its translatability to real-world, nonclinical settings. The present study adopts a novel dose-response design to investigate the effects of undertaking 8 wk of HIIT on the cardiometabolic health of low-active male adolescents. Twenty-six male adolescents (age 16 ± 1 yr), identified as low active by nonparticipation in structured sport and physical education classes, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Corresponding with their group numbers (1-5), participants completed a number of HIIT "sets," which consisted of 4 repeated bouts of 20-s near-maximal exertion interspersed with 10-s passive recovery. Participants performed two HIIT sessions and one resistance training session each week for 8 wk. Baseline and follow-up health measures consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) with an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion; body composition (including visceral fat mass, body fat, and lean tissue mass) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 from blood analysis. All health outcomes were analyzed as percentage changes, and data were modeled using a quadratic function to explore dose-response relationships. Significant improvements were observed for V˙O2peak (∼6%), body fat percentage (∼4%), visceral fat mass (∼10%), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (∼3%), but there was no clear effect of dose across groups. Low-active adolescent males performing a single HIIT set twice weekly, in addition to one resistance training session, gained meaningful improvements in fitness and body composition. Performing additional HIIT sets provided no additional improvements to those of the lowest dose in this study.
Noelle R Leonard
Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.
PATTERSON, EVELYN J.
Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics and Census Bureau, I estimate death rates of working-age prisoners and nonprisoners by sex and race. Incarceration was more detrimental to females in comparison to their male counterparts in the period covered by this study. White male prisoners had higher death rates than white males who were not in prison. Black male prisoners, however, consistently exhibited lower death rates than black male nonprisoners did. Additionally, the findings ...
Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert
Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E
Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics. © The Author(s) 2015.
Soares, Antonio Henrique Germano; Farah, Breno Quintella; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Bastos-Filho, Carmelo José Albanez; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Lima, Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes
To analyze whether the algorithm used for the heart rate variability assessment (fast Fourier transform versus autoregressive methods) influenced its association with cardiovascular risk factors in male adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1,152 male adolescents (aged 14 to 19 years). The low frequency, high frequency components (absolute numbers and normalized units), low frequency/high frequency ratio, and total power of heart rate variability parameters were obtained using the fast Fourier transform and autoregressive methods, while the adolescents were resting in a supine position. All heart rate variability parameters calculated from both methods were different (padolescentes do gênero masculino. Estudo transversal, que incluiu 1.152 adolescentes do gênero masculino (14 a 19 anos). Componentes de baixa e alta frequência (absolutos e unidades normalizadas), razão componente de baixa frequência/componente de alta frequência e poder total da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca foram obtidos em repouso, na posição supina, usando os métodos transformada rápida de Fourier e autorregressivo. Todos os parâmetros da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca para ambos os métodos foram diferentes (padolescentes masculinos, mas essas diferenças não foram clinicamente significativas.
Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S
Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N
The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.
Anderson, V; Reis, J; Stephens, Y
This report summarizes the experience of 61 female adolescents recruited through a private adolescent family planning clinic, and 183 9th through 12th-grade adolescents recruited from a private suburban high school regarding their experiences with dating relationships, sexual communication skills, and psychological status. The samples were predominantly white and middle to upper income. Perceptions of interpersonal communication skills were analyzed according to gender, clinic versus school, and history of sexual coercion. The adolescents were generally confident that they could assert their own preferences and stand up to other regarding sexual issues with the exception of the small group of high school males reporting having had experienced sexual coercion. This group (N = 20) expressed difficulty in talking to their partners about safer sex, getting their partner(s) to listen to them, or turning down alcohol or drugs prior to having sex. These boys were also more likely to report missing classes or having other kinds of trouble with school, to be concerned about use of alcohol and drugs, and about feeling unpopular. None of the female groups had this profile of communication and emotional problems. Implications for preventive education programming on interpersonal skills and sexuality are considered.
Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).
Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H
Despite the uniqueness of an incarceration experience for adolescents, there remains a shortage of research on adolescents and emerging adults who have been recently released from detention centers and are returning home during the transitional time period of "reentry". Drawing from the developmental literature, the current study uses a diverse (54% Black, 20% White, 26% Other Race) longitudinal survey of 337 male adolescents living in the United States to examine the interrelationships among crime, substance use, family conflict, and peer delinquency. A series of cross-lagged dynamic panel data models using four waves of data demonstrate that while family conflict and peer delinquency relate to increased offending and substance use, conflict in the family is a major driving force behind both future family conflict and peer delinquency. Overall, findings suggest that family conflict is an overlooked, but absolutely critical, factor in explaining deviance and deviant peer associations alike for adolescents and emerging adults who have been recently incarcerated and released.
Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav
Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.
Dale, Allyson; Lafrenière, Alexandre; De Koninck, Joseph
The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging. Limitations and suggestions for future research, including the examining of the developmental pattern of gender differences across the lifespan, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe
A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Pollack, William S
Unlike the separation-based, stereotyped views of boys' developmental movement into adulthood, this paper will argue that there are more modern and relational models, as well as multiple pathways, for young males to journey through such rites of passage. Indeed, it will be suggested and supported by both qualitative and quantitative data that the more classic models depend on a "boy code" of traumatic separation from mother and the feminine, a process that is not only negative rather than positive in its developmental trajectory, but also likely to create a premature traumatic separation, leaving boys at risk for emotional maladjustment, everyday sadness, increased incidence of depression and the potential for violence toward the self, suicide, as well as violence toward others. More-positive visions and versions of male rites of passage will be posited and described. The definition of emotional "resilience" during this significant period will be re-addressed as one of "healthy vulnerability," sustained through connection to loving adults, rather than a classic belief in stoicism and release from relational ties. Attachment theory will be brought to bear and the desperate yearnings of adolescent males not only for connection to adult mentors, but also for non-romanticized friendships with adolescent females, will be discussed. Finally, the understanding and substitution of these new, more positive, developmental pathways will be linked to the prevention of violence.
Wilson, Bianca D. M.; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M. Isabel
In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15–23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents’ management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs. PMID:20082238
Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok
The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.
Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first
Van Lith, Lynn M; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Kaufman, Michelle R; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R
Experience with providers shapes the quality of adolescent health services, including voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). This study examined the perceived quality of in-service communication and counseling during adolescent VMMC services. A postprocedure quantitative survey measuring overall satisfaction, comfort, perceived quality of in-service communication and counseling, and perceived quality of facility-level factors was administered across 14 VMMC sites in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Participants were adolescent male clients aged 10-14 years (n = 836) and 15-19 years (n = 457) and completed the survey 7 to 10 days following VMMC. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable modified Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation to account for site-level clustering. Of 10- to 14-year-olds and 15- to 19-year-olds, 97.7% and 98.7%, respectively, reported they were either satisfied or very satisfied with their VMMC counseling experience. Most were also very likely or somewhat likely (93.6% of 10- to 14-year olds and 94.7% of 15- to 19-year olds) to recommend VMMC to their peers. On a 9-point scale, the median perceived quality of in-service (counselor) communication was 9 (interquartile range [IQR], 8-9) among 15- to 19-year-olds and 8 (IQR, 7-9) among 10- to 14-year-olds. The 10- to 14-year-olds were more likely than 15- to 19-year-olds to perceive a lower quality of in-service (counselor) communication (score quality of in-service communication as high and recommend VMMC to their peers; however, many adolescents desire more discussion about key topics outlined in World Health Organization guidance.
van Holst, Ruth J; Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E
The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is relevant to the ongoing discussion on whether problematic gaming should be classified as an addictive disorder. We tested the relation between self-reported levels of problem gaming and two behavioral domains: attentional bias and response inhibition. Ninety-two male adolescents performed two attentional bias tasks (addiction-Stroop, dot-probe) and a behavioral inhibition task (go/no-go). Self-reported problem gaming was measured by the game addiction scale, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition criteria for pathological gambling and time spent on computer and/or video games. Male adolescents with higher levels of self-reported problem gaming displayed signs of error-related attentional bias to game cues. Higher levels of problem gaming were also related to more errors on response inhibition, but only when game cues were presented. These findings are in line with the findings of attentional bias reported in clinically recognized addictive disorders, such as substance dependence and pathological gambling, and contribute to the discussion on the proposed concept of "Addiction and Related Disorders" (which may include non-substance-related addictive behaviors) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chumachenko, Serhiy Y; Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J
Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right > left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches.
Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn
This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…
Reiter, Paul L.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.
US guidelines provided a permissive recommendation forHPV vaccine for males in 2009, with an updated recommendation for routine vaccination in 2011. Dataon vaccine uptake among males, however, remain sparse. We analyzed 2010–2011 data (collected mostlyprior to the recommendation for routine vaccination) from the National Immunization Survey-Teen for a nationally representative sample of adolescent males ages 13–17 (n=22,365). We examined HPV vaccine initiation( receipt of at least one doseba sed on healthcare provider records) as the primary outcome. Analyses used weighted logistic regression. HPV vaccine initiation increased from 1.4% in 2010 to 8.3% in 2011. Parents who reported receiving a healthcare provider recommendation to get their sons HPV vaccine were much more likely to have vaccinated sons (OR=19.02, 95% CI: 14.36–25.19). Initiation was also higher among sons who were Hispanic (OR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.24–2.71) or who were eligible for the Vaccines for Children program (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.01–2.31). Only31.0% of parents with unvaccinated sons indicatedtheir sons were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to receive HPV vaccine in the next year. The most common main reasons for parents not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (24.5%), not having received a provider recommendation (22.1%), and lack of knowledge (15.9%). HPV vaccination is low among adolescent males in the US, and provider recommendation for vaccination is likely keyto improv ingvaccine uptake. Given the updated recommendation for routine vaccination and the changes in health insurance coverage that are likely to follow, continued efforts are needed to monitor HPV vaccination among males. PMID:23602667
Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda
In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to
Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M
The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G
To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lalić, Hrvoje; Kalebota, Natasa; Kabalin, Milena
The aim of the study was to investigate whether some bad habits of sedentary lifestyle influence the occurrence of diagnoses in male adolescents, divided according to their environment into urban, rural and and island groups. A total of 437 male adolescents underwent physical examination and functional diagnostic tests at Occupational Medicine Clinic in Rijeka, in order to evaluate their fitness for military service. The method of physical examination and anthropologic measurements was used. The results were analyzed by the Stat Soft, Statistics 6.0 software. Pearson chi-squared-test test and correlation matrices were used. The results showed obesity to be present in a relatively high percentage of subjects from urban area (10.94%) and rural area (13.19%), whereas asthenia was more pronounced in islanders (8.69%), yielding a statistically significant between-group difference (p<0.05). In contrast to asthenia, the islanders had the lowest percentage of flatfoot, with a significant difference from the two other groups (p<0.05). Refraction errors, primarily myopia, were not influenced by the place of residence. The incidence of myopia in all three groups was slightly over 20%. Contrary to our expectation, bronchial asthma was most common in the islanders (5.43%), however, there data could not be considered representative because of the rather big rate of migration from the inland to prevent relapses of respiratory diseases. The incidence of mild kyphoscoliosis ranged from 5.55% in the subjectss from rural settings up to 11.95% in the islanders, without a statistically significant between-group difference. It is difficult to identify the causes of differences in body weight among adolescents from urban, rural and island settings. It is not so easy to criticize the former for predominantly sedentary life, watching TV, video or Internet. Physical activity cannot be readily performed in towns because of the increasing presence of pollutants in the atmosphere. The
Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors that explain differences in HPV vaccination rates for male and female adolescents and to determine self-reported barriers by parents affecting vaccination decisions. Methods: The sample included adolescents 13–17 years old with a vaccination record documented in the 2012 and 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen dataset. A logistic regression model was developed with 13 socio-demographic factors and survey year, along with significant interaction pairs with gender. Results: Subjects included 20,355 and 18,350 adolescent boys and girls, respectively. About half of the females (56% received at least one dose of HPV vaccine, compared to 28% of males. Several factors differed between males and females, including higher vaccination rates among non-Hispanic Black males and lower vaccination rates for non-Hispanic Black females compared to Whites; and a stronger association with health care provider recommendation among males. The most common parental reasons for not vaccinating their children included ‘not recommended by a health care provider’ for males (24%, and ‘unnecessary’ for females (18%. Conclusion: We found a significant gender interaction with several socio-demographic variables in predicting vaccination uptake. These gender differences may be partially an artifact of timing, because male vaccination became routine approximately five years after female vaccination. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Adolescent health, Vaccination, NIS-Teen, Gender interaction
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual
Schneider, Sophie C; Baillie, Andrew J; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was categorised in DSM-5 within the newly created 'obsessive-compulsive and related disorders' chapter, however this classification remains subject to debate. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing models of the co-occurrence of symptoms of BDD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety, and eating disorders in a community sample of adolescents, and to explore potential sex differences in these models. Self-report questionnaires assessing disorder symptoms were completed by 3149 Australian adolescents. The fit of correlated factor models was calculated separately in males and females, and measurement invariance testing compared parameters of the best-fitting model between males and females. All theoretical models of the classification of BDD had poor fit to the data. Good fit was found for a novel model where BDD symptoms formed a distinct latent factor, correlated with affective disorder and eating disorder latent factors. Metric non-invariance was found between males and females, and the majority of factor loadings differed between males and females. Correlations between some latent factors also differed by sex. Only cross-sectional data were collected, and the study did not assess a broad range of DSM-5 defined eating disorder symptoms or other disorders in the DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive and related disorders chapter. This study is the first to statistically evaluate competing models of BDD classification. The findings highlight the unique features of BDD and its associations with affective and eating disorders. Future studies examining the classification of BDD should consider developmental and sex differences in their models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Su, Huan-Huan; Ma, Xiao-Fen; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Zhuo, Fu-Zhen
To characterize interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity and their relationships with impulsive behaviour in codeine-containing cough syrup (CCS)-dependent male adolescents and young adults. We compared volumes of corpus callosum (CC) and its five subregion and voxel-mirrored homotopic functional connectivity (VMHC) in 33 CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and 38 healthy controls, group-matched for age, education and smoking status. Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS.11) was used to assess participant impulsive behaviour. Abnormal CC subregions and VMHC revealed by group comparison were extracted and correlated with impulsive behaviour and duration of CCS use. We found selective increased mid-posterior CC volume in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and detected decreased homotopic interhemispheric functional connectivity of medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Moreover, impairment of VMHC was associated with the impulsive behaviour and correlated with the duration of CCS abuse in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults. These findings reveal CC abnormalities and disruption of interhemispheric homotopic connectivity in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults, which provide a novel insight into the impact of interhemispheric disconnectivity on impulsive behaviour in substance addiction pathophysiology. • CCS-dependent individuals (patients) had selective increased volumes of mid-posterior corpus callosum • Patients had attenuated interhemispheric homotopic FC (VMHC) of bilateral orbitofrontal cortex • Impairment of VMHC correlated with impulsive behaviour in patients • Impairment of VMHC correlated with the CCS duration in patients.
Schooling, C Mary; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M
Women usually report attributes of masculinity as attractive. These are attributes are metabolically expensive. We examined the trade off of a key attribute of masculinity, muscularity, proxied by recalled adolescence build, with lifetime reproductive success in the developing country setting of Southern China. We used poisson multivariable regression in 19,168 older (≥ 50 years) Chinese from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (phases 2 and 3) to examine the sex-stratified, adjusted associations of recalled adolescent relative weight (light (n = 6730), average (n = 9344), and heavy (n = 3094)) with number of offspring. Among men, recalled heavy adolescent weight compared with light was associated with an incident rate ratio for offspring of 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.13) adjusted for age. This estimate was unchanged by adjustment for life course socio-economic position. There was no such association in women. Male physical attractiveness, possibly representing levels of testosterone, was rewarded by lifetime reproductive success, despite potential costs. Socio-economic development may facilitate an inevitable move toward environmentally driven higher levels of testosterone with corresponding public health implications for any conditions or societal attributes driven by testosterone. Further investigation is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C
Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.
East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen
This paper is a report of a literature review to explore issues influencing condom use in heterosexual adolescents and young people. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major international health issue and adolescents and young people are particularly vulnerable. Efforts to address the rapid spread of STIs have largely focused on promoting the use of condoms as a protective 'safer sex' measure. However, use of the male condom is still inconsistent and the incidence of STIs continues to increase. A search of the literature using EBSCO Host databases was undertaken in 2006, with a focus on women, young people, condoms and STIs. Papers published in English from 1992 to 2006 were sought. Only research papers are included in this review. Factors impeding decisions to use protection by young people include lack of knowledge about prevalence of STIs, ambiguity around contraception and safer sex practices, and the difficulty faced by young women in particular in negotiating safer sex. The notion of romantic love confounds the assessment of risk and can render young people, particularly young women, ineffective in negotiating safer sex practices. Adolescents and young adults are particularly vulnerable in relation to STIs. There is a need to ensure that accurate messages are delivered about safer sex and contraception to this very vulnerable group. Furthermore, it is important to recognize that romantic love comprises strong emotions that have a role in decision-making and options for reducing personal-health risk during sexual activity.
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Gibson, Suzanne Semivan; Wilkins, Jonathan
African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) were used to assess the adolescents' improvement in their skills in reading and mathematics. After the end of the two-year program, initial results showed that the adolescents had increased their daily attendance, decreased discipline referrals, and had no suspensions or expulsions. These results also indicated that although the students entered the program at different skill levels, they were assessed to have the ability to function at their appropriate grade level. Their average improvement in basic skills was at least two grade levels. Implications drawn from the findings include: (a) there is a need to emphasize appropriate assessment prior to beginning a skill improvement program; (b) a need to emphasize the use of individualized learning plans and tutors; and (c) a need to further investigate the role of assessment and intervention in after-school programming in order to close the achievement gap.
Wang, Xia; Gao, Xingli; He, Bingnan; Zhu, Jiawei; Lou, Huihui; Hu, Qinglian; Jin, Yuanxiang; Fu, Zhengwei
Bifenthrin (BF) is an important synthetic pyrethroid. Previous studies have demonstrated that cis-BF exhibits toxic effects on development, the neurological, reproductive and endocrine system. In this study, we evaluated the immunotoxicity caused by cis-BF in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were exposed orally to 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks. The results showed that body weight, spleen weight, and splenic cellularity decreased in mice exposed to 20 mg/kg/d cis-BF. Additionally, we found that the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and TNF-α, in peritoneal macrophages, the spleen, and the thymus were inhibited in the cis-BF-treated groups. Moreover, MTT assays demonstrated that cis-BF inhibited splenocyte proliferation stimulated by LPS or Con A, as well as the secretion of IFN-γ on Con A stimulation. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that exposure to cis-BF has the potential to induce immunotoxicity in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel
The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36 took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others.
Li, Li; Kang, Yun-Xiao; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Li, Ying-Kun; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Cui, Hui-Xian; Shi, Ge-Ming
Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Because androgen regulates dopaminergic system in the brain, it could be hypothesized that finasteride may inhibit dopaminergic system. The present study therefore investigates the effects of finasteride in adolescent and early developmental rats on dopaminergic system, including contents of dopamine and its metabolites (dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid) and tyrosine hydroxylase expressions both at gene and protein levels. Meanwhile, open-field behaviors of the rats are examined because of the regulatory effect of dopaminergic system on the behaviors. Open-field behaviors were evaluated by exploratory and motor behaviors. Dopamine and its metabolites were assayed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real-time qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. It was found that in adolescent male rats, administration of finasteride at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days dose dependently inhibited open-field behaviors, reduced contents of dopamine and its metabolites in frontal cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and down-regulated tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, there was no significant change of these parameters in early developmental rats after finasteride treatment. These results suggest that finasteride inhibits dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, and imply finasteride as a potential therapeutic option for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with hyperactivities of dopaminergic system and androgen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Slater, M D; Rouner, D; Murphy, K; Beauvais, F; Van Leuven, J; Rodríguez, M D
This study examines white male adolescent responses to TV beer advertisements with and without sports content and to nonbeer ads when embedded in sports and entertainment programming. A total of 72 advertisements and 24 television program excerpts were randomly sampled from national television programming. White male adolescents (N = 157) recruited in a public school system each viewed six ads (one of each of three types of ad embedded in each of two types of programming) comprising the 2 x 2 x 3 factorial, within-subjects, mixed-model (random and fixed effects) experimental design along with an age-level blocking factor and random factors for commercial and program stimuli. Cognitive responses to each ad were content-analyzed. Individual difference variables including alcohol use behavior, sensation-seeking, masculinity and sports involvement were also measured. Subjects showed a consistent preference for beer ads with sports content. A significant three-way interaction between ad type, programming type and junior versus senior high-school age level also indicated that sports programming had an inconsistent effect on responses to beer ads but that nonbeer ads were responded to more positively during sports than during entertainment programming. Other analyses showed that subjects were more cognitively resistant to beer ads than to nonbeer ads. These results support public and official concerns that sports content in beer ads increase the ads appeal to underage youth. They do not support hypothesized concerns that sports programming might prime adolescents to be more receptive to beer ads. Implications for alcohol education efforts are discussed.
Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.
This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…
Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.
High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452
Goodwin, Amy K; Lantz-McPeak, Susan M; Robinson, Bonnie L; Law, C Delbert; Ali, Syed F; Ferguson, Sherry A
The initiation of tobacco use occurs most often in adolescence and may be especially detrimental as the adolescent brain is undergoing substantial development. In addition to nicotine, there are over 9000 other compounds present in tobacco products, including the β-carbolines harmane and norharmane. The present study aimed to determine the long-term effects of adolescent exposure to nicotine (NIC), harmane (HAR), or norharmane (NOR) on locomotor activity, learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and monoamine/metabolite concentrations in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 27 and continuing through PND 55, subjects received twice daily intraperitoneal injections of 1ml/kg saline (CON), 0.5mg NIC/kg, 0.5mg HAR/kg, or 0.5mg NOR/kg. Body weight, food, and water intake were measured daily (PNDs 27-96). Locomotor activity was assessed on PND 40 or 41, PND 55, and PNDs 81 and 82. Other behaviors (anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and spatial learning and memory) were assessed at least 25 days after drug exposure ended (PNDs 80-91). On PND 97, subjects were decapitated and the striatum and nucleus accumbens were dissected and frozen for analysis. NIC treatment significantly decreased food intake, but did not alter locomotor activity during or after treatment. HAR and NOR treatment, however, caused significant open field hypoactivity. Motor coordination, water maze performance, and concentrations of monoamines and metabolites in the striatum and nucleus accumbens were unaltered by any drug treatment. These results indicate a long-lasting effect on activity levels from adolescent HAR or NOR treatment; however, there were few long-lasting NIC effects. Given the paucity of data describing effects of HAR or NOR exposure, these data should encourage additional studies of these tobacco constituents as well as constituent combination studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew
The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.
Robinson, W Lavome; Paxton, Keisha C; Jonen, Lynn P
Youth violence continues to present a serious public health challenge in the United States, particularly so for African American adolescent males. The present study utilized a multilevel approach to predict aggression within a community sample of low-income, urban African American adolescent males (n = 80). Participants' self-report data on normative beliefs about aggression, exposure to community violence, and depressive symptoms were used in multiple regression equations to predict (a) self-reported interpersonal aggression and (b) self-reported aggressive response style when angered. Results of this study indicate that all three of the independent variables contributed significantly to the prediction of interpersonal aggression and aggressive response style when angered. The findings are important for increasing our understanding of pathways to various types of youth aggression and guiding the development of evidence-based approaches to violence prevention among African American adolescent males.
Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L
This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korkmaz Cetin, Saniye; Bildik, Tezan; Erermiş, Serpil; Demiral, Nagehan; Ozbaran, Burcu; Tamar, Müge; Aydin, Cahide
This study aimed to determine the changes over time in sexual attitude and behavior among adolescents, and to measure the effect of sources information about sex on these changes. This study was conducted in 2 stages, the first in 1996 and the second in 2004. In all, 392 male tenth grade students (150 in the first stage and 242 in the second stage) were evaluated. A personal information questionnaire developed by the authors was used to collect sociodemographic data, including sexual behavior, sexual attitude, and sources of information about sex. The findings show that there was a significant increase in intercourse and flirting behavior from 1996 to 2004, although no significant difference in masturbation was observed. Additionally, the number of male adolescents that reported family and pornographic films as their sources of information about sex increased 1.6-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively. A significant relationship between watching pornographic films and engaging in sexual intercourse was noted. The number of male adolescents age mean 16, engaging in sexual intercourse increased between 1996 and 2004. Pornographic films were observed to be the most common source of information about sex and also predicted the probability of adolescents having sex. Findings that indicate the need for better and more accurate sources of information about sex. The availability of good quality information about sex is critical to the development of the sexual identity and mental health of male adolescents.
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E
This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.
Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J
Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults
In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be
This study was designed to construct a structural model explaining alienation, depression, and suicidal thoughts in male and female adolescents. Data was collected by questionnairs from 204 male and 208 female students selected randomly in high schools in K city. This study found that depression was significantly affected by alienation, and was indirectly affected through alienation by school attachment, peer relationships, and academic performance. Suicidal thoughts were greatly affected by depression, and were directly and indirectly influenced by alienation. It was confirmed that alienation turned out to be a important mediating variable, while it had a effect significant on depression and suicidal thoughts. Also there were significant differences in affecting factors among male and female students. Intervention strategies for preventing alienation, depression and suicidal thoughts should be different according to gender. In addition, specific nursing intervention plans, including parent education and role training programs, fostering of humanistic and achievement-focused educational environment, peer support programs, and individual counselling, need to be developed and implemented to lessen a feeling of alienation from family and school.
Montague, Carl; Ngcobo, Nelisiwe; Mahlase, Gethwana; Frohlich, Janet; Pillay, Cheryl; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Humphries, Hilton; Dellar, Rachael; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in high HIV prevalence-, low circumcision practice-settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for...
High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child We...
Full Text Available Alack of inhibition control has been found in subjects with conduct disorder (CD, but the underlying neuropathophysiology remains poorly understood. The current study investigated the different mechanism of inhibition control in adolescent-onset CD males (n = 29 and well-matched healthy controls (HCs (n = 40 when performing a GoStop task by functional magnetic resonance images. Effective connectivity (EC within the inhibition control network was analyzed using a stochastic dynamic causality model. We found that EC within the inhibition control network was significantly different in the CD group when compared to the HCs. Exploratory relationship analysis revealed significant negative associations between EC between the IFG and striatum and behavioral scale scores in the CD group. These results suggest for the first time that the failure of inhibition control in subjects with CD might be associated with aberrant connectivity of the frontal-basal ganglia pathways, especially between the IFG and striatum.
Ruchkin, V V; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B; Cloninger, C R
A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.
Full Text Available Yi-Ting Chen,1,3,4 Kuan-Pin Su,2–5 Jane Pei-Chen Chang2–5 1Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: A 17-year-old adolescent boy presented with atypical major depressive episode (MDE without specific focal neurological signs for 6 months. He had a diagnosis of intracranial germinoma, and the atypical MDE symptoms subsided after the operation. However, he had a relapse of atypical MDE 7 months after the first surgery. His mood and binge eating symptoms subsided, but intractable body weight gain only partially improved after treatment. When encountering manifestations of depression with atypical features, especially with binge eating symptoms in male children and adolescents, with early onset age, no family history, and prolonged depressive episodes, clinicians should consider not only mood disorders including bipolar spectrum disorders but also organic brain lesions such as intracranial germinoma. Keywords: intracranial germinoma, atypical major depressive episode, binge eating behavior, body weight gain
Phillips, Debby A
Every day, in professional work and in our personal lives, we reproduce by words and behaviors particular understandings of life and how it works. This includes understandings about what is 'normal' and 'not normal' masculinity and who are 'normal' and 'not normal' boys and men. Being marginalized or outcast from the norm is rarely a free choice. The language that constructs normal and abnormal is not innocent and does not simply arrive in our minds transparently reflected in our behavior or in our client advice or student education. Examining words and behaviors from adolescent boys and from media sources, this research explores the role of cultural discourses in producing normative and marginalized masculinities. It builds upon recent scholarship that questions cultural prescriptions for masculinity and traditional male norms. Feminist, poststructural, psychoanalytic discourse analysis and multiple methods were used to explore links between cultural discourses of masculinity and performativity of masculinity. Practices of heterosexuality, homophobia, athleticism, economic privilege, toughness, and violence provided pathways toward achieving and/or maintaining status as the hegemonic masculine norm in adolescence. 'Popularity' signified the norm and 'outcasts' from the norm signified marginalized masculinities.
Dabaja, Ali A; Wosnitzer, Matthew S; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N; Paduch, Darius A
Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtained under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. Fifty males, aged 18-65 years (mean 39±16.03 years) volunteered to be part of this study. The mean reported age for the onset of puberty was 12.39 years (95% CI, 11.99-12.80 years), 13.59 years (95% CI, 13.05-14.12 years) for the first ejaculation, 12.56 years (95% CI, 11.80-13.32 years) for the start of masturbation, and 17.26 years (95% CI, 16.18-18.33 years) for the first experienced intercourse. Seventy-five percent of the cohort reached puberty by the age of 13.33, experienced masturbation by 14.5, first ejaculated by the age of 14.83, and had intercourse at age of 19.15 years. The first experienced ejaculation fell 1.5 years after the onset of puberty in 80% present of the cohort, and 84% starts masturbation 1.5 years after the onset of puberty. The mean response between the younger and the older subject was not statistical significance. It is appropriate to consider a request for semen specimens by masturbation from teenagers at one year and six months after the onset of puberty; the onset age of puberty plus 1.5 years is an important predictor of ejaculation and sample collection for cryopreservation.
Camila de Oliveira Arraes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. METHOD: a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. RESULTS: three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. CONCLUSION: the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.
Arraes, Camila de Oliveira; Palos, Marinésia Aparecida Prado; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Matos, Marcos André de
to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.
Harner, Holly M
1. Described as one of the "pains of imprisonment," separation may be particularly difficult for women in prison because most functioned in multiple relational roles, including mother, wife, girlfriend, daughter, sister, and friend, before incarceration. 2. In the absence of consistent contact with family, friends, and other loved ones outside prison, incarcerated women may seek to develop connections with other inmates as a way to adapt to life in prison. 3. Positive adaptation may allow incarcerated women to take advantage of educational/vocational, parenting, and drug treatment programs offered in prison, thus facilitating their adaptation after release.
Miller, Alison L.; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea
Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP...
Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon
Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females.
Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.
This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…
Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.
Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to
Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.
Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the
Discussion: Positive thinking skills training can increase the happiness scores of adolescents with disabled physical mobility. Thus, we can say that method used in this study can be appropriate for psycho-educational interventions and counseling of physical mobility disabled male students.
van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.
There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…
The perception of penitentiaries as male institutions dates back to the late Middle Ages, when urban governments across Europe began constructing prisons as cogs in their growing machineries of justice. Already then, female incarceration contrasted sharply, intentionally, and symbolically with that
Moril-Peñalver, L; Pellicer-Garcia, V; Gutierrez-Carbonell, P
Injuries of the medial epicondyle are relatively common, mostly affecting children between 7 and 15 years. The anatomical characteristics of this apophysis can make diagnosis difficult in minimally displaced fractures. In a small percentage of cases, the fractured fragment may occupy the retroepitrochlear groove. The presence of dysesthesias in the territory of the ulnar nerve requires urgent open reduction of the incarcerated fragment. A case of a seven-year-old male patient is presented, who required surgical revision due to a displaced medial epicondyle fracture associated with ulnar nerve injury. A review of the literature is also made. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Conduct disorder (CD is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus, which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus, the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus, and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine, which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network. Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD.
Young athletes at the stage of growth acceleration tend to exhibit increased susceptibility to postural abnormalities, especially in the trunk region. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the posture in male adolescent handball players over two years of regular training sessions. The study group comprised 21 handball players. At the start of the study 15 participants were aged 14 and 6 participants were aged 15 (mean 14.25 ± 0.58). The measurements were repeated three times. Posture was assessed with a photogrammetric method based on the moiré phenomenon. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not reveal any significant differences between posture indicators obtained during the successive measurements. Sagittal plane posture indicators revealed significant changes in torso forward inclination angle and the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures. The latter consisted of significant deepening of the upper thoracic curve (angle α) and flattening of the lumbosacral curve (angle γ). A two-year period of handball training did not result in posture asymmetries in young male handball players. The observed changes in the shape of anteroposterior spinal curvatures might be related both to sports training and somatic parameters.
Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret
Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.
Full Text Available Amyand’s hernia is a very rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of a normal or inflammed appendix within the inguinal hernia sac. It may be present as an acute apendicitis inside the sac or incarcerated hernia. Sometimes it may be asymptomatic. We report a case of 70-year-old male patient that was presented to our emergency service with a huge right inguinal mass that was diagnosed as an incarcerated inguinal hernia and underwent operation. The intraoperative findings included small intestinal segment, large omental tissue and mobile cecum with healthy appendix inside the sac. There was no sign of strangulation. Lichtenstein herniorhaphy was done without appendectomy.
Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L
Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alenezi, Naif G; Alshamari, Nasser G; Alenezi, Omar G
Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Small, noninflamed acne lesions may not be more than a slight nuisance, but, in individuals with more severe inflammatory disease, pain, social embarrassment, and both physical and psychological scarring can be life altering. Despite its high prevalence, no previous community-based studies have been conducted in Arar, northern border of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acne vulgaris, to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of cases, and to determine the aggravating factors and the psychological impact of acne vulgaris in a representative sample of secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage systematic random sampling technique was followed. A total of 400 male students during the academic year 2015-2016 were included in the study. Data were collected by means of personal interview and filling-in a questionnaire. The overall prevalence of acne vulgaris was 53.5%. The mean age of onset was 15.0±1.2 years. Positive family history of acne vulgaris was found in 46.7% of cases. The skin was greasy in 61.7% of cases. Acne site was the face in 67.3%, the back in 4.7%, and both in 28% of the cases. More than half (54.2%) of the cases had first-degree acne. Students mentioned several factors affecting the appearance of acne; 59.8% of cases reported a relation of increased acne appearance with the cleanliness of the skin, 35.5% reported relation with consumption of fatty meals, 24.2% with eating chocolate, 23.3% with consumption of spicy food, 12.1% with excess intake of cola drinks, 31.8% with heavy smoking, and 60.7% reported increased acne appearance in summer months. Acne was highly prevalent among secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several risk factors increased the appearance of acne, including
... treatment within the criminal justice system. Players in that policy game focused, as we are doing today, on the need to provide criminal offenders with drug abuse treatment as an alternative to incarceration...
Scholte, E M; Stoutjesdijk, R; Van Oudheusden, M A G; Lodewijks, H; Van der Ploeg, J D
A two-dimensional instrument to screen egocentric and unemotional traits in children was tested in this study, and the associations with the aggressive and the antisocial symptoms of conduct disorder were determined. To this end the narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional characteristics associated with psychopathy were, along with the symptoms of conduct disorder, rated by teachers in a general community sample of 1179 four-to-eighteen-year-old Dutch children, and by professional care takers in a sample of 145 twelve-to eighteen-year-old incarcerated adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the ratings of the psychopathic characteristics indeed clustered into a dimension with egocentric characteristics and a dimension with unemotional characteristics. Both dimensions were reliable and stable across age and gender groups. In both samples aggressive behavior was primarily linked to the interaction of egocentric and unemotional characteristics, while antisocial behavior was primarily linked to egocentric characteristics only. The incarcerated adolescents showed substantially more characteristics on both psychopathic dimensions than a comparable age and gender matched group with adolescents from the general community sample. The discrimination between normal and incarcerated adolescent youngsters and the linkage with aggressive behavior suggests the existence of a subtype of conduct disordered children displaying narcissism, deficient affect and disruptive social problem behavior.
High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father-child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father-child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated-between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release.
Quiroz, Jorge; Atienzo, Erika E; Campero, Lourdes; Suárez-López, Leticia
To explore the opinions of Mexican male adolescents regarding teenage pregnancy and analyze its association with sexual behavior. This is a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among a conventional sample of male students (15-19 years old) in eight public schools in Morelos and Mexico City. Analyses include multivariate models to identify the association between opinions and sexual behaviors. Overall, 68% agree that a teenage pregnancy is a negative event. In a hypothetical case, if a girlfriend got pregnant in this moment 56% would continue in the school whereas 18% would definitely abandon it. Those who affirm that a teenage pregnancy is something very bad have greater odds of using condoms (OR=1.8; pteenage pregnancy are associated with some sexual behaviors; however their opinions reflect several contradictions. The design of surveys directed exclusively to explore male adolescents' opinions about reproductive health is urgent.
Maurer, J. Michael; Steele, Vaughn R.; Cope, Lora M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Stephen, Julia M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude. PMID:26930170
Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16–17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24–28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, ‘stoned', ‘want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents. PMID:27898071
Patel, Eshan U; Kaufman, Michelle R; Dam, Kim H; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have set a Fast-Track goal to achieve 90% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among boys and men aged 10-29 years in priority settings by 2021. We aimed to identify age-specific facilitators of VMMC uptake among adolescents. Younger (aged 10-14 years; n = 967) and older (aged 15-19 years; n = 559) male adolescents completed structured interviews about perceptions of and motivations for VMMC before receiving VMMC counseling at 14 service provision sites across South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated using multivariable modified Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust standard errors. The majority of adolescents reported a strong desire for VMMC. Compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to cite protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (aPR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], .66-.91) and hygienic reasons (aPR, 0.55; 95% CI, .39-.77) as their motivation to undergo VMMC but were more likely to report being motivated by advice from others (aPR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.54-2.29). Although most adolescents believed that undergoing VMMC was a normative behavior, younger adolescents were less likely to perceive higher descriptive norms (aPR, 0.79; .71-.89), injunctive norms (aPR, 0.86; 95% CI, .73-1.00), or anticipated stigma for being uncircumcised (aPR, 0.79; 95% CI, .68-.90). Younger adolescents were also less likely than older adolescents to correctly cite that VMMC offers men and boys partial HIV protection (aPR, 0.73; 95% CI, .65-.82). Irrespective of age, adolescents' main concern about undergoing VMMC was pain (aPR, 0.95; 95% CI, .87-1.04). Among younger adolescents, fear of pain was negatively associated with desire for VMMC (aPR, 0.89; 95% CI, .83-.96). Age-specific strategies are important to
Cullen Karen W
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS (convenience store and drug store was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26% the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake.
Abedzadeh Zavareh, Moammad Sadegh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hidarnia, Ali Reza
Anger can be defined a natural emotional response that is gradually formed to protect us in dealing with threats, damages, assaults, and failures; while hatred is a change of attitude which is built following the persistence of anger towards a subject or an individual. One of the main reasons of adolescents' reference to the counseling centers is their anger accompanied by violence. This study aims to determine the social cognitive factors associated with anger among a population of adolescents in the west of Iran based on the social cognitive theory. Samples were selected based on multi-stage cluster sampling. Method including the first and the second-grade male high school students from Ilam town (N=360). The Spielberger's anger questionnaire (STAXI 2) and a self-designed questionnaire based on Bandura's social cognitive theory were employed as the data collection instruments in the present study. Of the selected population, 200 students were the first-grade and 160 students were the second-grade students. 135 students were the first child of the family, 150 students were the second or the third birth, and 75 students were the fifth or above in their families. Descriptive tests and correlation analysis were used to conduct the statistical analysis. Although there was a significant and inverse relationship between all the components of the theory and anger, the strongest relationship was seen in self-efficacy (-0.585) and the weakest relationship was seen in modeling (-0.297). If was concluded that helping people to know their abilities and have a better personal judgment in this case, can influence their anger control. In addition, the process of stress management can effectively increase an individual's emotional coping.
Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A
One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R
The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements. Quantitative surveys were conducted among male adolescents aged 10-19 years (n = 1293) seeking VMMC in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. We used a summative index score of 8 self-reported binary items to measure receipt of important elements of the World Health Organization-recommended HIV minimum package and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief VMMC recommendations. Counseling sessions were observed for a subset of adolescents (n = 44). To evaluate factors associated with counseling content, we used Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation. Although counseling included VMMC benefits, little attention was paid to risks, including how to identify complications, what to do if they arise, and why avoiding sex and masturbation could prevent complications. Overall, older adolescents (aged 15-19 years) reported receiving more items in the recommended minimum package than younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self-reported findings were confirmed during counseling observations. Moving toward age-equitable HIV prevention services during adolescent VMMC likely requires standardizing counseling content, as there are significant age differences in HIV prevention content received by adolescents.
Bielas, Hannes; Barra, Steffen; Skrivanek, Christine
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These associations remained significant in multivariate models. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the predictive impact of self-reported ACEs and irritability with regard to adolescent psychiatric disorders in young male inmates. Both variables differed...... in their predictive power for PTSD, internalizing, and externalizing disorders indicating the need for specific therapeutic interventions. Taking a close look at their trauma history seems to be of special importance for juveniles suffering from PTSD and anxiety disorders. For delinquent adolescents with DBD, ADHD...
Gribbon, Aidan; McNeil, Jessica; Jay, Ollie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly higher (~145%; P 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (~3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (~2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (~5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (~9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results suggest that the potential of Kinect to reduce the energy gap underlying weight gain is offset within 24 h in
Broadwater, Margaret A.
Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol
Introduction: Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. Materials and Methods:...
Song, Hyojong; Woo, Youngki; Lee, Heeuk D; Cochran, John K
The current study examines effects of changes in intra-family relationships after parental incarceration on internalizing behaviors of the children of incarcerated parents. Using data from a sample of 249 incarcerated parents with minor children in South Korea, the present study found that perceived degradation of family relationships among inmate parents, their non-incarcerated spouses, and children was a significant risk factor of internalizing behaviors of children of incarcerated parents. The current study also found that inmate parents who had more frequent family contact were more likely to perceive improvements of all forms of intra-family relationships during incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas: Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent’s sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24,5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives Was confirmed When 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would ‘flog’ them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalised sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents.
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...
Smith, Michael A; Hii, Hilary L; Foster, Jonathan K; van Eekelen, J A M
Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this 'glucose memory facilitation effect' are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual's sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (itself a modulator of glucoregulatory efficiency), baseline self-reported stress and trait anxiety influence the glucose memory facilitation effect. Adolescent males (age range = 14-17 years) were administered glucose and placebo prior to completing a verbal episodic memory task on two separate testing days in a counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Glucose ingestion improved verbal episodic memory performance when memory recall was tested (i) within an hour of glucose ingestion and encoding, and (ii) one week subsequent to glucose ingestion and encoding. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function did not appear to influence the glucose memory facilitation effect; however, glucose ingestion only improved memory in participants reporting relatively higher trait anxiety. These findings suggest that the glucose memory facilitation effect may be mediated by biological mechanisms associated with trait anxiety.
Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154
Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.
In the discourse on health, boys are emerging as a problem group. In contrast to girls who tended to be seen as fragile if not sickly, boys used to be thought of as strong and healthy. Gender-specific concepts stipulated much more exercise for boys, the masturbation discourse prevented a relaxed relationship to the own body. The paper first describes specific problems in the biography (babies, child labour, tuberculosis, school, fitness for military service) and their solutions up to the time of the Weimar Republic. During and after the two world wars school boys tended to be of poorer health than girls. The consequences of war affect the mental health of (half-) orphans gender-non-specifically up to the third generation. After 1945, attention to health concerns is rather restricted to the professional aptitude of mining trainees, health-related risk behaviour tends to be interpreted in terms of gender. Mothers sought medical advice slightly more frequently on behalf of boys up to puberty. Concerning the time between 1780 and 2010 inferior health is often noticeable in boys and male adolescents. This used to, and still does, apply to babies, child labour, industrial work and occupational accidents, conscription and direct consequences of war. It was mostly due to gender-specific separation of labour, but partly also to a higher risk preference. The gender-specific wider scope for exercise and sports up to the 1960s, in contrast, had a health-promoting effect.
Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.
Baladi, Michelle G; Horton, Rebecca E; Owens, William A; Daws, Lynette C; France, Charles P
Feeding conditions can influence dopamine neurotransmission and impact behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters the locomotor effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter activity in adolescent (postnatal day 25) and adult (postnatal day 75) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dose-response curves for cocaine-induced locomotor activity were generated in rats with free access to either standard or high fat chow or restricted access to high fat chow (body weight matched to rats eating standard chow). Compared with eating standard chow, eating high fat chow increased the sensitivity of adolescent, but not adult, rats to the acute effects of cocaine. When tested once per week, sensitization to the locomotor effects of cocaine was enhanced in adolescent rats eating high fat chow compared with adolescent rats eating standard chow. Sensitization to cocaine was not different among feeding conditions in adults. When adolescent rats that previously ate high fat chow ate standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine returned to normal. As measured by chronoamperometry, dopamine clearance rate in striatum was decreased in both adolescent and adult rats eating high fat chow compared with age-matched rats eating standard chow. These results suggest that high fat diet-induced reductions in dopamine clearance rate do not always correspond to increased sensitivity to the locomotor effects of cocaine, suggesting that mechanisms other than dopamine transporter might play a role. Moreover, in adolescent but not adult rats, eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to cocaine and enhances the sensitization that develops to cocaine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Ducher, Gaele; Kukuljan, S; Hill, B; Garnham, A P; Nowson, C A; Kimlin, M G; Cook, J
Adequate vitamin D levels during growth are critical to ensuring optimal bone development. Vitamin D synthesis requires sun exposure; thus, athletes engaged in indoor activities such as ballet dancing may be at relatively high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low vitamin D levels in young male ballet dancers and its impact on musculoskeletal health. Eighteen male ballet dancers, aged 10 to 19 years and training for at least 6 hours per week, were recruited from the Australian Ballet School, Melbourne, Australia. Serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH were measured in winter (July) from a non-fasting blood sample. Pubertal stage was determined using self-assessed Tanner criteria. Body composition and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body and lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Injury history and physical activity levels were assessed by questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 16 participants. Serum 25(OH)D levels ranged from 20.8 to 94.3 nmol/L, with a group mean of 50.5 nmol/L. Two participants (12.5%) showed vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D level 50 nmol/L). No relationship was found between vitamin D status, PTH levels, body composition, and aBMD. The most commonly reported injuries were muscle tears and back pain. The average number of injuries reported by each dancer was 1.9 ± 0.4 (range: 0 to 5). There was no difference in the frequency of reported injuries between subjects with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (2.1 ± 0.6 injuries) and those with normal vitamin D levels (1.4 ± 0.6 injuries). This pilot study showed that more than half of highly-trained young male ballet dancers presented with low levels of vitamin D in winter. Further investigations in larger samples of adolescent athletes are needed to determine if this could negatively impact bone growth and place them at higher risk for musculoskeletal injuries.
Hoffmann, Svenja; Warschburger, Petra
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of age and weight status on adolescents' body dissatisfaction and its change over 20 months in a gender-comparing design. The influence of body image concern on eating concern was also investigated. In a prospective study, 675 male and female adolescents aged 12-16 were assessed using self-report questionnaires on weight, shape, muscularity, and eating concerns. Height and weight measurements were taken by trained personnel. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Analyses of latent means revealed more pronounced weight/shape concern in females than males and more pronounced muscularity concern in males than females. Weight/shape concern increased in females over time, whereas muscularity concern remained stable in both genders. Baseline levels of weight/shape concern could be predicted by age and weight status in females and by weight status in males. The only predictor of change in weight/shape concern was weight status in males. Baseline levels of muscularity concern could be predicted by age in females and by weight status in males. Similar effects were found for changes in muscularity concern in both genders. Increases in weight/shape and muscularity concern were associated with more pronounced eating concern. The results confirm gender differences in distinctive facets of body image concern and its prediction. The relevance of increase in body image concern in adolescents is underlined by its association with eating concern in both genders. Further explanatory variables for change in body dissatisfaction should be examined in future studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:139-147). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father–child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father–child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated—between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release. PMID:24839304
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.
Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario
The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Aim: Effect of yoga on positive–negative affectivity and self-esteem in tribal adolescents. Material and Methods: This is a pilot randomized control study. Several chits were made in which the name of all the available students was written. The youngest boy from the group selected 30 chits for yoga group and the remaining students were included in the control group. The yoga group included 30 male adolescents between the age of 10 years and 18 years (M = 14.4, SD = 3.51. Control group included 25 male adolescents between the age of 10 years and 18 years (M = 13.3, SD = 1.90. PANAS-C and Rosenberg self-esteem scales were used to measure the positive–negative affectivity and self-esteem, respectively. Data was collected before and after interventions. Results: Study shows significant increase in positive affect (P = 0.008 and negative affect (P = 0.047 in experimental group as compared to control group's positive affect (P = 0.468 and negative affect (P = 0.156. Self-esteem in experimental group slightly reduced (P = 0.927. Similarly, self-esteem in control group reduced (P = 0.019. Conclusion: Study suggests that two weeks of yoga practice has a significant impact on positive-negative affect in tribal adolescents.
Barrio, R; de Luis, D; Alonso, M; Lamas, A; Moreno, J C
To evaluate the clinical and hormonal responses of adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in response to gonadotropin replacement with the use of long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy. Prospective clinical study. Clinical pediatric department providing tertiary care. Seven prepubertal males with isolated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 15.44+/-1.97 years and seven prepubertal males with panhypopituitarism-associated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 18.1+/-3.24 years were studied. Human chorionic gonadotropin (1,000-1,500 IU IM) and FSH (75-100 IU SC) were administered every alternate day of the week until the total induction of puberty and spermatogenesis was achieved. Serum testosterone levels, testicular volume, penis length, and sperm count were evaluated after the administration of hCG and FSH. All patients achieved normal sexual maturation and normal or nearly normal adult male levels of testosterone. The increase in testicular size was significant in both groups. Positive sperm production was assessed in four of five patients with isolated HH and in three of three patients with panhypopituitarism-associated HH. Long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy is effective in inducing puberty, increasing testicular volume, and stimulating spermatogenesis in adolescent males with isolated HH and panhypopituitarism-associated HH.
Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela
Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: f...
Kanda, Takeshi; Takeda, Ayano; Hirose, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Urai, Hidenori; Inokuchi, Mikako; Wakino, Shu; Tokumura, Mitsuaki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Hiroshi
Low birthweight (LBW) is a worldwide public health problem, demonstrating an increasing incidence in developed countries, including Japan. LBW is also a risk factor for later development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). To date, studies have not evaluated the population impacts of increasing LBW rates on renal function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was evaluated in 3737 Japanese adolescent males (15-16 years old) using annual cross-sectional data over an 18-year period (1998-2015). Between the initial (1998-2003) and final (2010-15) periods of the study, the mean birthweight decreased from 3213.4 ± 383.8 to 3116.2 ± 382.3 g and the LBW rate increased from 2.5 to 5.5% (both P ≤ 0.01). Additionally, the mean eGFR decreased from 105.1 ± 15.9 to 97.4 ± 13.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the prevalence of mildly reduced renal function (eGFR ≤ 60- <90 mL/min/1.73 m2) increased from 16.4 to 30.0% (both P ≤ 0.01), most evident in the LBW group (from 10.3 to 41.7%, P ≤0.01). The prevalence of proteinuria also increased significantly. Mildly reduced renal function was significantly associated with LBW [odds ratio (LBW 3000-3999 g) 1.51; 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.55; P = 0.047]. In this population of Japanese adolescents, the frequency of mildly reduced renal function increased as the LBW frequency increased. Our findings may have implications for the broader Japanese population as well as for other populations in which the prevalence of LBW is increasing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.
Marc A. Briggs
Full Text Available Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h, during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01 but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1. For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1. The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under
Briggs, Marc A.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Cockburn, Emma; Russell, Mark; Stevenson, Emma J.
Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall) when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h), during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA) and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV) were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01) but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1). For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1). The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under-reporting common to such
Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara
Poor hydration compromises performance and heightens the risk of heat stress which adolescents are particularly susceptible to as they produce comparatively larger amount of metabolic heat during exercise. This study determined the hydration status and fluid intake of socio-economically disadvantaged, male adolescent soccer players during training. A pilot study was conducted among 79 soccer players (mean age 15.9 ± 0.8 years; mean BMI 20.2 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). Hydration status was determined before and after two training sessions, using both urine specific gravity and percent loss of body weight. The type and amount of fluid consumed was assessed during training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the players' knowledge regarding fluid and carbohydrate requirements for soccer training. Players were at risk of developing heat illness during six of the 14 training sessions (60 - 90 minutes in length). Although on average players were slightly dehydrated (1.023 ± 0.006 g/ml) before and after (1.024 ± 0.007 g/ml) training, some were extremely dehydrated before (24%) and after (27%) training. Conversely some were extremely hyperhydrated before (3%) and after training (6%). The mean percent loss of body weight was 0.7 ± 0.7%. The majority did not consume fluid during the first (57.0%) and second (70.9%) training sessions. An average of 216.0 ± 140.0 ml of fluid was consumed during both training sessions. The majority (41.8%) consumed water, while a few (5.1%) consumed pure fruit juice. More than 90% stated that water was the most appropriate fluid to consume before, during and after training. Very few (5.0%) correctly stated that carbohydrate should be consumed before, during and after training. Approximately a quarter were severely dehydrated. Many did not drink or drank insufficient amounts. The players' beliefs regarding the importance of fluid and carbohydrate consumption did not correspond with their practices. A
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C.
Children with incarcerated parents, and mothers in particular, are at increased risk for academic failure and school dropout. In two studies, we examined teachers' experiences with children with incarcerated parents and their expectations for competence of children with incarcerated mothers. In Study 1, a descriptive, qualitative study, teachers…
Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D
Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected
Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P
Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults
Whitaker, Lydia; Brown, Stephen L; Young, Bridget; Fereday, Richard; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela
Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression 'scripts' for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the study was to understand the content and origins of alcohol-related aggression scripts learned by adolescents. This qualitative focus group study of 40 adolescents (ages 14-16 years) examined alcohol-related aggression scripts. Participants believed aggression and severe injury to be pervasive when young people drink. Viewed through a biological lens, participants described aggression as an 'instinctive' and 'hard-wired' male trait facilitated by intoxication. As such, alcohol-related aggression was not seen as intended or personally controllable and participants did not see it in moral terms. Females were largely viewed as either bystanders of inter-male aggression or potential victims of male sexual aggression. Participants attributed their views on the frequency and nature of alcohol-related aggression to current affairs and reality television, which they felt portrayed a reality of which they had little experience. The origins of the explicitly biological frameworks that participants used seemed to lie in pre-existing beliefs about the nature of gender differences. Perceptions of the pervasiveness of male alcohol-related aggression, and the consequent failure to view alcohol-related aggression in moral terms, could dispose some young people to alcohol-related aggression. Interventions could target (1) the beliefs that alcohol-related aggression is pervasive and uncontrollable in males, and (2) participants' dysfunctional views of masculinity that underpin those beliefs.
Du, Caiqi; Zhang, Cai; Wu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Wang, Anru; Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Ling; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping
A novel bioactive peptide, mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c), has recently attracted attention as a potential prevention or therapeutic option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MOTS-c profiles have not yet been reported in human obesity and T2DM. We aimed to determine circulating MOTS-c levels in obesity and explore the association between MOTS-c levels and various metabolic parameters. In this case-control study, 40 obese children and adolescents (27 males) and 57 controls (40 males) were recruited in the Hubei Province of China in 2017. Circulating MOTS-c levels were measured, clinical data (e.g., glucose, insulin and lipid profile) were recorded, and anthropometric measurements were performed. Finally, we investigated correlations between MOTS-c levels and related variables. MOTS-c levels were significantly decreased in the obese group compared with the control group (472.61 ± 22.83 ng/mL vs. 561.64 ± 19.19 ng/mL, p c levels were significantly decreased in obese male children and adolescents compared to their counterparts (465.26 ± 24.53 ng/mL vs. 584.07 ± 21.18 ng/mL, p 0.05). Further, MOTS-c levels were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), BMI standard deviation score, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c in the male cohort. Circulating MOTS-c levels were decreased in obese male children and adolescents and correlated with markers of insulin resistance and obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.
The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong
Background: Little is known about the level of social bond elements and their effects on delinquency among nonadjudicated (traditional low and at-risk school-aged) and adjudicated Chinese male adolescents. Objective: Using a large adolescent sample (N = 1,177) from Hong Kong and Macau, this study aims to distinguish the level of social bond…
Wolfe, Kristin L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Owen, Victoria J; Rial, Katherine V; Moorehead, Alexandra P; Kennard, Beth D; Emslie, Graham J
We examined hopelessness as a predictor of suicide ideation in depressed youth after acute medication treatment. A total of 158 depressed adolescents were administered the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) as part of a larger battery at baseline and at weekly visits across 6 weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) was administered at baseline and week 6. A negative binomial regression model via a generalized estimating equation analysis of repeated measures was used to estimate suicide ideation over the 6 weeks of acute treatment from baseline measure of hopelessness. Depression severity and gender were included as covariates in the model. The negative binomial analysis was also conducted separately for the sample of males and females (in a gender-stratified analysis). Mean CDRS-R total scores were 60.30 ± 8.93 at baseline and 34.65 ± 10.41 at week 6. Mean baseline and week 6 BHS scores were 9.57 ± 5.51 and 5.59 ± 5.38, respectively. Per the C-SSRS, 43.04% and 83.54% reported having no suicide ideation at baseline and at week 6, respectively. The analyses revealed that baseline hopelessness was positively related to suicide ideation over treatment (p = .0027), independent of changes in depression severity. This significant finding persisted only for females (p = .0024). These results indicate the importance of early identification of hopelessness. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.
Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.
Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764
Herting, Megan M; Keenan, Madison F; Nagel, Bonnie J
Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual's genes may influence these relationships.
Page, Randy M.
Investigated relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and frequency of substance use among 1,297 adolescents. Female adolescents who rated themselves as unattractive were more likely to use illicit psychoactive substances than those who rated themselves as average or attractive. Perceived attractiveness did not contribute to…
Yu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Zhen-xing; Qiu, Chang-jian; Ma, Xiao-hong
To establish an adolescent violence crime prediction model, and to assess the value of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of violent crime. Investigative tools were used to analyze the difference in personality dimensions, social support, coping styles, aggressiveness, impulsivity, and family condition scale between 223 adolescents with violence behavior and 148 adolescents without violence behavior. The distribution of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR) was compared between the two groups. The role of 5-HTT gene polymorphism on adolescent personality, impulsion and aggression scale also was also analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for adolescent violent crime. Significant difference was found between the violence group and the control group on multiple dimensions of psychology and environment scales. However, no statistical difference was found with regard to the 5-HTT genotypes and alleles between adolescents with violent behaviors and normal controls. The rate of prediction accuracy was not significantly improved when 5-HTT gene polymorphism was taken into the model. The violent crime of adolescents was closely related with social and environmental factors. No association was found between 5-HTT polymorphisms and adolescent violence criminal behavior.
Miller, Alison L; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea
Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP). Process evaluation indicated high implementation fidelity, satisfaction, engagement, and attendance. Outcome evaluation results indicated positive changes in family-level functioning, caregivers' positive parenting, and caregiver depression symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with some changes retained at follow-up 4 months later. Implications for preventive interventions with children of incarcerated parents, and their caregivers, are discussed.
Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.
Liza Thankam Daniel
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in New Delhi. One hundred and ten adolescents were conveniently selected from Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Adolescents aged more than 11 years and able to read and write Hindi or English were included in the study. A structured questionnaire for demographic variables was developed by researchers. To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use, a structured questionnaire was prepared with the reliability coefficient of 0.94 (test-retest reliability with a content validity index of 0.90 between the experts. Data were collected from the subjects after getting their written consent. Data analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 17.0. The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: The study findings revealed that nearly more than half (55.6% of the male adolescents reported the use of one or more substances in their lifetime. About 44.26% of the adolescents started to use substances before 13 years of age. Most common reason specified by the subjects to take substance were to be liked by friends (57.38%, to feel like an adult (24.6%, and few of them reported: “like the feeling of substances” (13.11% as reason for taking substances. Common substances used by the subjects were any kind of tobacco (77.05%, inhalants (26.23%, and alcohol (11.47%. Most of the subjects were getting substances from their friends (85.25% and only a few (14.75% by themselves. Association analyses revealed that adolescents who studied less than 10th standard reported more usage of any kind of substances than who studied more than 10th standard. More prevalence of substance use was seen among adolescents who were from nuclear family. Subjects who had less than two siblings reported more substance
Hosová, Dominika; Spear, Linda Patia
The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels. Beginning with a modified schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) procedure, this study examined the suitability of several approaches to induce voluntary binge-like consumption during adolescence in an outbred rat strain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were food deprived to 85% projected free-feeding weights beginning on postnatal day (P) 24 and were given 30 minutes of access to 10% EtOH in chocolate Boost ® or Boost ® alone daily from P28 to P41 (followed later by their daily allocation of food). Animals were tested within operant chambers (Exp. 1a, 1b and Exp. 2) or home and novel cages (Exp. 3). Animals received either scheduled delivery of banana pellets to examine SIP (Exp. 1a,b) or massed pellet presentation (Exp. 2 and Exp. 3). Blood samples were collected via the lateral tail vein on P33 and P41. Intakes produced BECs frequently in the binge range (>80 mg/dl) and modeled binge-like consumption patterns, with high consumption days typically followed by 1 to 2 days of lower consumption; this variability was less evident with Boost ® alone. Consumption was not schedule induced and was generally high across all studies, although consumption in males appeared to be particularly pronounced when animals were tested in the presence of their cage mate. Binge-like patterns of EtOH consumption were produced using these procedures in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes and may prove to be a useful
Kuperman, Samuel; Calarge, Chadi; Kolar, Anne; Holman, Timothy; Barnett, Mitchell; Perry, Paul
The adverse effect profiles of typical and atypical antipsychotics are problematic because of their extrapyramidal and endocrine adverse effects, respectively. Ten adolescent male patients diagnosed with conduct disorder received aripiprazole in doses of ≤20 mg/d in an open-label, intent-to-treat design to establish and characterize the efficacy of the drug in reducing aggressive behavior. Based on clinician and parent observations, aripiprazole was effective in reducing aggressive behavior in adolescent boys. The change in clinician-observed aggression ratings appears to have been driven by a decrease in physical aggression, whereas the change in parent-observed aggression ratings appears to have been driven by a decrease in verbal aggression and aggression against objects and animals. Aripiprazole was an effective and relatively well-tolerated treatment for overall aggression in adolescent males with conduct disorder, in the view of both clinicians and parents. Depending on the observer, aripiprazole improved aggression categorized as physical aggression, verbal aggression, and aggression against objects and animals.
McCauley, Heather L; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; Jones, Kelley; Miller, Elizabeth
School-based athletic programs remain an important context for violence prevention efforts although a better understanding of how gender attitudes and abuse perpetration differ among athletes is needed. We analyzed baseline survey data from the "Coaching Boys into Men" study-a school-based cluster-randomized trial in 16 high schools in Northern California. We describe relationships among gender-inequitable attitudes, sport type, and recent adolescent relationship abuse perpetration among a sample of male athletes (n = 1,648). Gender-inequitable attitudes (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.56, 4.15), participation in both high school football and basketball (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.37, 3.18), and participation in football only (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.22) emerged as independently associated with recent ARA perpetration. Findings warrant targeted violence prevention efforts among male high school athletes that incorporate discussions of gender attitudes and healthy relationships, especially among sports teams at greater risk of adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sufrin, Carolyn B; Creinin, Mitchell D; Chang, Judy C
Incarcerated women have had limited access to health care prior to their arrest. Although their incarceration presents an opportunity to provide them with health care, their reproductive health needs have been overlooked. We performed a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 950 correctional health providers who are members of the Academy of Correctional Health Providers. A total of 405 surveys (43%) were returned, and 286 (30%) were eligible for analysis. Most ineligible surveys were from clinicians at male-only facilities. Of eligible respondents, 70% reported some degree of contraception counseling for women at their facilities. Only 11% provided routine counseling prior to release. Seventy percent said that their institution had no formal policy on contraception. Thirty-eight percent of clinicians provided birth control methods at their facilities. Although the most frequently counseled and prescribed method was oral contraceptive pills, only 50% of providers rated their oral contraceptive counseling ability as good or very good. Contraception counseling was associated with working at a juvenile facility, and with screening for sexually transmitted infections. Contraception does not appear to be integrated into the routine delivery of clinical services to incarcerated women. Because the correctional health care system can provide important clinical and public health interventions to traditionally marginalized populations, services for incarcerated women should include access to contraception.
Lucas, Heizel Mae; Lozano, Carl James; Valdez, Les Paul; Manzarate, Rowena; Lumawag, Fortuna Angelli Jolyn
Across the literature, impairment and disability among the older people have been associated with a decline in meeting their special needs. Failure in meeting such needs may cause deterioration of function and threaten successful aging. Accordingly, successful aging studies were carried out among males, in health care institutions, and in communities. In spite of these, the process by which successful aging is experienced by incarcerated older women remains to be a blank spot in research. This study purports to describe the process by which incarcerated older Filipino women experience successful aging. Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 15 purposively selected incarcerated older Filipino from a Philippine penal institution exclusive for women. Further, data gathered was reduced to field text and was analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Finally, truthfulness and trustworthiness of the findings were established through member checking. The study generated "The Road to Success Model". Interestingly, five phases relative to successful aging emerged, namely: Struggling, Remotivating, Reforming, Reintegrating and Sustaining. These phases describe how select incarcerated older Filipino women undergo transformation towards successful aging. Similar to a road, each phase is considered a station where one must pass through in order to get to the destination. Findings of the study serve as an impetus for structural and procedural changes in prison, with a view to providing an environment conducive to successful aging and appropriate recognition to the older prisoner's efforts to achieve successful aging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Romeo, Russell D; Patel, Ravenna; Pham, Laurie; So, Veronica M
Adolescent development is marked by many changes in neuroendocrine function, resulting in both immediate and long-term influences on an individual's physiology and behavior. Stress-induced hormonal responses are one such change, with adolescent animals often showing different patterns of hormonal reactivity following a stressor compared with adults. This review will describe the unique ways in which adolescent animals respond to a variety of stressors and how these adolescent-related changes in hormonal responsiveness can be further modified by the sex and previous experience of the individual. Potential central and peripheral mechanisms that contribute to these developmental shifts in stress reactivity are also discussed. Finally, the short- and long-term programming effects of chronic stress exposure during adolescence on later adult hormonal responsiveness are also examined. Though far from a clear understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of these adolescent-related shifts in stress reactivity, continued study of developmental changes in stress-induced hormonal responses may shed light on the increased vulnerability to physical and psychological dysfunctions that often accompany a stressful adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
diseases, Liver diseases, Cerebrovascular accident , non-Illnesses, and finally AIDS. 30% of inmates incarcerated in the WDOC die from Cancer while it is...are higher among WDOC inmates than the general U.S. population; while Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) are lower among WDOC inmates than the general
Pankey, Tyson; Ramaswamy, Megha
The purpose of this paper is to explore incarcerated women's awareness, beliefs, and experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination. Researchers conducted focus groups with 45 incarcerated women in an urban Midwestern US jail to assess how women talked about their Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening and abnormal Pap test follow-up experiences. Some focus group questions specifically assessed individual awareness, beliefs, and experiences with HPV infection and vaccination. Based on these data, the authors described participants' awareness of HPV, as well as used open coding to ultimately extract themes related to beliefs and experiences with HPV infection and vaccine. While all 45 participants reported experiencing an abnormal Pap test event within the last five years, only two-thirds of participants (n=30) reported having heard of the HPV infection. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the women's beliefs about cause and severity of HPV; frustration with age requirements of the vaccine; varied experiences with vaccinations for themselves and their children; the impact of media exposure on knowledge; and desire for more HPV infection and vaccine information. Incarcerated women's awareness and limited experiences with HPV infection and vaccination may be a barrier to adequate screening and cervical cancer prevention. This study has implications for the development of cervical health education for this high-risk group of women, who are four to five times as likely to have cervical cancer as non-incarcerated women.
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.
Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.
Teo, Ethan; Goh, Daniel; Vijayakumar, Kamalakannan M; Liu, Jean C J
Surveys of mobile phone usage suggest that adolescents habitually use their phones while eating. In this study, we explored whether the manner in which one uses a mobile phone - to engage in a social or non-social activity - can affect appetite regulation. Participants were fifty male adolescents randomly assigned to engage in one of the following phone-based activities: (1) sending and receiving messages (social activity), or (2) reading a neutral article (non-social activity). When given the opportunity to snack, participants in the messaging group consumed more snacks that those who read the article. Our findings correspond to a large literature emphasizing social influences on food intake, and suggest that phone use patterns may predispose an individual to overeating.
Bianco, Aida; Pileggi, Claudia; Iozzo, Francesca; Nobile, Carmelo Giuseppe A; Pavia, Maria
To elicit information about parents' knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability toward HPV infection and vaccination of male adolescents in Italy; to identify subgroups of this population who exhibit poor knowledge about prevention of HPV infection and reveal negative attitudes toward HPV vaccination in relation to their male sons. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaire from 1021 parents of males aged 10 to 14 y who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the South of Italy. Three-quarters (72.6%) reported that the vaccine is a preventive measure for HPV infection and 55.8% that condom use reduces the risk of HPV infection. A high education level, abundant sources of information about HPV infection received from physicians, and knowledge about HPV infection were factors significantly associated with high level of knowledge about preventive measures for HPV infection. 71% revealed their intentions to vaccinate their sons, and this intention was significantly associated with perceived benefits both for HPV vaccination for girls and for childhood recommended vaccinations as well as a need for additional information about HPV vaccination. 53.7% of the eligible parents reported that their daughters had been vaccinated against HPV. Results of the study suggest that the risk of acquiring HPV infection and HPV-related diseases is sorely underestimated. Knowledge on the benefits of adolescents' HPV vaccination in cancer prevention in both sexes should be improved to maximize uptake of HPV vaccination.
Emily G. Stokes
Full Text Available Sports nutrition recommendations provide guidance on dietary strategies to optimise sports performance. However, research indicates that young athletes often find it difficult to follow these guidelines in practice. Limited research exists on the determinants that influence adherence to sports nutrition guidelines. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and determinants of eating for health and performance in high-level male adolescent rugby union players. Determinants were explored using semi-structured individual interviews in New Zealand high-level male rugby union players (n = 20, 16–18 years. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then underwent thematic analysis. Perceptions of eating for health and performance included balance and variety, appropriate portions, and specific foods. Both adolescent- and sport-specific determinants influenced the food choices of participants. Determinants relevant to adolescent lifestyles included the influence of significant others such as peers and family but also included the taste, cost, convenience, and availability of food. Sports-specific determinants revolved around the desire to enhance sports performance, motivation to perform, and team culture. The media (mainstream and social media, physical appearance, and feeling good were identified as both adolescent- and sport-specific factors influencing food choice. These findings highlight the importance of having support and positive role modelling to help young athletes make optimal food choices for health and performance. Strategies to further enable healthy eating practices should aim to strengthen the support available to young athletes in the home, school, and sporting environments and should include education on appropriate social media use to inform eating for health and performance.
Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents
Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert
This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…
Leone, James E.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Kittleson, Mark; Welshimer, Kathleen J.; Partridge, Julie A.; Robertson, Stacia L.
Background: Adolescent males are more likely to sustain intentional and unintentional injuries, be involved in a physical confrontation, and be successful in suicide attempts. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) has been linked as a possible contributing factor to these negative health behaviors and risks; however, research is limited with males. The…
Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®-miniMAG(®, bioMérieux, the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.
Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta
The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®)-miniMAG(®), bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.
Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A
It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kasprzyk, Danuta; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Hamilton, Deven T; Gorn, Gerald J; Montaño, Daniel E
Male circumcision (MC) significantly reduces HIV acquisition among men, leading WHO/UNAIDS to recommend high HIV and low MC prevalence countries circumcise 80% of adolescents and men age 15-49. Despite significant investment to increase MC capacity only 27% of the goal has been achieved in Zimbabwe. To increase adoption, research to create evidence-based messages is greatly needed. The Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) was used to investigate factors affecting MC motivation among adolescents. Based on qualitative elicitation study results a survey was designed and administered to a representative sample of 802 adolescent boys aged 13-17 in two urban and two rural areas in Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analysis found all six IBM constructs (2 attitude, 2 social influence, 2 personal agency) significantly explained MC intention (R 2 = 0.55). Stepwise regression analysis of beliefs underlying each IBM belief-based construct found 9 behavioral, 6 injunctive norm, 2 descriptive norm, 5 efficacy, and 8 control beliefs significantly explained MC intention. A final stepwise regression of all the significant IBM construct beliefs identified 12 key beliefs best explaining intention. Similar analyses were carried out with subgroups of adolescents by urban-rural and age. Different sets of behavioral, normative, efficacy, and control beliefs were significant for each sub-group. This study demonstrates the application of theory-driven research to identify evidence-based targets for the design of effective MC messages for interventions to increase adolescents' motivation. Incorporating these findings into communication campaigns is likely to improve demand for MC.
Sakai, Joseph T; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Young, Susan E; Rhee, Soo Hyun; McWilliams, Shannon K; Dunn, Robin; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian J
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the DSM-5-defined conduct disorder (CD) with limited prosocial emotions (LPE) among adolescents in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, despite the high rates of CD in this population. We tested previously published methods of LPE categorization in a sample of male conduct-disordered patients in SUD treatment (n=196). CD with LPE patients did not demonstrate a distinct pattern in terms of demographics or co-morbidity regardless of the categorization method utilized. In conclusion, LPE, as operationalized here, does not identify a distinct subgroup of patients based on psychiatric comorbidity, SUD diagnoses, or demographics.
Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S.; Krischer, Maya K.
Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male…
Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.
Anecy de Fátima Faustino Almeida
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as relações de gênero vivenciadas por adolescentes do sexo masculino e como elas contribuem para torná-los vulneráveis à gravidez na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, em 2003. Participaram 13 adolescentes masculinos com menos de 20 anos, com um único filho de até 11 meses, cuja mãe estava na mesma faixa etária do pai. Realizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas gravadas. Após transcrição, procedeu-se à análise temática de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se estereótipos de gênero em que se destacavam papéis de líder, provedor e ativo sexualmente, bem como a rejeição a ser cuidador. Esses papéis apareceram consolidados principalmente na perspectiva dos entrevistados acerca do trabalho como marcador de sua condição de homem e provedor da família. A liderança dos adolescentes prevaleceu no relacionamento com a mãe de seu filho, notadamente na iniciativa das relações sexuais e no uso de contraceptivos. A gravidez foi considerada por eles como "por acaso" e inesperada, mas a paternidade foi vivenciada como uma prova final de sua condição de homens adultos. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se a condição de vulnerabilidade dos adolescentes para a paternidade em virtude da socialização de gênero nos moldes tradicionais. Isso foi evidenciado com a ausência dos papéis relativos ao cuidado consigo próprio e com os outros, com a incorporação precoce de papéis de dominação sexual masculina e de trabalhador e pai, ou seja, deixar de ser criança e alcançar a condição de homem.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. METHODS: Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same
Gretton, Heather M; Clift, Robert J W
The purpose of the study was to identify the current prevalence of mental disorders and mental health needs among incarcerated male and female youths in Canada, and to present these data in the context of rates found in other jurisdictions. One hundred forty male and 65 female incarcerated young offenders in British Columbia were screened with the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument Version 2 (MAYSI-2); provisional psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV); abuse history and aggressive symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD) were coded from file information. Nearly all youths (91.9% of males and 100% of females) met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Substance abuse and dependence disorders were highly prevalent (85.5% of males and 100% of females). Aggressive forms of CD were common (72.9% of males and 84.3% of females), as were exposure to physical abuse (60.8% of males and 54.3% of females) and sexual abuse (21.2% of males and 42.4% of females). Female youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with: (1) substance abuse/dependence disorders; (2) current suicide ideation; (3) sexual abuse; (4) PTSD; (5) symptoms of depression and anxiety; (6) Oppositional Defiant Disorder; and (7) multiple mental disorder diagnoses. Male youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with aggressive symptoms of CD. Overall, rates of mental disorder among this sample of serious and violent young offenders were higher than rates previously reported for incarcerated youths - both in Canada and in other jurisdictions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R
We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.
Ananias K. Nyanjaya
Full Text Available This article revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent. The cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers. The emotions and tears expressed during the research journey have revealed that material support cannot compensate for the love and presence children expect from their fathers. The deep hurt instilled in their hearts by the periods of absence angered them and led to traumatic experiences. The protracted period of living with only one primary caregiver has imprisoned them into the feminised environment, thereby robbing them of a male identity. Therefore, this article was devoted to creating a shepherding model of caring for boys whose fathers are absent.
Mellor, David; Hucker, Alice; Waterhouse, Monique; binti Mamat, Norul Hidayah; Xu, Xiaoyan; Cochrane, Jamie; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina
This study investigated how dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the body was associated with overall body dissatisfaction among male adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. One hundred and six Malaysian Malays, 55 Malaysian Chinese, 195 Chinese from China, and 45 non-Asian Australians aged 12 to 19 years completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their overall body and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Dissatisfaction with the face, height, and hair was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays after body mass index, age and dissatisfaction with body areas typically included in measures (weight/shape, upper, middle, and lower body, and muscles) had been controlled for. Dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Chinese. These findings demonstrate the differences in body focus for males from different cultures and the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus. © The Author(s) 2014.
Weiser, Mark; Lubin, Gad; Caspi, Asaf; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Shmushkevitz, Mordechai; Yoffe, Rinat; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Davidson, Michael
Retrospective studies indicate that patients with psychotic disorders and schizophrenia often suffer from depressive symptoms before the onset of psychosis. In a historical-prospective design, we studied the association between dysthymia in adolescence and later hospitalization for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. The Israeli Draft Board screens the entire, unselected population of 16-17 years old male adolescents for psychiatric disorders. These adolescents were followed for hospitalization for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia using the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry. Of 275,705 male adolescents screened, 1267 (0.5%) were hospitalized for psychotic disorders (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 20.0-29.9), and 757 (0.3%) were hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-10 20.0-20.9) over the next 1-10 years. Of 275,705 male adolescents screened, 513 (0.2%) were diagnosed as suffering from dysthymia by the Draft Board. Of these adolescents, 10/513 (2.0%) were later hospitalized for psychotic disorders (including schizophrenia, HR=3.967, 95%CI (confidence intervals): 2.129-7.390), and 4/513 (0.8%) were later hospitalized for schizophrenia (HR=2.664, 95%CI: 0.997-7.116). In this population-based cohort of male adolescents, dysthymia was associated with increased risk for future psychotic disorders. Dysthymia in some adolescents might be a prodromal symptom, while in others it might be a risk factor for later psychosis. Clinicians assessing dysthymic adolescents should be aware that these symptoms might be part of the prodrome. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Suhail Ahmad Azmi
Full Text Available Background: A role model is perceived as worthy of imitation, their selection can indicate significant elements of psychosocial health and self-projection in adolescents. Patterns of behavior and lifestyle choices established during adolescence can have immediate and lasting effects on health. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was undertaken in the schools of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample frame was 2347, out of which a sample of 390 students was studied. Data collected were entered and analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 10%. Results: Majority (62.7% of adolescents revealed that their role models were Film Star (34.8% and their Teachers (27.9%, Parents (14.3%, Sportsman (12.0%. Politicians as the role models were opted by least proportion (1.2%. Desire of future occupation was Businessmen (27.9%, Doctor (18.6, and Engineer (14.4%. Conclusion: Nearly all adolescents had a role model. There is greater impact of cinema on the minds of adolescents, which resulted in choosing film actors as their role model. Aspiration of future occupation was not related to the characteristics of the role model.
Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.
Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 548 male adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that male Central-Montenegrins are 183.66±6.93 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.99±8.30cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general male population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (1.33±1.37 centimetres, more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.
Wright, Lisa D; Muir, Katherine E; Perrot, Tara S
In order to characterize the short- and long-term effects of repeated stressor exposure during adolescence, and to compare the effects of using two sources of cat odor as stressor stimuli, male and female adolescent rats (postnatal day (PND) ∼ 38-46) were exposed on five occasions to either a control stimulus, a cloth stimulus containing cat hair/dander, or a section of cat collar previously worn by a cat. Relative to control stimulus exposure, activity was suppressed and defensive behavior enhanced during exposure to either cat odor stimulus (most pervasively in rats exposed to the collar). Only cloth-exposed rats showed elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT), and only after repeated stressor exposure, but interestingly, rats exposed to the collar stimulus during adolescence continued to show increased behavioral indices of anxiety in adulthood. In this group, the time an individual spent in physical contact with a cagemate during the final adolescent exposure was negatively related to stress-induced CORT output in adulthood, which suggests that greater use of social support during adolescent stress may facilitate adult behavioral coping, without necessitating increased CORT release. These findings demonstrate that adolescent male and female rats respond defensively to cat odor stimuli across repeated exposures and that exposure to such stressors during adolescence can augment adult anxiety-like behavior in similar stressful conditions. These findings also suggest a potential role for social behavior during adolescent stressor exposure in mediating long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keeley, Robin J; Bye, Cameron; Trow, Jan; McDonald, Robert J
The acute effects of marijuana consumption on brain physiology and behaviour are well documented, but the long-term effects of its chronic use are less well known. Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is of increased interest, given that the majority of individuals first use marijuana during this developmental stage , and adolescent marijuana use is thought to increase the susceptibility to abusing other drugs when exposed later in life. It is possible that marijuana use during critical periods in adolescence could lead to increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse later on. To test this, we chronically administered ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to male and female Long-Evans (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats directly after puberty onset. Rats matured to postnatal day 90 before being exposed to a conditioned place preference task (CPP). A subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine, found not to induce place preference in drug naïve rats, was used as the unconditioned stimulus. The effect of d-amphetamine on neural activity was inferred by quantifying cfos expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal hippocampus following CPP training. Chronic exposure to THC post-puberty had no potentiating effect on a subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine to induce CPP. No differences in cfos expression were observed. These results show that chronic exposure to THC during puberty did not increase sensitivity to d-amphetamine in adult LER and WR rats. This supports the concept that THC may not sensitize the response to all drugs of abuse.
Zhang, Yun; Ming, Qingsen; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao
Gene-environment interactions that moderate aggressive behavior have been identified in association with the MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) gene. The present study examined the moderating effect of MAOA-VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) on aggression behavior relating to child abuse among Chinese adolescents. A sample of 507 healthy Chinese male adolescents completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Youth Self-report of the Child Behavior Checklist. The participants' buccal cells were sampled and subjected to DNA analysis. The effects of childhood abuse (CTQ-SF scores), MAOA-VNTR [high-activity allele (H) versus low-activity allele (L)], and their interaction in aggressive behaviors were analyzed by linear regression. Child maltreatment was found to be a significant independent factor in the manifestation of aggressive behavior, whereas MAOA activity was not. There was a significant interaction between MAOA-VNTR and childhood maltreatment in the exhibition of aggressive behaviors. In the context of physical or emotional abuse, boys in the MAOA-L group showed a greater tendency toward aggression than those in the MAOA-H group. Aggressive behavior arising from childhood maltreatment is moderated by MAOA-VNTR, which may be differentially sensitive to the subtype of childhood maltreatment experienced, among Chinese adolescents.
van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J
This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses. © The Author(s) 2014.
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.
Green, Kemeche; Shippen, Margaret; Flores, Margaret
Over the past 20 years, punitive approaches and policies similar to those of the criminal justice system have become prominent in our schools. These local, state, and federal education and public safety policies serve to remove students from the educational environment and channel them into the criminal justice system. This phenomenon is often…
Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Dai-Jin
This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. This study suggests that there are differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral
Iñiguez, Sergio D; Riggs, Lace M; Nieto, Steven J; Dayrit, Genesis; Zamora, Norma N; Shawhan, Kristi L; Cruz, Bryan; Warren, Brandon L
Abstract Exposure to stress is highly correlated with the emergence of mood-related illnesses. Because major depressive disorder often emerges in adolescence, we assessed the effects of social defeat stress on responses to depressive-like behaviors in juvenile mice. To do this, postnatal day (PD) 35 male c57BL/6 mice were exposed to 10 days of social defeat stress (PD35-44), while control mice were handled daily. Twenty-four hours after the last episode of defeat (PD45), separate groups of mice were tested in the social interaction, forced swimming, sucrose preference, and elevated plus-maze behavioral assays (n = 7-12 per group). Also, we examined body weight gain across days of social defeat and levels of blood serum corticosterone 40 min after the last episode of defeat stress. Our data indicates that defeated mice exhibited a depressive-like phenotype as inferred from increased social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swim test, and reduced sucrose preference (a measure of anhedonia), when compared to non-defeated controls. Defeated mice also displayed an anxiogenic-like phenotype when tested on the elevated plus-maze. Lastly, stressed mice displayed lower body weight gain, along with increased blood serum corticosterone levels, when compared to non-stressed controls. Overall, we show that in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice, social defeat stress induces a depression- and anxiety-like phenotype 24 h after the last episode of stress. These data suggest that the social defeat paradigm may be used to examine the etiology of stress-induced mood-related disorders during adolescence.
Joseph T Sakai
Full Text Available Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue.The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game.All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1 money taken for self (p = 0.02; (2 money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03; and, (3 costly helping (p = 0.047. Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005. Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation.The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.
Bailey, C; Shelton, D
This study examined self-reports of psychopathic offenders' childhood interactions with their parents to better understand what variables influence adult criminal psychopathy. The findings showed that childhood separations, physical abuse and indifferent parenting styles were more prominent in self-reports of incarcerated male psychopaths than with incarcerated males who were not psychopathic. To better understand the worldview of the criminal psychopath, and the trajectory of psychopathy, there is a need for more studies that examine childhood interactions with parental figures as reported by the adult criminal psychopath. Despite the high percentage of incarcerated psychopaths, few studies attempt to assess the past parent-child bonds of these individuals by asking them to report childhood attachments with their parents. Currently, there is limited data regarding common variables that contribute to a break in parent-child attachment and later adult criminal psychopathy. The data that presently exist concentrate on juvenile or community samples and do not explore the attachment variables that continue into adult criminal psychopathy. This paper presents the current literature regarding self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult psychopaths compared with self-reports of childhood attachment to parents as indicated by male-incarcerated adult non-psychopaths. Variables that influence a break in attachment between the offenders and their parents and suggestions for future clinical research are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole
Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.
Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and chil...
Rice, Simon M; Purcell, Rosemary; McGorry, Patrick D
Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services. This review synthesizes key themes related to mental ill health in adolescent boys and in young adult men. Key social determinants are discussed, including mental health literacy, self-stigma and shame, masculinity, nosology and diagnosis, and service acceptability. A call is made for focused development of policy, theory, and evaluation of targeted interventions for this population, including gender-synchronized service model reform and training of staff, including the e-health domain. Such progress is expected to yield significant social and economic benefits, including reduction to mental ill health and interpersonal violence displayed by adolescent boys and young adult men. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others
Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…
van Holst, Ruth J.; Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen; Veltman, Dick J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is
van Holst, R.J.; Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is
van Holst, R.J.; Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether behavioral tendencies commonly related to addictive behaviors are also related to problematic computer and video game playing in adolescents. The study of attentional bias and response inhibition, characteristic for addictive disorders, is
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
This article describes a qualitative study exploring the effects of community-based human rights and pro-equality education on Bolivian adolescent boys. By privileging the boys' own voices, the study examines how the boys' sense of solidarity toward others, derived from the citizenship duties and collegiality emphasised in non-governmental…
Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M
Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohammadi, Mehrnoosh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Ali
As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez social health questionnaires. The association was tested by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent t-test. Computer games related factors such as the location, type, length, the adopted device, and mode of playing games were investigated. Results showed that 58.9% of the subjects played games on a computer alone for 1 h at home. Results also revealed that the subjects had appropriate mental health and 83.2% had moderate social health. Results showed a poor significant association between the length of games and social health (r = -0.15, P = 0.03), the type of games and mental health (r = -0.16, P = 0.01), and the device used in playing games and social health (F = 0.95, P = 0.03). The findings showed that adolescents' mental and social health is negatively associated with their playing computer games. Therefore, to promote their health, educating them about the correct way of playing computer games is essential and their parents and school authorities, including nurses working at schools, should determine its relevant factors such as the type, length, and device used in playing such games.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their
Sahafi, Ehtramolsadat; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Azarbyjani, Mohammad Ali
Early life stress (ELS) is known as a risk factor for the development of depression and its associated comorbidities, such as cardiomyopathy in depressed patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence indicates that regular physical activity has therapeutic effects on both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, the voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) during adolescence may be able to attenuate the negative impact of maternal separation stress (MS) as a valid animal model of depression on the behavior and cardiac mitochondrial function of adult rats. To do this, we applied MS to rat pups by separating them from their mothers for 180min during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 14. Next, the animals were randomly divided into different treatment groups (fluoxetine [FLX] and RW) and received the treatments during adolescence, between PND 28 to PND 60. Then, we evaluated the effects of MS on the rat behaviors test, and finally, we assessed reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial glutathione, ATP and cytochrome c release in the cardiac tissue of animals. Our results showed that depressive-like behaviors following MS in adult male rats were associated with oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Further, we found that treating animals with chronic FLX or RW during adolescence improved animal's behavior as well as cardiac mitochondrial function. The results of this study highlight the importance of adolescence as a period during which treating animals with non-pharmacological agents has significant protective effects against the negative influence of ELS on mood and cardiac energy hemostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hotelling, Barbara A.
Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.
I?iguez, Sergio D.; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M.; Alipio, Jason B.; Zanca, Roseanna M.; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Mirella A.; Nieto, Steven J.; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A.
Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes fo...
Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.
Parental incarceration impacts millions of children in the U.S. and has important consequences for youths’ adjustment. Children of incarcerated parents are at risk for a host of negative psychosocial outcomes, including substance abuse problems. Using data from a statewide survey of youth behavior, the effect of both present and past parental incarceration on youths’ report of their substance use behaviors was examined. Both present and past parental incarceration was significantly associated with use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription drugs, as well as substance abuse and dependence. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:29170570
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 87 male adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that male Southern-Montenegrins are 182.53±7.53 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.55±9.03 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than most of nation around the Europe. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (2.03±1.50 cm, more than in general population. Hence, this study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.
Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P
There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community
Perry, Jennifer L.; Anderson, Marissa M.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.
Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consis...
Green, Benjamin P; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S
Comprising of two experiments, this study assessed the metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and chronic milk consumption in adolescent males (15-18 y). Eleven adolescents [mean ± SD age: 16.5 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 23.3 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ] participated in the acute experiment and completed two laboratory visits (milk vs. fruit-juice) in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-d. Seventeen adolescents [age: 16.1 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ] completed the chronic experiment. For the chronic experiment, a parallel design with two groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated and consumed milk (n = 9) or fruit-juice (n = 8) for 28-d, completing laboratory visits on the first (baseline, day-0) and last day (follow-up, day-28) of the intervention phase. On laboratory visits (for both experiments), measures of appetite, metabolism and endocrine responses were assessed at regular intervals. In addition, eating behavior was quantified by ad libitum assessment under laboratory conditions and in the free-living environment by weighed food record. Acute milk intake stimulated glucagon (P = 0.027 [16.8 pg mL; 95% CI: 2.4, 31.3]) and reduced ad libitum energy intake relative to fruit-juice (P = 0.048 [-651.3 kJ; 95% CI: -1294.1, -8.6]), but was comparable in the free-living environment. Chronic milk intake reduced free-living energy intake at the follow-up visit compared to baseline (P = 0.013 [-1910.9 kJ; 95% CI: -554.6, -3267.2]), whereas the opposite was apparent for fruit-juice. Relative to baseline, chronic milk intake increased the insulin response to both breakfast (P = 0.031) and mid-morning milk consumption (P = 0.050) whilst attenuating blood glucose (P = 0.025). Together, these findings suggest milk consumption impacts favorably on eating behavior in adolescent males, potentially through integrated endocrine responses. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n=577; 14% Black, 5% other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating vi...
Blashill, Aaron J.; Gordon, Janna R.; Safren, Steven A.
Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use—depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use is associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship is accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway. PMID:23718635
Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; McCormick, Cheryl M
Adolescence is an important phase of development of social behaviors, which may be disrupted by the experience of stressors. We previously reported that exposure to social instability stress in adolescence (SS; postnatal day [PND] 30-45) in rats reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). In experiment 1, we replicated the effect of SS on social interaction and found that the pattern of neural activations based on Fos immunohistochemistry in brain regions during social interactions differed for SS and CTL rats. In experiment 2, we found that individual differences in novelty-seeking behavior on PND 30 and SS exposure were unique predictors of anxiety in the elevated plus maze on PND 46, and interacted to predict social interaction on PND 47; among high novelty-seeking rats, SS and CTL rats do not differ, whereas among low-novelty seeking rats, SS rats engaged in less social interaction than did CTL rats. Thus, high novelty-seeking may be a resilience factor against the effects of social stressors in adolescence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuzawa, C W; Adair, L S
To test the hypothesis that the balance between fetal nutritional demand and maternal nutritional supply during pregnancy will predict lipid profiles in offspring measured in adolescence. A total of 296 male and 307 female Filipino offspring (aged 14-16 y) and mothers enrolled in a longitudinal birth cohort study (begun in 1983-84) had lipid profiles measured. Data on maternal height (as a proxy for offspring growth potential and thus fetal nutritional demand) and third trimester maternal arm fat area (as a proxy for maternal supply) were used to create four groups hypothesized to reflect a gradient of fetal energy sufficiency. As fetal energy sufficiency increased among males, there was a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) (Psupply-demand model did not predict any lipid outcome or clinical risk criteria. Our findings in males support the hypothesis that the balance between fetal nutritional demand and maternal nutritional supply has implications for future lipid profiles. The lack of significant associations in females adds to mounting evidence for sex differences in lipid metabolism programming, and may reflect sex differences in fetal nutritional demand. The National Science Foundation, the Mellon Foundation, the Nestle Foundation, and the Emory University Internationalization Program.
Wildeman, Christopher; Goldman, Alyssa W; Turney, Kristin
Mass incarceration has profoundly restructured the life courses of not only marginalized adult men for whom this event is now so prevalent but also their families. We examined research published from 2000 to 2017 on the consequences of parental incarceration for child health in the United States. In addition to focusing on specific health outcomes, we also considered broader indicators of child well-being because there has been little research on the association between parental incarceration and objectively measured child health outcomes. Our findings support 4 conclusions. First, paternal incarceration is negatively associated-possibly causally so-with a range of child health and well-being indicators. Second, although some research has suggested a negative association between maternal incarceration and child health, the evidence on this front is mixed. Third, although the evidence for average effects of paternal incarceration on child health and well-being is strong, research has also suggested that some key factors moderate the association between paternal incarceration and child health and well-being. Finally, because of the unequal concentration of parental incarceration and the negative consequences this event has for children, mass incarceration has increased both intracountry inequality in child health in the United States and intercountry inequality in child health between the United States and other developed democracies. In light of these important findings, investment in data infrastructure-with emphasis on data sets that include reliable measures of parental incarceration and child health and data sets that facilitate causal inferences-is needed to understand the child health effects of parental incarceration.
Kaul, A; Srivastava, K N; Rehman, S M F; Goel, V; Yadav, V
The presence of both of the testes in one scrotal sac is one of the very rare presentations of testicular ectopia, which is known as transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) and is also known as crossed testicular ectopia. The presence of the uterus and fallopian tubes in a normally virilized male is termed as persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS). We report a case of an adult male who had a unique combination of both TTE and PMDS presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia.
Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P
Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.
Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James
Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences.
Martin-Key, N; Brown, T; Fairchild, G
Adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders are reported to show deficits in empathy and emotion recognition. However, prior studies have mainly used questionnaires to measure empathy or experimental paradigms that are lacking in ecological validity. We used an empathic accuracy (EA) task to study EA, emotion recognition, and affective empathy in 77 male adolescents aged 13-18 years: 37 with Conduct Disorder (CD) and 40 typically-developing controls. The CD sample was divided into higher callous-emotional traits (CD/CU+) and lower callous-unemotional traits (CD/CU-) subgroups using a median split. Participants watched films of actors recalling happy, sad, surprised, angry, disgusted or fearful autobiographical experiences and provided continuous ratings of emotional intensity (assessing EA), as well as naming the emotion (recognition) and reporting the emotion they experienced themselves (affective empathy). The CD and typically-developing groups did not significantly differ in EA and there were also no differences between the CD/CU+ and CD/CU- subgroups. Participants with CD were significantly less accurate than controls in recognizing sadness, fear, and disgust, all ps sadness, fear, and disgust relative to controls, all ps < 0.010, rs ≥ 0.33, whereas the CD/CU+ and CD/CU- subgroups did not differ in affective empathy. These results extend prior research by demonstrating affective empathy and emotion recognition deficits in adolescents with CD using a more ecologically-valid task, and challenge the view that affective empathy deficits are specific to CD/CU+.
Full Text Available Background: As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items and Kiez social health questionnaires. The association was tested by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and independent t-test. Computer games related factors such as the location, type, length, the adopted device, and mode of playing games were investigated. Results: Results showed that 58.9% of the subjects played games on a computer alone for 1 h at home. Results also revealed that the subjects had appropriate mental health and 83.2% had moderate social health. Results showed a poor significant association between the length of games and social health (r = −0.15, P = 0.03, the type of games and mental health (r = −0.16, P = 0.01, and the device used in playing games and social health (F = 0.95, P = 0.03. Conclusions: The findings showed that adolescents′ mental and social health is negatively associated with their playing computer games. Therefore, to promote their health, educating them about the correct way of playing computer games is essential and their parents and school authorities, including nurses working at schools, should determine its relevant factors such as the type, length, and device used in playing such games.
Marc A. Briggs
Full Text Available This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035 was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ. Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012 and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016 elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.
Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark
This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059
Mohammadi, Mehrnoosh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Ali
Background: As adolescents spend much time on playing computer games, their mental and social effects should be considered. The present study aimed to investigate the association between playing computer games and the mental and social health among male adolescents in Iran in 2014. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 210 adolescents selected by multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected by Goldberg and Hillier general health (28 items) and Kiez social health questionnaires. The association was tested by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent t-test. Computer games related factors such as the location, type, length, the adopted device, and mode of playing games were investigated. Results: Results showed that 58.9% of the subjects played games on a computer alone for 1 h at home. Results also revealed that the subjects had appropriate mental health and 83.2% had moderate social health. Results showed a poor significant association between the length of games and social health (r = −0.15, P = 0.03), the type of games and mental health (r = −0.16, P = 0.01), and the device used in playing games and social health (F = 0.95, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The findings showed that adolescents’ mental and social health is negatively associated with their playing computer games. Therefore, to promote their health, educating them about the correct way of playing computer games is essential and their parents and school authorities, including nurses working at schools, should determine its relevant factors such as the type, length, and device used in playing such games. PMID:27095988
Cobbina, Jennifer E.
Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…
Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.
Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported mo...
Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin
Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.
Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis
Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.
Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun
The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…
Turney, Kristin; Haskins, Anna R.
A growing literature documents the myriad penalties for children of incarcerated fathers, but relatively little is known about how paternal incarceration contributes to educational outcomes in early and middle childhood. In this article, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide the first estimates of the…
Geller, Amanda; Garfinkel, Irwin; Western, Bruce
High U.S. incarceration rates have motivated recent research on the negative effects of imprisonment on later employment, earnings, and family relationships. Because most men in jail and prison are fathers, a large number of children may be placed at considerable risk by policies of incarceration. This article examines one dimension of the economic risk faced by children of incarcerated fathers: the reduction in the financial support that they receive. We use a population-based sample of urban children to examine the effects of incarceration on this support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions indicate that formerly incarcerated men are less likely to contribute to their families, and those who do contribute provide significantly less. The negative effects of incarceration on fathers’ financial support are due not only to the low earnings of formerly incarcerated men but also to their increased likelihood to live apart from their children. Men contribute far less through child support (formal or informal) than they do when they share their earnings within their household, suggesting that the destabilizing effects of incarceration on family relationships place children at significant economic disadvantage. PMID:21318455
Petsch, Priscilla; Rochlen, Aaron B.
The recent increase in prison populations has given rise to an unprecedented number of children in the school system with incarcerated parents. To cope with stressors before, during, or after parents' incarceration, children can exhibit a range of problematic and maladaptive behaviors. This article explores the negative behaviors these children…
Dallaire, Danielle H.
Incarcerated mothers represent a rapidly growing sector of the prison population. This review of the literature presents research examining the psychological and socio-emotional well-being of children with an incarcerated mother, highlighting risk and protective factors at different stages of children's development. Child outcomes are reviewed…
Timmons, Cynthia L.
The impact of witnessing and living with the arrest and incarceration of a parent is overwhelming for children and families. Numerous efforts have recently begun to assist youth who have a parent in prison. This article discusses two of them: the Children of Promise--Mentors of Hope mentoring program, and "The Children of Incarcerated Parents: A…
Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.
Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children,…
Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.
Agostinete, Ricardo R; Duarte, João P; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Tavares, Oscar M; Conde, Jorge M; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos A; Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Caires, Suziane U; Fernandes, Rômulo A
Exploring the effect of non-impact and impact sports is particular relevant to understand the interaction between skeletal muscle and bone health during growth. The current study aimed to compare total and regional bone and soft-tissue composition, in parallel to measurements of blood lipid and inflammatory profiles between adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Anthropometry, biological maturity, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, training load and lipid and inflammatory profiles were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 53 male adolescents (20 non-athletes, 15 swimmers and 18 basketball players) aged 12-19 years. Multiple comparisons between groups were performed using analysis of variance, covariance and magnitude effects (ES-r and Cohen's d). The comparisons of controls with other groups were very large for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (d range: 2.17-2.92). The differences between sports disciplines, regarding tissue outputs obtained from DXA scan were moderate for all variables except fat tissue (d = 0.4). It was possible to determine small differences (ES-r = 0.17) between controls and swimmers for bone area at the lower limbs (13.0%). In parallel, between swimmers and basketball players, the gradient of the differences was small (ES-r range: 0.15-0.23) for bone mineral content (24.6%), bone area (11.3%) and bone mineral density (11.1%) at the lower limbs, favoring the basketball players. These observations highlight that youth male athletes presented better blood and soft tissues profiles with respect to controls. Furthermore, sport-specific differences emerged for the lower limbs, with basketball players presenting higher bone mineral content, area and density than swimmers.
Paris, F; Gaspari, L; Mbou, F; Philibert, P; Audran, F; Morel, Y; Biason-Lauber, A; Sultan, C
Pubertal gynecomastia is a common condition observed in up to 65% of adolescent males. It is usually idiopathic and tends to regress within 1-2 years. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we investigated 25 adolescent males with prominent (>B3) and/or persistent (>2 years) pubertal gynecomastia (P/PPG) to determine whether a hormonal/genetic defect might underline this condition. Endocrine investigation revealed the absence of hormonal disturbance for 18 boys (72%). Three patients presented Klinefelter syndrome and three a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) as a result of p.Ala646Asp and p.Ala45Gly mutations of the androgen receptor gene. The last patient showed a 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency as a result of a compound heterozygous mutation of the CYP17A1 gene leading to p.Pro35Thr(P35T) and p.Arg239Stop(R239X) in the P450c17 protein. Enzymatic activity was analyzed: the mutant protein bearing the premature stop codon R239X showed a complete loss of 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activity. The mutant P35T seemed to retain 15-20% of 17α-hydroxylase and about 8-10% of 17,20-lyase activity. This work demonstrates that P/PPG had an endocrine/genetic cause in 28% of our cases. PAIS may be expressed only by isolated gynecomastia as well as by 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Isolated P/PPG is not always a 'physiological' condition and should thus be investigated through adequate endocrine and genetic investigations, even though larger studies are needed to better determine the real prevalence of genetic defects in such patients. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Full Text Available Kebebe Bekele,1 Desalegn Markos2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia; 2Unit of Neonatology Nursing, St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Amyand’s hernia, which is the presence of a normal or pathological appendix as a part of an inguinal hernia, is a rare clinical entity. We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement. Case presentation: A 4-year-old male child with left inguinal swelling of 2-year duration presented to Goba Referral Hospital. Two days before the patient visited our hospital, the swelling had become irreducible and caused severe groin pain. He had abdominal cramps, bilious vomiting, and mild abdominal distention, but passed feces. With the diagnosis of left-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia, the patient was investigated and prepared for surgical management. During the operative procedure, we identified the presence of appendix, cecum, and terminal ileum in the scrotum as the herniated component. After the sack was dissected, since there was also appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed. Then, high ligation of sack was done after cecum and ileum were reduced. After 3 uneventful postoperative days in the hospital, the patient was discharged. The patient was followed-up for 6 months, and he did not develop any complications. Conclusion: Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement is a rare clinical entity. Even though it is not common, appendicitis is one of the comorbidities that can be seen in patients with left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum. Surgeons should have a high index of clinical suspicion and be aware of the potential involvement of appendix, cecum, and ileum as part of an incarcerated hernia during surgery, even in the left inguinal region. In this case, left
Kjelsås, Einar; Bjørnstrøm, Christian; Götestam, K Gunnar
The main aim of the present study is to establish the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in adolescents of both genders. To our knowledge, such data have not previously been published using both DSM-IV and DSM-III-R criteria. The study sample consisted of 1960 adolescents (1026 girls and 934 boys), 14-15 years of age. The participants completed the Survey for Eating Disorders (SEDs), including DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses for all subcategories of ED. Lifetime prevalence of any ED among girls was 17.9% anorexia nervosa (AN) 0.7%, bulimia nervosa (BN) 1.2%, binge eating disorder (BED) 1.5%, and EDs not otherwise specified (EDNOS) 14.6%. Corresponding numbers for boys for any ED is 6.5%, AN 0.2%, BN 0.4%, BED 0.9%, and EDNOS 5.0%. Our prevalence rates on AN, BN, and BED largely support previous school/community-based studies, while our figures on EDNOS were rather high. Generally, we found high numbers for boys with ED.
Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela
Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074
Al-Ansari, Khalid; Sulowski, Christopher; Ratnapalan, Savithiri
In this study, the use of medications for analgesia and/or sedation for incarcerated inguinal hernia reductions in the emergency department was analyzed. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department with incarcerated inguinal hernia from 2002 to 2005. A total of 99 children presented with incarcerated hernias during the study period. The median age was 11 months. Forty-four percent of children received medication for the procedure, of them 75% received parenteral and 25% oral or intranasal medications. Forty-five percent of children who received medication went through at least 1 hernia reduction attempt initially without medications. More than half the children with incarcerated inguinal hernias did not receive any medication for pain and/or sedation prior to hernia reduction. Guidelines for medication use for children with incarcerated inguinal hernias need to be developed.
Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.
Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children, incarcerated parents, caregivers, and professionals, parent– child contact during the imprisonment period is a key issue. In this article, we present a conceptual model to provide a framework within which to interpret findings about parent– child contact when parents are incarcerated. We then summarize recent research examining parent–child contact in context. On the basis of the research reviewed, we present initial recommendations for children’s contact with incarcerated parents and also suggest areas for future intervention and research with this vulnerable population. PMID:20822198
Cassidy, Jude; Poehlmann, Julie; Shaver, Phillip R
The United States now incarcerates more people than any other country in the world (Pew Charitable Trust, 2008), and most of these incarcerated individuals have one or more children 18 years of age or younger (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Although the actual number is not known because the information is not systematically collected by jails, prisons, schools, child welfare agencies, or other organizations or institutions, a conservative estimate is that more than three million children are affected (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008; Western & Wildeman, 2009). In editing this special issue we had two major goals: (1) to introduce the many issues raised by parental incarceration to readers already grounded in attachment theory and research and (2) to highlight the importance of an attachment perspective to those who study and work with incarcerated parents. The contributors to this special issue present conceptual and empirical articles focusing on attachment issues related to incarcerated parents and their children. This introduction provides an overview of these contributions.
Thomas, James C; Torrone, Elizabeth
We estimated the effects of high incarceration rates on rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies. We calculated correlations between rates of incarceration in state prisons and county jails and rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies for each of the 100 counties in North Carolina during 1995 to 2002. We also estimated increases in negative health outcomes associated with increases in incarceration rates using negative binomial regression analyses. Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies, adjusted for age, race, and poverty distributions by county, consistently increased with increasing incarceration rates. In the most extreme case, teenage pregnancies exhibited an increase of 71.61 per 100000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]=41.88, 101.35) in 1996 after an increase in the prison population rate from 223.31 to 468.58 per 100000 population in 1995. High rates of incarceration can have the unintended consequence of destabilizing communities and contributing to adverse health outcomes.
Watson, Penelope; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret; Hattie, John Allan
Choirs have been stereotypically gendered feminine in many national contexts. When gender-role conformity has been expected in such settings, male choral participation and performance has often been rendered gender incongruent and consequently threatening. Gender stereotype threat was explored as a factor which might instigate a potentially…
Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela
Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…
Sheridan, Margaret K.; Radlinski, Sara
The developmental history of a 14-year-old male with Klinefelter's Syndrome (XXXXY) is described. The boy's physical development was consistent with many patterns described in the XXXXY literature, although his retardation was not as severe as expected from the literature. (Author/DB)
Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.
This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…
Beddoes, Zack; Prusak, Keven; Barney, David; Wilkinson, Carol
The purpose of this study was to determine if the motivational profiles of male junior high weight training students differ across levels of teacher-to-student relatedness. One hundred and sixty six students participated in one of two units of instruction. Contextual motivation was measured using the Sport Motivation Scale II-Physical Education…
Alexander R Gibson
Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.
Ann M. Kulungowski
Full Text Available A 16 day-old boy infant with an umbilical mass underwent operative exploration of the umbilicus. The mass proved to be a gallbladder incarcerated in a hernia of the umbilical cord. Distinguishing an omphalocele from an umbilical cord hernia is not obvious and can be arbitrary. Morphologically, the two terms both describe congenital abdominal wall defects covered by a membrane, typically containing abdominal organs. Subtle differences and clinical features between omphalocele and umbilical cord hernia are highlighted in this report.
Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Ammannato, Giulio; Primi, Caterina
This study tested the predictive power of gaming versatility (i.e., the number of video game genres engaged in) on game addiction in male adolescents, controlling for time spent on gaming. Participants were 701 male adolescents attending high school (Mage=15.6 years). Analyses showed that pathological gaming was predicted not only by higher time spent on gaming, but also by participation in a greater number of video game genres. Specifically, the wider the array of video game genres played, the higher were the negative consequences caused by gaming. Findings show that versatility can be considered as one of the behavioral risk factors related to gaming addiction, which may be characterized by a composite and diversified experience with video games. This study suggests that educational efforts designed to prevent gaming addiction among youth may also be focused on adolescents' engagement in different video games.
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.
This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Siv, Alexander M.
This research study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…
Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Way, Niobe
Adolescents form their identities by both accommodating (endorsing) and resisting (challenging) cultural stereotypes. Most research on Black males focuses on how they accommodate to negative stereotypes (e.g., delinquency, aggression), but a growing literature emphasizes how youth resist stereotypes. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed to…
Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne
The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.
This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
DEEM, MICHAEL A.; PORTER, WILLIAM R.
MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WERE (1) TO CONTINUE DEVELOPING A PROTOTYPE SPECIAL CLASS PROGRAM FOR EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED PUPILS (18 MALE ADOLESCENTS), (2) TO DEVISE METHODS OF EVALUATION FOR THE PROGRAM, AND (3) TO IDENTIFY SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH. IN PLANNING THE PROJECT DURING THE FIRST…
Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L
Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents.
Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa quantitativa que teve como objetivo investigar a iniciação sexual de adolescentes do sexo masculino em Concórdia, Santa Catarina. Participaram da mesma 340 adolescentes do sexo masculino, com idades entre 14 e 19 anos, que freqüentavam o ensino médio em seis instituições de ensino do município de Concórdia, que aceitaram participar e que trouxeram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido assinado pelos pais ou responsáveis. Destes, 69,7% afirmaram ter relações sexuais, sendo que a média de idade da primeira relação foi de 14,4 anos, menor que a média nacional de 15 anos. A primeira relação sexual ocorreu com uma ficante para 45,1% e 64,2% afirmaram que o principal motivo para a mesma foi vontade/tesão. A maioria (74,2% qualificou a experiência como boa ou muito boa. O uso da camisinha foi apontado como método utilizado na primeira relação sexual por 73,8% dos adolescentes e como método usado em todas as relações por 72,5%. Alguns adolescentes relataram não conversar sobre sexualidade, mas a maioria aponta os amigos como principal fonte de informações sobre sexo. Frente ao exposto, fica claro que apesar de terem sua primeira relação sexual cada vez mais precocemente, o diálogo sobre prevenção tem surtido efeito, o que é reforçado pelo uso expressivo do preservativo entre os adolescentes.This quantitative study aimed to investigate the onset of sexual activity in male adolescents from Concordia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The studied sample consisted of a total of 340 14-19-year-old male adolescents attending secondary school in six local educational institutions, who accepted to answer the questionnaire and whose parents signed the Free and Informed Consent. From these, 69,7% affirmed that they already had sexual relations; the mean age at the first relation was 14,4, lower than national average of 15 years. The first sexual relation occurred with a date in the case of 45,1% and 64
Sarah P. Shultz, Lee Stoner, Danielle M. Lambrick, Andrew M. Lane
Full Text Available In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx, and carotid arterial stiffness (β. Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2. However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36. There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg, however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18. Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese
Nicholas W Gilpin
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects
Anahita khodabakhshi koolaee1
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence, period of transition from childhood to adulthood, is time with changes in social, psychological, behavioral, and physical situations. These changes combined with the cultural, social and family backgrounds’ adolescents, can lead to social problems such as social deviations (delinquency.This study aims to compare the components of perceived social support and early maladaptive schemas in adolescents (male and female delinquent and non-delinquent.Materials and Methods: This research was based on comparative and causal method. In this research, 100 delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using convenience sampling method and 100 non-delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using Cluster sampling method were selected. They completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS questionnaires and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF. Data analysis was performed via descriptive statistics (Mean and SD. and analytic methods such as independent T-test.Results: Delinquent adolescents had higher mean of early maladaptive schemas and instead had lower level of social support. In addition, delinquent boys had higher early maladaptive schemas mean compared to non-delinquent boys and they had different levels of social support. There was a significant difference in perceived social support between delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Also, there was a significant difference between early maladaptive schemas of delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Conclusion: The findings showed the importance of providing background for strengthening of social support. Identification of early maladaptive schemas as patterns of emotional and cognitive damage in adolescence can be useful to provide appropriate psychological services to improve the quality of life and increased health-related behaviors of delinquent individual.
Tavousi, Mahmoud; Montazeri, Ali; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Taremian, Farhad; Haerimehrizi, Aliasghar
The theory of reasoned action (TRA) is one of the most common models in predicting health-related behaviors and is used more often in health education studies. This study aimed to add two control constructs (perceived behavioral control - PBC and self-efficacy - SE) to the TRA and compare them using the structural equation modeling (SEM) for substance use avoidance among Iranian male adolescents in order to find out which model was a better fit in predicting the intention. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected from a random sample of high school male students (15-19 years of age) using a questionnaire containing items related to the TRA plus items reflecting two additional constructs (SE and PBC). In all, 433 students completed the questionnaires. The results obtained from SEM indicated a better fit to the data for the TRA with SE compared to the TPB (TRA with PBC) and TRA (χ2/df=2.55, RMSEA=0.072, CFI=0.96, NFI=0.94, NNFI=0.95, SRMR=0.058). Comparing SE and PBC, the results showed that self-efficacy was a better control construct in improving the TRA and predicting substance use avoidance intention (41%). The TRA with SE had a better model fit than TPB and the original version of the TRA.
Hammami, Amri; Randers, Morten B.; Kasmi, Sofien
, and enjoyment responses. Over 8 weeks, the between-group analysis revealed that soccer training had a large beneficial effect on postural balance (45%) when compared with control group with unclear effects on other fitness parameters. Conclusion: Adolescent soccer players had markedly higher physical fitness......, postural balance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity. After baseline testing, Purposes 2 and 3 were addressed by randomly assigning the untrained boys to either a soccer-training group (small-sided games, 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks) or to a control group, followed by identical retesting. Results......: At baseline, physical fitness was higher (p postural balance. Small-sided games using 6 v 6 or 4 v 4 elicited similar heart rate (HR) (mean: ~ 85% peak heart rate, HRpeak), rate of perceived exertion...
Sanli Sadi Kurdak
Full Text Available Wrestling requires strength of the upper and lower body musculature which is critical for the athletic performance. Evaluation of the adolescent's skeletal muscle is important to understand body movement, especially including those involved in sports. Strength, power and endurance capacity are defined as parameters of skeletal muscle biomechanical properties. The isokinetic dynamometer is an important toll for making this type of evaluation. However, load range phase of range of motion has to be considered to interpret the data correctly. With this in mind we aimed to investigate the lover body musculature contractile characteristics of adolescent wrestlers together with detailed analyses of load range phase of motion. Thirteen boys aged 12 - 14 years participated to this study. Concentric load range torque, work and power of knee extension and flexion were measured by a Cybex Norm dynamometer at angular velocities from 450°/sec to 30°/sec with 30°/sec decrements for each set. None of the wrestlers were able to attain load range for angular velocities above 390°/sec and 420°/sec for extension and flexion respectively. Detailed analyses of the load range resulted in statistically significant differences in the normalized load range peak torque for extension at 270°/sec (1.44 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.14 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05, and for flexion at 300°/sec (1.26 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.03 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05, compared to total peak torque data. Similarly, the significant difference was found for the work values at 90°/sec (1.91 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 and 1.59 ± 0.24 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for extension and 1.73 ± 0.21 Nm·kg-1 and 1.49 ± 0.19 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for flexion, p < 0.05, and was evident at higher angular velocities (p < 0.001 for both extension and flexion. At
Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M
In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese
Aiello, Brittnie; McQueeny, Krista
This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers.…
Zakharova, E; Miller, J; Unterwald, E; Wade, D; Izenwasser, S
This study was done to determine whether social and environmental factors alter cocaine reward and proteins implicated in mediating drug reward in rats during early adolescence. On postnatal day (PND) 23, rats were housed under conditions where both social (number of rats per cage) and environmental (availability of toys) factors were manipulated. Socially isolated rats were housed alone impoverished with no toys (II) or enriched with toys (IE). Social rats were housed two rats/cage with no toys (SI2) or with toys (SE2), or three/cage with (SE3) or without (SI3) toys. On PND 43, cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) sessions began with the post-test done on PND 47. Cocaine CPP was established in response to 5 or 10 mg/kg cocaine in II rats, and CPP was decreased with the addition of cage mates or toys. No CPP was seen to any dose in SI3 or SE3 rats. Enriched housing (SE3) increased dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens compared to II. There also were differential effects of cocaine on tyrosine hydroxylase and DAT depending on housing, with both increased by cocaine in II but not SE3 rats. DARPP-32 was unchanged by housing or cocaine, while phospho-Thr(34)-DARPP-32 was increased by cocaine treatment across conditions. Thus, both social and environmental enrichment decrease cocaine CPP during adolescence and different housing alters proteins that regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission in a manner that may account for the observed differences in cocaine-induced reward.
Caruso, M J; Reiss, D E; Caulfield, J I; Thomas, J L; Baker, A N; Cavigelli, S A; Kamens, H M
Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress. Adolescent male and female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to either chronic variable social stress (CVSS) or control conditions. CVSS consisted of repeated cycles of social isolation and social reorganization. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and social approach-avoidance test, respectively. Nicotine responses were assessed with acute effects on body temperature, corticosterone production, locomotor activity, and voluntary oral nicotine consumption. Adolescent stress had sex-dependent effects on nicotine responses and exploratory behavior, but did not affect anxiety-like behavior or social avoidance in males or females. Adult CVSS males exhibited less exploratory behavior, as indicated by reduced exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test, compared to controls. Adolescent stress did not affect nicotine-induced hypothermia in either sex, but CVSS males exhibited augmented nicotine-induced locomotion during late adolescence and voluntarily consumed less nicotine during adulthood. Stress effects on male nicotine-induced locomotion were associated with individual differences in exploratory locomotion in the EPM and social approach-avoidance test. Relative to controls, adult CVSS males and females also exhibited reduced corticosterone levels at baseline and adult male CVSS mice exhibited increased corticosterone levels following an acute nicotine injection. Results
Purves-Tyson Tertia D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting
Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A
The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.
Asker, Martin; Holm, Lena W; Källberg, Henrik; Waldén, Markus; Skillgate, Eva
Shoulder problems are frequent among senior elite handball players. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of shoulder problems among adolescent elite handball players and to investigate potential differences in gender, school grade, playing position and playing level. During the 2014 and 2015 pre-season periods, 471 players (age 15-18 years, 54% female) completed a comprehensive baseline questionnaire regarding history of any shoulder pain and shoulder problems experienced during the past season. The players were monitored weekly for one competition season (September-April) regarding shoulder problems and the amount of match and training. Generalised linear models with a binomial link function were used to calculate a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare the subgroups of players. In total, 110 players (23%) reported having substantial shoulder problems (defined as moderate/severe reduction in training volume, or moderate/severe reduction in performance, or complete inability to participate) at some point during the follow-up season, of which almost half reported complete inability to participate. Of those players reporting substantial problems, 43% (95% CI 39-48) did so for at least 3 consecutive weeks during the season. The prevalence was significantly higher in female players (PR 1.46, 95% 1.04-2.06) and in backcourt players (PR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.32), but no differences were found for school grade (PR 1.21 95% CI 0.88-1.67) or playing level (PR 1.09 95% CI 0.76-1.56). The prevalence of substantial shoulder problems in adolescent elite handball players is high, especially among females, and this warrants further studies on risk factors for shoulder injury and the development of prevention strategies in handball players already before the age of 15. These findings also highlight the importance of introducing a clinical monitoring programme on a routine basis and improving the medical support, taking gender
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G
To examine whether parental incarceration is significantly associated with a number of sleep and eating behaviors among offspring during early childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an at-risk sample of parents and their offspring, were employed to test this possibility. Both maternal and paternal incarceration history were examined as predictors of whether children manifested high levels of the following 7 health behaviors: sleep problems, short sleep duration, salty snack consumption, starch consumption, sweets consumption, soda consumption, and fast food consumption. Logistic regression techniques were used to carry out the analyses. Both maternal and paternal incarceration significantly increased the odds of a number of risky sleep and eating behaviors during childhood. Ancillary analysis also revealed that the predicted probability of exhibiting multiple risky behaviors across the sleep and eating domains was twice as large among children whose parents had both been incarcerated, relative to children whose parents had not been incarcerated. Parental incarceration may have important implications for the sleep and eating behaviors of offspring. Both scholars and practitioners may, therefore, want to consider the possible negative repercussions of parental incarceration for the sleep and eating behaviors of children, and the potential for these high-risk health behaviors to compromise the health and well-being of children as they age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garfield, Craig F; Abbott, Collin; Rutsohn, Joshua; Penedo, Frank
The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between the transition to fatherhood and depressive symptoms scores among Hispanic men. Using the sample of Hispanic men included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, depressive symptom scores were examined from 1994 to 2008. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created that included the men's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores as well as residency status with the child. By regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptom scores, associations between mental health scores of Hispanic men and their transition to fatherhood were identified. Among the 1,715 Hispanic men, resident ( n = 502) and nonresident ( n = 99) Hispanic fathers reported an increase in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during the first 5 years after entrance into fatherhood (β = 0.150, 95% CI [0.062, 0.239] and β = 0.153, 95% CI [0.034, 0.271], respectively) compared to non-fathers ( n = 1,114), representing an increase of 10% for resident fathers and a 15% for nonresident fathers. Hispanic non-fathers reported a decrease in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during parallel ages. Hispanic fathers, regardless of residency status, reported increased depressive symptoms in the first 5 years after the transition into fatherhood, a period critical in child development.
Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning
The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.
Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E
Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.
Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.
African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821
Amodeo, Leslie R.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Humphrey, Danielle E.; Varela, Veronica; Pipkin, Joseph A.; Eaton, Shannon E.; Johnson, Jelesa D.; Plant, Christopher P.; Harmony, Zachary R.; Wang, Li; Crawford, Cynthia A.
Rationale The SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is one of the few drugs that is effective at treating depression in adolescent humans. In contrast, the SSRI paroxetine has limited efficacy and is more at risk for inducing suicidal behavior. Objective The purpose of the present study was to more fully characterize the differential actions of paroxetine and fluoxetine. Methods In Experiment 1, male and female rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), or vehicle for 10 days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35, and affective behaviors were assessed using sucrose preference and elevated plus maze tasks. A separate set of rats were used to examine monoamine levels. In Experiment 2, rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), or vehicle during the same time frame as Experiment 1 and anxiety-like behaviors were measured using elevated plus maze, light/dark box, and acoustic startle. Results Repeated SSRI treatment failed to alter sucrose preference, although both paroxetine and fluoxetine reduced time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and light compartment of the light/dark box. Paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, enhanced acoustic startle and interfered with habituation. Serotonin turnover was decreased by both acute and repeated fluoxetine treatment but unaltered by paroxetine administration. Discussion These results show that repeated treatment with paroxetine and fluoxetine has dissociable actions in adolescent rats. In particular, paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, increases acoustic startle at low doses and may increase sensitivity to environmental stressors. PMID:26141193
MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A
Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is
Ramstein, J J; Halpern, J; Gadzinski, A J; Brannigan, R E; Smith, J F
The successful treatment of boys with cancer has led to increasing attention to preserving their quality of life after completing cancer therapy. One of the top priorities for living a full life is keeping open the opportunity to have children. While sperm banking for males facing sterilizing cancer treatment can be effective, this approach requires subsequent use of reproductive procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) to achieve a pregnancy. Advances in fertility preservation techniques may allow pre-pubertal boys to conceive using advanced stem cell technologies and stem cell transplantation in the future. This review summarizes the ethical positions of leading medical societies and explores the religious and moral stances of major religious institutions regarding these options. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Garde, K.; Mortensen, A.C.; Toft, P.B.; Soerensen, M.B.; Madsen, F.F.; Henriksen, O.
We report 3 cases of 31 P and 1 H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1 H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31 P-spectra were obtained using the chemical shift imaging technique. Medical treatment including controlled ventilation and sedation of the patients was carried out during the examination. The first patient was evaluated on days 6 and 10 after evacuation of an acute subdural haematoma. An intracranial pressure of 35 mm Hg was registered during the first examination. The 2nd patient had suffered a spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage and showed clinical signs of imminent incarceration during the examination. The 3rd patient showed clinical signs of incarceration just prior to the examination. In the 1st patient 1 H-MRS showed a 3-fold increase in the concentration of choline-containing compounds and a small decrease in N-acetyl aspartate from the 1st to the 2nd examination, which we interpret as a loss of neurones. In case 2 only small changes in metabolism could be detected, indicating that, despite signs of imminent clinical incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1 H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31 P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death. (orig.)
Lilian Messias Sampaio Brito
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n6p678 The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF levels on the prevalence of overweight and high blood pressure levels in adolescents. In this observational, cross-sectional study, 614 boys aged 10-14 years were assessed for height, body mass, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP. CRF was assessed using a run test (Léger Test and subjects were then grouped according to their CRF level. PA level was assessed through a questionnaire (The Three Day Physical Activity Recall and classified into two groups, namely > 300 minutes of PA/week and < 300 minutes of PA/week. Maturational stage was evaluated according to the development of pubic hair (self-assessment as proposed by Tanner. We used statistical descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analyses in the total participants and subjects were divided by age. Fifty percent of the sample performed < 300 minutes of PA/week and 67.6% had unsatisfactory CRF levels. There was a higher prevalence of unsatisfactory CRF levels among subjects with altered BMI (overweight, WC (abdominal obesity or BP (high blood pressure for all age groups. PA history, however, did not show any significance. A total of 31% of participants were overweight, 24.8% had abdominal obesity and 15.4% had increased BP. Unsatisfactory CRF levels were found to be a better predictor for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CV risk factors than PA history, regardless of age group.
Bölting, Stefanie; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus
Individual differences in behaviour are widespread in the animal kingdom and often influenced by the size or composition of the social group during early development. In many vertebrates the effects of social interactions early in life on adult behaviour are mediated by changes in maturation and physiology. Specifically, increases in androgens and glucocorticoids in response to social stimulation seem to play a prominent role in shaping behaviour during development. In addition to the prenatal and early postnatal phase, adolescence has more recently been identified as an important period during which adult behaviour and physiology are shaped by the social environment, which so far has been studied mostly in mammals. We raised zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ) under three environmental conditions differing in social complexity during adolescence - juvenile pairs, juvenile groups, and mixed-age groups - and studied males' behavioural, endocrine, and morphological maturation, and later their adult behaviour. As expected, group-housed males exhibited higher frequencies of social interactions. Group housing also enhanced song during adolescence, plumage development, and the frequency and intensity of adult courtship and aggression. Some traits, however, were affected more in juvenile groups and others in mixed-age groups. Furthermore, a testosterone peak during late adolescence was suppressed in groups with adults. In contrast, corticosterone concentrations did not differ between rearing environments. Unexpectedly, adult courtship in a test situation was lowest in pair-reared males and aggression depended upon the treatment of the opponent with highest rates shown by group-reared males towards pair-reared males. This contrasts with previous findings, possibly due to differences in photoperiod and the acoustic environment. Our results support the idea that effects of the adolescent social environment on adult behaviour in vertebrates are mediated by changes in
Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A
Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection
Background Delinquent youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits may have a unique social-cognitive processing pattern that perpetuates their violent behavior. The current study examined the association between CU traits and the endorsement of deviant social goals during peer conflicts as well as expectancies and values regarding victim suffering following aggression. Methods Participants included 156 (84 males, 72 females) adjudicated juveniles residing at two gender-specific residential facilities in an urban city within the southeastern United States. The association between CU traits and participants' ratings of their social goals in hypothetic conflict situations and outcome expectancies/values regarding victim suffering were examined after controlling for prior violence, intelligence, and demographic covariates. Results CU traits were associated with an increased endorsement of social goals associated with revenge, dominance, and forced respect in social conflict situations. Adjudicated youth with CU traits were also less likely to endorse conflict avoidance and friendship building as important social goals when provoked by peers. There was no association between CU traits and expectations for victim suffering following aggression, but CU traits were significantly associated with lower levels of concern about victim suffering. These findings were significant after controlling for participants' prior history violence, intelligence, and demographic covariates. Conclusions Adjudicated youth with CU traits tend to emphasize power-oriented goals when provoked by peers and have little interest in rectifying social conflicts to build potential friendships with others. Juveniles with CU traits seem to be aware that their aggressive behavior will cause others to suffer, but they do not care when it does. PMID:21073459
Full Text Available Abstract Most Spanish prisons provide specialised treatment for incarcerated sex offenders, both rapists and child molesters. This treatment is a cognitive-behavioural intervention that has shown relative effectiveness in previous research. With regard to offenders’ rehabilitation, recidivism assessments are necessary as a final measure of treatment effectiveness. However, the evaluation of recidivism by itself does not provide sufficient information on the treatment process and the specific effects that treated subjects could undergo. This paper aims to analyse the therapeutic effectiveness of psychological treatment provided to rapists (in general, males sentenced for committing a sexual offence against women. To this aim, a group of treated rapists (N=153 serving a sentence in prison was analysed. Using a specially designed scale (PASSO, the global therapeutic change and ten specific variables (including assertiveness, readiness to change, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, etc. were assessed. The within-subjects comparison showed that treated sex offenders improved, in therapeutic terms, globally as well as in most of the specific variables assessed (improvements not experimented by the control group. Also, different therapeutic subscales showed relevant associations between them. The findings regarding treatment effectiveness are discussed.
Mohammad Hadi Abasi
Full Text Available Background: Self-regulation is one of the current psychological concepts that have been known as a determinant of leisure time physical activity. Due to cultural and social diversity in different societies and age groups, application of specific questionnaires is essential to perform investigations about physical activities. The aim of this study is development and evaluation of psychometric properties of a self-regulation questionnaire about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, and data of 603 male students from 12 high schools in Isfahan were collected. A comprehensive literature review and similar questionnaire review were conducted and 25 items were selected or developed to measure self-regulation. Comprehensibility of items was evaluated in a pilot study and an expert panel evaluated face and content validity. Exploratory factors analysis (EFA was used for evaluation of construct validity and extraction of sub-constructs of self-regulation. Leisure time physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Results: The mean age of the participants was 16.3 years (SD =1.0 and the range was 15-19 years. Cronbach′s α coefficient of the questionnaire in the pilot and main study was 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. EFA resulted in four sub-constructs including "enlistment of social support," "goal setting," "self-construction," and "self-monitoring," which explained 63.6% of the variance of self-regulation. Conclusions: Results of this investigation provide some support to the validity and reliability of the 16-item questionnaire of self-regulation abut leisure time physical activity in the target group.
Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shiri, Mansoor
Self-regulation is one of the current psychological concepts that have been known as a determinant of leisure time physical activity. Due to cultural and social diversity in different societies and age groups, application of specific questionnaires is essential to perform investigations about physical activities. The aim of this study is development and evaluation of psychometric properties of a self-regulation questionnaire about leisure time physical activity in Iranian male adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, and data of 603 male students from 12 high schools in Isfahan were collected. A comprehensive literature review and similar questionnaire review were conducted and 25 items were selected or developed to measure self-regulation. Comprehensibility of items was evaluated in a pilot study and an expert panel evaluated face and content validity. Exploratory factors analysis (EFA) was used for evaluation of construct validity and extraction of sub-constructs of self-regulation. Leisure time physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The mean age of the participants was 16.3 years (SD =1.0) and the range was 15-19 years. Cronbach's α coefficient of the questionnaire in the pilot and main study was 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. EFA resulted in four sub-constructs including "enlistment of social support", "goal setting", "self-construction", and "self-monitoring", which explained 63.6% of the variance of self-regulation. Results of this investigation provide some support to the validity and reliability of the 16-item questionnaire of self-regulation abut leisure time physical activity in the target group.
McCormick, C.M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Sheridan, C.S.; Nixon, F.; Flynn, J.A.; Mathews, I.Z.
The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and
Perry, Jennifer L; Anderson, Marissa M; Nelson, Sarah E; Carroll, Marilyn E
Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consisted of two 6-h sessions. In the first 6 h, rats were given non-contingent cocaine infusions at random intervals 10 times per hour, and during the second 6-h session, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) lever-response contingency. Acquisition was defined as a total of at least 250 infusions over 5 consecutive days, and rats were given 30 days to meet the acquisition criterion. Subsequently, saccharin phenotype scores were determined by comparing 24-h saccharin and water consumption in two-bottle tests to verify HiS/LoS status. Adolescent LoS rats had a faster rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration than adult LoS rats; however, adolescent and adult HiS rats acquired at the same rate. Both HiS and LoS adolescents had significantly higher saccharin phenotype scores than HiS and LoS adults, respectively. Additionally, saccharin score was negatively correlated with the number of days to meet the acquisition criterion for cocaine self-administration, but this was mostly accounted for by the HiS adolescents. These results suggest that during adolescence, compared with adulthood, rats have both an increased avidity for sweets and vulnerability to initiate drug abuse.
Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael
Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.
Khoo, Selina; Al-Shamli, Ali Khalifa
This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a hand grip test; and a 1-minute sit-up test. Students spent an average of 19.20 ± 6.77 hours on sedentary activities, 3.46 ± 2.11 hours on sports activities, and 11.22 ± 9.24 hours working per week. The students had an average body fat percentage of 6.38% ± 4.67%, muscle strength 38.04 ± 7.55 kg, flexibility 38.01 ± 7.41 cm, abdominal muscle endurance 38.85 ± 8.15 times/min, and cardiovascular endurance 8.10 ± 1.65 minutes.
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a complex training program, a combined practice of weight training and plyometrics, on explosive strength development of young basketball players. Twenty-five young male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were assessed using squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT), before and after a 10-week in-season training program. Both the control group (CG; n = 10) and the experimental group (EG; n = 15) kept up their regular sports practice; additionally, the EG performed 2 sessions per week of a complex training program. The EG significantly improved in the SJ, CMJ, ABA, and MBT values (p training to improve the upper and lower body explosivity levels in young basketball players. In conclusion, this study showed that more strength conditioning is needed during the sport practice season. Furthermore, we also conclude that complex training is a useful working tool for coaches, innovative in this strength-training domain, equally contributing to a better time-efficient training.
Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal
Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of detraining and of a reduced training program on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. To study this, 15 subjects, aged 14 to 15 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 following groups: reduced training (RT; n = 8) and detraining (DTR; n = 7). The participants were assessed on squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT) after a 10-week in-season complex training program (T0) and at the end of 4 (T4), 8 (T8), 12 (T12), and 16 (T16) weeks of detraining and of the reduced training periods. Both groups showed maintenance of explosive strength values and statistical similarity between them whatever the moment of evaluation. In conclusion, 16 weeks of detraining or of reduced training allow for the maintenance of the gains previously achieved by the application of a 10-week in-season complex training program. However, the lack of differences between detraining and reduced training leads to the conclusion that regular basketball practice can sustain by itself the previously achieved explosive strength gains, considering its mainly explosive characteristics.
Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J Mark
More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents ( N =357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed.
Chandran, Jonathan James; Anderson, Gail; Kennedy, Andrew; Kohn, Michael; Clarke, Simon
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a potentially lethal eating disorder. This case example of a male, G, aged 17 years with ARFID illustrates the multiplicity of health problems related to nutritional deficiencies which may develop in an adolescent of normal weight. Of particular concern was the diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord and the real possibility that G may have irreversible damage to his spinal cord. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with SCD of the spinal cord due to ARFID. The adolescent was found to be deficient in Vitamin A, E, K, D, B12, and folate. Management required vitamin replacement, initial nasogastric feeding and the slow introduction of a varied diet. This patient will require long term rehabilitation. Medical practitioners need to be attuned to abnormal eating patterns in children and adolescents and refer for specialist care early. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schneider, Daniel; Turney, Kristin
Rising incarceration rates in the United States, as well as the concentration of incarceration among already marginalized individuals, has led some scholars to suggest that incarceration increases economic inequality among American men. But little is known about the consequences of incarceration for wealth, about incarceration's contribution to Black-White disparities in wealth, or about the broader effects of incarceration on communities. In this article, we use state-level panel data (from 1985 to 2005) to examine the relationship between incarceration rates and the Black-White gap in homeownership, a distinct and important measure of wealth. Results, which are robust to an array of model specifications and robustness checks, show that incarceration rates diminish homeownership rates among Blacks and, in doing so, widen Black-White inequalities in homeownership. Therefore, the findings suggest that the consequences of incarceration extend beyond the offender and may increase inequality in household wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Genberg, Becky L; Astemborski, Jacquie; Vlahov, David; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H
There is limited longitudinal research examining incarceration and subsequent changes in drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. The objective of the current study was to characterize the frequency of incarceration and estimate the association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use among current and former PWIDs in one US city. ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) is a prospective cohort study of current and former PWIDs, with semi-annual follow-up occurring since 1988. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A total of 3245 participants with 48 738 study visits were included. Participants enrolled from 1988 to 2012 with a median of 13 follow-up visits per participant (Interquartile range = 7-25). Incarcerations were defined as any self-reported jail or prison stays in the previous 6 months that were ≥7 days or longer. The primary outcome was defined as any self-reported injection drug use in the previous 6 months. At baseline, 29% were female, 90% African American and 33% HIV-positive. Fifty-seven per cent of participants experienced at least one incarceration episode. After adjusting for confounders, there was a positive association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.59]; however, stratified analysis showed that the effect was restricted to those who were not injecting at the time of incarceration (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.88-2.37). In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Walters, Glenn D; Kiehl, Kent A
The purpose of this study was to determine whether scores on two temperament dimensions (fearlessness and disinhibition) correlated differentially with gray matter volumes in two limbic regions (amygdala and hippocampus). It was predicted that the fearlessness dimension would correlate with low gray matter volumes in the amygdala and the disinhibition dimension would correlate with low gray matter volumes in the hippocampus after controlling for age, IQ, regular substance use, and total brain volume. Participants were 191 male adolescents (age range=13-19 years) incarcerated in a maximum-security juvenile facility. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of the limbic and paralimbic regions of the brain was conducted. The temperament dimensions were estimated with items from the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV: Forth et al., 2003). Analyses showed that the fearlessness dimension correlated negatively with gray matter volumes in the amygdala and the disinhibition dimension correlated negatively with gray matter volumes in the hippocampus but not vice versa. These findings provide preliminary support for the construct validity of the fearlessness and disinhibition temperament dimensions and offer confirmatory evidence for involvement of the amygdala and hippocampus in fear conditioning and behavioral inhibition, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buckley, Tamara R
Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combination of feminine and masculine gender roles, rather than hypermasculine. A canonical correlation analysis found that Black racial identity attitudes (RIAS-L) and gender roles simultaneously contributed to significant relationships with total and school self-concept. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Delextrat, Anne; Spiteri, Tania; Dalbo, Vincent J; Stanton, Robert; Kean, Crystal O
This study quantified lower-limb strength decrements and assessed the relationships between strength decrements and performance fatigue during simulated basketball. Ten adolescent, male basketball players completed a circuit-based, basketball simulation. Sprint and jump performance were assessed during each circuit, with knee flexion and extension peak concentric torques measured at baseline, half-time, and full-time. Decrement scores were calculated for all measures. Mean knee flexor strength decrement was significantly (P jump fatigue during the entire game. Lower-limb strength decrements may exert an important influence on performance fatigue during basketball activity in adolescent, male players. Consequently, training plans should aim to mitigate lower-limb fatigue to optimise sprint and jump performance during game-play.
Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847
A growing literature has documented the mostly deleterious intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration, but less research has considered heterogeneity in these relationships. In this article, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,065) to estimate the heterogeneous relationship between paternal incarceration and children's problem behaviors (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and early juvenile delinquency) and cognitive skills (reading comprehension, math comprehension, and verbal ability) in middle childhood. Taking into account children's risk of experiencing paternal incarceration, measured by the social contexts in which children are embedded (e.g., father's residential status, poverty, neighborhood disadvantage) reveals that the consequences-across all outcomes except early juvenile delinquency-are more deleterious for children with relatively low risks of exposure to paternal incarceration than for children with relatively high risks of exposure to paternal incarceration. These findings suggest that the intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration are more complicated than documented in previous research and, more generally, suggest that research on family inequality consider both differential selection into treatments and differential responses to treatments.
Wolff, Nancy; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Frueh, B Christopher; Hoover, Donald R; McHugo, Gregory
A controlled trial of Seeking Safety (SS) and Male-Trauma Recovery Empowerment Model (M-TREM) examined implementation and effectiveness of integrated group therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) on PTSD and mental health symptoms plus self-esteem and efficacy for incarcerated men. The study sample (n=230) was male inmates 18 years or older who were primarily non-white, high school graduates or equivalents, had childhood trauma histories, committed violent crimes, had serious mental illnesses, and resided in a maximum security prison. Incarcerated men, who screened positive for PTSD and SUD, were assigned randomly (n=142) or by preference (n=88) to receive SS or M-TREM, with a waitlist group of (n=93). Manualized interventions were group-administered for 14 weeks. Primary outcomes were PTSD and other mental health symptoms. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, coping, and self-efficacy. SUD outcomes cannot be measured in a correctional setting. Implementation feasibility was exhibited by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participants. Effectiveness findings depended on sample, design, and method for analysis. Using a waitlist control group and no follow-up period, we found no aggregate effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms, although, when disaggregated, M-TREM was found to improve PTSD severity and SS improved general mental health symptoms and psychological functioning. Using intent-to-treat and completer analyses, no significant differences were found in the relative performance between SS and M-TREM on primary or secondary outcomes. When longitudinal data were maximized and modeled in ways that reflect the hierarchical nature of the data, we found that SS and M-TREM performed better than no treatment on PTSD severity and secondary outcomes, and that treatment benefits endured. Findings cautiously support implementing either Seeking Safety or M-TREM to treat incarcerated men with co-morbid PTSD
Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Grilli, Massimo; Prini, Pamela; Catanese, Alberto; Pittaluga, Anna; Marchi, Mario; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela
Cannabis use has been frequently associated with sex-dependent effects on brain and behavior. We previously demonstrated that adult female rats exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence develop long-term alterations in cognitive performances and emotional reactivity, whereas preliminary evidence suggests the presence of a different phenotype in male rats. To thoroughly depict the behavioral phenotype induced by adolescent THC exposure in male rats, we treated adolescent animals with increasing doses of THC twice a day (PND 35-45) and, at adulthood, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to measure affective- and psychotic-like symptoms as well as cognition. Poorer memory performance and psychotic-like behaviors were present after adolescent THC treatment in male rats, without alterations in the emotional component. At cellular level, the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit, GluN2B, as well as the levels of the AMPA subunits, GluA1 and GluA2, were significantly increased in hippocampal post-synaptic fractions from THC-exposed rats compared to controls. Furthermore, increases in the levels of the pre-synaptic marker, synaptophysin, and the post-synaptic marker, PSD95, were also present. Interestingly, KCl-induced [(3)H]D-ASP release from hippocampal synaptosomes, but not gliosomes, was significantly enhanced in THC-treated rats compared to controls. Moreover, in the same brain region, adolescent THC treatment also resulted in a persistent neuroinflammatory state, characterized by increased expression of the astrocyte marker, GFAP, increased levels of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, as well as a concomitant reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Notably, none of these alterations was observed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Together with our previous findings in females, these data suggest that the sex-dependent detrimental effects induced by adolescent THC exposure on adult behavior may rely on its