WorldWideScience

Sample records for incandescence measurements carried

  1. Laser-induced incandescence: Towards quantitative soot volume fraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzannis, A P; Wienbeucker, F; Beaud, P; Frey, H -M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Laser-Induced Incandescence has recently emerged as a versatile tool for measuring soot volume fraction in a wide range of combustion systems. In this work we investigate the essential features of the method. LII is based on the acquisition of the incandescence of soot when heated through a high power laser pulse. Initial experiments have been performed on a model laboratory flame. The behaviour of the LII signal is studied experimentally. By applying numerical calculations we investigate the possibility to obtain two-dimensional soot volume fraction distributions. For this purpose a combination of LII with other techniques is required. This part is discussed in some extent and the future work is outlined. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  2. Laser-induced incandescence measurements in a fired diesel engine at 3 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxx, I. G.; Heinold, O.; Geigle, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced incandescence (LII) was performed at 3 kHz in an optically accessible cylinder of a fired diesel engine using a commercially available diode-pumped solid-state laser and an intensified CMOS camera. The resulting images, acquired every 3° of crank angle, enabled the spatiotemporal tracking of soot structures during the expansion/exhaust stroke of the engine cycle. The image sequences demonstrate that soot tends to form in thin sheets that propagate and interact with the in-cylinder flow. These sheets tend to align parallel to the central axis of the cylinder and are frequently wrapped into conical spirals by aerodynamic swirl. Most of the soot is observed well away from the cylinder walls. Quantitative soot measurements were beyond the scope of this study but the results demonstrate the practical utility of using kHz-rate LII to acquire ensemble-averaged statistical data with high crank angle resolution over a complete engine cycle. Based on semi-quantitative measures of soot distribution, it was possible to identify soot dynamics related to incomplete charge exchange. This study shows that long-duration, multi-kHz acquisition rate LII measurements are viable in a fired diesel engine with currently available laser and camera technology, albeit only in the expansion and exhaust phase of the cycle at present. Furthermore, such measurements yield useful insight into soot dynamics and therefore constitute an important new tool for the development and optimization of diesel engine technology.

  3. Laser-induced incandescence of titania nanoparticles synthesized in a flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoli, F.; Bellomunno, C.; Maffi, S.; Zizak, G.

    2009-09-01

    Laser induced incandescence experiments were carried out in a flame reactor during titania nanoparticle synthesis. The structure of the reactor employed allowed for a rather smooth particle growth along the flame axis, with limited mixing of different size particles. Particle incandescence was excited by the 4th harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The radiation emitted from the particles was recorded in time and checked by spectral analysis. Results were compared with measurements from transmission electron microscopy of samples taken at the same locations probed by incandescence. This was done covering a portion of the flame length within which a particle size growth of a factor of about four was detected . The incandescence decay time was found to increase monotonically with particle size. The attainment of a process control tool in nanoparticle flame synthesis appears to be realistic.

  4. Quantifying uncertainty in soot volume fraction estimates using Bayesian inference of auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Paul J.; Sipkens, T. A.; Thomson, K. A.; Liu, F.; Daun, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) infers the soot volume fraction (SVF) of soot particles by comparing the spectral incandescence from laser-energized particles to the pyrometrically inferred peak soot temperature. This calculation requires detailed knowledge of model parameters such as the absorption function of soot, which may vary with combustion chemistry, soot age, and the internal structure of the soot. This work presents a Bayesian methodology to quantify such uncertainties. This technique treats the additional "nuisance" model parameters, including the soot absorption function, as stochastic variables and incorporates the current state of knowledge of these parameters into the inference process through maximum entropy priors. While standard AC-LII analysis provides a point estimate of the SVF, Bayesian techniques infer the posterior probability density, which will allow scientists and engineers to better assess the reliability of AC-LII inferred SVFs in the context of environmental regulations and competing diagnostics.

  5. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  6. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  7. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  8. Light scattering and extinction measurements combined with laser-induced incandescence for the real-time determination of soot mass absorption cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiyi; Ma, Lulu; Cao, Tingting; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Jun; Buseck, Peter R; Thompson, J E

    2013-10-01

    An aerosol albedometer was combined with laser-induced incandescence (LII) to achieve simultaneous measurements of aerosol scattering, extinction coefficient, and soot mass concentration. Frequency doubling of a Nd:YAG laser line resulted in a colinear beam of both λ = 532 and 1064 nm. The green beam was used to perform cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), with simultaneous measurements of scattering coefficient made through use of a reciprocal sphere nephelometer. The 1064 nm beam was selected and directed into a second integrating sphere and used for LII of light-absorbing kerosene lamp soot. Thermal denuder experiments showed the LII signals were not affected by the particle mixing state when laser peak power was 1.5-2.5 MW. The combined measurements of optical properties and soot mass concentration allowed determination of mass absorption cross section (M.A.C., m(2)/g) with 1 min time resolution when soot concentrations were in the low microgram per cubic meter range. Fresh kerosene nanosphere soot (ns-soot) exhibited a mean M.A.C and standard deviation of 9.3 ± 2.7 m(2)/g while limited measurements on dry ambient aerosol yielded an average of 8.2 ± 5.9 m(2)/g when soot was >0.25 μg/m(3). The method also detected increases in M.A.C. values associated with enhanced light absorption when polydisperse, laboratory-generated ns-soot particles were embedded within or coated with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and glycerol. Glycerol coatings produced the largest fractional increase in M.A.C. (1.41-fold increase), while solid coatings of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate produced increases of 1.10 and 1.06, respectively. Fresh, ns-soot did not exhibit increased M.A.C. at high relative humidity (RH); however, lab-generated soot coated with ammonium nitrate and held at 85% RH exhibited M.A.C. values nearly double the low-humidity case. The hybrid instrument for simultaneously tracking soot mass concentration and aerosol optical properties in real time is a

  9. Phase out of incandescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Since early 2007 almost all OECD and many non-OECD governments have announced policies aimed at phasing-out incandescent lighting within their jurisdictions. This study considers the implications of these policy developments in terms of demand for regulatory compliant lamps and the capacity and motivation of the lamp industry to produce efficient lighting products in sufficient volume to meet future demand. To assess these issues, it reviews the historic international screw-based lamp market, describes the status of international phase-out policies and presents projections of anticipated market responses to regulatory requirements to determine future demand for CFLs.

  10. Materials for incandescent and fluorescent lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Knud Aage

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the materials systems used for incandescent lamps as well as a brief introduction to the systems used for fluorescent lamps. The materials used for incandescent lamps are doped tungsten used for the filaments, metals and alloys used for terminal and support posts......, lead wires and internal reflectors and screens as well as glasses for the envelope. The physics of bulbs and changes in bulbs during use are elucidated. The cost and energy savings and environmental benefits by replacement of incandescent lamps by fluorescent lamps are presented....

  11. Radiation doses from radioactivity in incandescent mantles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Thorium nitrate is used in the production of incandescent mantles for gas lanterns. In this report dose estimates are given for internal and external exposure that result from the use of the incandescent mantles for gas lanterns. The collective, effective dose equivalent for all users of gas mantles is estimated to be about 100 Sv per annum in the Netherlands. For the population involved (ca. 700,000 persons) this is roughly equivalent to 5% to 10% of the collective dose equivalent associated with exposure to radiation from natural sources. The major contribution to dose estimates comes from inhalation of radium during burning of the mantles. A pessimistic approach results in individual dose estimates for inhalation of up to 0.2 mSv. Consideration of dose consequences in case of a fire in a storage department learns that it is necessary for emergency personnel to wear respirators. It is concluded that the uncontrolled removal of used gas mantles to the environment (soil) does not result in a significant contribution to environmental radiation exposure. (Auth.)

  12. SEM investigation of incandescent lamp mantle structure on durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerneke, D.; Lang, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The incandescent mantle as used on pressure and non-pressure liquid fuel lamps has been in use for over 100 years. What remains unexplained is the way in which the resistance to mechanical shock and the decline in tensile strength with usage is experienced. It has been suggested that to improve durability it is necessary to continuously burn a new mantle for the first two to three hours. The known factors in mantle durability and mechanical strength are chemical composition and fabric weave. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of burning time and temperature on thorium oxide mantles. The operating temperature of mantles on a range of kerosene pressure lamps was measured and found to be between 800 and 1100 deg C. Heat treatments of thorium based Coleman mantles were carried out in a laboratory furnace within these ranges of temperatures for periods ranging from 2 minutes to 2 hours. The mantles were then viewed in a LEO S440 analytical SEM. Results at 800 deg C show a distinct change in surface morphology with increasing exposure time. At the shorter times (2-5 minutes) the surface was relatively smooth. With increased time periods (15 - 120 minutes) the surface was observed to have a large lumpy structure. At 1100 deg C the difference in surface morphology was not apparent between the shortest and longest times. The surface appears much smoother and no lumpy structure was observed. This suggests that when a mantle is operated at the higher temperature of 1100 deg C the structure of the Thorium oxide is quickly transformed into the known stronger amorphous form. This is taken as the observed smooth structure seen in the SEM images of the 1100 deg C samples. Thus the mantle is expected to be more resistant to mechanical shock and have increased durability. Practical field test results confirm these observations. The mantle on a lamp that is operating efficiently, burns brightly, will far outlast a mantle on an inefficient lamp which bums

  13. TELEGRAPHS TO INCANDESCENT LAMPS: A SEQUENTIAL PROCESS OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Malone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a sequential process of technological innovation in the emergence of the electrical industry in the United States from 1830 to 1880. Successive inventions that realize the commercial possibilities of electricity provided the foundation for an industry where technical knowledge, invention and diffusion were ultimately consolidated within the managerial structure of new firms. The genesis of the industry is traced, sequentially, through the development of the telegraph, arc light and incandescent lamp. Exploring the origins of the telegraph and incandescent lamp reveals a process where a series of inventions and firms result from successful efforts touse scientific principles to create new commodities and markets.

  14. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  15. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  16. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugan, A; Hassfjell, S [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Finborud, A [Mator, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  17. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, A.; Hassfjell, S.; Finborud, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  18. 30 CFR 75.518-2 - Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit...-General § 75.518-2 Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection. Incandescent lamps installed... or direct current feeder circuits, need not be provided with separate short circuit or overload...

  19. Laser-induced incandescence applied to dusty plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, F.M.J.H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kovacevic, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the laser heating of nanoparticles (diameters ≤1 μm) confined in a reactive plasma by short (150 ps) and intense (~63 mJ) UV (355 nm) laser pulses (laser-induced incandescence, LII). Important parameters such as the particle temperature and radius follow from analysis of the

  20. Measurement and assessment of carrying capacity of the environment in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R Z; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2011-08-01

    Carrying Capacity of the Environment (CCE) provides a useful measure of the sustainable development of a region. Approaches that use integrated assessment instead of measurement can lead to misinterpretation of sustainable development because of confusion between Environmental Stress (ES) indexes and CCE indexes, and the selection of over-simple linear plus models. The present paper proposes a comprehensive measurement system for CCE which comprises models of natural resources capacity, environmental assimilative capacity, ecosystem services capacity, and society supporting capacity. The corresponding measurable indexes are designed to assess CCE using a carrying capacity surplus ratio model and a vector of surplus ratio of carrying capacity model. The former aims at direct comparison of ES and CCE based on the values of basic indexes, and the latter uses a Euclidean vector to assess CCE states. The measurement and assessment approaches are applicable to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and environmental planning and management. A case study is presented for Ningbo, China, whereby all the basic indexes of ECC are measured and the CCE states assessed for 2005 and 2010. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser-induced incandescence of suspended particles as a source of excitation of dye luminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Zelensky, S

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of pulsed YAG-Nd sup 3 sup + laser radiation with submicron light-absorbing particles suspended in an aqueous solution of Rhodamine 6G is investigated experimentally. The experiments demonstrate that the laser-induced incandescence of suspended particles excites the luminescence of the dissolved dye molecules. The mechanism of the luminescence excitation consists in the reabsorption of the thermal radiation within the volume of the sample cell. On the ground of this mechanism of excitation, a method of measurement of the luminescence quantum yield is proposed and realized. The method requires the knowledge of the geometrical parameters of the cell and does not require the use of reference samples.

  2. Kalman filter approach for uncertainty quantification in time-resolved laser-induced incandescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Paul J; Sipkens, Timothy A; Thomson, Kevin A; Liu, Fengshan; Daun, Kyle J

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) data can be used to infer spatially and temporally resolved volume fractions and primary particle size distributions of soot-laden aerosols, but these estimates are corrupted by measurement noise as well as uncertainties in the spectroscopic and heat transfer submodels used to interpret the data. Estimates of the temperature, concentration, and size distribution of soot primary particles within a sample aerosol are typically made by nonlinear regression of modeled spectral incandescence decay, or effective temperature decay, to experimental data. In this work, we employ nonstationary Bayesian estimation techniques to infer aerosol properties from simulated and experimental LII signals, specifically the extended Kalman filter and Schmidt-Kalman filter. These techniques exploit the time-varying nature of both the measurements and the models, and they reveal how uncertainty in the estimates computed from TiRe-LII data evolves over time. Both techniques perform better when compared with standard deterministic estimates; however, we demonstrate that the Schmidt-Kalman filter produces more realistic uncertainty estimates.

  3. Characterization and impact of incandescent particles in the ventilation networks during dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Fire hazards while metal cutting on dismantling operations led IRSN to focus a study on incandescent particles emitted by these cutting tools and their impact on air filter. If micronic particles (≤ 10 μm) have been studied for their negative impact on human health, few studies are dealing with incandescent particles, despite their strong thermal energy. These particles are mainly made of iron, coming from the metal cutting, and the exothermic oxidation reaction coupled to a high temperature emission causes them to molt. An experimental system was designed, representative of dismantling operations with instrumentations adapted for in-flight particles measurement, such as size, velocity and temperature. The particles are characterized from the emission source (automated cut-off grinder) and all along their path into the ventilation duct to their impact on a filter. An analytical approach of the impact of these particles on the filter shows that the temperature of the particles, greater than 430 C damages the filter medium, and may reduce the filter thickness or perforate it, which leads to a decrease of its filtration efficiency determined according to the French standard. Comparison between the characteristics of the particles and the filtration efficiency has permitted to establish empirical correlations in order to predict the loss of filtration efficiency versus the cutting parameters and some good practices have been proposed to protect the filter. (author)

  4. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic for in situ monitoring of nanoparticle synthesis in a high-pressure arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Vekselman, Vladislav; Mitrani, James; Stratton, Brentley; Raitses, Yevgeny; LaboratoryPlasma Nanosynthesis Team

    2016-10-01

    A DC arc discharge is commonly used for synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, including buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, and graphene flakes. In this work we show the first results of nanoparticles monitored during the arc discharge. The graphite electrode is vaporized by high current (60 A) in a buffer Helium gas leading to nanoparticle synthesis in a low temperature plasma. The arc was shown to oscillate, which can possibly influence the nano-synthesis. To visualize the nanoparticles in-situ we employ the LII technique. The nanoparticles with radii >50 nm, emerging from the arc area are heated with a short laser pulse and incandesce. The resulting radiation is captured with an ICCD camera, showing the location of the generated nanoparticles. The images of incandescence are studied together with temporally synchronized fast-framing imaging of C2 emission, to connect the dynamics of arc instabilities, C2 molecules concentration and nanoparticles. The time-resolved incandescence signal is analyzed with combination of ex-situ measurements of the synthesized nanoparticles and LII modeling, to provide the size distribution of produced nanoparticles. This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  5. Report on activity and measurements of surveillance carried out by the national observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariete, M.G.; Belvisi, M.; Calicchia, R.; Fiorenza, R.; Onori, L.; Tamarchio, L.

    1989-01-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident a general radiometric survey of Italian territory was established. To this scope a very extensive program of environmental sampling, measurements, data collection, processing and management of this was carried out. All laboratories of nuclear centers, universities and local public health units, involved in this survey, had a unique aim: the radiological analysis to determine environmental contamination levels or to estimate preliminary population doses, finalized on short term, urgent protective mesures, and on long term, in addition to protective measures and for environmental studies. ENEA DISP, which is equipped by hardware and software instrumentation of its Emergency Center, was responsable for technical preparedness of the program. A National Observatory has been created for determing Cs134, Cs137 and Sr90 level on environmental and food samples on defined locality. The first part of this report presents the type, the frequency and localities where sample was collected. The second part presents the trend of the radioactive contamination on all foodstaffs, as data collected by each laboratory and in term of National mean concentration level

  6. A mobile system for a comprehensive online-characterization of nanoparticle aggregates based on wide-angle light scattering and laser-induced incandescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.will@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Cluster of Excellence Engineering of Advanced Materials (EAM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Altenhoff, Michael [Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen 91052 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A mobile demonstrator for the comprehensive online-characterization of gas-borne nanoparticle aggregates is presented. Two optical measurement techniques are combined, both utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. Aggregate size and fractal dimension are measured by Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS). An ellipsoidal mirror images elastically scattered light from scattering angles between 10° and 165° onto a CCD-camera chip resulting in an almost complete scattering diagram with high angular resolution. Primary particle size and volume fraction are measured by time-resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII). Here, particles are heated up to about 3000 K by the short laser pulse, the enhanced thermal radiation signal is detected with gated photomultiplier tubes. Analysis of the signal decay time and maximum LII-signal allows for the determination of primary particle diameter and volume fraction. The performance of the system is demonstrated by combined measurements on soot nanoparticle aggregates from a soot aerosol generator. Particle and aggregate sizes are varied by using different equivalence ratios of the combustion in the generator. Soot volume fraction can be adjusted by different levels of dilution with air. Online-measurements were carried out demonstrating the favorable performance of the system and the potential for industrial applications such as process control and product development. The particle properties obtained are confirmed through transmission electron microscopy analysis on representative samples.

  7. A mobile system for a comprehensive online-characterization of nanoparticle aggregates based on wide-angle light scattering and laser-induced incandescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan; Altenhoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A mobile demonstrator for the comprehensive online-characterization of gas-borne nanoparticle aggregates is presented. Two optical measurement techniques are combined, both utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. Aggregate size and fractal dimension are measured by Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS). An ellipsoidal mirror images elastically scattered light from scattering angles between 10° and 165° onto a CCD-camera chip resulting in an almost complete scattering diagram with high angular resolution. Primary particle size and volume fraction are measured by time-resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII). Here, particles are heated up to about 3000 K by the short laser pulse, the enhanced thermal radiation signal is detected with gated photomultiplier tubes. Analysis of the signal decay time and maximum LII-signal allows for the determination of primary particle diameter and volume fraction. The performance of the system is demonstrated by combined measurements on soot nanoparticle aggregates from a soot aerosol generator. Particle and aggregate sizes are varied by using different equivalence ratios of the combustion in the generator. Soot volume fraction can be adjusted by different levels of dilution with air. Online-measurements were carried out demonstrating the favorable performance of the system and the potential for industrial applications such as process control and product development. The particle properties obtained are confirmed through transmission electron microscopy analysis on representative samples.

  8. Ignition of a Combustible Atmosphere by Incandescent Carbon Wear Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Swikert, Max A.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1960-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether carbon wear particles from carbon elements in sliding contact with a metal surface were sufficiently hot to cause ignition of a combustible atmosphere. In some machinery, electric potential differences and currents may appear at the carbon-metal interface. For this reason the effect of these voltages and currents on the ability of carbon wear particles to cause ignition was evaluated. The test specimens used in the investigation were carbon vanes taken from a fuel pump and flat 21-inch-diameter 2 metal disks (440-C stainless steel) representing the pump housing. During each experiment a vane was loaded against a disk with a 0.5-pound force, and the disk was rotated to give a surface speed of 3140 feet per minute. The chamber of the apparatus that housed the vane and the disk was filled with a combustible mixture of air and propane. Various voltages and amperages were applied across the vane-disk interface. Experiments were conducted at temperatures of 75, 350, 400, and 450 F. Fires were produced by incandescent carbon wear particles obtained at conditions of electric potential as low as 106 volts and 0.3 ampere at 400 F. Ignitions were obtained only with carbon wear particles produced with an electric potential across the carbon-vane-disk interface. No ignitions were obtained with carbon wear particles produced in the absence of this potential; also, the potential difference produced no ignitions in the absence of carbon wear particles. A film supplement showing ignition by incandescent wear particles is available.

  9. Research on effect of China’s energy saving policy of phase-out incandescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin; Liang, Xiuying; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    China’s energy saving policy of phase-out of incandescent lamps have been introduced and a comprehensive evaluation framework has been put forward. The impact of the implementation of the policy on manufacturing enterprises and places of sale, lighting industry and domestic and foreign markets, as well as the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction have been analyzed from micro, meso and macro layers. The research results show that, under the guidance of the policy, the orderly product mix transformation has been seen in incandescent lamp manufacturing enterprises, incandescent lamps gradually exit the Chinese mainstream lighting product market, and the energy conservation and emission reduction effect is remarkable.

  10. Measurement of the carrying capacity of benthic habitats using a metabolic-rate based index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, G J

    1993-03-01

    Carrying capacities of grazed habitats are typically expressed as numbers or biomass of animals per unit area; however, such parameters are appropriate only when the body size of animals is constant because consumption and other metabolic-rate based parameters such as respiration and production are proportional to body mass raised by a power of ≈0.75 rather than 0 or 1. Habitat carrying levels are therefore better expressed in the form of an index of total community consumption by summing the body masses of individual animals after they have been scaled using a biomass exponent of ≈0.75. A parameter scaled in this way,P 20 , varied in a predictable manner when calculated for the mobile epifaunal assemblages associated with rope fibre habitats placed at marine and estuarine sites;P 20 showed no significant difference between 17 shallow, clear-water sites worldwide, but declined consistently when photosynthesis was reduced.P 20 also did not vary significantly when calculated for the mobile epifaunal communities associated with fourAmphibolis antarctica seagrass habitats in Australia ([Formula: see text] = 100 µg ·g -1 · day -1 ), and reached but did not significantly exceed a ceiling of ≈280 μg · g -1 · day -1 forSargassum plants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the production of shallow-water epifaunal communities of grazers is constrained by resource ceilings which can be quantified using metabolic-rate based indices. If this "production ceiling" hypothesis is correct then diffuse competition is generally more important than predation or environmental disturbance in restricting the growth of mobile epifaunal populations.

  11. The weather on Mars on the basis of the measurements carried out by the Vikings mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macris, C.J.; Petropoulos, B.Ch.

    1982-01-01

    The authors summarize some new results concerning the Mars atmosphere obtained after the Vikings mission. On the basis of the results of the measurements made by the Viking 2 lander and Viking orbiter, the values of pressure and density corresponding to the altitudes from 28 to 100 km and different molecular weights have been computed. The computed values have been compared with the ones measured by Viking 2. (Auth.)

  12. Definition, significance and measurement of quantities pertaining to the oxygen carrying properties of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Maas, AHJ; Moran, RF

    1996-01-01

    A consistent set of definitions is given of the principal quantities pertaining to the oxygen transport by the blood, and of their mutual relationships, in relation to the methods used in their measurement. At the core is the correct definition of oxygen saturation, the deviation of which has

  13. Recent Measurements from the G0 Parity Violation Experiment Carried out at Jefferson Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, L.

    2008-01-01

    The measurements were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (J Lab.), Newport News, V A (USA) in the backward angle configuration set-up. A toroidal spectrometer, associated with particle detectors, is used to count electrons and pions from a liquid hydrogen or deuterium target. Parity-violating than the former one by orders of magnitude and requires special techniques to be observed and isolated. Parity violation is specific to the electro-weak interaction and forms the basis asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering are determined for momentum transfers of Q 2 = 0.62 and 0.23 (GeV/c) 2 . Combined with previous results obtained with the forward angle configuration setup, these measurements give access to the separation of the values of electric and magnetic strange form factors of the proton. More results may be extracted from the asymmetries for inelastically scattered electrons and for produced pions

  14. Process for measuring the helium residual gas pressure and circuit for carrying out the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.; Cesnak, L.

    1983-01-01

    In cryotechnic devices, the quality of the thermal insulation can be monitored by checking the pressure of the residual gas. A process is proposed in which a thin super-conducting wire or a superconducting layer acting as vacuum sensor has a heating pulse reaching the critical current applied to it, which produces a local normal conduction zone. The vacuum sensor has a measuring current of constant amount applied to it, which causes a voltage drop on its resistance during the time in which the normal conduction zone exists, the cooling time. The pressure of the residual gas is a function of the integral of the voltage drop and is measured by integrating the voltage during the cooling time. (orig./HP) [de

  15. [Measuring water ecological carrying capacity with the ecosystem-service-based ecological footprint (ESEF) method: Theory, models and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-jun; Min, Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; Fuller, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Integrated watershed management based on aquatic ecosystems has been increasingly acknowledged. Such a change in the philosophy of water environment management requires recognizing the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems for human society from a more general perspective. The concept of the water ecological carrying capacity is therefore put forward, which considers both water resources and water environment, connects socio-economic development to aquatic ecosystems and provides strong support for integrated watershed management. In this paper, the authors proposed an ESEF-based measure of water ecological carrying capacity and constructed ESEF-based models of water ecological footprint and capacity, aiming to evaluate water ecological carrying capacity with footprint methods. A regional model of Taihu Lake Basin was constructed and applied to evaluate the water ecological carrying capacity in Changzhou City which located in the upper reaches of the basin. Results showed that human demand for water ecosystem services in this city had exceeded the supply capacity of local aquatic ecosystems and the significant gap between demand and supply had jeopardized the sustainability of local aquatic ecosystems. Considering aqua-product provision, water supply and pollutant absorption in an integrated way, the scale of population and economy aquatic ecosystems in Changzhou could bear only 54% of the current status.

  16. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  17. CARRYING OUT OF MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS (MSA ON OJSC «BSW – MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING «BMC»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the ОJSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC» it is introduced and operates as unified whole the integrated system of management which includes in particular the requirements of the standard of a quality management system of automotive industry IATF 16949:2016. One of special requirements of IATF 16949:2016 in the field of metrology is the Measurement System Analysis (MSA. MSA is the constituent of statistical management of processes of manufacture intended for a research of measuring processes for the purpose of an assessment of their acceptability. The order and the procedure of carrying out of the Measurement System Analysis (MSA on OJSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC» are described in the article.

  18. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  19. Correlation between macro texture measures carried out by the volumetric method and by different laser texture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Ruiz, L.; Yanguas Gonzalez, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    The reference value for the measurement of surface macro texture in the Spanish Main Road Network is the MTD or Mean Texture Depth (PMT, Profundidad Media de Textura), obtained by means of the volumetric methods, in accordance with the standard UNE EN 13036-1:12010. The fact that it is a spot measurement that requires road closures makes it an expensive procedure as well as slow and dangerous. In addition to this, the test results are relatively sensitive to the operator, being the procedure not too suitable for systematic surveys. These are some of the reasons that have contributed to the development of texture meter laser devices that can be assembled on board of vehicles, circulating without interfering with the normal traffic flow and providing a parameter named the MPD (Mean Depth Profile). According to the standard UNE-EN ISO 13473-1:2006, it is possible to estimate the texture obtained by volumetric methods, with the parameter ETD (Estimated Texture Depth) through the equation: ETD=0,8 x MPD+0.2 In 2008 CEDEX conducted a study that correlated macro texture measures obtained by means of the volumetric method with such carried out by different laser texture meters. The equations yield a better relation between MPD and MTD were dependent on the measurement device used and were not linear equations type, as is it indicated in the standard, but exponential type equations. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. Decommissioning of a Facility that Produced Incandescent Mantles in Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The facility which manufactured incandescent mantles was operating from about the 1960s up to 2005. Production was stopped because there was no longer a market for incandescent mantles as they had been superseded by electrical street lighting. The facility was licensed by the radiation protection regulator in the end of the 1970s. Prior to this time, no license was needed and the facility was registered as a chemical manufacturer. After the legislation changed and the radiation protection legislation was issued, the company had to obtain a license and establish radiation protection rules. Thorium was not used for its radioactive properties in the production of incandescent mantles. The production of gas mantles included their impregnation with naturally occurring thorium, which contains 232 Th as the radioactive isotope of interest. The thorium impregnation was essential to prevent the gas mantles from burning out too soon and to increase their light efficiency. This solution as Th (NO 3 ) 4 was delivered by a company which dealt with several minerals and chemicals. This solution was stored in plastic tanks and contained a high specific radioactivity in Bq/g and dose rates up to several hundreds of μSv/hr. Before seeking bids for the decommissioning of the facility (the company must obtain three bids from different decommissioning companies) it was decided to characterize the site to get a detailed overview about the used equipment, the secondary equipment like exhaust fumes and the radiological inventory. The characterization of the site was estimated to require five workers over two days, including one external specialist knowledgeable in free release of material. Boundary conditions and requirements for characterization are described in the following: (1) The owner of the facility planned to sell most of the equipment for reuse at an Indian facility. This necessitated thorough decontamination. Production of secondary radioactive waste was a problem. Equipment

  1. High resolution LiDAR measurements reveal fine internal structure and variability of sediment-carrying coastal plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, P. O.; Pelevin, V. V.; Belyaev, N. A.; Izhitskiy, A. S.; Konovalov, B. V.; Krementskiy, V. V.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Soloviev, D. M.; Garcia, C. A. E.; Pereira, E. S.; Sartorato, L.; Moller, O. O.

    2018-05-01

    We report results of a field survey conducted in the buoyant, sediment-carrying coastal plume generated by the discharge from the Patos Lagoon, the World's largest choked lagoon. The concentration of total suspended matter (TSM) and organic matter (as represented by total organic carbon, TOC) were mapped using an ultraviolet fluorescent LiDAR, which allowed for extensive data coverage (total of 79,387 simultaneous determinations of TSM and TOC) during 3 consecutive days. These observations were accompanied by hydrographic measurements from the ship and at a mooring station. We first describe synoptic variability of the plume, which responded energetically to wind forcing. We then analyze the TSM, TOC and hydrographic data jointly and develop a simple approach to estimate the rates of suspended matter removal from the upper layer due to gravitational settling and turbulent mixing based on relative changes in TSM and TOC concentrations. Four distinct regions within the plume exhibiting different dynamics of suspended and dissolved constituents were identified on this basis.

  2. Process of producing fuels from slates or bituminous shales. [distillation at incandescent heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenbauer, M

    1902-07-31

    A process of producing a fuel from slates or bituminous shales by saturating or impregnating them after preliminary distillation with the vapors of tars, resins, oils, etc., is given. The process is characterized by the bituminous shale being submitted in the form of fragments to distillation at incandescent heat to make the shale porous and able to absorb the vapors of the substances already mentioned.

  3. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Huimin; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gangchen@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL{sup −1} each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  4. Program proposed for dosimetric measures to be carried out during the start-up of the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Cabrera, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The present measurement program fulfills two main tasks the first aimed at showing the staff permissible magnitudes of radiation doses and the second to the control of radiation protection and the gathering of necessary data for optimum radiation protection measures

  5. Monitoring of Level of Radiation Hazards to the Community in the Settlement Around the Incandescent Gas Mantle Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryawati

    2000-01-01

    The analyze of radiation internal hazards level of thoron (Rn-220) and its daughter to the community settlement around the incandescent gas mantle factory. The radiation hazard level can be indicated in the form of working level (WL) and sffsctive dose lungs received by the community. The working level and effective dose lungs is got from the measurement of radioactivity level of thoron (Rn-220) and its daugther and by using the mathematical formula calculation. The measurement of thoron radioactive concentration and its daughter. The value of woking level obtained, performance level for community range from 0,001-0,013 WL, equivalent with dose range from 0,014- 0,467 mSv. From the research result, it can be identified that the radiation hazard, because exceed the mean value of threshold thorium radioactive nuclide and its daughter product of natural radiation in back ground per year for word mean i.e. 0,336 mSv, but the value of this research result is far below the allowed value limit for the community is 0,12 WL and 1 mSv/year

  6. Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence from multiwalled carbon nanotubes in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrani, J. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA; Shneider, M. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA

    2015-01-26

    We observed temporal laser-induced incandescence (LII) signals from multiwalled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) suspended in ambient air. Unlike previous LII experiments with soot particles, which showed that primary particles with larger diameters cool at slower timescales relative to smaller particles, we observed that thicker MWCNTs with larger outer diameters (ODs) cool at faster timescales relative to thinner MWCNTs with smaller ODs. We suggested a simple explanation of this effect, based on the solution of one-dimensional nonstationary heat conduction equation for the initial non-uniform heating of MWCNTs with ODs greater than the skin depth.

  7. Comprehensive Laser-induced Incandescence (LII) modeling for soot particle sizing

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2015-03-30

    To evaluate the current state of the art in LII particle sizing, a comprehensive model for predicting the temporal incandescent response of combustion-generated soot to absorption of a pulsed laser is presented. The model incorporates particle heating through laser absorption, thermal annealing, and oxidation at the surface as well as cooling through sublimation and photodesorption, radiation, conduction and thermionic emission. Thermodynamic properties and the thermal accommodation coefficient utilized in the model are temperature dependent. In addition, where appropriate properties are also phase dependent, thereby accounting for annealing effects during laser heating and particle cooling.

  8. Radon in the environment and the dwellings - a review of measurements carried out in France by IPSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, M.C.; Rannou, A.; Le Bronec, J.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last decade, the monitoring of radon gas in various natural environments and regions of France has allowed the IPSN to construct a radon data base. In holes drilled in soils and in underground cavities, radon concentrations between a few hundred Bq.m -3 and many thousands Bq.m -3 were measured. Exhalation rates between 10 -3 and 50 mBq.m -2 .s -1 were measured in different regions and for different types of soil. In the open air, mean levels were observed in the range of a few Bq.m -3 to several hundred Bq.m -3 and concentrations as high as one thousand Bq.m -3 were measured over short periods. (author)

  9. Impact of various lighting source (incandescent, fluorescent, metal halide and high pressure sodium) on the production performance of chicken broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guffar, A.; Rahman, K.U.; Siddique, M.; Ahmad, F.

    2009-01-01

    Light is an important aspect of an animal's environment. Avian as well as mammalian species respond to light energy in a variety of ways. Recent research has indicated that light source may affect body weight, immune response, livability and health status. Broiler behavior is strongly affected by light sources. So the present project was designed to study the effect of light sources on the production performance of broilers. For this purpose, 500 day-old broilers purchased from the local market were reared for three days (adaptation period) in one group. Then these were randomly divided into five experimental groups each comprising of 100 birds. Group A was given 25 incandescent light (INC), Group B was given fluorescent light (FC), Group C was given metal halide light (MH), Group D was given high pressure sodium light (HPS) and Group E was given no light source (control). Performance trial in terms of measurement of weekly body weight, weekly feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily water consumption and mortality were checked. Among various lighting sources, MH proved the best light source regarding main parameters of production performance. (author)

  10. Evaluation of carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 1 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity

  11. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 1 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated december 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for development of a study plan based on critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. This report deals with the evaluation of carrying capacity. It describes the analysis of different views of capacity as it relates to salmon survival and abundance. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for studying carrying capacity.

  12. A report with the results of measurements carried out in AQUILON 2 for the Junta de Energia Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourme, P.; Jacquemart, R.; Ledanois, G.

    1964-01-01

    Buckling measurements have been performed in support of the 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' program in the heavy water moderated critical facility AQUILON concerning lattices of uranium carbide fuel assemblies. In part of the experiments, these fuel assemblies were sheathed by housing tubes filled with organic to simulate a coolant. Each fuel assembly is a cluster of nineteen aluminium cladded, 13 mm in diameter U C rods. Experiments were made using substitution method i.e. critical approach and pulsed neutron techniques. Results are compared to lattice calculation analogous to oxide cluster calculation except about p factor. (authors) [fr

  13. Determination of current and rotational transform profiles in a current-carrying stellarator using soft x-ray emissivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Herfindal, J. L.; Howell, E. C.; Knowlton, S. F.; Maurer, D. A.; Traverso, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Collimated soft X-ray (SXR) emissivity measurements from multi-channel cameras on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) tokamak/torsatron device are incorporated in the 3D equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT to reconstruct the shape of flux surfaces and infer the current distribution within the plasma. Equilibrium reconstructions of sawtoothing plasmas that use data from both SXR and external magnetic diagnostics show the central safety factor to be near unity under the assumption that SXR iso-emissivity contours lie on magnetic flux surfaces. The reconstruction results are consistent with those using the external magnetic data and a constraint on the location of q = 1 surfaces determined from the sawtooth inversion surface extracted from SXR brightness profiles. The agreement justifies the use of approximating SXR emission as a flux function in CTH, at least within the core of the plasma, subject to the spatial resolution of the SXR diagnostics. This improved reconstruction of the central current density indicates that the current profile peakedness decreases with increasing external transform and that the internal inductance is not a relevant measure of how peaked the current profile is in hybrid discharges.

  14. Carrying out and planning measures for improvement of radiation situation in alienation zone after accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    Technogenic radionuclides that were released into environment as the result of the Chernobyl accident joined the energy and mass transfer processes, which to a great extent are determined by the specificity of natural and climatic conditions of Ukrainian woodlands. The state of the spread of radioactive materials, and the data furnished by the Dosimetric Monitoring Board of the NPO 'Pripyat' over the zone territory are reported. After the primary radioactive contamination of the terrain, with meteorfactors superimposed on the physical and chemical conditions of radioactivity release and topographic factors, a new type of vegetation has developed, as well as a pattern of the economic exploitation of the territory. The process of radioactivity redistribution by water, wind and technogenic transport must be carefully investigated. The studies on radionuclide migration and the results are discussed. The estimation of dynamic capacitance in soil in the nearby zone of the ChNPP, the studies of hydrogeological condition in the 10 km zone, the analysis of groundwater condition, the studies on the wind-lift transport and fallout of radionuclides in 30 km zone and others are reported. Decontamination measures, one of the most large scale and labor-intensive operations in the elimination of the accident effects, and the burial of radioactive waste are described. The requirements for executing the project are summarized. (K.I.)

  15. Carrying out and planning measures for improvement of radiation situation in alienation zone after accident at Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, S.V. [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob``edinenie Pripyat`, Chernobyl` (Ukraine)

    1994-11-01

    Technogenic radionuclides that were released into environment as the result of the Chernobyl accident joined the energy and mass transfer processes, which to a great extent are determined by the specificity of natural and climatic conditions of Ukrainian woodlands. The state of the spread of radioactive materials, and the data furnished by the Dosimetric Monitoring Board of the NPO `Pripyat` over the zone territory are reported. After the primary radioactive contamination of the terrain, with meteorfactors superimposed on the physical and chemical conditions of radioactivity release and topographic factors, a new type of vegetation has developed, as well as a pattern of the economic exploitation of the territory. The process of radioactivity redistribution by water, wind and technogenic transport must be carefully investigated. The studies on radionuclide migration and the results are discussed. The estimation of dynamic capacitance in soil in the nearby zone of the ChNPP, the studies of hydrogeological condition in the 10 km zone, the analysis of groundwater condition, the studies on the wind-lift transport and fallout of radionuclides in 30 km zone and others are reported. Decontamination measures, one of the most large scale and labor-intensive operations in the elimination of the accident effects, and the burial of radioactive waste are described. The requirements for executing the project are summarized. (K.I.).

  16. Predicting the heat of vaporization of iron at high temperatures using time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and Bayesian model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkens, Timothy A.; Hadwin, Paul J.; Grauer, Samuel J.; Daun, Kyle J.

    2018-03-01

    Competing theories have been proposed to account for how the latent heat of vaporization of liquid iron varies with temperature, but experimental confirmation remains elusive, particularly at high temperatures. We propose time-resolved laser-induced incandescence measurements on iron nanoparticles combined with Bayesian model plausibility, as a novel method for evaluating these relationships. Our approach scores the explanatory power of candidate models, accounting for parameter uncertainty, model complexity, measurement noise, and goodness-of-fit. The approach is first validated with simulated data and then applied to experimental data for iron nanoparticles in argon. Our results justify the use of Román's equation to account for the temperature dependence of the latent heat of vaporization of liquid iron.

  17. Study plan for evaluating carrying capacity: Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program. Report 2 of 4, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report is one report of four that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used to address Measure 7.1A in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) fish and Wildlife Program (Program) dated December 1994 (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.1A calls for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund an evaluation of salmon survival, ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. Additionally, the Measure asks for the development of a study plan based on the critical uncertainties and research needs identified during the evaluation. In the evaluation of carrying capacity the authors concluded that defining capacity and listing the determinants of capacity is not a simple exercise. Capacity is a complex variable among the attributes that all together define salmon performance. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, will not lead to the development of a useful study plan. To increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. This report describes the elements of a study plan that could be used to increase the understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, and limiting factors that influence salmon survival under current conditions

  18. Soot particulate size characterisation in a heavy-duty diesel engine for different engine loads by laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, B.; Ganippa, L.C.; Vliet, van A.P.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence was used to estimate primary particle size distributions inside the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine as a function of the crank angle, for two different engine loads at two different probe locations. Assuming a log-normal particle size

  19. 77 FR 76959 - Energy Conservation Program: Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... subject to energy conservation standards, the manufacturers removed the product from the market... Conservation Program: Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamp From Energy Conservation Standards AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...

  20. Study on residential appliances energy efficiency standards Refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, color TVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G.; Cho, S.K.; Choi, S.H.; Jung, B.M.; Han, S.B.; Kim, K.D. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The energy efficiency standards and rating act, as amended by the rational energy utilization act, provides energy efficiency standards and ratings for 6 types of consumer products(refrigerators, air-conditioners, fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, ballasts and cars) authorizes the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) to prescribe amended or new energy efficiency standards and rating standards. This study was initiated by the KIER in 1992. KIER`s assessment of the standards is designed to evaluate their statistical and engineering analysis according to Korean(Industrial) Standards(KS). And to make distinction between the poor efficiency and good efficiency models, 5 grades are classified depending on their tested energy efficiency. This year, based on our analysis, MOTIE mandated updated standards for refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, and fluorescent lamps. Also the objective of this study is to set the energy efficiency standards and to grade for color TV sets. (author). 37 refs., 89 figs., 85 tabs.

  1. Banning the bulb: Institutional evolution and the phased ban of incandescent lighting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, Nicholas A.A.; Rosenow, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Much academic attention has been directed at analysing energy efficiency investments through the lens of ‘behavioural failure’. These studies have challenged the neoclassical framing of regulation which emphasises the efficiency benefits of price based policy, underpinned by the notion of rational individual self-mastery. The increasing use of a regulatory ban on electric lamps in many countries is one of the most recent and high profile flash points in this dialectic of ‘freedom-versus-the-state’ in the public policy discourse. This paper interrogates this debate through a study of electric lamp diffusion in Germany. It is argued that neoclassical theory and equilibrium analysis is inadequate as a tool for policy analysis as it takes the formation of market institutions, such as existing regulations, for granted. Further still, it may be prone to encourage idealistic debates around such grand narratives which may in practice simply serve those who benefit most from the status quo. Instead we argue for an evolutionary approach which we suggest offers a more pragmatic framing tool which focuses on the formation of market institutions in light of shifting social norms and political goals—in our case, progress towards energy efficiency and environmental goals. - Highlights: • Empirical data on the ban of incandescent lamps in Germany is presented. • The political debate on the ban is positioned within key bodies of theory. • Discourse was found to have positively influenced diffusion of efficient lighting. • Tools for the reframing of political debate are proposed for policy makers

  2. Search for buildings with high radon levels in Sweden: measurements carried out by local authorities in both older and newly built homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Local authorities in Sweden have made about 58,000 radon daughter measurements with the following aims: (1) to search for houses with high radon daughter levels, (2) to determine the level above which the house would be regarded as an insanitary dwelling, and (3) to check that the radon daughter concentrations in newly built houses are below the established limit. The sampling of dwellings is therefore not representative for Swedish homes. 5300 homes were found to have levels above the limit 400 Bq.m -3 EER. The highest level found was 28,000 Bq.m -3 . In about one third of the homes found to have levels exceeding the limit, measures had been carried out to decrease the radon daughter concentration. About half of the homes in which the levels were decreased had levels below the limit for rebuilding, e.g. 200 Bq.m -3 . Measurements in order to ascertain levels in newly built houses were made in about 1100 homes out of 200,000 built since 1981 which was the year in which requirements for newly built houses came into force. Of those built with radon-protective foundations, 94% had concentrations below the 70 Bq.m -3 EER limit, compared to 80% for traditional building techniques. (author)

  3. In search of the dimensions of an incandescent light bulb filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Luis A.; Rondón, Hermilda S.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss an alternative solution to an experimental problem given to high school students in the XXII Ibero-American Physics Olympiad held by Colombia this year. From the measurements of electric current and potential difference across a small tungsten filament lamp students should find the dimensions of its filament. The results obtained are compared with the ones measured directly. This challenging and low-cost experiment can be easily implemented and carried out in any introductory physics laboratory courses.

  4. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  5. Coordination and carrying out of environment radioactivity measurement programmes in a radiological emergency situation, exploitation and restitution of results - Assessment of IRSN's actions and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiau, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled the content of the interdepartmental 'measurement directive' which defines the legal framework of radioactivity measurements in case of a radiological emergency situation, this report described the actions performed by the IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, the French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute) and concerning these measurements. It discusses how the measurement strategy is defined depending on the accident characteristics and on the environment. It discusses how measurement results are interpreted, and evokes some constraints and limits for this strategy during the emergency phase. A laboratory vehicle is briefly presented which enables sample preparation and measurement by various analysis techniques

  6. Object recognition as a measure of memory in 1–2 years old transgenic minipigs carrying the APPsw mutation for Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Ladewig, Jan; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disabling, fatal disease, where animal models potentially can enable investigation of aetiology and treatment. The first litter of Göttingen minipigs carrying a mutation for human AD was born in 2007, showing transgene expression. In human AD patients, memory...... impairment is the most striking and consistent feature. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of the APPsw transgene on memory of AD minipigs compared with non-transgenic controls at two ages (1–2 years) using the spontaneous object recognition test (SORT), which is based on behavioural...... using the SORT, we were not able to show memory impairment in APPsw carrying minipigs. Being an age-dependent disease, the transgene is expected to cause AD-like symptoms in this porcine model, and the SORT should be repeated at older ages...

  7. MATLAB tools for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam imagery; applications at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren

    2010-01-01

    Webcams are now standard tools for volcano monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, Hawai'i, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other volcano monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes

  8. Measurement of the diffuse atmospheric and cosmic γ-radiation in the energy range 1-10 MeV by a balloon carried Compton-telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichti, G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and design of a low-energy γ-compton telescope, developed and constructed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, are reported on. For energies of about 1 MeV, the telescope has an energy resolution of 30% (FWHM) and an angular resolution of +- 20 0 . In spite of the low efficiency of only about 0.5%, the vertical γ-flux could be measured for the first time in two balloon flights, and the extragalactic origin of the diffuse component of the cosmic γ-radiation could be demonstrated. The energy spectrum of this radiation was measured. The result is compared with measurements of other experiments, and theoretical models to describe the origin of this radiation are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Estimation of effective doses to cavers based on radon measurements carried out in seven caves of the Bakony Mountains in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, Norbert; Somlai, Janos; Szeiler, Gabor; Szabo, Balazs; Schafer, Istvan; Kovacs, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, as the practice of extreme sports is spreading, potholing is becoming more and more popular. As a result, both the number of cavers and the time spent in the caves have been on the rise. There are some cavers known to have spent some 5000 h in caves over a span of 10 years. In poorly ventilated caves, radon exhalated from cave rocks and deposits may accumulate and cause significant doses to cavers. In this study, the radon concentration in seven caves in the Bakony Mountains, Hungary, was measured by continuous and integrated measurement devices. Measured values for the different caves were rather different, and varied between 50 and 24,000 Bq m -3 . The average radon concentration over the measurement period was approximately 10,000 Bq m -3 in five of the seven caves inspected. By assuming an average of 470 h year -1 spent in caves, effective doses to cavers were estimated. The expected annual effective dose, in case of an equilibrium factor of 0.6, was 19.7 mSv.

  10. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  11. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  12. Process for measuring the force of a pressure spring which is situated at the side of a mesh of a grid spacer for a nuclear reactor fuel element and measuring plug gauge for carrying out this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.; Block, B.

    1984-01-01

    A measuring plug gauge is inserted into the mesh, which has a measuring element on the outside of its jacket, until a stop on the outside of the measuring plug gauge is adjacent to the spacer and the spring is adjacent to the measuring element; in order to measure the spring force, the stop lifted from the spacer. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Doping chloro boron subnaphthalocyanines and chloro boron subphthalocyanine in simple OLED architectures yields warm white incandescent-like emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor G.; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2018-01-01

    We have incorporated chloro boron subphthalocyanine (Cl-BsubPc) and chloro boron subnapthalocyanines (Cl-ClnBsubNcs) into organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) that enabled an overall warm white emission with CIE coordinates close to that of a 60 W incandescent lightbulb. More specifically, we have shown that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be used as dopant emitters in a simple host-dopant architecture, and we have compared the use of NPB and Alq3 as potential hosts for these materials. When doped into Alq3, Cl-BsubPc shows a strong orange emission, and Cl-ClnBsubNcs shows a moderately strong red emission. We have further demonstrated that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be co-doped into the same layer giving combined orange and red emission peaks. A "cascade" energy transfer mechanism of sequential absorption and re-emission is proposed. Device performance characteristics such as luminance, current efficiency, photoluminescence efficiency, and external quantum efficiency are tabulated. Additionally, in view of ongoing research into white emitting OLEDs for indoor lighting purposes, the Colour Rendering Index (CRI), R9 values, and CIE co-ordinates for these devices are also discussed. We conclude from this study that the BsubNc chromophore has potential application as a red dopant in OLEDs including for indoor lighting. Additionally, given the scope for axial and peripheral derivatization of the BsubNc motif, we believe that this chromophore has many unexplored molecular design handles that will affect its ultimate performance and application in OLEDs and other opto-electronic devices.

  14. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A. G. [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  15. The incandescent lamps in Mexico; are they really a beneficial technology?; Las lamparas incandescentes en Mexico: son realmente una tecnologia benefica?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, A G [Genertek, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The versatility of the incandescent lamps has originated a sustained increment of its population all over the world. Because of its characteristics they continue being irreplaceable in numberless applications, that go from the movies up to the medicine. Nevertheless the greatest population are represented by the incandescent lamps A-19 with the well-known negative effects to the environment and the economy caused by the electric power generation by conventional methods. No doubt about it, the best option to substitute them are the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), but the economical barriers, the market and the performance do not permit its massive application in Mexico. In this paper a proposal is set forth that might bring high benefits with a minimum investment and rapid implementation. [Espanol] La versatilidad de las lamparas incandescentes ha causado un incremento sostenido de su poblacion en todo el mundo. Dadas sus caracteristicas continua siendo insustituible en un sinnumero de aplicaciones, que van desde el cine hasta la medicina. Sin embargo, la mayor poblacion la representan las ineficientes lamparas incandescentes A19 con los consabidos efectos negativos en el medio ambiente y la economia, causados por la generacion de energia electrica por medios convencionales. Sin duda, la mejor opcion para sustituirlas son las lamparas compacto fluorescentes (LCF), pero las barreras economicas, de mercado y de desempeno no permiten su aplicacion masiva en Mexico. En este trabajo se hace una propuesta que puede permitir grandes beneficios con minima inversion y rapida implementacion.

  16. Abundance and Night Hourly Dispersal of the Vesicating Beetles of the Genus Paederus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Attracted to Fluorescent, Incandescent, and Black Light Sources in the Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C B; Costa, A A V; Silva, F S

    2015-01-01

    Paederus beetles are cosmopolitan medically important insects that cause dermatitis linearis to humans. In Brazil, despite the medical importance of these beetles, no studies focusing directly on the abundance and ecological features of harmful species exist. Therefore, this study aims at determining the abundance and the nocturnal hourly dispersal of Paederus species attracted to fluorescent, incandescent, and black light sources in the Brazilian savanna. Paederus species were captured from May to September for three consecutive years, between 2011 and 2013. The specimens were caught hourly, from 1800 to 0600 hours. Paederus beetles were attracted to incandescent, fluorescent, and black light lamps as light sources. A total of 959 individuals of five species were collected. The collected species were Paederus protensus Sharp (59.85%), Paederus columbinus Laporte de Castelnau (29.20%), Paederus mutans Sharp (7.09%), Paederus brasiliensis Erichson (3.34%), and Paederus ferus Erichson (0.52%). The black light was the most attractive source, and the darkest collecting point was the most representative for the number of individuals. The lowest catches were captured at full moon, and the highest catches were between 2200 and 0100 hours. Future investigations are needed to better understand the role of night temperature and soil humidity affecting the seasonal growth of Paederus beetle populations of northeastern Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Disparity in Cutaneous Pigmentary Response to LED vs Halogen Incandescent Visible Light: Results from a Single Center, Investigational Clinical Trial Determining a Minimal Pigmentary Visible Light Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Teo; Cohen, David E; Folan, Lorcan M; Okereke, Uchenna R; Elbuluk, Nada; Soter, Nicholas A

    2017-11-01

    Background: While most of the attention regarding skin pigmentation has focused on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, the cutaneous effects of visible light (400 to 700nm) are rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cutaneous pigmentary response to pure visible light irradiation, examine the difference in response to different sources of visible light irradiation, and determine a minimal pigmentary dose of visible light irradiation in melanocompetent subjects with Fitzpatrick skin type III - VI. The study was designed as a single arm, non-blinded, split-side dual intervention study in which subjects underwent visible light irradiation using LED and halogen incandescent light sources delivered at a fluence of 0.14 Watts/cm2 with incremental dose progression from 20 J/cm2 to 320 J/cm2. Pigmentation was assessed by clinical examination, cross-polarized digital photography, and analytic colorimetry. Immediate, dose-responsive pigment darkening was seen with LED light exposure in 80% of subjects, beginning at 60 Joules. No pigmentary changes were seen with halogen incandescent light exposure at any dose in any subject. This study is the first to report a distinct difference in cutaneous pigmentary response to different sources of visible light, and the first to demonstrate cutaneous pigment darkening from visible LED light exposure. Our findings raise the concern that our increasing daily artificial light surroundings may have clandestine effects on skin biology. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(11):1105-1110..

  18. Correlation between macro texture measures carried out by the volumetric method and by different laser texture meter; Correlacion de medidas de macrotextura tomadas con el metodo volumetrico y con diferentes texturometros lasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Ruiz, L.; Yanguas Gonzalez, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    The reference value for the measurement of surface macro texture in the Spanish Main Road Network is the MTD or Mean Texture Depth (PMT, Profundidad Media de Textura), obtained by means of the volumetric methods, in accordance with the standard UNE EN 13036-1:12010. The fact that it is a spot measurement that requires road closures makes it an expensive procedure as well as slow and dangerous. In addition to this, the test results are relatively sensitive to the operator, being the procedure not too suitable for systematic surveys. These are some of the reasons that have contributed to the development of texture meter laser devices that can be assembled on board of vehicles, circulating without interfering with the normal traffic flow and providing a parameter named the MPD (Mean Depth Profile). According to the standard UNE-EN ISO 13473-1:2006, it is possible to estimate the texture obtained by volumetric methods, with the parameter ETD (Estimated Texture Depth) through the equation: ETD=0,8 x MPD+0.2 In 2008 CEDEX conducted a study that correlated macro texture measures obtained by means of the volumetric method with such carried out by different laser texture meters. The equations yield a better relation between MPD and MTD were dependent on the measurement device used and were not linear equations type, as is it indicated in the standard, but exponential type equations. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. The reactor Melusine - radiation measurements carried out at the start of operation and during the first ascents to power; Pile Melusine - mesures de rayonnement effectuees au demarrage et pendant les premieres montees en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutrot, V; Delpuech, J; Fitoussi, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report gives the results of radiation measurements carried out on the first C.E.A. swimming-pool pile, Melusine. The purpose of these measurements, which were carried out during the starting-up period and the first ascents to 1 MW power, is to check the radiation intensity levels near the pile and from this to verify the safety calculation methods used. In addition certain special measurements, such as those performed in and above the water of the swimming-pool, in the channels and outside them etc..., should make it possible eventually to define the conditions under which the pile may be used for special jobs with less protection. In the first part of the report are given the results of radiation measurements carried out during runs at low power plateaux not exceeding 500 W: in particular measurements at variable water levels in the water of the swimming-pool and on the axis of the open channels. The results given in the second part deal with radiation measurements performed in various parts of the premises, studies on the activation of the plugs in the experimental channels and of the materials in the forward compartment, and also of the radioactivity of the swimming-pool water and the air used to cool the channels. (author) [French] Le present rapport a pour but de donner les resultats des mesures de rayonnement effectuees aupres de la premiere pile piscine du C.E.A.: la pile Melusine. Le but de ces mesures, effectuees pendant la periode de demarrage et les premieres montees a la puissance de 1 MW, est de controler les niveaux d'intensite de rayonnement aupres de la pile et par la de juger des methodes de calculs de protection utilisees. D'autre part, certaines mesures plus particulieres, telles que celles effectuees dans l'eau et au-dessus de l'eau de la piscine, dans les canaux et a l'exterieur de ceux-ci, etc..., doivent permettre de definir ulterieurement les conditions d'utilisation de la pile pour des fonctionnements particuliers avec des protections

  20. An Automated Micro-Total Immunoassay System for Measuring Cancer-Associated α2,3-linked Sialyl N-Glycan-Carrying Prostate-Specific Antigen May Improve the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ishikawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The low specificity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa is a major issue worldwide. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum PCa-associated α2,3-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,3PSA ratio measured by automated micro-total immunoassay systems (μTAS system can be applied as a diagnostic marker of PCa. The μTAS system can utilize affinity-based separation involving noncovalent interaction between the immunocomplex of S2,3PSA and Maackia amurensis lectin to simultaneously determine concentrations of free PSA and S2,3PSA. To validate quantitative performance, both recombinant S2,3PSA and benign-associated α2,6-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,6PSA purified from culture supernatant of PSA cDNA transiently-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells were used as standard protein. Between 2007 and 2016, fifty patients with biopsy-proven PCa were pair-matched for age and PSA levels, with the same number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH patients used to validate the diagnostic performance of serum S2,3PSA ratio. A recombinant S2,3PSA- and S2,6PSA-spiked sample was clearly discriminated by μTAS system. Limit of detection of S2,3PSA was 0.05 ng/mL and coefficient variation was less than 3.1%. The area under the curve (AUC for detection of PCa for the S2,3PSA ratio (%S2,3PSA with cutoff value 43.85% (AUC; 0.8340 was much superior to total PSA (AUC; 0.5062 using validation sample set. Although the present results are preliminary, the newly developed μTAS platform for measuring %S2,3PSA can achieve the required assay performance specifications for use in the practical and clinical setting and may improve the accuracy of PCa diagnosis. Additional validation studies are warranted.

  1. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  2. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  3. Use of a microvideo probe to measure the size and velocity of water droplets in EDF steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, J.J.; Heurtebise, F.; Kleitz, A.

    1992-09-01

    Owing to the necessity to protect equipment associated with power plant turbines using saturated steam and following verification of the turbine design codes, EDF has developed a probe specifically designed for velocimetric and particle size grading measurements in this 2-phase environment. This method is also suitable for the measurement of cold or incandescent solid particles entrained in gas. (authors). 8 figs., 3 refs

  4. On particulate characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, H.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of soot measurements acquired in the combustion chamber of an optically accessible heavy-duty Diesel engine. The Diesel engine is the most efficient internal combustion engine. Pollutant emissions from the engine, such as soot and NOx, however, form a

  5. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  6. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  7. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  8. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  9. A Difference in Cutaneous Pigmentary Response to LED Versus Halogen Incandescent Visible Light: A Case Report from a Single Center, Investigational Clinical Trial Determining a Minimal Pigmentary Visible Light Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Teo; Soter, Nicholas A; Folan, Lorcan M; Elbuluk, Nada; Okereke, Uchenna R; Cohen, David E

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND: While most of the attention regarding skin pigmentation has focused on the effects on ultraviolet radiation, the cutaneous effects of visible light (400 to 700nm) are rarely reported. In this report, we describe a case of painful erythema and induration that resulted from direct irradiation of UV-naïve skin with visible LED light in a patient with Fitzpatrick type II skin. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 24-year-old healthy woman with Fitzpatrick type II skin presented to our department to participate in a clinical study. As part of the study, the subject underwent visible light irradiation with an LED and halogen incandescent visible light source. After 5 minutes of exposure, the patient complained of appreciable pain at the LED exposed site. Evaluation demonstrated erythema and mild induration. There were no subjective or objective findings at the halogen incandescent irradiated site, which received equivalent fluence (0.55 Watts / cm2). The study was halted as the subject was unable to tolerate the full duration of visible light irradiation. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of recognizing the effects of visible light on skin. While the vast majority of investigational research has focused on ultraviolet light, the effects of visible light have been largely overlooked and must be taken into consideration, in all Fitzpatrick skin types. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):388-392..

  10. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  11. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  12. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  13. Trials carried out on corrosive (fluorinated) atmosphere vacuum gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, M.; Houyvet, A.; Noe, P.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the stability of readings given by a modified Pirani type measurement probe with a view to long term operation in the presence of corrosive gases. Results of measurements carried out before and after use under these conditions. (author) [fr

  14. Abstraction carrying code and resource-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenegildo, Manuel V.; Albert Albiol, Elvira; López García, Pedro; Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán

    2005-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) is a general approach to mobile code safety in which the code supplier augments the program with a certifícate (or proof). The intended benefit is that the program consumer can locally validate the certifícate w.r.t. the "untrusted" program by means of a certifícate checker—a process which should be much simpler, eíñcient, and automatic than generating the original proof. Abstraction Carrying Code (ACC) is an enabling technology for PCC in which an abstract mod...

  15. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  16. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . Illnesses common among housepets — ... get an infection that can be passed to people. Safely Caring for Your Pet Here are some tips to help your family ...

  17. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  18. Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1980-04-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating

  19. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  20. Estimating the recreational carrying capacity of a lowland river section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T

    2012-01-01

    Recreational boating represents a major human use of inland waters in many regions. However, boating tourism may affect the ecological integrity of surface waters in multiple ways. In particular, surface waves produced by boating may disturb freshwater invertebrates, such as interrupting the filtration activity of benthic mussels. As mussels may significantly contribute to self-purification, disturbance may have crucial impacts on water quality, and thus on water tourism. In this paper we calculate the carrying capacity of a river section for sustainable boating tourism based on the preservation of water quality. This approach is complemented by spatial and social approaches for carrying capacity estimates. The ecological carrying capacity significantly decreases with lower water levels during summer. Hence, the analysis of variables that influence the river's carrying capacity allows the formation of recommendations for management measures that integrate social, touristic and ecological aspects.

  1. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  2. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesse

    Under this formulation, both carrying capacity and exchange ratios are endogenously determined (Kinyua and Njoka, 2001), making it possible to empirically estimate the population growth models for Grant's gazelle, Thompson's gazelle and Zebra. (1) for i = 1,…,n-1 j = 1,…,2 and i ≠ j. Here Hit+1, measured in animal units, ...

  3. 滨海旅游环境承载力评价与量化测度研究——以山东半岛蓝色经济区为例%Evaluation and Quantitative Measurement on Coastal Tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity: A Case Study on the Blue Shandong Peninsula Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 于水仙; 王佳

    2012-01-01

    carrying capacity of four carrying subsystems including resources, ecology, economy and society, and sets up judging matrix by the way of the hierarchy structure of the evaluation system, and then uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process to determine the weight of indexes. After that, the paper adopts the Matter Element Evaluation Model and Gray Prediction Model to quantitatively measure and systematically analyze the coastal tourism environmental carrying capacity of the Blue Shandong Peninsula Economic Zone. The results show that, there are certain carrying differences among the carrying subsystems of coastal tourism environmental carrying capacily in the Blue Shandong Peninsula Economic Zone. Coastal tourism resources and ecological environmental carrying capacity are relative strong, while coastal tourism economic and social environmental subsystems have huge carrying space. Judging from the timing change, the overall coastal tourism environmental carrying capacity continues to be improved, and presents a sustainable running trend. From the point of view of spatial differences, coastal tourism environmental carrying capacity states of Qingdao, Yantai, Weifang, and Weihai remain at the "good" level, while Dongying, Rizhao and Binzhou are at the "normal" level. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the overall regional carrying potential and balance regional carrying disparities, ahich has the important practical significance to promote the coastal tourism resources to be orderly developed and the coastal tourism industry to be reasonably distributed in the Blue Shandong Peninsula Economic Zone.

  4. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  5. Delay model and performance testing for FPGA carry chain TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xiaowen; Liu Yaqiang; Cui Junjian Yang Zhangcan; Jin Yongjie

    2011-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) information would improve the performance of PET (position emission tomography). TDC design is a key technique. It proposed Carry Chain TDC Delay model. Through changing the significant delay parameter of model, paper compared the difference of TDC performance, and finally realized Time-to-Digital Convertor (TDC) based on Carry Chain Method using FPGA EP2C20Q240C8N with 69 ps LSB, max error below 2 LSB. Such result could meet the TOF demand. It also proposed a Coaxial Cable Measuring method for TDC testing, without High-precision test equipment. (authors)

  6. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  7. Detecting Vessels Carrying Migrants Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfyridis, A.; Cheng, T.; Vespe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  8. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  9. DETECTING VESSELS CARRYING MIGRANTS USING MACHINE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sfyridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  10. Can `loss and damage' carry the load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchick, Robert R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call `loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations. The Paris Agreement calls for holding the rise in global average temperature to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels', while working to limit the increase to 1.5°C. How much difference is in that half-degree? From the point of view of residual risk, quite a lot. According to a 2016 study published by the European Geosciences Union, a jump from 1.5°C to 2°C could produce outsize impacts, particularly in tropical latitudes. That difference could mark the line between a plan that is politically and morally defensible and one that is not. At the very least, the difference is enough to inform the design and expectations of any future plan. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  11. BLOOD SUBSTITUTES: EVOLUTION FROM NON-CARRYING TO OXYGEN AND GAS CARRYING FLUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The development of oxygen (O2) carrying blood substitutes has evolved from the goal of replicating blood O2 transports properties to that of preserving microvascular and organ function, reducing the inherent or potential toxicity of the material used to carry O2, and treating pathologies initiated by anemia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the emphasis has shifted from blood replacement fluid to “O2 therapeutics” that restore tissue oxygenation to specific tissues regions. This review covers the different alternatives, potential and limitations of hemoglobin based O2 carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon based O2 carriers (PFCOCs), with emphasis on the physiological conditions disturbed in the situation that they will be used. It describes how concepts learned from plasma expanders without O2 carrying capacity can be applied to maintain O2 delivery and summarizes the microvascular responses due to HBOCs and PFCOCs. This review also presents alternative applications of HBOCs and PFCOCs namely: 1) How HBOC O2 affinity can be engineered to target O2 delivery to hypoxic tissues; and 2) How the high gas solubility of PFCOCs provides new opportunities for carrying, dissolving and delivering gases with biological activity. It is concluded that current blood substitutes development has amplified their applications horizon by devising therapeutic functions for oxygen carriers requiring limited O2 delivery capacity restoration. Conversely, full, blood-like O2 carrying capacity re-establishment awaits control of O2 carrier toxicity. PMID:23820271

  12. Possibility of adjusting the photoluminescence spectrum of Ca scheelites to the emission spectrum of incandescent lamps: [ nCaWO4-(1- n)CaMoO4]: Eu3+ solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakovets, V. V.; Zolotova, E. S.; Antonova, O. V.; Korol'kov, I. V.; Yushina, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    The specific features of the photoluminescence of [ nCaWO4-(1- n)CaMoO4]:Eu3+ solid solutions with the scheelite structure are examined using X-ray phase analysis and photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The studied features are associated with a change in the long- and short-range orders of the crystal lattice upon variations in the composition of solutions in the range n = 0-1.0 (with a pitch of 0.2) at a concentration of red photoluminescence activator Eu3+ of 2 mol %. The mechanism of the modification of photoluminescence of solid solutions upon variations in their composition has been discussed. Anomalies in the variations in parameters of the crystal lattice, its short-range order, and luminescence spectra have been observed in the transition from pure compounds CaMoO4:Eu3+ and CaWO4:Eu3+ to solutions; the concentration of Eu3+ ions in the centrosymmetric localization increases (decreases) in the transition from the molybdate (tungstate). It has been demonstrated that the spectral radiant emittance of solid solution [0.4CaWO4-0.6CaMoO4]:Eu3+ (2 mol %) is the closest to that of an incandescent lamp.

  13. Process for carrying out analyses based on concurrent reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J S; Shepherd, B P

    1980-01-03

    The invention refers to a process for carrying out analyses based on concurrent reactions. A part of a compound to be analysed is subjected with a standard quantity of this compound in a labelled form to a common reaction with a standard quantity of a reagent, which must be less than the sum of the two parts of the reacting compound. The parts of the marked reaction compound and the labelled final compound resulting from the concurrence are separated in a tube (e.g. by centrifuging) after forced phase change (precipitation, absorption etc.) and the radio-activity of both phases in contact is measured separately. The shielded measuring device developed for this and suitable for centrifuge tubes of known dimensions is also included in the patent claims. The insulin concentration of a defined serum is measured as an example of the applications of the method (Radioimmunoassay).

  14. Shielding calculations for ships carrying irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstall, R.F.; Dean, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of ships have been constructed to carry irradiated fuel from Japan to the UK and France, for reprocessing. About twenty transport flasks may be carried on each voyage. Permanent shielding must be provided on the ships to ensure that no member of the crew receives an annual dose rate greater than a specified limit. As the fuel is of varying type and radiation history, and as flasks of differing designs are used, many calculations are needed. There are a number of difficulties in making shielding calculations for the ships. The geometry is complex, dimensions are large, and considerable air spaces are involved. The paper considers possible methods of calculation. The line-of-sight method is chosen for most of the calculations, for both gamma radiation and neutrons. The basic data which is used in the calculations is described. As the methods of calculation are somewhat approximate, it is necessary to provide confirmation that they are sufficiently accurate. Validation has been provided in two ways. First, measurements have been made on board the ships, and these have been checked against calculation. Second, a simplified model of the flasks and ship has been set up, and calculations checked against more sophisticated methods. Results of the validation checks are presented, and it is shown that adequate accuracy is achieved. (author)

  15. Shielding calculations for ships carrying irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of ships have been constructed to carry irradiated fuel from Japan to the U.K. and France, for reprocessing. About 20 transport flasks may be carried on each voyage. Permanent shielding must be provided on the ships to ensure that no member of the crew receives an annual dose greater than a specified limit. As the fuel is of varying type and radiation history, and as flasks of differing designs are used, many shielding calculations are needed. There are a number of difficulties in making shielding calculations for the ships. The geometry is complex, dimensions are large and considerable air spaces are involved. The paper considers possible methods of calculation. The line-of-sight method is chosen for most of the calculations, for both γ-radiation and neutrons. The basic data which is used in the calculations is described. As the methods of calculation are somewhat approximate, it is necessary to provide confirmation that they are sufficiently accurate. Validation has been provided in two ways. First, measurements have been made on board one of the ships, Pacific Crane, and these have been checked against calculation. Second, a simplified model of the flasks and ship has been set up, and calculations checked against more sophisticated methods. Results of the validation checks are presented, and it is shown that adequate accuracy is achieved. (author)

  16. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  17. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  18. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  19. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each coal...

  20. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    results especially with respect to the flow field and temperature field. The calculated carry-over also shows agreement with measured data.

  1. Kinetic characteristics of the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bolli Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of the locomotor system can be compromised by the transport of certain objects, especially when done in an inadequate manner. Due to their weight and size, the transport of musical instruments can contribute to body dysfunctions in musicians who frequently have to carry their instruments, influencing balance andbody posture. Thus, the soil reaction force was investigated during the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument. Two AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technologies, Inc. platforms were used for kinetic data acquisition. A total of 40 measurements were obtainedfor gait and balance: 20 without carrying the instrument and 20 while carrying the instrument. The t test showed significant differences between the two situations for all variables analyzed. The results suggest that the locomotor system suffers alterationswhen carrying any kind of load, as was the case here in which the subject carried 7.75% of his own weight.

  2. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  3. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying Among Cocktail Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Megan D; Wilder, David A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received individual safety training that focused on proper carrying positions and techniques after baseline data were collected. A multiple baseline design acr...

  4. Organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vodlozerov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim is analyzing of system of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine in accordance with rules of triathlon international federation. Material & Methods: comparative analysis of process of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in the world and Ukraine was carried out on basis of specialist literature studying, normative base of sports organizations (triathlon federation. Results: inconsistencies were identified in competitions carried out in cold season, particularity of triathlon that intends overcoming the combined distance without time durations between stages. Conclusions: recommendation in eliminate inconsistencies that affect to performance of triathlon competitions in Ukraine was suggested.

  5. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  6. Characterization of LH induced current carrying fast electrons in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramponi, G.; Airoldi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Lab. di Fisica del Plasma; Bartlett, D.; Brusati, M.; Froissard, P.; Gormezano, C.; Rimini, F.; Silva, R.P. da; Tanzi, C.P. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1992-12-31

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments have recently been made at JET by coupling up to 2.4 MW of RF power at 3.7 GHz, with a power spectrum centered at n{sub ||} = 1.8 {+-} 0.2 corresponding to a resonating electron energy of about 100 keV via Electron Landau Damping. The Current Drive (CD) efficiency has been observed to increase when LH and ICRH power are applied simultaneously to the plasma, suggesting that a part of the fast magnetosonic wave is absorbed on the LH-generated fast electrons. An important problem of CD experiments in tokamaks is the determination of the radial distribution of the driven current and the characterization in the momentum space of the current carrying fast electrons by using appropriate diagnostic tools. For this purpose, a combined analysis of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and of the Fast Electron Bremsstrahlung (FEB) measurements has been made, allowing the relevant parameters of the suprathermal electrons to be estimated. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Characterization of LH induced current carrying fast electrons in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramponi, G.; Airoldi, A.; Bartlett, D.; Brusati, M.; Froissard, P.; Gormezano, C.; Rimini, F.; Silva, R.P. da; Tanzi, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments have recently been made at JET by coupling up to 2.4 MW of RF power at 3.7 GHz, with a power spectrum centered at n || = 1.8 ± 0.2 corresponding to a resonating electron energy of about 100 keV via Electron Landau Damping. The Current Drive (CD) efficiency has been observed to increase when LH and ICRH power are applied simultaneously to the plasma, suggesting that a part of the fast magnetosonic wave is absorbed on the LH-generated fast electrons. An important problem of CD experiments in tokamaks is the determination of the radial distribution of the driven current and the characterization in the momentum space of the current carrying fast electrons by using appropriate diagnostic tools. For this purpose, a combined analysis of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and of the Fast Electron Bremsstrahlung (FEB) measurements has been made, allowing the relevant parameters of the suprathermal electrons to be estimated. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The Population Growth and Carrying Capacity in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto; Hadi, Sudharto P.; Buchori, Imam

    2018-02-01

    Population growth and development of city activities take some lands to carry them. As a result, land use competition happens among persons, society or sector. Land necessity for settlement, industry, or sector has taken over farm land, therefore farm land has been converted intensively and massively. Chronologically, population growth will cause land necessity increase. Unproductive land, especially farm land will be converted. Furthermore, farm land conversion will cause carrying capacity change. Carrying capacity has certain bio capacity. With the population growth, it will increase resource consumption; on the other side, farm land conversion will decrease carrying capacity. The objective of the study is to know about the influence of population growth towards carrying capacity (bio capacity) in Semarang city. Land consumption per capita is indeed influenced by city population, the higher the population is, the lower the land consumption per capita. With the population growth, it will influence carrying capacity. Carrying capacity here is the ratio of area to population. Analytical descriptive method is applied in the study with all sub-districts in Semarang city as the analysis unit. Population here is sub-district area and population per sub-district in Semarang city. Population growth data period is from 2000 until 2015. Main variables of the study are area per sub-district, population, population growth, carrying capacity. Result of the study shows significant influence of carrying capacity decrease, especially some outskirts in Semarang city. This condition happens because the outskirts in Semarang city tend to have dense population growth. Range of carrying capacity in Semarang city is from 0,007 to 0,117 of 0 to 1. Almost all sub-districts in Semarang city show miserable condition, except Mijen and Tugu. The conclusion of the study is that population will decrease carrying capacity. Therefore, the government should control population growth by paying

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying agricultural products. 111.105-45... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-45 Vessels carrying agricultural products. (a) The following areas are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on vessels...

  10. 25 CFR 23.51 - Grant carry-over authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant carry-over authority. 23.51 Section 23.51 Indians... Uniform Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.51 Grant carry-over authority. Unless... two years beyond the initial grant funding period and must be utilized only for the intent, purpose...

  11. 14 CFR 121.589 - Carry-on baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (c) and (d). (c) No certificate holder may allow an airplane to take off or land unless each article... holder may allow the boarding of carry-on baggage on an airplane unless each passenger's baggage has been... program in its operations specifications. In addition, no passenger may board an airplane if his/her carry...

  12. Evaluating total carrying capacity of tourism using impact indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carrying capacity is well identified tool to manage problems due to uncontrolled tourism for any destination. This report highlights the carrying capacity estimation of Kerwa tourism area, Bhopal, India. The methodology used in this report is a new two-tier mechanism of impact analysis using index numbers derived from a survey of 123 stakeholders. From this the individual component impact analysis and the total carrying capacity of the area is computed in order to state the insight of the total carrying capacity left for the tourism activities in Kerwa tourism area. It is calculated from, the results so obtained, that the Kerwa catchment area falls in “very low impact category” and hence in a healthy state of the artwork in terms of total carrying capacity. The study conveys the current need in the destination management and tourism development as a road map for the destination managers for implementing sustainable tourism.

  13. The flexible application of carrying capacity in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity encompasses a broad collection of approaches used to better understand biotic interactions in ecosystems and is often applied with no explicit regard to its historical origin. In this paper, we reviewed the primary literature to examine how carrying capacity is applied in ecology. We focused our review on ecosystem studies—studies that frame their results at the ecosystem level—published after the 1950s and highlight emerging trends of this concept. We found that while carrying capacity offers some underlying commonalities, a wide range of definitions and approaches hinders a unified framework to better understand biotic ecosystem interactions. Not surprisingly, these studies most often use K—the number of individuals that the environment “can support” in a given area—to define carrying capacity, despite considerable ambiguity and uncertainty in this approach. Furthermore, the studies that we reviewed spanned several levels of ecological organization: molecules to communities and up to landscapes. To add further complexity, it is not clear whether carrying capacity was intended as a dynamic concept subject to temporal variability as it was often applied in the reviewed studies. We found that carrying capacity is most often applied to studies in conservation biology, rangeland and wildlife management, aquaculture, and fisheries biology. We explore ecosystem level responses to implications of “carrying capacity” overshoot and discuss proposed mechanisms that govern ecosystem carrying capacity. We discuss the usefulness of the concept and end with suggestions to improve carrying capacity's general application in ecosystem studies. Keywords: Carrying capacity, Conservation biology, Ecosystems, Ecosystem management, Natural resources

  14. US Public Opinion on Carrying Firearms in Public Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Teret, Stephen P; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    To estimate US public opinion, overall and by gun ownership status, about the public places where legal gun owners should be allowed to carry firearms. We fielded an online survey among 3949 adults, including an oversample of gun owners and veterans, in April 2015. We used cross-tabulations with survey weights to generate nationally representative estimates. Fewer than 1 in 3 US adults supported gun carrying in any of the specified venues. Support for carrying in public was consistently higher among gun owners than among non-gun owners. Overall, support for carrying in public was lowest for schools (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.7, 21.1), bars (18%; 95% CI = 15.9, 20.6), and sports stadiums (17%; 95% CI = 15.0, 19.5). Most Americans, including most gun owners, support restricting public places legal gun owners can carry firearms. These views contrast sharply with the current trend in state legislatures of expanding where, how, and by whom guns can be carried in public. Recent state laws and proposed federal legislation that would force states to honor out-of-state concealed carry permits are out of step with American public opinion.

  15. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  16. Isometric arm strength and subjective rating of upper limb fatigue in two-handed carrying tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chiu, Wen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Sustained carrying could result in muscular fatigue of the upper limb. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited for measurements of isometric arm strength before and during carrying a load for a period of 4 minutes. Two levels of load of carrying were tested for each of the male and female subjects. Exponential function based predictive equations for the isometric arm strength were established. The mean absolute deviations of these models in predicting the isometric arm strength were in the range of 3.24 to 17.34 N. Regression analyses between the subjective ratings of upper limb fatigue and force change index (FCI) for the carrying were also performed. The results indicated that the subjective rating of muscular fatigue may be estimated by multiplying the FCI with a constant. The FCI may, therefore, be adopted as an index to assess muscular fatigue for two-handed carrying tasks.

  17. Research programs in adsorption carried out in the low temperature laboratory of UFRJ (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research programs of gas adsorption in thin films carried out by the low temperature laboratory of UFRJ (Brazil) are reported. These programs were divided in two parts: 1) experiments of adsorption isotherm measurements by the volumetric method and 2) specific heat measurements of adsorbed gases. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Foreign exchange predictability and the carry trade: a decomposition approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Gospodinov, N.; Jamali, I.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, June (2017), s. 199-211 ISSN 0927-5398 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : exchange rate forecasting * carry trade * return decomposition Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2016

  19. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  20. Assessment of feeding value of vegetable-carried pineapple fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the sun-drying characteristics of five blends each (w/w; 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5, 1:3) of wheat offal-carried pineapple waste (WO:PW) and brewers' dried grains-carried pineapple waste (BDG:PW), assessed the blends for their nutrient contents and the feeding value of the optimum blends with Red Sokoto ...

  1. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  2. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  3. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  4. Portable, battery-driven nuclear radiation measuring instrument with a portable reversible scale cylinder enclosing a light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.; Kuehnert, H.; Hofmann, J.

    1970-01-01

    The transparent scale drum of the measuring unit is lighted from the inside. For this purpose, an incandescent lamp is held in a shockproof socket. It is installed on the tip of an axle end which penetrates into the interior of the drum. This is attached to one front of the drum in such a way that it can be withdrawn from the drum together with the lamp after loosening of one screw holding the foot. The connecting wires of the lamp are run out of the drum through a bore in the axle end and are connected to soldering lugs. (DG/RF) [de

  5. Method for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases and sulfur-carrying waste water from pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspegren, O E.A.; Eklund, A J

    1951-03-15

    A method is described for rendering harmless sulfur dioxide-carrying gases, which are formed in processes for the manufacture of solid, liquid, or gaseous products by pyrolysis of oil shale, and thereby to extract valuable products, characterized in that the sulfur dioxide-carrying gases are washed with a solution or sludge obtained by leaching wholly or partly burned-out residues from the pyrolysis.

  6. [Ecological carrying capacity and Chongming Island's ecological construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyun; Zou, Chunjing; Kong, Zhenghong; Wang, Tianhou; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2005-12-01

    This paper overviewed the goals of Chongming Island's ecological construction and its background, analyzed the current eco-economic status and constraints of the Island, and put forward some scientific issues on its ecological construction. It was suggested that for the resources-saving and sustainable development of the Island, the researches on its ecological construction should be based on its ecological carrying capacity, fully take the regional characteristics into consideration, and refer the successful development modes at home and abroad. The carrying capacity study should ground on systemic and dynamic views, give a thorough evaluation of the Island's present carrying capacity, simulate its possible changes, and forecast its demands and risks. Operable countermeasures to promote the Island's carrying capacity should be worked out, new industry structure, population scale, and optimized distribution projects conforming to regional carrying capacity should be formulated, and effective ecological security alarming and control system should be built, with the aim of providing suggestions and strategic evidences for the decision-making of economic development and sustainable environmental resources use of the region.

  7. Carrying capacity of water resources in Bandung Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganingrum, D.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is widely used in various sectors as a management tool for sustainable development processes. This idea has also been applied in watershed or basin scale. Bandung Basin is the upstream of Citarum watershed known as one of the national strategic areas. This area has developed into a metropolitan area loaded with various environmental problems. Therefore, research that is related to environmental carrying capacity in this area becomes a strategic issue. However, research on environmental carrying capacity that has been done in this area is still partial either in water balance terminology, land suitability, ecological footprint, or balance of supply and demand of resources. This paper describes the application of the concept of integrated environmental carrying capacity in order to overcome the increasing complexity and dynamic environmental problems. The sector that becomes the focus of attention is the issue of water resources. The approach method to be carried out is to combine the concept of maximum balance and system dynamics. The dynamics of the proposed system is the ecological dynamics and population that cannot be separated from one another as a unity of the Bandung Basin ecosystem.

  8. Carrying capacity of Peucang Island for ecotourism management in Ujung Kulon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyono, K. H.; Muntasib, E. K. S. H.; Yulianda, F.

    2018-05-01

    Peucang Island is one of island in Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP), appointed as priority area and welcome area for tourism. This research aimed to calculate the carrying capacity of Peucang Island for ecotourism development (Study sites of this research are Karang Copong jungle trail and 8 sites of Peucangs beach). This research used observation method (wildlife exploration, measure the lenght of jungle track, and measure 10 parameters of beach), literature study and and interview method to collect data. The data of jungle track analyzed use Cifuentes’s formula. The result showed that Karang Copong jungle trekking had 20,000 visitors/day for Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC), 4 838 visitors/day for Real Carrying Capacity (RCC), and 6 visitors/day for Efective Carrying Capacity (ECC). Observation of biological aspect showed that there were some damages of vegetation along the track, and the changes in animal behavior. The data of beach carrying capacity analyzed use Yulianda’s formula that measured with the suitability map approach. Based on the suitability map, two beaches were classified in suitable category, while six beaches) were classified in highly suitable category for tourism activities. All of the beaches had different number of carrying capacity, specifically there are 70 visitors/day in highly suitable beach and 27 visitors/day in suitable beach. The number of visitor nowadays still not exceed from carrying capacity number of PCC, RCC of jungle trails and carrying capacity of the beach area, but the number has exceeded from the ECC numbers.

  9. 40 CFR 92.111 - Smoke measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... were the exhaust is not circular at its discharge, the path of the light beam through the plume shall.... (ii) The light source shall be an incandescent lamp with a color temperature range of 2800K to 3250K... incandescent lamp, the detector shall have a spectral response similar to the photopic curve of the human eye...

  10. Concepts for reducing nuclear utility inventory carrying costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graybill, R.E.; DiCola, F.E.; Solanas, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are under pressure to reduce their operating and maintenance expenses such that the total cost of generating electricity through nuclear power remains an economically attractive option. One area in which expenses may be reduced is total inventory carrying cost. The total inventory carrying cost consists of financing an inventory, managing the inventory, assuring quality, engineering of acceptable parts specifications, and procuring initial and replenishment stock. Concepts and methodology must be developed to reduce the remaining expenses of a utility's total inventory carrying cost. Currently, two concepts exist: pooled inventory management system (PIMS), originally established by General Electric Company and a group of boiling water reactor owners, and Nuclear Parts Associates' (NUPA) shared inventory management program (SIMP). Both concepts share or pool parts and components among utilities. The SIMP program objectives and technical activities are summarized

  11. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  12. Carry trade as a speculative investment strategy in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bungin Sanja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is analyses causes and the consequences of a speculative investment carry trade strategy in the exchange market in Serbia. The presence of such type of investor is related to high yields of risk free securities denominated in dinars, as well as the perception of future movements of dinar exchange rate related to currency that serves as source of investment. The consequences of carry trade may significantly influence exchange rate movements when monetary policy has limited facilities to combat negative and sudden shocks.

  13. General relativistic galvano-gravitomagnetic effect in current carrying conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.

    1998-11-01

    The analogy between general relativity and electromagnetism suggests that there is a galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, which is the gravitational analogue of the Hall effect. This new effect takes place when a current carrying conductor is placed in a gravitomagnetic field and the conduction electrons moving inside the conductor are deflected transversally with respect to the current flow. In connection with this galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, we explore the possibility of using current carrying conductors for detecting the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth. (author)

  14. Foreign exchange predictability and the carry trade: a decomposition approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Gospodinov, N.; Jamali, I.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, June (2017), s. 199-211 ISSN 0927-5398 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : exchange rate forecasting * carry trade * return decomposition Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2016

  15. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-06-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects.

  16. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee

    2015-01-01

    C-carrying MRSA ST130 clone is widespread in a variety of unrelated hosts in Denmark. Since the mara at Copenhagen Zoo have limited contact with humans and other animal species, it remains unclear whether mara are natural hosts of ST130 or acquired this lineage from unknown sources. The broad host range of MRSA...

  17. Development of heavy load carrying vehicle for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terabayashi, Yasuharu; Oono, Hiroo; Aizu, Takao; Kawaguchi, Kaname; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Hirobe, Tamio; Inagaki, Yoshiaki.

    1985-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, in order to carry out sound and stable operation, the routine inspection and regular inspection of machinery and equipment are performed, therefore, the transportation of heavy things is frequently carried out. Especially, the transportation of heavy things over the steps of passages and stairs requires much labor. Therefore, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. and Chubu Plant Service Co., Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a vehicle for transporting heavy components of nuclear power plants. In this research, it was aimed at developing a vehicle which can carry heavy components and get over a step, climb and descend stairs, and run through a narrow passage having many curves as well as running on flat ground. For this purpose, the actual state of the transportation of heavy things was investigated during the regular inspection of a nuclear power station, and on the basis of this results, a prototype vehicle was made and tested. Thereafter, a transporting vehicle of actual scale was made and tested. The investigation of actual state and the examination of the fundamental concept, the design, trial manufacture and verifying test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Stress Carry-Over and College Student Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a stress carry-over perspective, this study examines the relationship between stress stemming from school and family domains and physical and mental health outcomes. Methods: The study sample included 268 undergraduate men and women from a Midwestern university. Participants completed an anonymous online questionnaire. OLS…

  19. Carrying capacity of a heterogeneous lake for migrating swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.

    2010-01-01

    One way to express the value of a natural habitat is its capacity to harbour a particular target species. In the case of migratory birds, the cumulative number of birds that can be accommodated at a site for a given period of time (‘bird-days’) became an accepted currency for this carrying capacity.

  20. Plasma generator utilizing dielectric member for carrying microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklufi, M.E.; Brock, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a system in which electromagnetic energy is used to generate a plasma from a gas. It comprises a reaction chamber which is evacuated to less than ambient pressure and into which the gas is introduced; and a nonconductive member for carrying the electromagnetic energy and for emitting the electromagnetic energy so that a plasma is formed from the gas

  1. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society…

  2. Carrying capacity of Chaetoceros gracilis in Homa Lagoon and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for nutrient limitation to affect C. gracilis was assessed from two different ecosystems (Izmir Bay and Homa Lagoon). Our goal was to determine the growth rate of all nutrients and the maximum levels of the C. gracilis phytoplankton biomass (the maximum biomass carrying capacity) on the extent of its full ...

  3. Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, F.; Stevens, M. J.; Kozorezov, A.; Verma, V. B.; Lambert, Colin; Stern, J. A.; Horansky, R. D.; Dyer, S.; Duff, S.; Pappas, D. P.; Lita, A. E.; Shaw, M. D.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally studied the dynamics of optically excited hotspots in current-carrying WSi superconducting nanowires as a function of bias current, bath temperature, and excitation wavelength. We observed that the hotspot relaxation time depends on bias current, temperature, and wavelength. We explained this effect with a model based on quasiparticle recombination, which provides insight into the quasiparticle dynamics of superconductors.

  4. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  5. The KB WOT Fisheries Programme carried out in 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Verver, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The KB WOT Fisheries programme is established to maintain and develop the expertise needed to carry out the statutory obligations of the Netherlands in fisheries monitoring and advice. It is also a flexible program which responds to changes over time in WOT requirements, fisheries management and

  6. Random noise characterization on the carrying capacities of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of the survival of species dependent on a limited resource in a polluted environment which isnot a new idea can be described by the technique of a mathematical modelling. We have utilised the technique of a numerical simulation to study the impact of environmental random noise on the carrying capacities of ...

  7. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  8. Must-carry regulation: a must or a burden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; van der Sloot, B.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first must-carry rules date back to 1990, the time when space on analogue broadcasting networks was limited and when supply grew quickly due to the introduction of private broadcasters. To ensure that channels of general interest would still be transmitted, countries introduced rules to regulate

  9. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  10. Violence and weapon carrying in music videos. A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Rich, M; Emans, S J; Rome, E S; Allred, E; Woods, E R

    1997-05-01

    The positive portrayal of violence and weapon carrying in televised music videos is thought to have a considerable influence on the normative expectations of adolescents about these behaviors. To perform a content analysis of the depictions of violence and weapon carrying in music videos, including 5 genres of music (rock, rap, adult contemporary, rhythm and blues, and country), from 4 television networks and to analyze the degree of sexuality or eroticism portrayed in each video and its association with violence and weapon carrying, as an indicator of the desirability of violent behaviors. Five hundred eighteen videos were recorded during randomly selected days and times of the day from the Music Television, Video Hits One, Black Entertainment Television, and Country Music Television networks. Four female and 4 male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. Interobserver reliability testing resulted in a mean (+/- SD) percentage agreement of 89.25% +/- 7.10% and a mean (+/- SD) kappa of 0.73 +/- 0.20. All videos were observed by rotating 2-person, male-female teams that were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi 2 tests. A higher percentage (22.4%) of Music Television videos portrayed overt violence than Video Hits One (11.8%), Country Music Television (11.8%), and Black Entertainment Television (11.5%) videos (P = .02). Rap (20.4%) had the highest portrayal of violence, followed by rock (19.8%), country (10.8%), adult contemporary (9.7%), and rhythm and blues (5.9%) (P = .006). Weapon carrying was higher on Music Television (25.0%) than on Black Entertainment Television (11.5%), Video Hits One (8.4%), and Country Music Television (6.9%) (P violence (P violence and weapon carrying, which is glamorized by music artists, actors, and actresses.

  11. Setting oral health goals that include oral health-related quality of life measures: a study carried out among adolescents in Thailand Incorporação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em metas de saúde bucal: estudo conduzido em adolescentes tailandeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaduang Krisdapong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral diseases and condition-specific oral health-related quality of life (CS-OHRQoL as a basis for proposing OHRQoL-based goals for the population of 15-year-olds in Thailand. Oral examinations and OHRQoL interviews were conducted with 871 15-year-olds as part of the Sixth Thailand National Oral Health Survey. The severity of oral impacts was categorized using "intensity". Associations between oral diseases and CS-OHRQoL were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression. Thirty-nine percent of 15-year-olds experienced moderate/higher levels oral impacts on quality of life. Compared to those individuals with no tooth decay, adolescents with one or four or more decaying teeth were three and seven times more likely to experience moderate/higher impacts, respectively. Adolescents with extensive gingivitis in 3 or more mouth sextants were twice as likely to experience moderate/higher CS-impacts. Based on these findings, it is proposed that goals should focus on untreated decaying teeth and extensive gingivitis. Oral health goals for 15-year-olds should include specific OHRQoL measures.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre doença bucal e a condição específica de qualidade de vida associada à saúde bucal (CS-OHRQoL, como base para propor OHRQoL metas para adolescentes tailandeses. Exame clínico bucal e entrevista foram realizados em 871 adolescentes na faixa etária de 15 anos, como parte da 6ª Pesquisa Nacional Tailandesa de Saúde Bucal. A severidade do impacto bucal foi categorizada usando-se a "intensidade". A associação entre doença bucal e CS-OHRQoL foi investigada usando-se o teste qui-quadrado e regressão lógica. Trinta e nove por cento da amostra reportaram impactos bucais de grau moderado/elevado. A probabilidade de reportar um impacto bucal de grau moderado/elevado dos adolescentes com um dente cariado e aqueles com 4 ou mais foi 3 e 7 vezes

  12. State Gun Law Environment and Youth Gun Carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Hemenway, David

    2015-11-01

    Gun violence and injuries pose a substantial threat to children and youth in the United States. Existing evidence points to the need for interventions and policies for keeping guns out of the hands of children and youth. (1) To examine the association between state gun law environment and youth gun carrying in the United States, and (2) to determine whether adult gun ownership mediates this association. This was a repeated cross-sectional observational study design with 3 years of data on youth gun carrying from US states. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey comprises data of representative samples of students in grades 9 to 12 from biennial years of 2007, 2009, and 2011. We hypothesized that states with more restrictive gun laws have lower rates of youth gun carrying, and this association is mediated by adult gun ownership. State gun law environment as measured by state gun law score. Youth gun carrying was defined as having carried a gun on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey. In the fully adjusted model, a 10-point increase in the state gun law score, which represented a more restrictive gun law environment, was associated with a 9% decrease in the odds of youth gun carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.96]). Adult gun ownership mediated the association between state gun law score and youth gun carrying (AOR, 0.94 [ 95% CI, 0.86-1.01], with 29% attenuation of the regression coefficient from -0.09 to -0.07 based on bootstrap resampling). More restrictive overall gun control policies are associated with a reduced likelihood of youth gun carrying. These findings are relevant to gun policy debates about the critical importance of strengthening overall gun law environment to prevent youth gun carrying.

  13. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie D Walsh

    Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  14. Estimation of carrying angle based on CT images in preoperative surgical planning for cubitus deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Shinsuk; Kim, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Conventionally, the carrying angle of the elbow is measured using simple two-dimensional radiography or goniometry, which has questionable reliability. This study proposes a novel method for estimating carrying angles using computed tomography that can enhance the reliability of the angle measurement. Data of CT scans from 25 elbow joints were processed to build segmented three-dimensional models. The cross-sectional centerlines of the ulna and the humerus were traced from the 3D models, and the angle between 2 vectors formed from the centerlines of the humerus and the ulna was defined as the 'three-dimensional carrying angle.' These angles were compared with those measured by simple radiograph. Two cases of angular deformity were underwent surgery based on this preoperative surgical planning, and the postoperative 3D carrying angles were evaluated using the proposed method. The mean value of the calculated three-dimensional carrying angle was 20.7deg±3.61, while it was 16.3deg±3.21 based on simple radiography without statistical difference. Based on the 3D carrying angle estimations, 2 surgical cases of cubitus deformities were planned by comparison with the normal contra-lateral elbow. Postoperative angle estimations confirmed that the corrected angles were nearly identical to the planned angles for both cases. The results of this study showed that the carrying angle can be accurately estimated using three-dimensional CT and that the proposed method is useful in evaluating deformities of the elbow with high reliability. (author)

  15. A METHOD OF SECURITY SCANNING OF CARRY-ON ITEMS, AND A CARRY-ON ITEMS SECURITY SCANNING SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A security scanning system (1) comprises a first stage module (3) having at least one X-ray source (6) and at least three first detectors (7) that are line-shaped and arranged in mutually different orientations and have at least dual energy resolution. A group of carry-on items (4) on a carrier...

  16. Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Kula, Alex; Mack, Keenan M L; Zhai, Lu; Ryce, Arrix L; Ni, Wei-Ming; DeAngelis, Donald L; Van Dyken, J David

    2017-09-01

    A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial diffusion increased total equilibrium population abundance in heterogeneous environments, with the effect size depending on the relationship between r and K. Refuting previous theory, however, we discovered that homogeneously distributed resources support higher total carrying capacity than heterogeneously distributed resources, even with species diffusion. Our results provide rigorous experimental tests of new and old theory, demonstrating how the traditional notion of carrying capacity is ambiguous for populations diffusing in spatially heterogeneous environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Experiments on criticality carried out from 1975 till 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, W.; Tischer, A.; Weber, W.J.

    1981-11-01

    The report on hand includes the experiments on criticality published from 1975 till 1980. About 90 experiments with the most important related data are listed. They are capable of being called up, with the data base system KRITEXP, by 14 different descriptors or printed in any arrangement or order. This is the basis for a global or purposeful verification of the calculating method for criticality safety. The proof of reliability of the calculations for the criticality analysis are immediately relevant for the licencing procedure under atomic law for all plants of the nuclear fuel cycle where nuclear fuels are handled. Since no criticality experiments are being carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany, the data collection on hand will help to fill this gap with regard to the assessment of experiments carried out in other countries. (orig.) [de

  18. Apparatus for carrying out ultrasonic inspection of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, K.H.; Challender, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is described for use in carrying out ultrasonic inspection of coolant nozzles of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. It comprises a manipulator for supporting an ultrasonic scanning transducer within the coolant nozzle. The manipulator is carried by a support located within the pressure vessel and comprises a pair of legs pivotable in caliper manner to span the base of the nozzle. Means are provided for pivoting the legs together to enable free entry of the manipulator and scanning transducer into the nozzle, and for pivoting the legs apart to bring the transducer into an operating position adjacent to the wall of the nozzle. The manipulator is rotatable within the nozzle to enable scanning of its interior surface. (U.K.)

  19. Behavioral Indicators of Legal and Illegal Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    foundation to develop training for law enforcement and security personnel to utilize behavioral indicators in a safe, legal, and effective manner...hope to develop more efficient and effective means of assisting the police to identify and safely interdict persons carrying illegal firearms. This...by Velcro hook and loop fastener tape. Attached to the elastic wrap is a pocket with a security strap that holds the gun in place. When fastened to

  20. A portable virtual machine target for proof-carrying code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Michael; Chandra, Deepak; Gal, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and mor...... simultaneously providing efficient justin-time compilation and target-machine independence. In particular, our approach reduces the complexity of the required proofs, resulting in fewer proof obligations that need to be discharged at the target machine....

  1. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous...... to automation of revised speech behavior and that self-reports may be a reliable index of cognitive load....

  2. Digitization Projects Carried out by the Mathematical Institute Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjanovič, Zoran; Mijajlovič, Žarco

    2004-01-01

    In this paper some current digitization projects carried out by the Mathematical Institute of Serbian Academy of Science and Arts Belgrade and the Faculty of Mathematics Belgrade are described. The projects concern developing of a virtual library of retro-digitized books and an Internet data base and presentation of electronic editions of some leading Serbian journals in science and arts, and the work on the South-Eastern European Digitization Initiative (SEEDI).

  3. Effect of multipurpose solutions against Acinetobacter carrying QAC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, Maureen V; Chan, Jessica; Shi, Guang-sen; Cho, Pauline

    2014-03-01

    Acinetobacter has low virulence but causes infections in subjects with reduced immunity. It has been reported in ocular infections including those of patients using contact lenses. Treatment is difficult because Acinetobacter is frequently multidrug resistant. Antibiotic-resistant strains frequently also harbor genes for antiseptic resistance (quaternary ammonium compound [QAC]) genes. Because Acinetobacter is part of the normal flora, it may contaminate contact lens and accessories. This study aims to investigate carriage rates of QAC genes in household and clinical isolates of Acinetobacter and to determine the effectiveness of two multipurpose solutions (MPSs) for soft lenses against organisms carrying QAC genes. DNA was extracted from 11 bathroom isolates and 15 clinical isolates and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of qacEΔ1. Gene-positive and gene-negative control strains were used to challenge the two MPSs, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these organisms to benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate were determined. More than 90% of isolates carried qacEΔ1. The MICs of clinical isolates were higher than those of isolates of bathrooms. Both MPSs were able to produce a 3-log reduction in the numbers of all isolates. Although most isolates carried qacEΔ1 and elevated MICs to benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate were observed, all were susceptible to both MPSs tested. However, if there were to be poor compliance with care procedures, it is probable that such organisms could survive in the presence of diluted or expired solutions.

  4. Targeted Drug-Carrying Bacteriophages as Antibacterial Nanomedicines▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-01-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, we presented a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages as targeted drug carriers that could partially inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This partial success was due to limitations of drug-loading capacity that resulted from the hydrophobicity of the drug. Here we present a novel drug conjugation chemistry which is based on connecting hydrophobic drugs to the phage via aminoglycoside antibiotics that serve as solubility-enhancing branched linkers. This new formulation allowed a significantly larger drug-carrying capacity of the phages, resulting in a drastic improvement in their performance as targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles. As an example for a potential systemic use for potent agents that are limited for topical use, we present antibody-targeted phage nanoparticles that carry a large payload of the hemolytic antibiotic chloramphenicol connected through the aminoglycoside neomycin. We demonstrate complete growth inhibition toward the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli with an improvement in potency by a factor of ∼20,000 compared to the free drug. PMID:17404004

  5. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  6. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chaotic behavior of current-carrying plasmas in external periodic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Komori, Akio; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    1989-01-01

    A set of cascading bifurcations and a chaotic state in the presence of an external periodic oscillation are experimentally investigated in a current-carrying plasma. The measured bifurcation sequence leading to chaos, which is controlled by changing plasma densities and the frequencies of external oscillations, is in qualitative agreement with a theory which describes anharmonic systems in periodic fields. (author).

  8. Evaluation of tests in 4x4 assemblies carried out in Columbia University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedron, M.Q.

    1989-01-01

    Tests in 4x4 assemblies with BWR characteristics carried out in Columbia University are analysed, using the PANTERA-1P computer code. The experiments aim for measuring fluid, flow and enthalpies in exits of two subchannels, the coldest and hottest using iso kinetic sampling method. (M.C.K.)

  9. Quadruped robots for nuclear facilities. Development of cooperative carrying and unloading functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (hereafter refers to as 1F) became the high dose environment by the Great East Japan Earthquake, remotely operated robots were required in order to reduce workers' radiation exposure. We developed a quadruped robot to walk the stairs and narrow passages with carrying burdens such as investigation tools. This robot investigated water leakage from vent pipes at underground of 1F unit 2. There are various works towards the decommissioning such as measuring doses of radiation, cutting pipes, connecting wires and more. It is desirable to carry various work tools and to unload them at destinations with remotely operated robots. To this end, we have developed carrying and unloading functions of the robot. In addition, we have developed cooperative carrying functions that two quadruped robots carry and unload a burden which is too long or heavy for individual robot. As a result, it was realized that two robots carried the pipe of 48 kg while getting over a step of 100 mm and unloading it at a destination. (author)

  10. Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoby Iftach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to its anti-tumor benefits, results in indiscriminate drug distribution and severe toxicity. This shortcoming may be overcome by targeted drug-carrying platforms that ferry the drug to the tumor site while limiting exposure to non-target tissues and organs. Results We present a new form of targeted anti-cancer therapy in the form of targeted drug-carrying phage nanoparticles. Our approach is based on genetically-modified and chemically manipulated filamentous bacteriophages. The genetic manipulation endows the phages with the ability to display a host-specificity-conferring ligand. The phages are loaded with a large payload of a cytotoxic drug by chemical conjugation. In the presented examples we used anti ErbB2 and anti ERGR antibodies as targeting moieties, the drug hygromycin conjugated to the phages by a covalent amide bond, or the drug doxorubicin conjugated to genetically-engineered cathepsin-B sites on the phage coat. We show that targeting of phage nanomedicines via specific antibodies to receptors on cancer cell membranes results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation, and drug release, resulting in growth inhibition of the target cells in vitro with a potentiation factor of >1000 over the corresponding free drugs. Conclusion The results of the proof-of concept study presented here reveal important features regarding the potential of filamentous phages to serve as drug-delivery platform, on the affect of drug solubility or hydrophobicity on the target specificity of the platform and on the effect of drug release mechanism on the potency of the platform. These results define targeted drug-carrying filamentous phage nanoparticles as a unique type of antibody-drug conjugates.

  11. Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Hagit; Yacoby, Iftach; Benhar, Itai

    2008-01-01

    Background Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to its anti-tumor benefits, results in indiscriminate drug distribution and severe toxicity. This shortcoming may be overcome by targeted drug-carrying platforms that ferry the drug to the tumor site while limiting exposure to non-target tissues and organs. Results We present a new form of targeted anti-cancer therapy in the form of targeted drug-carrying phage nanoparticles. Our approach is based on genetically-modified and chemically manipulated filamentous bacteriophages. The genetic manipulation endows the phages with the ability to display a host-specificity-conferring ligand. The phages are loaded with a large payload of a cytotoxic drug by chemical conjugation. In the presented examples we used anti ErbB2 and anti ERGR antibodies as targeting moieties, the drug hygromycin conjugated to the phages by a covalent amide bond, or the drug doxorubicin conjugated to genetically-engineered cathepsin-B sites on the phage coat. We show that targeting of phage nanomedicines via specific antibodies to receptors on cancer cell membranes results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation, and drug release, resulting in growth inhibition of the target cells in vitro with a potentiation factor of >1000 over the corresponding free drugs. Conclusion The results of the proof-of concept study presented here reveal important features regarding the potential of filamentous phages to serve as drug-delivery platform, on the affect of drug solubility or hydrophobicity on the target specificity of the platform and on the effect of drug release mechanism on the potency of the platform. These results define targeted drug-carrying filamentous phage nanoparticles as a unique type of antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:18387177

  12. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisle, J.P.; Eperonnat, P.; Lions, N.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor. A patent for this apparatus under the number: P.V.954.703, has been deposited on 22.11.1963. (authors) [fr

  13. Carry-chain propagation delay impacts on resolution of FPGA-based TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lei; Yang Junfeng; Song Kezhu

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of carry chains in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is introduced in this paper. The propagation delay time of the rising and falling edges in the carry chains are calculated according to the architecture and they are predicted not equal in most cases. Tests show that the measuring results of the propagation delay time in EP3C120F484C8N series FPGA of Altera are in line with the inference. The difference of propagation delay time results in different accuracies of Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC). This phenomenon shall be considered in the design of TDC implemented in FPGA. It can ensure better accuracy. (authors)

  14. Extinguishing experiments of sodium fires carried out by TNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, G.J.A.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    For the collection of burning sodium from the components and pipes of the secondary circuit of SNR 300, spill-trays are foreseen which are connected to dump tanks. These spill-trays are covered with a sieve in order to reduce the flow of air to the sodium in the spill-tray and hence to reduce the burning rate. In order to further minimize the consequences of a large sodium fire for the components, the licensing authority required as a back-up the installation of a remotely operated distribution system by means of which an extinguishing powder can be sprayed upon the spill-trays. Experiments were carried out in which the effectiveness of different extinguishing powders in combination with the sieve covered spill-trays were tested in a comparative manner. Attention was paid to the question whether such a spray system would have also additional benefits in the case of smaller sodium leaks. To this purpose three commercially available extinguishing powders were tested, one on a sodium chloride, two on a carbonate base. Also the effectiveness of the sieves proper with respect to reducing the burning rate was tested without applying any extinguishing powders. Finally for a reference some tests were done on open spill-trays, i.e. spill-trays not covered with a sieve.The investigations which were carried out in 1976-1977 were limited to fire experiments, aspects of transport of the powder in the distribution system were not investigated

  15. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environmental part, hence, this working paper is motivated to convey onto the table issues relating to the social characteristics. This particular paper employed the self-administered questionnaire survey instrument which was structured to answer the two-fold objective specifically the tourists’ satisfaction level with their tourism experience and knowledge gap in relation to improving the island tourism. Targeting the tourists with minimum age of 18, this working paper collects information on the tourists’ perception towards hospitality, facilities and safety issues. In addition, this working paper comes to scrutinize different results of demographic factors as compared to what have been documented by earlier studies. Besides, it is learned that ‘safety issue’ variable plays an important role when it comes to the following factors: tourist arrival, access to facilities and tourism experience.

  16. Exosomes carrying immunoinhibitory proteins and their role in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, T L

    2017-09-01

    Recent emergence of exosomes as information carriers between cells has introduced us to a new previously unknown biological communication system. Multi-directional cross-talk mediated by exosomes carrying proteins, lipids and nucleic acids between normal cells, cells harbouring a pathogen or cancer and immune cells has been instrumental in determining outcomes of physiological as well as pathological conditions. Exosomes play a key role in the broad spectrum of human diseases. In cancer, tumour-derived exosomes carry multiple immunoinhibitory signals, disable anti-tumour immune effector cells and promote tumour escape from immune control. Exosomes delivering negative signals to immune cells in cancer, viral infections, autoimmune or other diseases may interfere with therapy and influence outcome. Exosomes can activate tissue cells to produce inhibitory factors and thus can suppress the host immune responses indirectly. Exosomes also promise to be non-invasive disease biomarkers with a dual capability to provide insights into immune dysfunction as well as disease progression and outcome. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Necking down of sausages in current-carrying plasma pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubnikov, B.A.; Zhdanov, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of long-wave perturbations is shown to be equivalent, for various unstable media, to the dynamics of a gas with a negative adiabatic index γ. This evolution is described (for various values at N) by the quasi-Chaplygin system of equations Several examples of such media are considered, including a ''Chaplygin gas'' (N = 3), drops on a ceiling or ''solitons which have broken'' (N = 0), necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch with a skin effect, for both incompressible and compressible models (N = 2), and the breakup of liquid jets into drops (N = 3/2). A principle for selecting evolutionary solutions corresponding to the absence of perturbations in the limit t → -∞ is formulated. In the cases N = 0 and N = 2, a hodograph transformation reduces system (1) to a magnetostatic equation (ΔA)/sub phi/ = -(4π/c)j/sub phi/ and all the instability modes are equivalent to multipoles of circular currents which are localized on a circle. Exact solutions are given for periodic and isolated (localized) perturbations. The breakup of a medium into distinct blobs, in particular, the rupture of necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch, is demonstrated

  18. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsion as an adjuvant to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Rose, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a perfluorochemical emulsion which as an excellent carrying capacity for oxygen to enhance the ability of radiation therapy to delay the growth of Lewis lung tumor was examined. There was a highly significant effect produced by the addition of perfluorochemical emulsion and carbogen breathing in combination with irradiation. With single dose x-ray treatment the dose of perfluorochemical emulsion was varied from 0.05-0.6 ml addition to the blood volume of the animals. The dose response effect was very broad peaking at 0.3-0.4 ml which gave a dose modifying effect of 2.8 +- 0.6 with 1000 rad of x-rays. The addition of 0.3 ml of perfluorochemical free annex solution with carbogen breathing produced a small enhancement in tumor growth delay addition of the same volume of the complete emulsion increased the tumor growth delay time about 3-fold compared to the annex solution. When the perfluorochemical emulsion was added to a fractionated course of radiation therapy a dose modifying effect of 1.8 +- 0.3 was obtained. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsions may provide a nontoxic clinically useful means of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy and of certain chemotherapeutic agents

  19. STS-99 workers carry new Master Events Controller to Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Workers carry the replacement Enhanced Main Events Controller (E- MEC) to Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A for installation in the aft compartment of the payload bay. The original E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  20. A. C. losses in current-carrying superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Reuver, J L

    1985-01-01

    After a description of some basic concepts of superconductivity and the applied wire types, the basic measuring technique is dealt with. The performed measurements are given. The modification of the measuring technique will be explained. The prior interest is the theoretical description and the agreement between theory and experiment. Attention to various external field conditions is given, and to the self-field instability. Apart from theoretical considerations, measurements have been performed on types of wire which are less conventional. The intention is to contribute to the search for a type of wire with both low losses and a good stabilization under self-field conditions. The evaluation and conclusions concentrate on the developed measuring techniques, significant contributions to the theoretical verification and the proposed alternative wire configuration. (J.C.R.)

  1. First Identification of a Patient Colonized With Klebsiella pneumoniae Carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shin Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 is a novel type of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL. Enterobacteriaceae carrying this NDM-1 encoding gene, blaNDM-1, have been identified worldwide. Bacteria carrying blaNDM-1 are not only resistant to carbapenem, but also highly resistant to many classes of antibiotics, which indicate the importance of prompt identification of these bacteria and implementation of strict infection control measures to prevent their transmission. Here, we report the first identification and management of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan, who returned from New Delhi where he had been hospitalized for a gun-shot injury.

  2. Total luminous flux measurement for flexible surface sources with an integrating sphere photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hsueh-Ling; Liu, Wen-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Applying an integrating sphere photometer for total luminous flux measurement is a widely used method. However, the measurement accuracy depends on the spatial uniformity of the integrating sphere, especially when the test sample has a different light distribution from that of the standard source. Therefore, spatial correction is needed to eliminate the effect caused by non-uniformity. To reduce the inconvenience of spatial correction but retain the measurement accuracy, a new type of working standard is designed for flexible and curved surface sources. Applying this new type standard source, the measurement deviation due to different orientations is reduced by an order of magnitude compared with using a naked incandescent lamp as the standard source. (paper)

  3. Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína

    2018-04-01

    The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.

  4. Tax shields, financial expenses and losses carried forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the proper procedure for calculating Tax Shields (TS. The calculation includes cases where Losses Carried Forward are allowed and there is financial Other Income (OI. The procedure takes into account the magnitude of Adjusted Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBITAdj –that is, EBIT + OI – OE excluding Financial- compared with Financial Expenses (FE. This comparison defines three intervals and results for TS. If EBITAdj. 0 and less than FE, TSis T × EBITAdj.; finally if EBITAdj. > FE, TSis T × FE. When firm possesses OI, TS are not equivalent to the difference in taxes and an adjustment is needed. Proper calculation of TS is important because their value might represent a substantial part of firm value.

  5. Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a current-carrying stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, K.; Miyamoto, K.

    1979-02-01

    Stable profiles against MHD instabilities are given in a cylindrical current-carrying stellarator. The comparison theorem, i.e., guiding principle for stabilization, is obtained in the same way as in a tokamak. As the external rotational transform due to an l = 2 helical field increases, MHD properties in a stellarator are improved than in a tokamak and the minimum value of q(a) which provides simultaneous stabilization of MHD modes can be lowered less than 2 even without a conducting shell. In an l = 3 stellarator, however, as shown from the Euler equation, the configuration becomes more unstable than in a tokamak and strong tailoring of the current profile is necessary in order to stabilize MHD modes. (author)

  6. Modelling of carrying capacity in National Park - Fruška Gora (Serbia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujko Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Negative effects of tourism development in a destination are usually the consequence of the high concentration of tourists, accommodation facilities and the activities that are practiced in a relatively restricted area. One of the most important measures to protect the areas is to calculate the maximum number of tourists that can simultaneously reside in a region, i.e. the determination of the carrying capacity. This paper outlines a method for determining carrying capacity based on zoning of environmental resources and zoning within a region. The paper argues for a return to the idea of identifying maximum appropriate number of users. The main hypothesis of the paper is based on the statement that the development of tourism in Fruška Gora (Mountain National Park in Northern Serbia must be in accordance with the basic principles of sustainability, including the determination of carrying capacity. The main research goal was to show the opinion of local residents about the uncontrolled development of tourism, and to determine the carrying capacity in four sports and recreational zones of the mountain. The carrying capacity of the area is calculated by Lavery and Stanev formulas.

  7. Micro-computer based control system and its software for carrying out the sequential acceleration on SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deming

    2001-01-01

    Micro-computer based control system and its software for carrying out the sequential acceleration on SMCAMS is described. Also, the establishment of the 14 C particle measuring device and the improvement of the original power supply system are described

  8. IRSN safety research carried out for reviewing safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Christophe Serres from IRSN (France) described the independent role of the IRSN regarding research related to nuclear safety in the context of the French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 foreseeing a licence application to be submitted in 2015 for the creation of a deep geological repository. IRSN research programme is organised along research activities devoted to addressing independently-identified k ey safety issues . These 'key issues' should also be of prime concern for the implementer since they relate to the demonstration of the overall safety of the repository, and the level of funding that the implementer should afford to research activities of concern for safety. He explained that the quality and independency of the research programme carried out by IRSN allow building and improving a set of scientific knowledge and technical skills that serves the public mission of delivering technical appraisal and advice, e.g., on behalf of the national safety authority. In particular they contribute to improving the decisional process by making possible scientific dialogue with stakeholders independently from regulator or implementer. The current IRSN R and D programme is developed along the following lines: - Test the adequacy of experimental methods for which feedback is not sufficient. - Develop basic scientific knowledge in the fields where there is a need for better understanding of complex phenomena and interactions. - Develop and use numerical modelling tools to support studies on complex phenomena and interactions. - Perform specific experimental tests aiming at assessing the key parameters that may warrant the performances of the different components of the repository. These studies are carried out by means of experiments performed either at IRSN surface laboratories, or in the Tournemire Experimental Station (TES), an underground facility operated by IRSN in the south-east of France. Targeted actions on research related to operational safety and reversibility

  9. A.C. losses in current-carrying superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuver, J.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of superconductors for alternating current use depends on successful reduction of losses. Moreover, the demand for large field amplitudes is a stimulation for investigating the nature of a.c. losses (e.g. in the set of poloidal coils in a TOKAMAK). In this thesis, measurements are performed at a.c. superconductivity. Attention is given to various external field conditions as well as to self-field instability. Measurements are performed on different types of wires. A type of wire is searched for with both low losses and a good stabilization under self-field conditions. (G.J.P.)

  10. Mutagenic effects on indica rice carried by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dezhi; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Zhang Jianguo; Chen Zhiqiang; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Dried seeds of four indica rice varieties were carried into space by satellite Shijia No.8, the mutagenic effects of space condition on the seeds vigor and agronomic traits in the SP 1 generation, and on the agronomic traits, amylose conent and bacterial resistance in the SP 2 generation were studied. The results showed that the space condition slightly damaged rice seeds, with the physiological damage rate of germination rate, bud length, plant height and seed-setting rate in the SP 1 ranged from 0 to 26.9%. Different varieties responded differently to the space conditions, and the order from strong to weak was Gui 99, Hanghui 7, R998, Jinhang 138. Compared with the control, no trait showed segregation in the SP 1 generation. Some traits appeared larger segregation in the SP 2 generation, and the mutants of plant height, number of tillers, weight of grain, amylose content and bacterial blight resistance were isolated in the SP 2 generation, and these mutation traits could be inherited the SP 3 generation. Space conditions not only produced mutants of rice agronomic traits, but also produced mutants of rice quality and disease resistance. (authors)

  11. Carrying photosynthesis genes increases ecological fitness of cyanophage in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweger, Ferdi L

    2009-06-01

    Several viruses infecting marine cyanobacteria carry photosynthesis genes (e.g. psbA, hli) that are expressed, yield proteins (D1, HLIP) and help maintain the cell's photosynthesis apparatus during the latent period. This increases energy and speeds up virus production, allowing for a reduced latent period (a fitness benefit), but it also increases the DNA size, which slows down new virus production and reduces burst size (a fitness cost). How do these genes affect the net ecological fitness of the virus? Here, this question is explored using a combined systems biology and systems ecology ('systems bioecology') approach. A novel agent-based model simulates individual cyanobacteria cells and virus particles, each with their own genes, transcripts, proteins and other properties. The effect of D1 and HLIP proteins is explicitly considered using a mechanistic photosynthesis component. The model is calibrated to the available database for Prochlorococcus ecotype MED4 and podovirus P-SSP7. Laboratory- and field-scale in silico survival, competition and evolution (gene packaging error) experiments with wild type and genetically engineered viruses are performed to develop vertical survival and fitness profiles, and to determine the optimal gene content. The results suggest that photosynthesis genes are nonessential, increase fitness in a manner correlated with irradiance, and that the wild type has an optimal gene content.

  12. Interchain interactions in charged diacetylenic oligomers carrying bulk substituents revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottonelli, M.; Izzo, G.M.M.; Comoretto, D.; Musso, G.F.; Dellepiane, G.

    2006-01-01

    We are studying how the electronic properties of an aggregate, built with conjugated oligomers carrying bulk substituents, are affected by intermolecular interactions. In this paper we apply the CEO (Collective Electronic Oscillator) method, on the basis of the semiempirical INDO/S Hamiltonian, to compute the electronic density matrix modifications following the photon absorption in a doubly charged cluster of two units of a fully carbazolyl-substituted oligodiacetylene tetramer, taken as a model system. The picture that had emerged from our previous calculations based on the less sophisticated CIS (Configuration Interaction including Singles) approach is seen to be confirmed. Despite the large separation between the backbones, a through-space charge transfer occurs between the two oligomers due to the fact that the excess charge, contrary to what is generally believed, is not localized on the conjugated backbone, but is spread out over the carbazolyl moieties of the charged molecule. Consideration of this kind of interaction improves the theoretical results obtained for the isolated charged oligomer chain, and aids in better explaining some features of the experimental photoinduced spectra of the corresponding polymer

  13. Single-electron states near a current-carrying core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masale, M.

    2004-01-01

    The energy spectrum of an electron confined near a current-carrying core is obtained as a function of the azimuthal applied magnetic field within the effective-mass approximation. The double degeneracy of the non-zero electron's axial wave number (k z ) states is lifted by the current-induced magnetic field while that of the non-zero azimuthal quantum number (m) states is preserved. A further analysis is the evaluations of the oscillator strengths for optical transitions involving the lowest-order pair of the electron's energy subbands within the dipole approximation. The radiation field is taken as that of elliptically polarized light incident along the core axis. In this polarization and within the dipole approximation, the allowed transitions are only those governed by the following specific selection rules. The azimuthal quantum numbers of the initial and final states must differ by unity while the electron's axial wave number is conserved. The azimuthal magnetic field is also found to lift the multiple degeneracies of the k z ≠0 interaction integrals as well as those of the oscillator strengths for optical transitions

  14. Thermoluminescent dosimetry applied to radiotherapy carried out around the Therac-20-Saturne linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennab, K.

    1984-10-01

    In the first part of this work, the physical and technical aspects necessary to a radiotherapy treatment planning elaboration are presented. These include the apparatus description as well as the measurements of the dosimetric quantities relative to the delivered beams. Since in-vivo measurements are very useful to optimise the treatment conditions, the second part deals with thermoluminescent dosimeters, their characteristics and their setting out such as they be used with maximum efficiency. In-vivo measurements carried out enabled us to estimate the delivered dose to a given tumor with a precision down to +-4%. The registered differences between the measured dose and the prescribed one made possible an appropriate corrective action. Because of the difficulties encountered with conventional dosimetric systems when used in narrow beam measurements, we have developed a new method making use of TL dosimeters. The results obtained will allow treatments of small volume tumors with the significant advantage of saving healthy surrounding tissues from irradiation

  15. Reduced fertility after the crash of a U.S. bomber carrying nuclear weapons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1995-01-01

    A register-based study was performed to elucidate whether workers employed on the Thule air base in the clean-up period after the crash of a U.S. B-52 bomber carrying nuclear bombs had reduced fertility, as measured by the numbers of liveborn children. The highest birth rates were among 25-34-year...... is that the accident has not reduced fertility....

  16. Parallel Optimization of a Reversible (Quantum) Ripple-Carry Adder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2008-01-01

    (mk). We also show designs for garbage-less reversible set-less-than circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the CDKM and parallel adder in measures of circuit delay, width, gate and transistor count, and find that the parallelized adder offers significant speedups at realistic word sizes with modest...

  17. Are food brands that carry light claims different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjostrom, Therese; Corsi, Armando Maria; Driesener, Carl

    2014-01-01

    , such as market share and penetration, b) loyalty levels, and c) customer sharing. We analyse three product categories (Cola, Flavoured Carbonated Beverages and Margarine) using UK household panel data provided by Kantar. The results show that when considering standard brand performance measures (i.e. market...

  18. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  19. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  20. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  1. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  2. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  4. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  5. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  6. RCS Diversity of Electromagnetic Wave Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Dong; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2017-11-13

    An electromagnetic (EM) wave with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has a helical wave front, which is different from that of the plane wave. The phase gradient can be found perpendicular to the direction of propagation and proportional to the number of OAM modes. Herein, we study the backscattering property of the EM wave with different OAM modes, i.e., the radar cross section (RCS) of the target is measured and evaluated with different OAM waves. As indicated by the experimental results, different OAM waves have the same RCS fluctuation for the simple target, e.g., a small metal ball as the target. However, for complicated targets, e.g., two transverse-deployed small metal balls, different RCSs can be identified from the same incident angle. This valuable fact helps to obtain RCS diversity, e.g., equal gain or selective combining of different OAM wave scattering. The majority of the targets are complicated targets or expanded targets; the RCS diversity can be utilized to detect a weak target traditionally measured by the plane wave, which is very helpful for anti-stealth radar to detect the traditional stealth target by increasing the RCS with OAM waves.

  7. Tensorial spacetime geometries carrying predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Hernandez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Which tensor fields G on a smooth manifold M can serve as a spacetime structure? In the first part of this thesis, it is found that only a severely restricted class of tensor fields can provide classical spacetime geometries, namely those that can carry predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics. The obvious dependence of this characterization of admissible tensorial spacetime geometries on specific matter is not a weakness, but rather presents an insight: it was Maxwell theory that justified Einstein to promote Lorentzian manifolds to the status of a spacetime geometry. Any matter that does not mimick the structure of Maxwell theory, will force us to choose another geometry on which the matter dynamics of interest are predictive, interpretable and quantizable. These three physical conditions on matter impose three corresponding algebraic conditions on the totally symmetric contravariant coefficient tensor field P that determines the principal symbol of the matter field equations in terms of the geometric tensor G: the tensor field P must be hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing. Remarkably, these physically necessary conditions on the geometry are mathematically already sufficient to realize all kinematical constructions familiar from Lorentzian geometry, for precisely the same structural reasons. This we were able to show employing a subtle interplay of convex analysis, the theory of partial differential equations and real algebraic geometry. In the second part of this thesis, we then explore general properties of any hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing tensorial geometry. Physically most important are the construction of freely falling non-rotating laboratories, the appearance of admissible modified dispersion relations to particular observers, and the identification of a mechanism that explains why massive particles that are faster than some massless particles can radiate off energy until they are slower than all

  8. Tensorial spacetime geometries carrying predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera Hernandez, Sergio

    2012-02-15

    Which tensor fields G on a smooth manifold M can serve as a spacetime structure? In the first part of this thesis, it is found that only a severely restricted class of tensor fields can provide classical spacetime geometries, namely those that can carry predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics. The obvious dependence of this characterization of admissible tensorial spacetime geometries on specific matter is not a weakness, but rather presents an insight: it was Maxwell theory that justified Einstein to promote Lorentzian manifolds to the status of a spacetime geometry. Any matter that does not mimick the structure of Maxwell theory, will force us to choose another geometry on which the matter dynamics of interest are predictive, interpretable and quantizable. These three physical conditions on matter impose three corresponding algebraic conditions on the totally symmetric contravariant coefficient tensor field P that determines the principal symbol of the matter field equations in terms of the geometric tensor G: the tensor field P must be hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing. Remarkably, these physically necessary conditions on the geometry are mathematically already sufficient to realize all kinematical constructions familiar from Lorentzian geometry, for precisely the same structural reasons. This we were able to show employing a subtle interplay of convex analysis, the theory of partial differential equations and real algebraic geometry. In the second part of this thesis, we then explore general properties of any hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing tensorial geometry. Physically most important are the construction of freely falling non-rotating laboratories, the appearance of admissible modified dispersion relations to particular observers, and the identification of a mechanism that explains why massive particles that are faster than some massless particles can radiate off energy until they are slower than all

  9. Subjective and objective analysis of three water pump systems carried by forest firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Daniel J; Graham, Ryan B; Stevenson, Joan M; Costigan, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The Mark 3 (M3) water power pump is an integral piece of wildfire fighting equipment. However, it is provided to fire stations without a carrying harness. The currently-used carrying harness is very uncomfortable, especially when carrying the pumps considerable distance in a forest to reach a water source. The purpose of this study was to advise the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources on the selection of a new M3 load carriage system. Twenty Fire Rangers wore the three systems (Original, Prototype, and Modified) through a circuit of tasks representative of their working environment. Subjective and objective approaches were combined to assess and rank the M3 carriage systems. Subjective visual analogue scale ratings were obtained for ease of loading/unloading, comfort, system stability, and overall performance. Tri-axial accelerometers were mounted on each pump and at the sternum of each participant to determine relative pump-carrier accelerations. Overall, the Prototype was ranked as the best system; it resulted in the lowest relative pump-carrier accelerations on 10 out of 15 objective measures, and also received a first place ranking on all subjective measures. It was recommended that the Prototype be implemented as the M3 carriage system for fire suppression teams.

  10. Langmuir probe characteristic in a current - carrying magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, M.; Cercek, M.; Gyergyek, T.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the Langmuir probe characteristic is a magnetized plasma with an electron current along the magnetic field direction shows that the standard procedure for determination of the electron temperature and plasma density, which is applicable in a current - free magnetized plasma, gives erroneous results for these plasma parameters. However, more precise values of the plasma parameters can be calculated from the ion saturation currents and electron temperatures obtained with that procedure for two opposite orientations of the one - sided planar probe collecting surface with respect to the direction of the electron drift. With the existing theoretical models only the order of magnitude of the electron drift velocity can be accurately determined from the measured electron saturation currents for the two probe orientations. (author)

  11. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  12. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying

  13. Isotopic hydrological studies carried out on the Karst water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, A.

    1988-03-01

    The isotopic composition and temperature of many karst springs in the area of Trieste (Italy) have been measured for about three and a half years. During the same period the isotopic composition of precipitation has also been systematically studied. The isotopic composition of springs generally shows variations which are markedly shifted in time with respect to those of precipitation. In most of the springs the heavy isotope contents of winter samples are the highest of the whole year. On the contrary, summer samples normally show quite negative δ-values, the most negative of which often refer to the last summer months. The data obtained are explained in terms of variable mixing of waters from two main reservoirs. The less negative reservoir (in terms of δ) is recharged by ''local'' meteoric waters falling on the westernmost section of the karst area whose mean elevation is about 400 m a.s.l. The most negative reservoir is probably recharged by meteoric waters falling on the Slovenian section of the karst, whose mean elevation is about 800-900 m a.s.l. At least in the case of some of the northernmost karst springs, it is likely that a third water system, basically fed by the Isonzo river, flowing north of the karst area, could interfere with the previously mentioned reservoirs, partially controlling the outflow of some springs. 6 figs

  14. How many foods in the UK carry health and nutrition claims, and are they healthier than those that do not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Asha; Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Payne, Sarah; Mizdrak, Anja; Rayner, Mike

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of different types of health and nutrition claims on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in a UK sample and to assess the nutritional quality of such products carrying health or nutrition claims. A survey of health and nutrition claims on food packaging using a newly defined taxonomy of claims and internationally agreed definitions of claim types. A national UK food retailer: Tesco. Three hundred and eighty-two products randomly sampled from those available through the retailer's website. Of the products, 32 % (95 % CI 28, 37 %) carried either a health or nutrition claim; 15 % (95 % CI 11, 18 %) of products carried at least one health claim and 29 % (95 % CI 25, 34 %) carried at least one nutrition claim. When adjusted for product category, products carrying health claims tended to be lower in total fat and saturated fat than those that did not, but there was no significant difference in sugar or sodium levels. Products carrying health claims had slightly higher fibre levels than products without. Results were similar for comparisons between products that carry nutrition claims and those that do not. Health and nutrition claims appear frequently on food and beverage products in the UK. The nutrient profile of products carrying claims is marginally healthier than for similar products without claims, suggesting that claims may have some but limited informational value. The implication of these findings for guiding policy is unclear; future research should investigate the 'clinical relevance' of these differences in nutritional quality.

  15. Eddy current quality control of soldered current-carrying busbar splices of superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, L; Savary, F; Principe, R; Datskov, V; Rozenfel'd, E; Khudjakov, B

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current technique associated with a U-shaped transducer is studied for the quality control of soldered joints between superconducting busbars ('splices'). Two other quality control techniques, based on X-rays and direct measurement of the electrical resistance, are also studied for comparison. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these three methods in relation to the quality control of soldered superconducting busbar cables enclosed in copper shells is used for benchmarking. The results of inspections with the U-shaped eddy current transducer carried out on several sample joints presenting different types of soldering defects show the potential of this type of nondestructive (ND) quality control technique.

  16. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  17. Standardization of 56Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardiyanto, Gatot; Pujadi

    2000-01-01

    Standardization of exp.56 Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods. The radionuclide use for calibration of nuclear instruments on range of energy over 1500 keV. The exp.56 Co had been produced by irradiation of proton by using a cyclotron with 15 MeV of energy and 300 mb of cross-section to natural iron target (99,5% of purity) at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Source preparation had been done by gravimetry method after the irradiated source was dissolved in 8N HCI solution. The disintegration rate had been measured using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence apparatus, where the gamm gets sets on 511 and 847 keV gamma-rays. The result measurement is fairly good with the specific activity is 3078 n 15 Bq/mg

  18. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed

  19. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N. [Institution Project center ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-21

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  20. Balance carried out on an alpha waste incinerator in order to qualify its filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, R.; Burghofer, P.; Tregoures, A.; Maurel, J.M.; Vendel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A balance was carried out on a pilot incinerator of inactive solid waste running at 4 kg/h. Various measurements were taken in order to qualify the prefiltration system of the incineration process operating by pyrolysis, afterburning and calcination: determining the ventilation characteristics of the plant (gas flow rates and residence time) and the physico-chemical characteristics of the effluent (mass flow and granulometric range of particles, chemical composition of gases). Various methods of sampling and of analyzing the gases were adopted and a thermochemical model was produced. Its results are reasonably close to the experimental measurements. The emission consists of submicronic particles and porous layers are the best adapted cleaning system

  1. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    on in situ measurements of h, measurements of precompression stress at various h and simulations of soil stress. In this work, we concentrated on prevention of subsoil compaction. Calculations were made for different tyres (standard and low-pressure top tyres) and for soil under different tillage......Subsoil compaction is a major problem in modern agriculture caused by the intensification of agricultural production and the increase in weight of agricultural machinery. Compaction in the subsoil is highly persistent and leads to deterioration of soil functions. Wheel load-carrying capacity (WLCC......) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC based...

  2. Do Weapons Facilitate Adolescent Delinquency? An Examination of Weapon Carrying and Delinquency Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Amanda D; Hall, Gina Penly; Lizotte, Alan J

    2018-03-01

    This article examines whether weapon carrying influences the frequency and variety of violent, property, and drug delinquency adolescents commit through fixed-effects analyses of data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS). We conclude that weapon carrying contributes to violent, substance, and property delinquency, and delinquent behaviors learned during weapon carrying continue to affect substance and property delinquency long after carrying has ceased.

  3. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  4. 36 CFR 1220.34 - What must an agency do to carry out its records management responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coordinate and oversee implementation of the agency comprehensive records management program principles in...) Conduct formal evaluations to measure the effectiveness of records management programs and practices, and... carry out its records management responsibilities? 1220.34 Section 1220.34 Parks, Forests, and Public...

  5. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations in community countries carried out and projected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregut, A.; Gregory, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The decommissioning of large plants such as nuclear power stations merits an approach requiring the introduction of measures and procedures allowing them to be dealt with efficiently; this efficiency would imply concern for optimum economy of operations while respecting the safety and protection rules inherent in nuclear energy. Consequently, plant owners require: the tactical and policy elements to guide them in their decisions and choices; efficient tools, equipment and processes which meet their needs; information gained from experience of decommissioning already carried out which would provide them with a verified background knowledge when dealing with problems. Since decommissioning experience to date has not made it possible to draw up codes and guidelines, it is important to review the work carried out by Community countries in particular on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The following paper does not claim to be exhaustive or to make value judgements. Its aim is to list the nuclear power stations shut down in Community countries, to outline the decommissioning levels selected in each case and to underline some interesting aspects of the technical options. In conclusion it will review what appeared to be the difficulties common to the various projects. (author)

  6. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; hide

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  7. Pulsed currents carried by whistlers. IV. Electric fields and radiation excited by an electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.; Urrutia, J.M.; Rousculp, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of current pulses carried by whistler wave packets are obtained from a basic laboratory experiment. While the magnetic field and current density are described in the preceding companion paper (Part III), the present analysis starts with the electric field. The inductive and space charge electric field contributions are separately calculated in Fourier space from the measured magnetic field and Ohm's law along B 0 . Inverse Fourier transformation yields the total electric field in space and time, separated into rotational and divergent contributions. The space-charge density in whistler wave packets is obtained. The cross-field tensor conductivity is determined. The frozen-in condition is nearly satisfied, E+v e xB congruent 0. The dissipation is obtained from Poynting's theorem. The waves are collisionally damped; Landau damping is negligible. A radiation resistance for the electrode is determined. Analogous to Poynting's theorem, the transport of helicity is analyzed. Current helicity is generated by a flow of helicity between pulses traveling in opposite directions which carry opposite signs of helicity. Helicity is dissipated by collisions. These observations complete a detailed description of whistler/current pulses which can occur in various laboratory and space plasmas. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  9. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.

    2014-01-01

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium

  10. Modified design in new construction prevents infiltration of soil gas that carries radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.; Schmied, H.

    1987-01-01

    Dwellings located on permeable soil with strong exhalation of radon often get a contribution to indoor radon from infiltrating soil gas carrying radon from the ground into the building. 100 dwellings have been built on radon dangerous land with different modifications in design and construction in order to prevent infiltration of radon. Tight construction, ventilated crawl space, ventilation/depressurization of the capillary breaking layer (crushed stone), and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery by air to air heat exchangers or heat pumps have been tested. Added building costs and measured concentration of radon after construction and 3-5 years later are reported. It is concluded that it is possible to build radon protective and radon safe dwellings on any land. The added costs have ranged from zero to 4% of total building costs

  11. Review of investigations of atmospheric contamination carried out in the USSR from 1975 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, B.I.

    1980-01-01

    A brief characteristic of main directions of atmospherical contamination is given. A bibliographic list of articles and books, published in the USSR during 1975-1978 is presented. Atmospherical contamination study was carried out within the wide range of problems during this period. They are: both artificial and natural radioactive substances, the behaviour of these substances in the atmosphere and their application as tracers for a number of processes of atmospheric physics. Attention was paid to the study of radon fission products ( 222 Rn, 210 Pb, 210 Bi, 210 Po) behaviour in the atmosphere, of the ratio between 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce concentrations in surface air during the first months after nuclear explosion, to the study of radioactive fallout and washout of radionuclides from the atmosphere, of cosmic ray produced radionuclides, 85 Kr concentration as a product of the nuclear power production development. Serious attention was also paid to methodics problems referring measurements and sampling [ru

  12. [Software for illustrating a cost-quality balance carried out by clinical laboratory practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, Masahiro; Asayama, Hitoshi; Kimura, Satoshi; Takagi, Yasushi; Hagihara, Michio; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Yoneyama, Akiko; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    We have no proper reference indicating the quality of clinical laboratory practice, which should clearly illustrates that better medical tests require more expenses. Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine was concerned about recent difficult medical economy and issued a committee report proposing a guideline to evaluate the good laboratory practice. According to the guideline, we developed software that illustrate a cost-quality balance carried out by clinical laboratory practice. We encountered a number of controversial problems, for example, how to measure and weight each quality-related factor, how to calculate costs of a laboratory test and how to consider characteristics of a clinical laboratory. Consequently we finished only prototype software within the given period and the budget. In this paper, software implementation of the guideline and the above-mentioned problems are summarized. Aiming to stimulate these discussions, the operative software will be put on the Society's homepage for trial

  13. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong

    2018-01-01

    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  14. Research of the arid aerosol carrying out with a help of a set of sodars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valery, K; Igor, G

    2008-01-01

    Study of spatial and vertical distribution of vertical wind velocity was carried out in the 'Har-Gzyr 2007' field program in the 'Black Sands' region, Russia, with the help of four sodars. Continuous (about half an hour) and stable anabatic motions of the air were revealed for altitudes 10m to 800m over the area of some square kilometres. The measured vertical speed reached 2m/s. Permanent and quick transfer of sub-micron aerosol particles from the surface layer to the troposphere can be explained by this phenomenon. The scheme is proposed to design a mass balance equation to calculate aerosol concentration in the upper layers of the ABL

  15. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A.; Heller, R.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2008-02-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability.

  16. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A; Heller, R; Goldacker, W; Kling, A; Schmidt, C

    2008-01-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability

  17. Topological extensions of Noether charge algebras carried by Dp-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, H.

    1998-01-01

    We derive an extension of the supersymmetry algebra carried by D-branes in a massless type IIA superspace vacuum. We find that the extended algebra contains not only topological charges that probe the presence of compact space-time dimensions but also pieces that measure non-trivial configurations of the gauge field on the world-volume of the brane. Furthermore there are terms that measure the coupling of the non-triviality of the world-volume regarded as a U(1) bundle of the gauge field to possible compact space-time dimensions. In particular, the extended algebra carried by the D2-brane can contain the charge of a Dirac monopole of the gauge field. In the course of this work we derive a set of generalized Gamma-matrix identities that include the ones presently known for the IIA case. In the first part of the paper we give an introduction to the basic notions of Noether current algebras and charge algebras; furthermore we find a theorem that describes in a general context how the presence of a gauge field on the world-volume of an embedded object transforming under the symmetry group on the target space alters the algebra of the Noether charges, which otherwise would be the same as the algebra of the symmetry group. This is a phenomenon recently found by Sorokin and Townsend in the case of the M5-brane, but here we show that it holds quite generally, and in particular also in the case of D-branes. (orig.)

  18. Does the Dumbbell-Carrying Position Change the Muscle Activity in Split Squats and Walking Lunges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr M Z; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana

    2015-11-01

    The forward walking lunge (WL) and split squat (SSq) are similar exercises that have differences in the eccentric phase, and both can be performed in the ipsilateral or contralateral carrying conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of dumbbell-carrying position on the kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes of the gluteus medius (Gmed), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris during WLs and SSqs. The resistance-trained (RT) and the non-resistance-trained (NT) groups (both n = 14) performed ipsilateral WLs, contralateral WLs, ipsilateral SSqs, and contralateral SSqs in a randomized order in a simulated training session. The EMG amplitude, expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and the kinematics, expressed as the range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee, were measured during 5 repetition maximum for both legs. The repeated measure analyses of variance showed significant differences between the RT and NT groups. The NT group showed a smaller knee flexion ROM (p < 0.001, η = 0.36) during both types of WLs, whereas the RT group showed a higher eccentric Gmed amplitude (p < 0.001, η = 0.46) during all exercises and a higher eccentric VL amplitude (p < 0.001, η = 0.63) during contralateral WLs. Further differences were found between contralateral and ipsilateral WLs in both the RT (p < 0.001, η = 0.69) and NT groups (p < 0.001, η = 0.80), and contralateral WLs resulted in higher eccentric Gmed amplitudes. Contralateral WLs highly activated the Gmed (90% MVIC); therefore, this exercise can increase the Gmed maximal strength. The ipsilateral loading condition did not increase the Gmed or VM activity in the RT or NT group.

  19. Living anew - About possibilities of contemporary adaptations of flats carried out in industrialised technologies in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopotowski, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    Around the half of Polish population currently live in the buildings constructed in the second half of the twentieth century in industrialized technologies. Economic conditions indicate that this state will not change substantially over the next decade. This situation forces people who deal with shaping housing space to take action that will raise the value of existing, technically and morally degrading, housing substance. As a result of conducted research, the author of this study pointed out that the so-called revitalization of the housing environment is carried out at the level of residents, administrators of buildings and housing estates. Their effects are often not correlated or even contradictory. He also emphasized the importance of comprehensive measures and the need for systemic solutions that integrate legislation, administration and contracting. As an important element of these actions he pointed out the need to develop a catalogue illustrating the possibility of reconstruction of housing. The article will present the results of research aimed at developing a strategy of remodelling flats, considered today unattractive, located in buildings constructed in OW-T technology. The analyses were carried out on a group of flats (about 85 m²) completed at the turn of 70s and 80s. During the construction period they were intended to be settled by families of minimum 6 people and were the largest. Their structure consists of a number of relatively small rooms (including very small bathrooms and kitchens). The author made a critical analysis of this housing offer. He defined contemporary needs of investors who are involved in buying flats of such size - they are families with one or two children. Measurable results of the work carried out are the schemes of housing conversion plans. The article presents four specific design solutions that show the direction of possible actions. According to the author, popularizing the possibility of reconstructing such flats

  20. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  1. Validade da aferição da acuidade visual realizada pelo professor em escolares de 1ª à 4ª série de primeiro grau de uma escola pública do município de São Paulo, Brasil The validity of the visual acuity screening in school children carried oat by the teacher - comparative study of the visual acuity measurement by the teacher and the ophthalmologist from the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edméa Rita Temporini

    1977-06-01

    carried out by the ophthalmologist. Both of them make use of the Snellen optometrical table. 1352 first to fourth-grade children from a primary school in the county of S. Paulo in 1975 were tested. Results were concordant in 80.86% of the cases. In 122 cases (9.02% there was a difference of 2 lines in the results obtained by the teacher and the eye doctor; in 54 cases (3.99% there was a difference of 3 lines. As greater differences were checked, the number of cases progressively decreased. This fact occurred as regards both eyes, showing a failure of those children in responding to the test, probably due to their difficulty of interpretation. The application of the visual acuity screening by a well-trained teacher is valid, as one of the ways of detecting school children who need eye examination.

  2. Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Boxx, I.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.

    2011-05-01

    We describe a newly developed combustion diagnostic for the simultaneous planar imaging of soot structure and velocity fields in a highly sooting, lifted turbulent jet flame at 3000 frames per second, or two orders of magnitude faster than "conventional" laser imaging systems. This diagnostic uses short pulse duration (8 ns), frequency-doubled, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite laser-induced incandescence (LII) at 3 kHz, which is then imaged onto a high framerate CMOS camera. A second (dual-cavity) DPSS laser and CMOS camera form the basis of a particle image velocity (PIV) system used to acquire 2-component velocity field in the flame. The LII response curve (measured in a laminar propane diffusion flame) is presented and the combined diagnostics then applied in a heavily sooting lifted turbulent jet flame. The potential challenges and rewards of application of this combined imaging technique at high speeds are discussed.

  3. Sdelki carry trade ne roskosh, a sredstvo nakoplenija / Darius Gecevicius, Dmitri Fokin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gecevicius, Darius

    2007-01-01

    Strateegia carry trade kasutamisest valuutaturgudel. Carry trade on tehing, mis enamasti toimub valuutaturul, kus investor laenab raha sisse valuutas, mille intressid on madalamad ning paigutab selle valuutas, kus intressid on kõrgemad. Diagramm

  4. Human Factors Evaluation of the Modular Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment (MOLLE) System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James

    2001-01-01

    .... The FEA was used in drafting a new user requirements document and initiating the development of a modular load-carrying system which ultimately became known as the Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment (MOLLE...

  5. Biomechanical, Physiological, and Agility Performance of Soldiers Carrying Loads: A Comparison of the Modular Lightweight Load Carrying Equipment and a Lightning Packs, LLC, Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-27

    angle, hip angle, and sagittal plane hip moments. In terms of energy harvesting and production during walking, the current weight penalty of carrying...MODULAR LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD CARRYING EQUIPMENT) HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center ATTN...pack type and walking speed at a 0% grade. .......................................................35  vii Table 20: Means (SE) of the mean and

  6. Study on tourist carrying capacity of sustainable tourism---by taking Qingliang Mountain in the south-eastern china as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shenglang; Liu, Ting

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzed measurable problems of tourist carrying capacity and then studied the corresponding measures by adopting theories and methods of environment sciences. Tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain was studied by analyzing the system of tourism environment capacity. The results showed that the level of service was 9726, which was smaller than the ecological carrying capacity of 12894. The facilities and spatial capacity were identified as key factors to limit the tourist carrying capacity in Qingliang Mountain. Some advices and measures including newly built and rebuilt basic facilities, construction of management methods for slack and peak tourist season respectively, construction of new sight spot and touring path were discussed to improve the tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain and solve the problems of overloading of tourists in the peak season.

  7. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  8. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  9. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  10. C-tactile afferent stimulating touch carries a positive affective value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawling, Ralph; Cannon, Peter R; McGlone, Francis P; Walker, Susannah C

    2017-01-01

    The rewarding sensation of touch in affiliative interactions is hypothesized to be underpinned by a specialized system of nerve fibers called C-Tactile afferents (CTs), which respond optimally to slowly moving, gentle touch, typical of a caress. However, empirical evidence to support the theory that CTs encode socially relevant, rewarding tactile information in humans is currently limited. While in healthy participants, touch applied at CT optimal velocities (1-10cm/sec) is reliably rated as subjectively pleasant, neuronopathy patients lacking large myelinated afferents, but with intact C-fibres, report that the conscious sensation elicited by stimulation of CTs is rather vague. Given this weak perceptual impact the value of self-report measures for assessing the specific affective value of CT activating touch appears limited. Therefore, we combined subjective ratings of touch pleasantness with implicit measures of affective state (facial electromyography) and autonomic arousal (heart rate) to determine whether CT activation carries a positive affective value. We recorded the activity of two key emotion-relevant facial muscle sites (zygomaticus major-smile muscle, positive affect & corrugator supercilii-frown muscle, negative affect) while participants evaluated the pleasantness of experimenter administered stroking touch, delivered using a soft brush, at two velocities (CT optimal 3cm/sec & CT non-optimal 30cm/sec), on two skin sites (CT innervated forearm & non-CT innervated palm). On both sites, 3cm/sec stroking touch was rated as more pleasant and produced greater heart rate deceleration than 30cm/sec stimulation. However, neither self-report ratings nor heart rate responses discriminated stimulation on the CT innervated arm from stroking of the non-CT innervated palm. In contrast, significantly greater activation of the zygomaticus major (smiling muscle) was seen specifically to CT optimal, 3cm/sec, stroking on the forearm in comparison to all other stimuli

  11. C-tactile afferent stimulating touch carries a positive affective value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Pawling

    Full Text Available The rewarding sensation of touch in affiliative interactions is hypothesized to be underpinned by a specialized system of nerve fibers called C-Tactile afferents (CTs, which respond optimally to slowly moving, gentle touch, typical of a caress. However, empirical evidence to support the theory that CTs encode socially relevant, rewarding tactile information in humans is currently limited. While in healthy participants, touch applied at CT optimal velocities (1-10cm/sec is reliably rated as subjectively pleasant, neuronopathy patients lacking large myelinated afferents, but with intact C-fibres, report that the conscious sensation elicited by stimulation of CTs is rather vague. Given this weak perceptual impact the value of self-report measures for assessing the specific affective value of CT activating touch appears limited. Therefore, we combined subjective ratings of touch pleasantness with implicit measures of affective state (facial electromyography and autonomic arousal (heart rate to determine whether CT activation carries a positive affective value. We recorded the activity of two key emotion-relevant facial muscle sites (zygomaticus major-smile muscle, positive affect & corrugator supercilii-frown muscle, negative affect while participants evaluated the pleasantness of experimenter administered stroking touch, delivered using a soft brush, at two velocities (CT optimal 3cm/sec & CT non-optimal 30cm/sec, on two skin sites (CT innervated forearm & non-CT innervated palm. On both sites, 3cm/sec stroking touch was rated as more pleasant and produced greater heart rate deceleration than 30cm/sec stimulation. However, neither self-report ratings nor heart rate responses discriminated stimulation on the CT innervated arm from stroking of the non-CT innervated palm. In contrast, significantly greater activation of the zygomaticus major (smiling muscle was seen specifically to CT optimal, 3cm/sec, stroking on the forearm in comparison to all

  12. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geere Jo-Anne L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048. For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069 and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051 were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011 and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018 Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size

  14. International transport of incandescent gas mantles - an incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Khaidem R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer products, though contain small quantities of radioactive material, are designed and manufactured with reference to prescribed safety standards; and supplied for use in public domain. On the basis of the nature of the exposures associated with such practices, which are quite low, the Regulatory Authority exempts the practices from many of the regulatory requirements. As they are inherently safe for handling, transporting and use, they are exempted from some of the requirements under the provisions of the regulations on the transport of radioactive material. Though the basic meaning and purpose of a radioactivity-based consumer product are similar to other commodities, there is a need to transport the former as per the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material till the product reaches at end user. The strict adherence to the transport regulations during transport of the radioactivity-based consumer product would ensure smooth carriage particularly in international arena. On the basis of an incident that happened during the transport of consumer products, this paper analyzes the provisions relating to radioactivity-based consumer products as envisaged in the basic safety standards of IAEA and their transport, particularly for natural thorium based consumer product gas mantles. (author)

  15. Carry-over of melamine from feed to eggs and body tissues of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S Y; Tong, J M; Zhang, Q

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the carry-over of melamine from feed into eggs and body tissues of laying hens. In the first experiment, laying hens were supplied with feed added at 0, 1, 2, 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of melamine for 21 days followed by a depletion period to observe the residues of melamine in eggs. In a second experiment, laying hens were allocated 0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) melamine to determine levels of melamine in body tissues. Melamine and cyanuric acid were simultaneously analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the diet as well as in eggs and body tissue. In the first experiment, melamine appeared in the egg within 24 h after first ingestion of the melamine at 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1). Melamine concentration in egg reached a maximum of 2.34 mg kg(-1) within 17 days after exposure of 100 mg kg(-1) melamine, and the carry-over rate for melamine from feed to the eggs was 1.21%. In the second experiment, melamine was detected in tissues within 3 days after exposure; the maximum concentration of melamine residues occurred in the 100 mg kg(-1) group and was as follows: egg (1.83) > kidney (1.21) > breast muscle (0.86) > liver (0.70) > serum (0.42). The melamine level in egg albumen was about twice that of egg yolk. Melamine levels in laying hens decreased rapidly with withdrawal from feed, but melamine only declined to undetectable levels in the egg at day 6 and in tissues at day 4 after last ingestion of 100 mg kg(-1). It can be concluded that a pathway exists for the transmission of melamine from feed to egg and body tissues and the carry-over rate of melamine is low, and that melamine is not metabolized into cyanuric acid in laying hens. A positive relationship exists between exposure levels and eggs or tissues, but no direct relationship between the exposure time and measured levels of melamine in eggs and tissues. The current Chinese limit for melamine in feed and feed material of 2.5 mg kg(-1

  16. Somatic association of telocentric chromosomes carrying homologous centromeres in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Sampayo, T

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of distances between telocentric chromosomes, either homologous or representing the opposite arms of a metacentric chromosome (complementary telocentrics), were made at metaphase in root tip cells of common wheat carrying two homologous pairs of complementary telocentrics of chromosome 1 B or 6 B (double ditelosomic 1 B or 6 B). The aim was to elucidate the relative locations of the telocentric chromosomes within the cell. The data obtained strongly suggest that all four telocentrics of chromosome 1 B or 6 B are spacially and simultaneously co-associated. In plants carrying two complementary (6 B (S) and 6 B (L)) and a non-related (5 B (L)) telocentric, only the complementary chromosomes were found to be somatically associated. It is thought, therefore, that the somatic association of chromosomes may involve more than two chromosomes in the same association and, since complementary telocentrics are as much associated as homologous, that the homology between centromeres (probably the only homologous region that exists between complementary telocentrics) is a very important condition for somatic association of chromosomes. The spacial arrangement of chromosomes was studied at anaphase and prophase and the polar orientation of chromosomes at prophase was found to resemble anaphase orientation. This was taken as good evidence for the maintenance of the chromosome arrangement - the Rabl orientation - and of the peripheral location of the centromere and its association with the nuclear membrane. Within this general arrangement homologous telocentric chromosomes were frequently seen to have their centromeres associated or directed towards each other. The role of the centromere in somatic association as a spindle fibre attachment and chromosome binder is discussed. It is suggested that for non-homologous chromosomes to become associated in root tips, the only requirement needed should be the homology of centromeres such as exists between complementary

  17. Conservation implications of physiological carry-over effects in bats recovering from white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Christina M; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Riley, Julia L; Baxter-Gilbert, James H; Mayberry, Heather; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-06-01

    Although it is well documented that infectious diseases can pose threats to biodiversity, the potential long-term consequences of pathogen exposure on individual fitness and its effects on population viability have rarely been studied. We tested the hypothesis that pathogen exposure causes physiological carry-over effects with a pathogen that is uniquely suited to this question because the infection period is specific and time limited. The fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats, which either die due to the infection while hibernating or recover following emergence from hibernation. The fungus infects all exposed individuals in an overwintering site simultaneously, and bats that survive infection during hibernation clear the pathogen within a few weeks following emergence. We quantified chronic stress during the active season, when bats are not infected, by measuring cortisol in bat claws. Free-ranging Myotis lucifugus who survived previous exposure to P. destructans had significantly higher levels of claw cortisol than naïve individuals. Thus, cryptic physiological carry-over effects of pathogen exposure may persist in asymptomatic, recovered individuals. If these effects result in reduced survival or reproductive success, they could also affect population viability and even act as a third stream in the extinction vortex. For example, significant increases in chronic stress, such as those indicated here, are correlated with reduced reproductive success in a number of species. Future research should directly explore the link between pathogen exposure and the viability of apparently recovered populations to improve understanding of the true impacts of infectious diseases on threatened populations. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Aguirre, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition.

  19. [Consumption of psychoactive drugs and exposure to bacterial toxins carried by food: a dangerous association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corma-Gómez, Anaïs; López-Sepúlveda, Rocío; Capitán-Del Río, Inés; Sánchez Mariscal, María Dolores; López-Hernández, Begoña

    2017-11-01

    To describe and analyse from a clinical and epidemiological point of view, a food borne outbreak in a psychiatric institution in Granada, in 2015, and to examine whether treatment with psychoactive drugs constitutes a risk factor for the development of a food borne disease, analysing the degree of susceptibility according to the therapeutic group consumed. Ambispective cohort study. Residents were the unit of analysis. Our group carried out an active case search and a food survey. A search for other risks was developed as well as a food inspection. Location, time and individual variables were studied. A descriptive analysis was conducted (absolute and relative frequencies). Calculation of attack rates by building and by menu was made. Bi-variant analysis (Chi-square test, t-Student test) and relative risk were used as a measure of strength of association. For risk analysis of medication, a multivariate analysis using logistic regression was carried out. 18 cases with diarrhoea without fever were found (incubation period from 6 to 16hours). Cases were mild and self-limiting. The clinical manifestations, the temporal grouping of cases and the characteristics of the ingested foods, focussed suspicion on a bacterial toxin. Being equal in the rest of variables, the N03AF, and N03AG therapeutic groups confer greater risk of disease (odds ratio [OR]: 8.626; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.050-36.308; p=0.003; and OR: 14.516; 95%CI: 3.155-66.784; p=0.001, respectively). Decreased intestinal transit, caused by the administration of anticonvulsants, may increase exposure time of the intestinal mucosa to the toxin, increasing the risk of disease and suffering from complications. An additional hygienic effort should be made in this type of institution to prevent these pathologies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of carrying heavy loads on soldiers' posture, movements and gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwells, Renee L; Birrell, Stewart A; Hooper, Robin H; Mansfield, Neil J

    2006-11-15

    Military personnel are required to carry heavy loads whilst marching; this load carriage represents a substantial component of training and combat. Studies in the literature mainly concentrate on physiological effects, with few biomechanical studies of military load carriage systems (LCS). This study examines changes in gait and posture caused by increasing load carriage in military LCS. The four conditions used during this study were control (including rifle, boots and helmet carriage, totalling 8 kg), webbing (weighing 8 kg), backpack (24 kg) and a light antitank weapon (LAW; 10 kg), resulting in an incremental increase in load carried from 8, 16, 40 to 50 kg. A total of 20 male soldiers were evaluated in the sagittal plane using a 3-D motion analysis system. Measurements of ankle, knee, femur, trunk and craniovertebral angles and spatiotemporal parameters were made during self-paced walking. Results showed spatiotemporal changes were unrelated to angular changes, perhaps a consequence of military training. Knee and femur ranges of motion (control, 21.1 degrees +/- 3.0 and 33.9 degrees +/- 7.1 respectively) increased (p < 0.05) with load (LAW, 25.5 degrees +/- 2.3 and 37.8 degrees +/- 1.5 respectively). The trunk flexed significantly further forward, confirming results from previous studies. In addition, the craniovertebral angle decreased (p < 0.001) indicating a more forward position of the head with load. It is concluded that the head functions in concert with the trunk to counterbalance load. The higher muscular tensions necessary to sustain these changes have been associated with injury, muscle strain and joint problems.

  1. Results from the geological surveys carried out in the Bure laboratory's shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebours, Herve; Righini, Celine

    2010-01-01

    sinking, different methods suitable for a reliable evaluation of the damaged zone, caused by to excavation, have been developed. The EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone) could be associated with a locally increased permeability. The mechanical behaviour was analyzed through convergence and extensometer measurements. The disturbance to the wall was assessed through various measurement methods such as the measurement of sonic velocities, the permeability measurement and VSP measurement in radial boreholes. After the evacuation of muck, the geological team goes down to carry out the survey which consists in: 1. the Installation of a topographic network used during the geological follow-up, 2. the lithologic and sedimentary mapping to describe the lithology of the crossed formations and to evaluate their lateral variability at the shaft scale, 3. the structural survey for the understanding of joints distribution and EDZ characterization, 4. the rock and water sampling, 5. the shooting of the wall shaft with stereoscopic pictures to keep a view of the complete wall shaft before lining. The allowed time to carry out the complete geological survey was about 4 hours. The geological survey allows the study of the formation at another scale than the logging of the borehole carried out in the axis of the shaft. At this scale, some vertical structures like joints or styloliths have been seen and followed over several meters. The sedimentary results showed that there is a very good correlation between the two shafts and confirmed that the upper part of the argillaceous rock formation is more carbonated. No fault was observed in the argillaceous rocks from the geological follow-up of shafts or boreholes drilled on the site. On the Bure URL, only centi-metric joints filled with calcite have been observed in the shafts in more limy levels of the argillaceous rock formation. Nevertheless diagenetic events have been found like septaria or veins with celestite. The structural mapping of the shafts

  2. Introducing carrying capacity-based normalisation in LCA: framework and development of references at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    carrying capacity-based normalisation references. The purpose of this article is to present a framework for normalisation against carrying capacity-based references and to develop average normalisation references (NR) for Europe and the world for all those midpoint impact categories commonly included....... A literature review was carried out to identify scientifically sound thresholds for each impact category. Carrying capacities were then calculated from these thresholds and expressed in metrics identical to midpoint indicators giving priority to those recommended by ILCD. NR was expressed as the carrying...... ozone formation and soil quality were found to exceed carrying capacities several times.The developed carrying capacity-based normalisation references offer relevant supplementary reference information to the currently applied references based on society’s background interventions by supporting...

  3. An instrument for collecting and processing data from radiometric experiments carried out in field and industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirowicz, J.; Owczarczyk, A.; Pienkos, J.; Swistowski, E.; Urbanski, P.

    2002-01-01

    The FIR-1 radiometer is designed to collect and process radiometric measurements carried out in industrial and field environment. A specialized software of the radiometer enables use of the collected measuring results for further processing e.g. modelling of dynamics of the objects. The main unit of the radiometer is the control block. The task of the block is control of the measuring cycles and its analysis as well as displaying and store of the measuring results. The investigated processes can be watched at LCD screen, the measuring results can be stored in the memory and can be sent for further processing to external PC. The radiometer is equipped with 4 pulse channels to which scintillation or GM detection probes can be connected depending on the measurements to be carried out. Additionally, the radiometer is equipped with the spectrometric channel with 256 channel analyser. The radiometer is powered from 6 V accumulator. The radiometer is based on up-to-date technology with large scale integrated circuits. Thanks to microprocessor system used in the radiometer the measurements can be highly automated. The software of the radiometer is based on MATLAB. (author)

  4. [Judicial and medical/legal aspects of the responsibility of workers appointed to carry out first aid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, L C; Ciavarella, M; Sacco, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the innovations introduced by law 626/94 [the Italian law on occupational health and safety of workers] is the obligation of the employer to designate workers responsible for first aid. To identify and discuss the duties, the role and the medical and legal responsibility of workers appointed to carry out first aid measures. Analysis of legislation and current practice concerning medical and legal responsibility in first aid procedures. The worker appointed to carry out first aid measures is, by virtue of his appointment, obliged to take action. Therefore, he could commit an illegitimate act both by "acting" and by "omitting" to carry out a duty that is his responsibility. In the first case the worker could be accused of committing an unpremeditated criminal offence when his actions involve negligence, imprudence, inexperience or violation of regulations concerning his duties. A "serious criminal offence" is committed when the most elementary rules of diligence, prudence and skill are violated; the offence is "slight" when negligence, imprudence or inexperience are involved in particularly complex situations. The reference parameter for inexperience is not a first aid volunteer, nor a member of the public, but a worker designated to carry out first aid possessing "average" attitudes, training and ability. Briefly, a guilty error by the appointed worker consists of the following: i) the professional conduct of the operator was clearly wrong, serious and unjustifiable; ii) the operator clearly omitted doing his/her duty; iii) the consequence of the error is physical personal damage. The observations made clearly illustrate the delicacy of the tasks of the worker appointed to carry out first aid measures. Essential elements for minimizing wrong and/or negligent conduct are appropriate choice of the designated workers and their adequate training.

  5. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Su Ritohardoyo; P Priyono

    2016-01-01

    Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the ...

  6. Infant carrying methods: Correlates and associated musculoskeletal disorders among nursing mothers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, Chidiebele Petronilla; Anyanwu, Godson Emeka; Anekwu, Emelie Morris; Chukwu, Sylvester Caesar; Fab-Agbo, Chukwubuikem

    2017-10-01

    Infant carrying is an integral part of the mothering occupation. Paucity of data exists on its correlates and associated musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying were investigated in 227 nursing mothers, using a structured questionnaire. 77.1% utilised the back infant carrying methods (ICM). Maternal comfort was the major factor influencing participants' (37.4%) choices of ICMs. Infant's age (p = .000) and transportation means (p = .045) were significantly associated with ICMs. Low back pain (82.8%) and upper back pain (74.9%) were the most reported musculoskeletal discomforts associated with ICMs, especially among women who utilised back ICM. Back ICM is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Impact statement Infant carrying has been associated with increased energy cost and biomechanical changes. Currently, there is a paucity of data on infant carrying-related musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, investigating factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying, the results showed that back infant carrying method is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Age of the infant and mothers' means of transportation were determinant factors of infant carrying methods. Among the several reported infant carrying-related musculoskeletal disorders, low back and upper back pain were the most prevalent, especially among women who utilised the back infant carrying method. There is need for women's health specialists to introduce appropriate ergonomic training and interventions on infant carrying tasks in order to improve maternal musculoskeletal health during the childbearing years and beyond. Further experimental studies on the effects of various infant carrying methods on the musculoskeletal system are recommended.

  7. 46 CFR 35.25-15 - Carrying of excess steam-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying of excess steam-TB/ALL. 35.25-15 Section 35.25... § 35.25-15 Carrying of excess steam—TB/ALL. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer of any tank vessel to see that a steam pressure is not carried in excess of that allowed by the certificate of...

  8. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  9. Preliminary research on quantitative methods of water resources carrying capacity based on water resources balance sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.

  10. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  11. New insights in the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Imbo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview concerning the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations in mental arithmetic. The role of the executive working-memory component is discussed, alongside the contribution of the phonological and visuo-spatial working-memory components. Moreover, a broad view on various carry characteristics (such as the number of carry/borrow operations and the value of the carry and various operations (addition, subtraction, and multiplication is provided. Finally, some ideas for further research are offered.

  12. Concept and Connotation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Water Ecological Civilization Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhilong; Song, Xiaoyu; Feng, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Water ecological civilization construction is based on the water resources carrying capacity, guided by the sustainable development concept, adhered to the human-water harmony thoughts. This paper has comprehensive analyzed the concept and characteristics of the carrying capacity of water resources in the water ecological civilization construction, and discussed the research methods and evaluation index system of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction, finally pointed out that the problems and solutions of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction and put forward the future research prospect.

  13. Researches carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavakami, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The results of works, accomplished by the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, related to evaluation of the nuclear facilities effect on the environmental medium, are considered. The analytical results of studies on the environmental radioactivity with an account of meteorological aspects, evaluation of the nuclear facilities impact on the environmental medium are presented. Studies on the radionuclide behavior in the environmental medium cover large range of problems: distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in the surface medium and their migration; evaluation of the human radiation doses on the account of radionuclides; environmental medium protection and risk evaluation. The method for measuring the 90 Sr concentrations with application of ion-exchange tars and a simple method for determining the radon activity with application of liquid scintillators were developed in the process of the study on creation of the environmental medium monitoring. The studies, related to the content and behavior of tritium, Pu, 137 Cs, 247 Am, as well as mercury and other heavy metals in the environmental medium were carried out. The methods for evaluating the NPPs radiation effect on the population with an account of the radioactive substances releases both by normal operation and in the emergency situations, were developed. Attention is also paid to research programs and developed codes [ru

  14. Expansion of a multicomponent current-carrying plasma jet into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasov, V. I.; Paperny, V. L.

    2017-01-01

    An expression for the ion−ion coupling in a multicomponent plasma jet is derived for an arbitrary ratio between the thermal and relative velocities of the components. The obtained expression is used to solve the problem on the expansion of a current-carrying plasma microjet emitted from the cathode surface into vacuum. Two types of plasmas with two ion components are analyzed: (i) plasma in which the ion components of equal masses are in the charge states Z 1 = +1 and Z 2 = +2 and (ii) plasma with ions in equal charge states but with the mass ratio m 1 /m 2 = 2. It is shown that, for such plasmas, the difference between the velocities of the plasma components remains substantial (about 10% of the average jet velocity in case (i) and 15% in case (ii)) at distances of several centimeters from the emission center, where it can be measured experimentally, provided that its initial value at the emitting cathode surface exceeds a certain threshold. This effect is investigated as a function of the mass ratio and charge states of the ion components.

  15. Review of annual radioecological studies carried out since 1991 in the French nuclear power plants environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Gontier, G.; Renaud, P.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1991, the IRSN carries out annual radioecological studies in the environment of the French Nuclear Power Plants. More than 5,000 samples, collected in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems around the 20 studied plants, have been analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry. This paper presents the main goals and methods for such studies, and the lessons learnt from 11 years results. The French NPP routine atmospheric releases do not lead to detectable radioactive inputs into their surroundings. For this reason, IRSN decided to reduce the number of analysis concerning terrestrial samples since 2000. On the other hand, NPP liquid discharges into rivers are responsible for the presence of low 60 Co, 58 Co, 110m Ag and 54 Mn activities and significant difference in 137 Cs/ 134 Cs activity ratios measured in aquatic compartments. Radioactive discharges of artificial gamma emitters are also detectable in the Channel marine environment around NPP. Nevertheless, this influence is often concealed by radionuclides released by COGEMA-La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. Beyond important evaluations concerning the presence of artificial radionuclides in NPP's environment, studies conducted since 1991 give us an important database that can be used for a better knowledge of transfers and distribution of radioactivity through the environment. (author)

  16. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful.

  17. Expansion of a multicomponent current-carrying plasma jet into vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasov, V. I.; Paperny, V. L., E-mail: paperny@math.isu.runnet.ru [Irkutsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    An expression for the ion−ion coupling in a multicomponent plasma jet is derived for an arbitrary ratio between the thermal and relative velocities of the components. The obtained expression is used to solve the problem on the expansion of a current-carrying plasma microjet emitted from the cathode surface into vacuum. Two types of plasmas with two ion components are analyzed: (i) plasma in which the ion components of equal masses are in the charge states Z{sub 1}= +1 and Z{sub 2}= +2 and (ii) plasma with ions in equal charge states but with the mass ratio m{sub 1}/m{sub 2} = 2. It is shown that, for such plasmas, the difference between the velocities of the plasma components remains substantial (about 10% of the average jet velocity in case (i) and 15% in case (ii)) at distances of several centimeters from the emission center, where it can be measured experimentally, provided that its initial value at the emitting cathode surface exceeds a certain threshold. This effect is investigated as a function of the mass ratio and charge states of the ion components.

  18. Calibration of magnetic force microscopy tips by using nanoscale current-carrying parallel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebe, Th.; Carl, A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results on the characterization of commercially available magnetic force microscopy (MFM) thin film tips as a function of an external magnetic field are presented. Magnetic stray fields with a definitive z-component (perpendicular to the substrate) and a magnetic field strength of up to H z =±45 Oe are produced with current carrying parallel nanowires with a thickness of t=60 nm, which are fabricated by electron-beam lithography. The magnetic fields are generated by electrical dc-currents of up to ±6 mA which are directed antiparallel through the nanowires. The geometry and the dimensions of the nanowires are systematically varied by choosing different wire widths w as well as separations b between the parallel wires for two different sets of samples. On the one hand, the wire width w is varied within 380 nm< w<2460 nm while the separation b≅450 nm between the wires is kept constant. On the other hand the separation b between the parallel wires is varied within 120 nm< b<5100 nm, while the wire width w=960 nm is kept constant. For all the geometrical configurations of parallel wires the resulting magnetic contrast is imaged by MFM at various tip lift-heights. By treating the MFM tip as a point probe, the analysis of the image contrast as a function of both the magnetic field strength and the tip lift height allows one to quantitatively determine the effective magnetic dipole and monopole moments of the tip as well as their imaginary locations within the real physical tip. Our systematic study quantitatively relates the above point-probe parameters to (i) the dimensions of the parallel wires and (ii) to the characteristic decay length of the z-component of the magnetic field of parallel wires. From this the effective tip-volume of the real thin film tip is determined which is relevant in MFM-imaging. Our results confirm the reliability of earlier tip calibration schemes for which nanofabricated current carrying rings were used instead of parallel

  19. 42 CFR 71.56 - African rodents and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the monkeypox virus. 71.56 Section 71.56 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus. (a) What actions are prohibited? What animals... transmitting or carrying the monkeypox virus. Such products include, but are not limited to, fully taxidermied...

  20. Free vibrations of a multi-span Timoshenko beam carrying multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    natural frequency values and mode shapes for a beam carrying any number of spring masses. Naguleswaran (2002, 2003) obtained the natural frequency values of the beams on up to five resilient supports including ends and carrying several particles by using EBT and obtained a fourth-order determinant equated to zero.

  1. Form and Function of Carrying Tools in Traditional and Contemporary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriana Werdhaningsih

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Javanese Traditional Carrying Tools are categorized into two kinds based used of materials: anyaman made of woven bamboo or rattan and the other was made of cloth. The Traditional Javanese Carrying Tools that were made of bamboo/ rattan is actually a kind of container with different shapes. The types of goods that were brought was related to the shapes of the containers, demonstrate the type of interactions between the carrier and the goods. The Traditional Carrying Tools made of cloth have the flexibility in terms of being the containers of the carried goods. Selendang is used to carry goods, including the bamboo/ rattan containers and to carry babies. It can be used rumpled and straightened depends on the technical needs of carrying tools preferred by the user. In contemporary culture, the form and design of carrying tools more less construct by fashion and trends besides those practical used. Some product are being 'classic', some other are being 'fad'. Both products, traditional and contemporary have their own style, uniqueness, and own context. Analyzing both in design point of view is important as evaluation process, to finding new problems that will be starting point to create new products. Indonesia is well known for its abundant richness in traditions, which include the culture, the art, and the traditional products. Such treasure of traditions can inspire the development and invention of various kinds of artwork and current products.

  2. 33 CFR 151.33 - Certificates needed to carry Category C Oil-like NLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo tank, and if the ship engages in a foreign... unless the ship has a Certificate of Inspection endorsed to allow the NLS to be carried in that cargo... Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance...

  3. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  4. Effect of Gun Carrying on Perceptions of Risk Among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.

  5. Carry A. Nation: "The Famous and Original Bar Room Smasher" Curriculum Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka.

    Carry Nation's personality, religious beliefs, and marriages to Charles Gloyd and, after his death, to David Nation all formed her into the reformer for which she became known. Carry Nation was involved in a variety of reform causes including prohibition, anti-smoking, women's health, and suffrage. Her prohibition reform efforts took place after…

  6. Prediction of bird-day carrying capacity on a staging site: a test of depletion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Gyimesi, A.; Klaassen, R.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    1. The carrying capacity of a site for migratory water birds, expressed in bird-days, can be of particular conservation value. Several attempts have been made to model this carrying capacity using ideal free distribution models such as, for instance, depletion models, in which the distribution is

  7. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  8. Revisiting the carry-over effects of advertising in franchise industries

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kwangmin; Jang, SooCheong (Shawn)

    2016-01-01

    Despite prior studies, little has been done to understand the advertising carry-over effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heterogeneous attributes of the carry-over effect by focusing on the differences between the franchise and the non-franchise firms. pp.785-800

  9. Adolescents Carrying Handguns and Taking Them to School: Psychosocial Correlates among Public School Students in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sunyna S.; Mulhall, Peter F.; Reis, Janet S.; DeVille, John O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines psychosocial correlates of adolescents carrying a handgun and taking a handgun to school. Survey participants were approximately 22,000 6th, 8th, and 10th grade public school students from Illinois. Results showed that the strongest correlates of handgun carrying behaviors were variables directly associated with handguns and violence,…

  10. 46 CFR 98.25-5 - How anhydrous ammonia may be carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How anhydrous ammonia may be carried. 98.25-5 Section 98... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-5 How anhydrous ammonia may be carried. (a) Anhydrous ammonia shall be..., except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) When anhydrous ammonia is to be...

  11. Examining Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors in Relation to Gun Carrying and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea; Bauman, Sheri; Ritter, Marissa; Anand, Payal

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the interpersonal theory of suicide, this study examines the associations between gun carrying, bullying, and suicidal behaviors among high school students. Arizona Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were completed by 2,677 students in 2011; 9.0% reported suicide attempt in the past year, 5.5% carried a gun in the past 30 days, 8.5% were…

  12. The qualification requirements for personnel carry out the testing for the pressure equipment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, M.; Walczak, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article contains information about qualification requirements for personnel carry out the destructive and non-destructive testing for the pressure equipment materials based on the Directive 97/23/CE(PED). Competence laboratory carry out the testing. The responsibility lies with producer / employer. The producer / employer could elaborate the written practice procedure for qualification and certification testing personnel. (authors)

  13. 36 CFR 702.8 - Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.8 Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings. Consumption of food and beverages in Library buildings is prohibited except at point of purchase or other authorized eating places. Under no circumstances may food or beverages be carried to the bookstacks or other...

  14. Exome mutation burden predicts clinical outcome in ovarian cancer carrying mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    drugs and relative to non-mutation carriers present a favorable clinical outcome following therapy. Genome sequencing studies have shown a high number of mutations in the tumor genome in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (mBRCA). The present study used exome-sequencing and SNP 6 array data...... between low Nmut and shorter PFS and OS in mBRCA HGSOC by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. The association was also significant when the analysis was limited to germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutated patients with SNP array-determined loss of heterozygosity of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 locus in the tumors....... In the mBRCA HGSOC tumors, Nmut was correlated with the genome fraction with loss of heterozygosity and with number of telomeric allelic imbalance, genomic measures evaluating chromosomal instability. However, no significant association between Nmut and PFS or OS was found in HGSOC carrying wild-type BRCA1...

  15. Metrological approach to the force exerted by the axle of a road vehicle in motion carrying liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruolo, Luciano Bruno; Pinto, Fernando Augusto de Noronha Castro

    2016-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are used for identifying the dynamic force exerted on the ground by axles of a vehicle. These systems are important for monitoring the gross vehicle weight and the vehicle axle load. Overweighted trucks on the roads increase pavement damage and traffic accidents. Knowing the accuracy of WIM systems is necessary. In the case of liquid transport the ‘sloshing effect’ affects this accuracy. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic measurement of the axle forces in vehicles carrying liquid during WIM up to 6 km h −1 . Laboratory experiments using one vehicle with six axles and liquid loads on different levels in weighing instruments are presented. A non-linear computational multi-mass-springs model was developed and laboratory experiments were carried out to show the acceleration influences on axle forces of vehicles with six axles and with and without baffles to vary the ‘sloshing effect’. (paper)

  16. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.

    *year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as deposition levels......The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...

  17. Modelling PM 10 concentrations and carrying capacity associated with woodheater emissions in Launceston, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Galbally, Ian E.; Keywood, Melita

    Launceston is one of the Australian cities most affected by particle pollution due to the use of woodheaters in the winter months, with frequent exceedences of the national standard, the National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality (or Air NEPM in short), of 50 micrograms per cubic metre for daily PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less). The main objective of the present study was to determine the woodheater carrying capacity for Launceston—the number of woodheaters that can operate in the city without exceeding the Air NEPM. For this purpose, a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model called TAPM is used, coupled to a gridded woodheater PM 10 emissions inventory. The latter was derived using information on dwelling density, the percentage of dwellings with woodheaters, woodheater emission rates and their diurnal and seasonal variations, and the proportions of compliant/non-compliant woodheaters and open fireplaces. The model simulations are performed for the year 1998, and the concentrations are scaled for previous and subsequent years using trends in woodheater numbers and types. The modelled number of exceedences of the Air NEPM for the period 1997-2004 is in good agreement with the observations. The modelling indicates that the PM 10 Air NEPM would be met in Launceston when the total number of woodheaters is 20% of the total number of dwellings, of which 76%, 18%, 6% would be compliant woodheaters, non-compliant woodheaters and open fireplaces, respectively. With the present trends in the regional woodheater profile, this should occur in the year 2007.

  18. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  19. Correlates of Weapon Carrying in School among Adolescents in Three Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stickley, A.; Koyanagi, A.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab-Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2015), s. 99-108 ISSN 1945-7359 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : adolescent * Czech Republic * Russia * United States * weapon carrying Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.270, year: 2015

  20. Information technologies in carrying out monitoring comparisons of pedagogical higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вадим Валерьевич Гриншкун

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In article various approaches to use of information technologies when carrying out monitoring researches of higher educational institutions are described. Results of researches are considered on the example of indicators of pedagogical university.

  1. 46 CFR 167.60-15 - Manning and persons allowed to be carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certificates of Inspection § 167.60-15 Manning and persons allowed to be carried. The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall specify in the Certificate of Inspection the...

  2. Temperature dependences of growth rates and carrying capacities of marine bacteria depart from metabolic theoretical predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Dí az-Pé rez, Laura; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2015-01-01

    Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We

  3. Geometry of carrying simplices of 3-species competitive Lotka–Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigent, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the existence, uniqueness and Gaussian curvature of the invariant carrying simplices of 3 species autonomous totally competitive Lotka–Volterra systems. Explicit examples are given where the carrying simplex is convex or concave, but also where the curvature is not single-signed. Our method monitors the curvature of an evolving surface that converges uniformly to the carrying simplex, and generally relies on establishing that the Gaussian image of the evolving surface is confined to an invariant cone. We also discuss the relationship between the curvature of the carrying simplex near an interior fixed point and its Split Lyapunov stability. Finally we comment on extensions to general Lotka–Volterra systems that are not competitive. (paper)

  4. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    as a departure for the comparison of the protectional conditions for the parks. Many other aspects of the nature and social carrying capacities however also constitute important conditions for the park management. Increasing emphasis on visitor experience is not only a challenge for the nature protection......Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... of carrying capacity has received increasing attention among park-authorities all over the world. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor/nature carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out. All the parks are candidates for recognition...

  5. Carrying Capacity Model Applied to Coastal Ecotourism of Baluran National Park, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armono, H. D.; Rosyid, D. M.; Nuzula, N. I.

    2017-07-01

    The resources of Baluran National Park have been used for marine and coastal ecotourism. The increasing number of visitors has led to the increasing of tourists and its related activities. This condition will cause the degradation of resources and the welfare of local communities. This research aims to determine the sustainability of coastal ecotourism management by calculating the effective number of tourists who can be accepted. The study uses the concept of tourism carrying capacity, consists the ecological environment, economic, social and physical carrying capacity. The results of the combined carrying capacity analysis in Baluran National Park ecotourism shows that the number of 3.288 people per day (151.248 tourists per year) is the maximum number of accepted tourists. The current number of tourist arrivals is only 241 people per day (87.990 tourists per year) which is far below the carrying capacity.

  6. Modifications carried out in Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin for maximising productivity (Paper No. 1.6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periakaruppan, M.; Sunderesan, S.; Chellapandi, D.

    1992-01-01

    Many modifications have been carried out in Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin, after commissioning of the plant in July 1978. During the initial 4/5 years many teething problems were faced and they have been tackled effectively with suitable modifications which resulted in sustained production from the year 1984 onwards. In this paper some modifications carried out and changes in operational procedures adopted which resulted in achieving sustained production year after year since 1984 are described. (author)

  7. Review of the Main Activities Carried out by the CSN in the Last Five Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nearing the time to finalise a new phase for the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, it is time to make a brief account of the main activities carried out over the past five years. During this period, one in which the CSN celebrated its 25th Anniversary, the organisation has served a social demand in a modernisation and adjustment process, followed by the continuous improvement process which throughout its history the former management, teams have carried out with great stamina and dedication. (Author)

  8. Carry-Over Effects on the Annual Cycle of a Migratory Seabird: an Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fayet, Annette; Freeman, R; Shoji, A; Kirk, HL; Padget, O; Perrins, CM; Guilford, T

    2016-01-01

    1. Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. 2. Here we inve...

  9. Works carried out in the south of Cerro Largo district. Uranium prospection programme. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1978-01-01

    During the carried out work of radimetric preliminary Investigation in the northeast of the uraniferous country were detected radimetric anonalias which are associated to the formation San Gregorio and Tres Islas. Later the works of prospection ratified those anomalies to which they defined in the environs other anomalies. The studies of revision of these conducted anomalies they took to conclude the necessity to carry out a detailed study of the area to that district was denominated Cerro Largo Sur

  10. Reproductive and life cycle strategies in egg-carrying cyclopoid and free-spawning calanoid copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Sabatini, Marian

    1994-01-01

    Egg-carrying cyclopoid copepods have lower fecundity and feeding rates, and longer egg hatching times, than free-spawning calanoid copepods. Simple demographic considerations suggest that the lower feeding and fecundity of egg-carrying cyclopoids are adaptations to the potentially elevated...... mortality of ovigerous females, while the shorter egg hatching time and higher feeding and fecundity rates found in free-spawning calanoid copepods represent adaptations to the very high mortality rates experienced by suspended eggs....

  11. An apparatus for separating and continuously recovering a particulate material carried by a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.R.; Dada, A.G.; Dehollander, W.R.; Sloat, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of an apparatus adapted to separate and recover a particulate material carried by hot corrosive gases. The apparatus comprises a flow-channel connected to a gas stream source carrying a particulate material, a first and second tubes connected to said flow-channel, filtrating devices, recovery containers and flow-restricting valves. This can be applied to the recovery of uranium oxides generated by flame reactions [fr

  12. Sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests of carrying the ball in youth soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakojević Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at examining sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests while carrying the ball. The research included 76 male examinees, aged 17 years (+/- 6 months, who were divided into two qualitatively different subgroups. For determining the speed while carrying the ball, the tests of M type of carrying the ball between cones and slalom ball carrying with a pass were performed. The obtained results proved that the examinees from the group of more successful soccer players (Group 1 scored better on the applied tests when compared to the results of the group consisting of the soccer players from lower ranked clubs and who are not national team members (Group 2. High values of the result homogeneity in the two groups (for the Groups 1 and 2 it was 75% and 68.75% respectively lead to the conclusion that this ability is essential characteristics of young soccer players. The coefficient of discrimination of 0.269 for the results of M type test and 0.197 for the results of the test of carrying the ball with a pass indicate that the results of the two tests provide possibility to qualitatively distinguish youth players. Therefore, it can be concluded that as a technical element, carrying the ball significantly affects the quality of players' performance.

  13. [Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease in rural Ancash, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena Luna, Carolina; Schweig Groisman, Maggie; Ugarte-Gil, César Augusto

    2013-05-01

    To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease (bartonellosis) in rural communities with a history of epidemic outbreaks. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in the communities of Huaripampa, Orcosh, and Opayaco (Ancash, Peru) in July 2010, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease. Interviewees were aged >18 years and had resided in the community for at least one year. A total of 276 residents were surveyed; 36.6% were men, and 72.5% had not heard of Carrión's disease. Of those familiar with it, most (38.7%) said that it spreads through bites, and 26% did not know how it spreads. Regarding actions to take if Carrión's disease develops, 69.3% of respondents said they would go to a health center and over half reported having recommended preventive practices to relatives or acquaintances in the past. Even though these three communities have a history of Carrión's disease, their inhabitants did not demonstrate adequate knowledge, attitudes, or practices for preventing it. In view of this, and given that this illness has cyclical outbreaks, it is imperative to design and implement a program to educate residents of these communities-focusing on the role of habits and customs-about how to prevent Carrión's disease, as well as the region's other main endemic diseases.

  14. Planar measurements of soot volume fraction and OH in a JP-8 pool fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Tara L.; Ring, Terry A.; Eddings, Eric G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Nathan, Graham J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Zeyad T.; Qamar, Nader [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The simultaneous measurement of soot volume fraction by laser induced incandescence (LII) and qualitative imaging of OH by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was performed in a JP-8 pool fire contained in a 152 mm diameter pan. Line of sight extinction was used to calibrate the LII system in a laminar flame, and to provide an independent method of measuring average soot volume fraction in the turbulent flame. The presence of soot in the turbulent flame was found to be approximately 50% probable, resulting in high levels of optical extinction, which increased slightly through the flame from approximately 30% near the base, to approximately 50% at the tip. This high soot loading pushes both techniques toward their detection limit. Nevertheless, useful accuracy was obtained, with the LII measurement of apparent extinction in the turbulent flame being approximately 21% lower than a direct measurement, consistent with the influence of signal trapping. The axial and radial distributions of soot volume fraction are presented, along with PDFs of volume fraction, and new insight into the behavior of soot sheets in pool fires are sought from the simultaneous measurements of OH and LII. (author)

  15. [A study concerning how much weight schoolchildren carry in their bags, involving four schools in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laíño, Fernando A; Santa María, Claudio J; Bazán, Nelio E; Mainero, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Determining the weight children carry in their bags to school (absolute and relative values) and the distance walked during home-school routes, involving students from four schools in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The study involved 751 primary (4th to 6th grades) and secondary (1st to 3rd years) level students who were attending three private schools and one public one. Body and bag weights were measured and the children were asked about the distance (in blocks) they walked from school to home. The study involved a descriptive analysis and contrasted the students by gender, educational level, type of school and grade or year. Possible associations between variables were ascertained. The group was divided into those carrying bags weighing less than 10% of their body weight and those who carrying 10% (considered a critical value) and more; frequencies were calculated by the type of bag being used. 68% of the sample were carrying 10% or more of their body weight (P42=10.13%): 66% in male (P44=10.12%) and 60% in female children (P40=10.2%). Private school students carried more weight than public school children (p<0.05) and younger students carried a greater weight than older students (p<0.05) in both educational levels. Most children were carrying relative weights well above that recommended and female students were most affected. Younger students carried higher absolute and relative weights.

  16. Progressive resistance training increases strength after stroke but this may not carry over to activity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Simone; Ada, Louise; Alloggia, Daniella

    2018-04-01

    Does progressive resistance training improve strength and activity after stroke? Does any increase in strength carry over to activity? Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Adults who have had a stroke. Progressive resistance training compared with no intervention or placebo. The primary outcome was change in strength. This measurement had to be of maximum voluntary force production and performed in muscles congruent with the muscles trained in the intervention. The secondary outcome was change in activity. This measurement had to be a direct measure of performance that produced continuous or ordinal data, or with scales that produced ordinal data. Eleven studies involving 370 participants were included in this systematic review. The overall effect of progressive resistance training on strength was examined by pooling change scores from six studies with a mean PEDro score of 5.8, representing medium quality. The effect size of progressive resistance training on strength was 0.98 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.29, I 2 =0%). The overall effect of progressive resistance training on activity was examined by pooling change scores from the same six studies. The effect size of progressive resistance training on activity was 0.42 (95% CI -0.08 to 0.91, I 2 =54%). After stroke, progressive resistance training has a large effect on strength compared with no intervention or placebo. There is uncertainty about whether these large increases in strength carry over to improvements in activity. PROSPERO CRD42015025401. [Dorsch S, Ada L, Alloggia D (2018) Progressive resistance training increases strength after stroke but this may not carry over to activity: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 84-90]. Copyright © 2018 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Method for transmittance measurements in sunglasses for a kiosk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Marcio M.; Figueiredo, M.; Konda, R. A.; Ventura, Liliane

    2013-03-01

    Light transmittance measurements through sunglasses lenses is one of the required tests of the Brazilian Standard NBR15111(2004). Its measurement establishes the category of the sample and determines the required ultraviolet, visible and infrared protection, as well as the attenuation coefficient for signal light recognition. However, these measurements are usually performed by spectrophotometers and educated users, who are acknowledged to manage the equipment, use the weighting functions (WF) and interpret the data. We propose an alternative method, which consists in having matching optics and electronics to obtain a close WF to be used in transmittance measurements, and create an accessible device, for public self-use, providing a simple way for measuring and educating the public about sunglasses protection. Measurements were made in 30 samples for UV test, performed for the 280 - 400nm range, where UVA and UVB light sources and two photodiode sensors with Erythema action response are assembled, and for traffic signal a visible light sensor was used with spectral human eye response and different LEDs. As for the visible test, the visible light sensor was used for different light sources: incandescent, fluorescent, and a set of LEDs, while the infrared test is performed by several LEDs that provide the 780 - 2000nm range, and an infrared sensor. For these tests, only the samples spectrum were used. The transmittances were within the deviation limit required by NBR15111. The results have led us to build a self service kiosk for public use providing the category, UV protection and IR protection of the sunglasses as well as the information regarding its use for driving.

  18. Efficient Identification of Objects Carrying Elements of High-Order Symmetry By Using Correlated Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergienko Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    The potential for efficient identification of objects carrying elements of high-order symmetry using correlated orbital angular momentum (OAM states is demonstrated. The enhanced information capacity of this approach allows the recognition of specific spatial symmetry signatures present in objects with the use of fewer resources than in a conventional pixel-by-pixel imaging, representing the first demonstration of compressive sensing using OAM states. This approach demonstrates the capability to quickly evaluate multiple Fourier coefficients directly linked with the symmetry features of the object. The results suggest further application in small-scale biological contexts where symmetry and small numbers of noninvasive measurements are important.

  19. Lactose carrier protein of Escherichia coli. Structure and expression of plasmids carrying the Y gene of the lac operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teather, R M; Bramhall, J; Riede, I; Wright, J K; Fürst, M; Aichele, G; Wilhelm, U; Overath, P

    1980-01-01

    The previously described hybrid plasmid pC7 which carries lacI+O+delta(Z)Y+A+ on a 12.3 X 10(6)-Mr DNA fragment [Teather et al. (1978) Mol. Gen. Genet. 159, 239-248] was partially digested with the restriction endonuclease EcoRI under conditions reducing the recognition sequence to d(A-A-T-T) and ligated to the vector pB322. lac Y-carrying inserts of various sized (Mr 1.5-4.7 X 10(6)) were obtained. Hybrid plasmid pTE18 (2300-base-pair insert) carries part of the I (repressor) gene, the promotor-operator region, part of the Z (beta-galactosidase) gene, the Y (lactose carrier) gene and part of the A (transacetylase) gene. Upon induction of pTE18-harbouring strains the Y-gene product is expressed at a nearly constant rate for several generations and accumulates to a level of 12-16% of the total cytoplasmic membrane protein. Integration into the membrane leads to active carrier as judged by binding and transport measurements.

  20. Effect of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with Hepatitis C and cirrhosis carrying IL28B minor genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background IL28B and ITPA genetic variants are associated with the outcome of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) therapy. However, the significance of these genetic variants in cirrhotic patients following splenectomy has not been determined. Methods Thirty-seven patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy (Spx group) and 90 who did not (non-Spx group) were genotyped for IL28B and ITPA. The outcome or adverse effects were compared in each group. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and protein kinase R expression in the spleen was measured using total RNA extracted from exenterate spleen. Results Sustained virological response (SVR) rate was higher in patients carrying IL28B major genotype following splenectomy (50% vs 27.3%) and in patients carrying minor genotype in the Spx group compared to non-Spx group (27.3% vs 3.6%, P splenectomy did not increase hemoglobin (Hb) level, Hb decline tended to be greater in the non-Spx group. In contrast, splenectomy significantly increased platelet count (61.1 × 103/μl vs 168.7 × 103/μl, P splenectomy. Splenectomy improved SVR rate among patients carrying IL28B minor genotype and protected against anemia and thrombocytopenia during the course of PEG-IFN/RBV therapy regardless of ITPA genotype. PMID:23145809

  1. Effect of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with Hepatitis C and cirrhosis carrying IL28B minor genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motomura Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL28B and ITPA genetic variants are associated with the outcome of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV therapy. However, the significance of these genetic variants in cirrhotic patients following splenectomy has not been determined. Methods Thirty-seven patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy (Spx group and 90 who did not (non-Spx group were genotyped for IL28B and ITPA. The outcome or adverse effects were compared in each group. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 and protein kinase R expression in the spleen was measured using total RNA extracted from exenterate spleen. Results Sustained virological response (SVR rate was higher in patients carrying IL28B major genotype following splenectomy (50% vs 27.3% and in patients carrying minor genotype in the Spx group compared to non-Spx group (27.3% vs 3.6%, P 3/μl vs 168.7 × 103/μl, P Conclusions IL28B genetic variants correlated with response to PEG-IFN/RBV following splenectomy. Splenectomy improved SVR rate among patients carrying IL28B minor genotype and protected against anemia and thrombocytopenia during the course of PEG-IFN/RBV therapy regardless of ITPA genotype.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF PROCEDURES FOR CARRYING OUT EMERGENCY PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING AFTER DETECTING ANOMALY EVENTS CONCERNING NM SECURITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VALENTE, J.; FISHBONE, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE, Obninsk), which is under Minatom jurisdiction, the procedures for carrying out emergency physical inventory taking (EPIT) were developed and tested in cooperation with the Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA). Here the emergency physical inventory taking means the PIT, which is carried out in case of symptoms indicating a possibility of NM loss (theft). Such PIT often requires a verification of attributes and quantitative characteristics for all the NM items located in a specific Material Balance Area (MBA). In order to carry out the exercise, an MBA was selected where many thousands of NM items containing highly enriched uranium are used. Three clients of the computerized material accounting system (CMAS) are installed in this MBA. Labels with unique (within IPPE site) identification numbers in the form of digit combinations and an appropriate bar code have been applied on the NM items, containers and authorized locations. All the data to be checked during the EPIT are stored in the CMAS database. Five variants of anomalies initiating EPIT and requiring different types of activities on EPIT organization are considered. Automatic working places (AWP) were created on the basis of the client computers in order to carry out a large number of measurements within a reasonable time. In addition to a CMAS client computer, the main components of an AWP include a bar-code reader, an electronic scale and an enrichment meter with NaI--detector--the lMCA Inspector (manufactured by the Canberra Company). All these devices work together with a client computer in the on-line mode. Special computer code (Emergency Inventory Software-EIS) was developed. All the algorithms of interaction between the operator and the system, as well as algorithms of data exchange during the measurements and data comparison, are implemented in this software. Registration of detected

  3. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  4. Occurrence of Enterobacter hormaechei carrying blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biwei; Feng, Yu; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2018-02-01

    Three carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) were recovered from different patients in a hospital. All 3 isolates carried 2 carbapenemase genes bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 . A study was performed to characterize their relatedness and to investigate possible links among the patients. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the isolates were Enterobacter hormaechei and belonged to ST177 of the ECC. There were 19-142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the isolates, suggesting that the isolates were likely from a central reservoir, which might have existed for some time. bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 were carried on 2 different IncF-type plasmids in the isolates. The 3 bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmids were almost identical and were self-transmissible, while the bla KPC-2 -carrying plasmids were only transmissible in the presence of the bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmid. The source of and direct links among them were not identified, suggesting a hospital transmission of a common multidrug resistant strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Environmental Carrying Capacity with Emergy Perspective of Jeju Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanhoon Jung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeju Island experienced an approximately 42% increase in energy consumption from 2006 to 2015 and the demand for energy consumption is expected to continue to increase. Thus, Jeju Island is planning a project entitled “Carbon Free Island by 2030” to promote sustainable development and is required to estimate the environmental carrying capacity for future energy demand changes. The purpose of this study was to calculate the emergy inherent in Jeju Island’s energy, materials, and information in 2015 using the emergy analysis method and local characteristics. In addition, this study aimed to estimate the emergy indices to evaluate the environmental carrying capacity for sustainable development in 2005, 2015, and 2030 considering the future energy demand. This study’s outputs provide the environmental carrying capacity with emergy indices, such as the percent renewable (%Renew, emergy yield ratio (EYR, environmental loading ratio (ELR, sustainability index (SI, and carrying capacity of the population (CCP for social and economic activities on Jeju Island, which are expected to be saturated. These findings show regions with heavy tourism require development strategies, including the concept of environmental carrying capacity.

  6. Firearm carrying and concurrent substance use behaviours in a community-based sample of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Robert N; Prochaska, John D; Baillargeon, Jacques G; Temple, Jeff R

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines associations between high-risk gun carrying and substance use in emerging adults (ages 18-22). The coexistence of these high-risk behaviours in a general population of emerging adults can have disastrous consequences. Dating it Safe is an ongoing longitudinal (2010-2016) survey of emerging adults recruited from seven high schools in five south-east Texas-area school districts (current sample n=684). Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to examine the association between past-year use of legal and illegal substances and past-year firearm carrying for a reason other than sport or hunting. 6% of emerging adults carried firearms in the past year, with most (68%) carrying for protection. Use of cocaine, hallucinogens, methamphetamine, ecstasy and prescription medications in the past year, as well as episodic heavy drinking in the past month, was associated with increased risk of carrying a firearm (ppast-year substance use behaviours. These findings extend previous research and suggest directions for further exploration of the clustering of high-risk behaviours in emerging adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Why do three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren suffer very low fatal crashes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possible causes of low fatalities in three-wheelers (autorickshaw carrying schoolchildren in India. The data was collected in the form of First Information Report (FIR from local police stations from 2007 to 2012 and video-graphic surveys were done on four arterial roads running through Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Surveys were also done on one subarterial road near school zone which was used by three-wheelers carrying schoolchildren. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that drivers behave differently while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children. Many researchers have investigated the effect of passengers on the driver of the same vehicle, but there was no evidence of any study which investigated the effect of child passengers on nearby vehicles. It was found that heavy vehicles maintain more gaps while following or overtaking three-wheelers carrying children as compared to those not carrying children. It was also found that this effect is more prominent at speeds higher than 40 km/h. On the other hand lighter vehicles keep the highest lateral and longitudinal gaps to heavy vehicles and three-wheelers without children respectively.

  8. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity. Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population. Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios. Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping. Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

  9. Modification Of Carry-Blair Transport Media For Storage Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Supriatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine transport media modification as alternative media to replace Carry Blair. One type of transport media that often use to carry faeces specimens suspected to contain Salmonella typhi is Carry-Blair media. Studies have been conducted experimentally by storing Salmonella typhi on alternative transport media with Peptone composition, disodium Phosphate, Sodium chloride, Calcium chloride, which is made using a semi-solid and Carry-Blair as a control. Three variety of storage was done (0 hour,6 hours,9 hours at a temperature 4⁰-8⁰C and then Salmonella typhi was inoculated in Salmonella Shigella Agar using spread plate technique incubated during 24 hours at 37⁰C, counted the number of colonies by the plate count method using the colony counter. The results of ANOVA could be concluded that modification media could be use as alternative media replace Carry-Blair at 6 hours. Based on regression correlation test was assumed that the Salmonella typhi bacteria still life at less than 11 hours 54 minutes.

  10. Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressel Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it was suggested that the carry effect observed in addition involves both categorical and continuous processing characteristics. Methods In the present study, we aimed at identifying the specific neural correlates associated with processing either categorical or continuous aspects of the carry effect in an fMRI study on multi-digit addition. Results In line with our expectations, we observed two distinct parts of the fronto-parietal network subserving numerical cognition to be associated with either one of these two characteristics. On the one hand, the categorical aspect of the carry effect was associated with left-hemispheric language areas and the basal ganglia probably reflecting increased demands on procedural and problem solving processes. Complementarily, the continuous aspect of the carry effect was associated with increased intraparietal activation indicating increasing demands on magnitude processing as well as place-value integration with increasing unit sum. Conclusions In summary, the findings suggest representations and processes underlying the carry effect in multi-digit addition to be more complex and interactive than assumed previously.

  11. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  12. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Figueira Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  13. Axisymmetrical separator for separating particulate matter from a fluid carrying medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhardt, Hans D.

    1984-09-04

    A separator for separating particles carried in a fluid carrying medium is disclosed. The separator includes an elongated duct and associated openings incorporated in a solid body. The duct is axisymmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, and includes a curved wall portion having a curved cross-section taken along the longitudinal axis. An axisymmetrical opening located downstream of the curved wall portion leads from the duct into an axisymmetrical channel which is substantially radially disposed relative to the longitudinal axis. Continuation of the duct downstream of the opening is a discharge portion which is substantially colinear with the longitudinal axis. In operation, a substantial majority of the fluid carrying medium leaves the duct radially through the opening and channel in a state substantially free of particles. A remaining small portion of the fluid carrying medium and a substantial majority of the particles are channelled into the discharge portion by centrifugal forces arising due to travel of the particles along the curved walls. For industrial scale separation of particles from a fluid carrying medium, such as for the clean-up of stack gases, an array of several hundred to several thousand of the separators is provided.

  14. TLE Balloon experiment campaign carried out on 25 August 2006 in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Chikada, S.; Yoshida, A.; Adachi, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2006-12-01

    The balloon observation campaign for TLE and lightning study was carried out 25 August 2006 in Japan by Tohoku University, supported by JAXA. The balloon was successfully launched at 18:33 LT at Sanriku Balloon Center of JAXA located in the east coast of northern part of Japan (Iwate prefecture). Three types of scientific payloads were installed at the 1 m-cubic gondola, that is, 3-axis VLF electric filed antenna and receiver (VLFR), 4 video frame CCD cameras (CCDI) and 2-color photometer (PM). The video images were stored in 4 HD video recorders, which have 20GB memories respectively, at 30 frames/sec and VLFR and PM data were put into digital data recorder with 30 GB memory at sampling rate of 100 kHz. The balloon floated at the altitude of 13 km until about 20:30 LT, going eastward and went up to 26 km at a distance of 130 km from the coast. And it went back westward at the altitude of 26 km until midnight. The total observation period is about 5 hours. Most of the equipments worked properly except for one video recorder. Some thunderstorms existed within the direct FOV from the balloon in the range of 400-600 km and more than about 400 lightning flashes were recorded as video images. We confirmed that, at least, one sprite halo was captured by CCDI which occurred in the oceanic thunderstorm at a distance of about 500 km from balloon. This is the first TLE image obtained by a balloon-borne camera. Simultaneous measurements of VLF sferics and lightning/TLE images will clarify the role of intracloud (IC) currents in producing and/or modulating TLEs as well as cloud-to-ground discharges (CG). Especially the effect of horizontal components will be investigated in detail, which cannot be detected on the ground, to explain the unsolved properties of TLEs, such as long time delay of TLE from the timing of stroke and large horizontal displacement between CG and TLEs.

  15. Results of airblast and temperature measurements, Project Essex I, Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortman, L.J.; Dickinson, J.R.; Fastle, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Airblast and flare temperature measurements were made on a 42 GJ detonation buried 5.85 m deep with a 165 mm dia open hole to the surface. Identification of a late-time pulse, attributed to afterburning of detonation products, led to a re-examination of data from earlier detonations of the Essex I series. The late-time pulse appears only for certain explosives and combinations of emplacement, stemming, and medium. Measurements made at 1 km and beyond permitted continued development of systematic suppression of airblast as a function of charge burial and stemming. Measurements of gas pressure of the flare emerging from the open hole indicated peak overpressures slightly greater than 690 bars. Measurement of flare temperatures of incandescent gas emerging from the open hole proved the feasibility of using photo-optical and photodiode techniques and demonstrated the ability to process data from both. Flare temperatures far less than predicted on the basis of an earlier shot prevented a direct comparison of the two techniques

  16. Measuring light spectrum as a main indicator of artificial sources quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dąbrowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare different artificial light sources in different places where plant breeding is conduced. Methods: Measurements were conducted outdoor, in room, in greenhouse, under four panels with light emitting diodes, in phytotron, in dark room with various light sources and inside Sanyo versatile environmental chamber. The measurements were made by using SpectraPen SP100 (PSI, Czech Republic device. Results: Our result showed that spectrum measured outdoor during sunny day had only one peak at the wavelength of 485 nm (ca. 60000 relative units. On cloudy day, the trend of light spectrum curve was similar, but with lower values. At room conditions, the curve was more flat than outdoor. Under greenhouse conditions, the curve was similar to that measured outdoor. A few additional peaks on the curve appeared by adding high pressure sodium lamp. There were changes of curve under LED panels. Conclusions: It must be underlined that the most similar spectrum curve to daylight light has incandescent bulb and this light source should be preferred as support of daylight in greenhouses and as main source in phytotrons. Using high pressure sodium lamp in greenhouses as support of daylight cause increase in the red/far-red ratio and occurrence of a new peak on spectrum curve. The new possibilities are creating by LED panels with red and blue diodes.

  17. Evaluation of Resources Carrying Capacity in China Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Gan, Y. H.; Zhang, T.; Luo, Z. Y.; Wang, J. J.; Lin, F. N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper accurately extracted the information of arable land, grassland (wetland), forest land, water area and construction land, based on 1 : 250000 basic geographic information data. It made model modification of comprehensive CCRR to achieve carrying capacity calculation taking resource quality into consideration. Ultimately it achieved a comprehensive assessment of CCRR status in China. The top ten cities where the status of carrying capacity of resources was overloaded were Wenzhou, Shanghai, Chengdu, Baoding, Shantou, Jieyang, Dongguan, Fuyang, Zhoukou and Handan. The cities were basically distributed in the central and southern areas with convenient transportation and more economically developed areas. Among the cities in surplus status, resources carrying capacity in Hulun Buir was the most abundant, followed by Heihe, Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Qiqihar, Chifeng and Jiamusi, all of which were located in northeastern China with a small population and plentiful cultivated land.

  18. Generalizability of carry-over effects in the emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Andrew J; Sayette, Michael A; Franken, Ingmar H A; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2005-06-01

    The emotional Stroop task has been the most widely used task to examine attentional bias to emotionally salient stimuli. In one format of this task, words are presented to participants in a mixed randomized or quasi-randomized sequence. Using a mixed smoking Stroop task, we have previously demonstrated that smokers are slower to respond to words which follow smoking-related words than words which follow neutral words. Here we show that this carry-over effect is present in heroin addicts-but not control subjects-in a heroin Stroop task, and in normal subjects in a stress Stroop task. Thus, the effect generalizes to other populations. In addition, an examination of the studies that have collected data from both mixed and blocked formats provides converging evidence for the presence of carry-over effects. We discuss the implications of the carry-over effect for research using the emotional Stroop task.

  19. Carrying an anti-nuclear-power badge in the teaching profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The carrying of an anti-nuclear-power badge by a teacher during school hours violates the order to practice reticence in political activities. At the beginning of 1977 some teachers, the plaintiff as well, carried anti-nuclear-power badges, i.e. a round badge with a stylized red sun on a yellow background with the inscription 'Nuclear power - No, thank you'. Following a general direction by the educational authorities, the headmistress forbade plaintiff on 4.11.77 to visibly carry this badge during lessons. This protest having been without success, action was brought with partial success at the Administrative and Higher Administrative Court. The Federal Administrative Court dismissed the case. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Trivial dynamics in discrete-time systems: carrying simplex and translation arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Ruiz-Herrera, Alfonso

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we show that the dynamical behavior in (first octant) of the classical Kolmogorov systems of competitive type admitting a carrying simplex can be sometimes determined completely by the number of fixed points on the boundary and the local behavior around them. Roughly speaking, T has trivial dynamics (i.e. the omega limit set of any orbit is a connected set contained in the set of fixed points) provided T has exactly four hyperbolic nontrivial fixed points in with local attractors on the carrying simplex and local repellers on the carrying simplex; and there exists a unique hyperbolic fixed point in Int. Our results are applied to some classical models including the Leslie–Gower models, Atkinson-Allen systems and Ricker maps.

  1. The effect of the spaceship carrying on the biological characters and sod activity of eggplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiheng; Zhang Ya; Zhu Shuijin; Wang Yanfan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the space shuttle carrying on the growth and biological characters of eggplant SP 1 population were studied. The results showed that the effect of space shuttle carrying on the growth and development of eggplant SP 1 were very significant on the characters such as the plant height, reproductive development, leaf size, fruit length, fruit quality and fruiting rate etc, especially on the plant development and the fruit size, and it is hopeful to select some good eggplant germplasm or cultivars from the population. The SOD activity showed that the SOD level in the mutant-1 plant was one time more than that in control plant, indicating that the space shuttle carrying may increase the expression of some genes and lead to the great change in morphological characters

  2. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the “Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB” wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63 vs. 1.69 (0.51 respectively. The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  3. Botanical Composition, Grass Production, and Carrying Capacity of Pasture in Timor Tengah Selatan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Se’u

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.

  4. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, José C; Olivares, Pedro R; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Maestre-Cascales, Cristina; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the "Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB)" wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63) vs. 1.69 (0.51) respectively). The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  5. Risk-premia, Carry-trade Dynamics, and Economic Value of Currency Speculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the dynamics and assess the economic value of currency speculation by formalizing the concept of a trader inaction range. We show that exchange rate returns comprise a time-varying risk-premium and that uncovered interest parity (UIP) holds in a speculative sense. The often......-cited ‘forward bias puzzle’ originates from the omission of the risk-premium in standard UIP tests. Consistent with its popularity among market professionals, the carry-trade strategy can be rationalized as it systematically collects risk-premia, however, the economic value generated by bilateral carry-trades...

  6. EVALUATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH FOR UPPER SLABS OF CAISSON FOUNDATION BASED ON LOAD CARRYING MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hisamichi; Tadokoro, Toshiya; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Nishioka, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Tadatomo; Maruyama, Osamu

    In upper slabs of caisson foundation, a seismic desi gn is difficult with an incr ease in earthquake load. So we carried out loading tests and FEM analysis for upper slabs of caisson foundation. As a result, we proposed a new design method which takes into co nsideration the effective width on the pull out side based on crack pattern of test specimens, which is not considered in the existing design method. Moreover, we proposed a rational design method based on load carrying mechanism for upper slabs of caisson foundation.

  7. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... of self-transfer to a plasmid-free E. coli recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The blaTEM-52 gene found in humans could have been transmitted on transferable plasmids originating from animal sources. Some of the blaTEM-52 plasmids carry replicons that differ from the classical ones. Two novel replicons were detected...

  8. A Case Study in Carry Trade and Cross Pair Allegiance Switching, Pre and Post 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Twomey

    2015-01-01

    EUR/USD, USD/JPY and the position of EUR/JPY was investigated in this paper using regression analysis with the overarching question where EUR/JPY sits in relation to both pairs and its position in terms of a carry trade. What was determined was EUR/JPY switches allegiance period to period. The carry trade premise is to borrow a low interest rate currency and lend in a high interest rate currency. The low interest rate currency becomes the fund currency while the high interest rate currency be...

  9. Cuttings-carried theory and erosion rule in gas drilling horizontal well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Na

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In gas horizontal drilling, the gas with cuttings will go through the annulus at high speed which will lead strong erosion to the drill tools. This paper proposes a cuttings-carried theory and modified the critical cuttings-carried model for the gas-solid flow. Meanwhile, the erosive energy is obtained through simulating the gas-solid mixture in different conditions. The study result has positive significance on the determination of reasonable injection volume by optimizing construction parameters of horizontal well in gas drilling.

  10. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  11. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user’s body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability.

  12. Construction of a novel lentiviral vector carrying human B-domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... integration were detected in all cell lines after transfection. A novel lentiviral vector carrying human FVIII³BD was constructed, which was able to transfect different mammalian cell types accompanied by high-level activity. This lentiviral vector may provide a theoretical basis for the gene therapy of patients with hemophilia ...

  13. On the Behaviour of Current-Carrying Wire-Conductors and Bucking of a Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Fereidoon, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies approximate analytical methods namely Iteration Perturbation Method (IPM), variational approach (VA) and Parameter Expanding Method (PEM) to Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) nonlinear oscillation systems. Some numerical cases as dynamic behavior of current-carrying wire-conductors...

  14. CEC paper on an overview of activities carried out by the WGCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinovart, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper overviews the activities carried out by the WGCS (Working Group Codes and Standards). Summary of conclusions, established in some reports which were finalized in 1992, are outlined for three sub-groups of activity. Two tables summarize the LWR 1992-93 programs are attached. 2 tabs

  15. 34 CFR 656.5 - What activities may be carried out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.5 What activities may be carried out? (a... following purposes: (1) Linkage or outreach between foreign language, area studies, and other international...

  16. A device for determination of the electrical potential of a rocket carrying an electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Musatov, L.S.; Shutte, N.M.; Beliashin, A.P.; Denstchikova, L.I.; Kopilov, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the principle of operation, sensors and electronics of a device for determination of the electrical potential relative to the surrounding medium of a rocket carrying an electric gun are presented. The device operated successfully on board an Eridan rocket during the ARAKS experiment. (Auth.)

  17. Citizen Science: A Gateway for Innovation in Disease-Carrying Mosquito Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartumeus, Frederic; Oltra, Aitana; Palmer, John R B

    2018-05-21

    Traditional methods for tracking disease-carrying mosquitoes are hitting budget constraints as the scales over which they must be implemented grow exponentially. Citizen science offers a novel solution to this problem but requires new models of innovation in the public health sector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of Wheat Offal-Carried Pineapple Waste in the Diet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Wheat Offal-Carried Pineapple Waste in the Diet of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats. ... Although, the analysis of blood cells (red blood cell, white blood and packed cell volume counts) were significantly different (p<0.05) among the goats fed experimental diets, the counts fell within the normal physiological ...

  19. Process for carrying out a chemical reaction with ionic liquid and carbon dioxide under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Shariati, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Gutkowski, K.I.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for carrying out a chemical reaction in an ionic liquid as solvent and CO2 as cosolvent, in which process reactants are reacted in a homogeneous phase at selected pressure and temperature to generate a reaction product at least containing an end-product of the

  20. 34 CFR 608.10 - What activities may be carried out under a grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program of teacher education designed to qualify students to teach in a public elementary or secondary school in the State that shall include, as part of the program, preparation for teacher certification... UNIVERSITIES PROGRAM What Kind of Projects Does the Secretary Fund? § 608.10 What activities may be carried out...

  1. From "Thoughts and Prayers" to Practice: Narratives of Faculty Sensemaking during Campus-Carry Policy Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradit, Nathaniel W.

    2017-01-01

    The 2007 mass shooting at Virginia Tech is one part of a decades-long increase in the frequency of gun violence on U.S. college and university campuses (Drysdale, Modzeleski, & Simons, 2010; Ferraro, 2015). The events at Virginia Tech also served as a catalyst for the spread of so-called "campus-carry" laws, or acts of state policy…

  2. Towards a strengthening of inspections carried out on pressurised equipment and pipework..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, St.

    2010-01-01

    Following the fast presidential election, a major restructuring of the administrative landscape was set in motion. Tasks that historically were the responsibility of the Ministry of Industry are now carried out by the Ministry of Sustainable Development, which in particular is responsible for the whole policy to do with the prevention of technological risks. The General Directorate for the Prevention of Risks (Direction generale de la prevention des risques (DGPR)) of this ministry is now responsible for controlling technological risks, opening up new perspectives in terms of managing accidental risks and offering a new opportunity for an 'integrated' approach, making it possible to deal with an industrial installation in all its facets. Within the DGPR, the Office for the Safety of Industrial Equipment (bureau de la securite des equipements industriels (BSEI)) is responsible for the safety of pressurised equipment, as well as pipes carrying gas, inflammable liquids and chemical products. After a quick presentation of the inspections carried out on this equipment, issues to do with their safety will be dealt with and in particular: - the suitability of inspections carried out in the tight of faults that are likely to occur and develop in the structures; - control of ageing; - management of the quality of new equipment. (author)

  3. Results of the Study of Helminths-Carrying as a Comorbidity in Children with Herpetic Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Suerkulov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the helminths-carrying in children with herpetic stomatitis according to the data of the department of maxillofacial surgery of the National center of mother and child welfare, and determines the relationship of oral diseases with disorders of various parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Proteinase 3 carries small unusual carbohydrates and associates with αlpha-defensins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoega, Morten; Ravnsborg, Tina; Højrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    with carbohydrates at Asn 102 and 147 carrying unusual small moieties indicating heavy processing. Mass spectrometric analysis and immuno blotting revealed strong association of highly purified PR3 with α-defensins and oligomers hereof. Irreversible inhibition of PR3 by α1-antitrypsin did not affect its association...

  5. Aerodynamic Improvements to Cargo Carrying Rail Cars due to Roof Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Robert; Maynes, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with the transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. We provide an assessment of the influence of the roof structure on aerodynamic performance of two dissimilar rail cars, namely automobile carrying cars and coal carrying cars. Currently, the roof material for automobile carrying rail cars is corrugated steel, with the corrugation aligned perpendicular to the direction of travel. Coal cars are currently left uncovered for loading convenience and on the return leg from the power plant are empty. Aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the tops of both these car types. For the automobile-carrying cars, testing is performed for the corrugated and smooth roof configurations. This modification alone has the potential of reducing the car drag coefficient by nominally 25%. A broader study is performed for the coal cars, with data being acquired for coal filled models, empty models, and several cover prototype configurations. The results reveal that implementation of a cover may yield reductions in the aerodynamic drag for both coal filled (nominally 7%) and empty coal cars (nominally 30%).

  6. High-level methodology for carrying out combined red and blue teams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a combined Red and Blue Team Methodology to guide the process of carrying out such security auditing and penetration testing tasks. Red and Blue Teams consist of various security auditing and penetration testing tasks which serve...

  7. 46 CFR 153.900 - Certificates and authorization to carry a bulk liquid hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ship must have a Subchapter D or I Certificate of Inspection that is endorsed to allow the cargo tank... requirements for the bulk liquid cargo; and (2) The ship— (i) Has a Certificate of Inspection, Certificate of...) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...

  8. 46 CFR 98.30-14 - Requirements for ships carrying NLSs in portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... portable tank shall ensure that— (1) The ship's Certificate of Inspection is endorsed with the name of the... condition for endorsement is met. (b) To have a ship's Certificate of Inspection endorsed to allow the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for ships carrying NLSs in portable tanks...

  9. Estimating social carrying capacity through computer simulation modeling: an application to Arches National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Wang; Robert E. Manning; Steven R. Lawson; William A. Valliere

    2001-01-01

    Recent research and management experience has led to several frameworks for defining and managing carrying capacity of national parks and related areas. These frameworks rely on monitoring indicator variables to ensure that standards of quality are maintained. The objective of this study was to develop a computer simulation model to estimate the relationships between...

  10. An evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow joint in adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Department of Anatomy and Orthopedics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences,. Pondicherry - 605 502 ... forearm deviates laterally from the long axis of the humerus, with the arm extended and the palm ... for elbow reconstruction. Key words: Carrying angle, elbow joint, adolescent, forearm, humerus, ulna ...

  11. Specific experiments carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    Specific experiments are carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing NPPs. HDR research program includes operational loads testing (pressure test, pressure and temperature test, thermal shock, fatigue); extreme loads (earthquake, aircraft crash, external explosion); internal emergency loads (blowdown, hydrogen combustion, fire, thermal shock, water hammer, condensation loads)

  12. Perceived popularity of adolescents who use weapons in violence and adolescents who only carry weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey N

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has found that persistently delinquent youth or more violent youth were less popular than their less delinquent peers (Young, 2013). However, recent research has also found that weapon carrying is associated with being more popular in adolescence (Dijkstra et al., 2010). The present paper examines the perceived popularity of adolescents who carry weapons in comparison to those who both carry and use weapons in acts of violence or threatened violence. Data consist of two waves from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Analyses use OLS regression with lagged predictors. This paper found no differences in number of friends between weapon carriers and weapon users. However, among both male and female gang members, those who did not use or carry weapons (abstainers) named significantly fewer friends than weapon users. Among females, weapon abstainers both named and were named by significantly more people than weapon users. These differences were not observed for males. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Who Carries the Burden of Reproductive Health and AIDS Programs? - Evidence from OECD Donor Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis paper tries to establish who carries the burden in supporting reproductive health and AIDS programs worldwide. The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo established goals for the expansion of assistance in matters of reproductive health and

  14. Shape invariant higher-order Bessel-like beams carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ismail, Y

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Optics September 2012/ Vol. 14 Shape invariant higher-order Bessel-like beams carrying orbital angular momentum Y Ismail1,2, N Khilo3, V Belyi3 and A Forbes1,2 1 School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001...

  15. The Role of RT Carry-Over for Congruence Sequence Effects in Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study disentangles 2 sources of the congruence sequence effect with masked primes: congruence and response time of the previous trial (reaction time [RT] carry-over). Using arrows as primes and targets and a metacontrast masking procedure we found congruence as well as congruence sequence effects. In addition, congruence sequence…

  16. Summary of R and D work carried out in Sri Lanka for the development of RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunaratne, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and research and development carried out in this particular field. It emphasises types of centrifuge latex used, stability of this centrifuged latex, use of sensitizer, effect of leaching, antioxidants, use of low energy electron beam and training and human resources development in this field

  17. DEMON/ANGEL - A SUITE OF PROGRAMS TO CARRY OUT DENSITY MODIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELLIEUX, FMDAP; HUNT, JF; ROY, S; READ, RJ

    1995-01-01

    The DEMON/ANGEL suite of computer programs has been developed to carry out density modification by non-crystallographic symmetry-averaging, solvent-flattening and histogram-mapping techniques. This suite consists of programs that allow molecular envelopes to be defined and modified,

  18. 12 CFR 615.5090 - Reduction in carrying value of collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5090 Reduction in carrying value of collateral. When the bank or Farm Credit Administration determines that a loan did not... withdrawn from collateral until the cause of ineligibility is remedied. When a loan has been classified as a...

  19. E-Books in Academic Libraries: Results of a Survey Carried out in Sweden and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceviciute, Elena; Wilson, T. D.; Gudinavicius, Arunas; Šuminas, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on a study of e-books issues in academic libraries in two European countries representative of small language markets--Sweden and Lithuania. Method: Questionnaire surveys, using the same instrument, were carried out in Swedish and Lithuanian academic libraries. Analysis: Quantitative analysis was performed using…

  20. Comment on "Invasive Harlequin Ladybird Carries Biological Weapons Against Native Competitors"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Raak-van den Berg, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    We comment on the implications that Vilcinskas et al. (Reports, 17 May 2013, p. 862) attach to the finding that the exotic, invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis carries microsporidia to which this species is insensitive but that is lethal to species that are native to the invaded areas. The authors

  1. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Amino Acid Based Vesicle Carrying Radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ratasha Alia Mohd Rosli; Faizal Mohamed; Muhammad Amir Syafiq Mohd Sah; Irman Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Vesicles has been developed and studied to be used as a medium to transport radiosensitizer in treating cancer cells by increasing its sensitivity effectively towards the radiation given during radiotherapy. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on amino acid-based vesicle carrying radiosensitizer. Amino acid based vesicles carrying radiosensitizer were synthesized using sonication method with sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate and decanol being the primary surfactant, while hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate as the encapsulated radiosensitizer. The synthesized vesicle was then irradiated at radiation doses equivalent to those given during radiotherapy. Irradiated vesicle carrying radiosensitizer were then characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Polarized Light Microscope. Results obtained shows that there were no significant changes in morphology and molecular conformation of the synthesized vesicle after irradiation. Even at higher radiation dose of 100 Gray and 200 Gray, the results remained unchanged. This indicates that the synthesized vesicle carrying radiosensitizer is morphologically and spectroscopically stable even at high radiation doses. (author)

  2. Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetic Field of a Long Straight Current-Carrying Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A.; Fatuzzo, M.; Toepker, T.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the motion of a charged particle in the well-known nonuniform field of a current-carrying long straight wire, a variety of teaching/learning opportunities are described: 1) Brief review of a standard problem; 2) Vector analysis; 3) Dimensionless variables; 4) Coupled differential equations; 5) Numerical solutions.

  3. In vivo characteristics of targeted drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaks Lilach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines are a new class of nanomedicines that combines biological and chemical components into a modular nanometric drug delivery system. The core of the system is a filamentous phage particle that is produced in the bacterial host Escherichia coli. Target specificity is provided by a targeting moiety, usually an antibody that is displayed on the tip of the phage particle. A large drug payload is chemically conjugated to the protein coat of the phage via a chemically or genetically engineered linker that provides for controlled release of the drug after the particle homed to the target cell. Recently we have shown that targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines can be used to eradicate pathogenic bacteria and cultured tumor cells with great potentiation over the activity of the free untargeted drug. We have also shown that poorly water soluble drugs can be efficiently conjugated to the phage coat by applying hydrophilic aminoglycosides as branched solubility-enhancing linkers. Results With an intention to move to animal experimentation of efficacy, we tested anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines for toxicity and immunogenicity and blood pharmacokinetics upon injection into mice. Here we show that anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines that carry the antibiotic chloramphenicol conjugated via an aminoglycoside linker are non-toxic to mice and are greatly reduced in immunogenicity in comparison to native phage particles or particles to which the drug is conjugated directly and are cleared from the blood more slowly in comparison to native phage particles. Conclusion Our results suggest that aminoglycosides may serve as branched solubility enhancing linkers for drug conjugation that also provide for a better safety profile of the targeted nanomedicine.

  4. Water Quality Assessment and Determining the Carrying Capacity of Pollution Load Batang Kuranji River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, I.; Adri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the water quality and carrying capacity of pollution load Batang Kuranji River in the headwaters, middle, and downstream. This research is descriptive quantitative parameters of pH, BOD, COD, TSS, and DOES Depictions of river water quality refer to RegulationNo.82/2001, while determination of carrying capacity of pollution load river refers to the Kep Men LHNo.10/2003.The result is Kuranji Batang River water quality upstream region included in either category who meet the quality standard first class ofPP82/2001. TSS concentrations at head waters of 21 mg/L, BOD1,6 mg/L, COD7,99mg/L and DO 7,845 mg/L. While the carrying capacity of pollution load river in upstream region included in both categories namely BOD of 4,4 kg/sec, COD 273,60 kg/sec, TSS906,00kg/sec, and DO parameters of 49.20 kg/sec. Middle region (point 2, 3, and 4) water quality Batang Kuranji River has exceeded the quality standard of 82/2001 for class II and class III. Meanwhile, carrying capacity of pollution load river in area included in ugly category. The calculation is done with application Qual2Kw show that carrying capacity of pollution load river of BOD -857.3 kg/sec, COD -777.40 kg/sec, TSS +9511.5 kg/sec, and DO +69.30 kg/sec.

  5. Improved technique for measuring the size distribution of black carbon particles in rainwater and snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Moteki, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Azuma, K. G.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the strongest contributor to sunlight absorption among atmospheric aerosols. Quantitative understanding of wet deposition of BC, which strongly affects the spatial distribution of BC, is important to improve our understandings on climate change. We have devised a technique for measuring the masses of individual BC particles in rainwater and snow samples, as a combination of a nebulizer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) (Ohata et al. 2011, 2013; Schwarz et al. 2012; Mori et al. 2014). We show two important improvements in this technique: 1)We have extended the upper limit of detectable BC particle diameter from 0.9 μm to about 4.0 μm by modifying the photodetector for measuring the laser-induced incandescence signal. 2)We introduced a pneumatic nebulizer Marin-5 (Cetac Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE, USA) and experimentally confirmed its high extraction efficiency (~50%) independent of particle diameter up to 2.0 μm. Using our improved system, we simultaneously measured the size distribution of BC particles in air and rainwater in Tokyo. We observed that the size distribution of BC in rainwater was larger than that in air, indicating that large BC particles were effectively removed by precipitation. We also observed BC particles with diameters larger than 1.0 μm, indicating that further studies of wet deposition of BC will require the use of the modified SP2.

  6. Diversity and effectiveness of tropical mangrove soil microflora on the degradation of polythene carry bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shristi Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and load of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi associated with the mangrove soil from Suva, Fiji Islands, was determined by using the plate count method. The ability of the bacterial isolates to produce various hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, gelatinase and lipase were determined using the plate assay. The heterotrophic bacterial load was considerably higher than the fungal load. There was a predominance of the gram positive genus, Bacillus. Other genera encountered included Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Listeria and Vibrio. Their effectiveness on the degradation of commercial polythene carry bags made of high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE was studied over a period of eight weeks in the laboratory. Biodegradation was measured in terms of mean weight loss, which was nearly 5 % after a period of eight weeks. There was a significant increase in the bacterial load of the soil attached to class 2 (HDPE polythene. After eight weeks of submergence in mangrove soil, soil attached to class 1 and class 3 polythene mostly had Bacillus (Staphylococcus predominated in class 2 polythene. While most of the isolates were capable of producing hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase and gelatinase, lipolytic activity was low. Class 2 HDPE suffered the greatest biodegradation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4: 777-786. Epub 2007 December, 28.Se determinó la diversidad y la carga de bacterias heterotróficas, así como los hongos asociados al suelo del manglar de Suva, Islas Fiji, utilizando el método de conteo de placas, usado también para medir la capacidad de bacterias aisladas para producir enzimas hidrolíticas como amilasa, gelatinasa y lipasa. La carga bacteriana heterotrófica resultó ser considerablemente más alta que la carga funguicida. Hubo predominancia de bacterias "Gram-positivas" del género de Bacillus. Otros géneros encontrados fueron Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Listeria y Vibrio. La eficacia de esta

  7. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-02-02

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  8. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    Full Text Available A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  9. Investigation and analysis of interventional procedures being carried out in the primary hospital in Yunnan province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Rong; Huang Ming; Zhou Jinmei; Yang Yinshan; Zhao Ling; Wu Hao; Wu Qijie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the interventional techniques being employed or being anticipated to be adopted in the primary hospitals in Yunnan province of China in order to further promote the interventional procedures in clinical practice. Methods: A total of 52 Yunnan provincial state hospitals and county hospitals were enrolled in this investigation. During the period from Sep. 2009 to Dec. 2012, questionnaires were used to find out the interventional techniques being employed or being anticipated to be adopted in these 52 hospitals, and the results were analyzed. The common clinical issues were discussed and the improvement measures were suggested. Results: The number of effective questionnaire was 38 (38/52). Four county hospitals did not have basic condition to carry out the interventional technique, 41.70-/o of hospitals expected that they would be able to develop the technique of inferior vena cava filter, 35.3% of hospitals anticipated to employ 125 I seed implantation with stenting for liver cancer, and 32.3% of hospitals wanted to use digestive tract stent implantation. The difficulties to hinder the development of interventional techniques included the shortage of necessary interventional equipment and the irrational orderly system of professional succession. Conclusion: The interventional procedures being carried out nowadays in the primary hospitals in Yunnan province of China are quite few. The difference in the interventional techniques being anticipated to be carried out between the municipal hospitals and county hospitals is not significant. With the increasing demand of interventional treatment, the primary hospitals will have broad prospects in developing interventional treatment. (authors)

  10. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  11. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis on economic carrying capacity index of pig breeding in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Liu, Jia-Ling; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, factor analysis method was employed to analyze and calculate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the last decade, the proportion of research and experiment development (R&D) expenditure equivalent to GDP, urban and rural residents’ pork consumption and explored the scale of Chinese pig breeding on economic carrying capacity index. The result showed that the growth of GDP had led to better techniques and higher field investment, and stronger support like science and technology from the government provided good conditions for large scale of pig breeding. Besides, the substantial increase of pork consumption between rural and urban residents has contributed to the pig breeding in large scale. As a result, the economic carrying capacity index in Chinese pig farming is on the rise.

  13. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  14. Daniel Alcides Carrión: la teoría unicista

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, David

    2016-01-01

    La enfermedad de Carrión presenta clásicamente dos fases clínicas: la fiebre de la Oroya y la verruga peruana. La teoría unicista reconoce que ambas formas clínicas pertenecen a la misma enfermedad, la obtención de este conocimiento representó un duro desafío para la ciencia peruana y mundial. A través de un histórico experimento en 1885, Daniel Alcides Carrión obtuvo la evidencia clínica-experimental que sentó las bases de la teoría unicista; el científico diseñó esta teoría solo hasta las h...

  15. Studies on solid-state physics carried out with the Saclay reactor (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpin, A.

    1962-01-01

    This paper deals only with solid-state physics experiments carried out on outgoing beams: rather than giving a general review of the work performed, if refers to only a few of the most important studies or those nearest completion. These are being made with the experimental beams of the two Saclay reactors EL-2, with a central flux of 10 13 n/cm 2 , and - since 1958 - EL-3, whose central flux is equal ta 10 14 n/cm 2 . The experiments are being carried out by two separate groups of physicists, employing different techniques, namely neutron diffraction using a crystal spectrometer, and inelastic scattering using a time-of-flight spectrometer. (author) [fr

  16. Some aspects of the quality assurance of personnel carrying out finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenson, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the need to assess the competence of personnel carrying out finite element analysis is emphasised. In carrying out its regulatory role on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) must be satisfied that appropriate standards are developed and maintained by the licensee. Since finite element methods have an important bearing on the acceptance of a safety case, it follows that relevant codes should be adequately validated and the personnel applying the code should be competent. Attention is drawn to the work of the Quality Assurance Working Group of the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards (NAFEMS) who are active in this area. The paper also considers the methods that are available to assess the competence of personnel engaged in finite element methods. (author)

  17. Load Carrying Capacity of Metal Dowel Type Connections of Timber Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocál, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the load-carrying capacity calculation of laterally loaded metal dowel type connections according to Eurocode 5. It is based on analytically derived, relatively complicated mathematical relationships, and thus it can be quite laborious for practical use. The aim is to propose a possible simplification of the calculation. Due to quite a great variability of fasteners' types and the connection arrangements, the attention is paid to the most commonly used nailed connections. There was performed quite an extensive parametric study focused on the calculation of load-carrying capacity of the simple shear and double shear plane nail connections, joining two or three timber parts of softwood or hardwood. Based on the study results, in conclusion there are presented simplifying recommendations for practical design.

  18. Transfer of stem cells carrying engineered chromosomes with XY clone laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, Ildiko; Katona, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Current transgenic technologies for gene transfer into the germline of mammals cause a random integration of exogenous naked DNA into the host genome that can generate undesirable position effects as well as insertional mutations. The vectors used to generate transgenic animals are limited by the amount of foreign DNA they can carry. Mammalian artificial chromosomes have large DNA-carrying capacity and ability to replicate in parallel with, but without integration into, the host genome. Hence they are attractive vectors for transgenesis, cellular protein production, and gene therapy applications as well. ES cells mediated chromosome transfer by conventional blastocyst injection has a limitation in unpredictable germline transmission. The demonstrated protocol of laser-assisted microinjection of artificial chromosome containing ES cells into eight-cell mouse embryos protocol described here can solve the problem for faster production of germline transchromosomic mice.

  19. Influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkova Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering is spread technology today. The main advantage of this method is the ability to produce parts which have a very complex geometry and which can be produced only in very complicated way by classical conventional methods. Special category of such components are parts with porous structure, which can give to the product extraordinary combination of properties. The article deals with some aspects that influence the manufacturing of regular porous structures in spite of the fact that input technological parameters at various samples were the same. The main goal of presented research has been to investigate the influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure. Realized tests have indicated that the unit of regular porous structure with lower volume ratio is able to carry a greater load to failure than the unit with higher volume ratio.

  20. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-08

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin.

  1. Sooting turbulent jet flame: characterization and quantitative soot measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.; Crosland, B. M.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelers require high-quality experimental data sets for validation of their numerical tools. Preferred features for numerical simulations of a sooting, turbulent test case flame are simplicity (no pilot flame), well-defined boundary conditions, and sufficient soot production. This paper proposes a non-premixed C2H4/air turbulent jet flame to fill this role and presents an extensive database for soot model validation. The sooting turbulent jet flame has a total visible flame length of approximately 400 mm and a fuel-jet Reynolds number of 10,000. The flame has a measured lift-off height of 26 mm which acts as a sensitive marker for CFD model validation, while this novel compiled experimental database of soot properties, temperature and velocity maps are useful for the validation of kinetic soot models and numerical flame simulations. Due to the relatively simple burner design which produces a flame with sufficient soot concentration while meeting modelers' needs with respect to boundary conditions and flame specifications as well as the present lack of a sooting "standard flame", this flame is suggested as a new reference turbulent sooting flame. The flame characterization presented here involved a variety of optical diagnostics including quantitative 2D laser-induced incandescence (2D-LII), shifted-vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (SV-CARS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Producing an accurate and comprehensive characterization of a transient sooting flame was challenging and required optimization of these diagnostics. In this respect, we present the first simultaneous, instantaneous PIV, and LII measurements in a heavily sooting flame environment. Simultaneous soot and flow field measurements can provide new insights into the interaction between a turbulent vortex and flame chemistry, especially since soot structures in turbulent flames are known to be small and often treated in a statistical manner.

  2. Experiments recently carried out on the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurash Ibrahim; Wu Ziyu; Qian Haijie; Zhang Jing; Abbas, M.I.; Chen Zhigang; Su Run; Liu Fengqin

    2003-01-01

    With a sustained and steady operation of the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, users from different research fields have carried out their investigation on the electronic structure of metal surface-interface, metal doped fullerene as well as colossal magneto-resistance materials utilizing different experimental modes provided by the photoemission station. In this paper authors would present some representative experimental results obtained on the station

  3. Standard protocol for demographic and epidemiological survey to be carried out for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, M L; Datta, D; Singh, Jitendra; Sardhi, I V; Verma, P C [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2007-11-15

    This document presents the standard procedures for conducting demographic and epidemiological studies for nuclear facilities. These studies are required to be carried out to prepare baseline data, the impact of the facility and the risk factors for the population residing in the vicinity of facility. This document includes the basic elements of these type surveys, their methodology and statistical analysis of the data collected during demographic and epidemiological surveillance. (author)

  4. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 11. Surry Mountain Lake Project Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    contributions of practical experience and knowledge , along with their assistance in arranging schedules, have made this carrying capacity research effort...This survey obtained six responses from boaters and water- skiers . 29 A~ .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~PEEI PAG ... ._DIAN.K+.+.+ 3+ ,.+ -,++ + _-NO FILM...User characteristics Table 17 indicates the characteristics of the boaters and water- skiers surveyed at Surry. The small sample size at

  5. Standard protocol for demographic and epidemiological survey to be carried out for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.; Datta, D.; Singh, Jitendra; Sardhi, I.V.; Verma, P.C.

    2007-11-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for conducting demographic and epidemiological studies for nuclear facilities. These studies are required to be carried out to prepare baseline data, the impact of the facility and the risk factors for the population residing in the vicinity of facility. This document includes the basic elements of these type surveys, their methodology and statistical analysis of the data collected during demographic and epidemiological surveillance. (author)

  6. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (pbags, irrespective of the load distribution, may have a stabilising effect during quiet standing. These results should help to alleviate concerns regarding safety of carrying shopping bags and help encourage shopping, both as a social and as a physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  8. Proof-Carrying Hardware: Concept and Prototype Tool Flow for Online Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Drzevitzky, Stephanie; Kastens, Uwe; Platzner, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Dynamically reconfigurable hardware combines hardware performance with software-like flexibility and finds increasing use in networked systems. The capability to load hardware modules at runtime provides these systems with an unparalleled degree of adaptivity but at the same time poses new challenges for security and safety. In this paper, we elaborate on the presentation of proof carrying hardware (PCH) as a novel approach to reconfigurable system security. PCH takes ...

  9. Comprehensive preimplantation genetic screening and sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation from three males carrying balanced chromosome rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laia; Daina, Gemma; Del Rey, Javier; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Fernández-Encinas, Alba; Martinez-Passarell, Olga; Boada, Montserrat; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether preimplantation genetic screening can successfully identify cytogenetically normal embryos in couples carrying balanced chromosome rearrangements in addition to increased sperm DNA fragmentation. Comprehensive preimplantation genetic screening was performed on three couples carrying chromosome rearrangements. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed for each patient. Academic center. One couple with the male partner carrying a chromosome 2 pericentric inversion and two couples with the male partners carrying a Robertsonian translocation (13:14 and 14:21, respectively). A single blastomere from each of the 18 cleavage-stage embryos obtained was analysed by metaphase comparative genomic hybridization. Single- and double-strand sperm DNA fragmentation was determined by the alkaline and neutral Comet assays. Single- and double-strand sperm DNA fragmentation values and incidence of chromosome imbalances in the blastomeres were analyzed. The obtained values of single-strand sperm DNA fragmentation were between 47% and 59%, and the double-strand sperm DNA fragmentation values were between 43% and 54%. No euploid embryos were observed in the couple showing the highest single-strand sperm DNA fragmentation. However, euploid embryos were observed in the other two couples: embryo transfer was performed, and pregnancy was achieved by the couple showing the lowest sperm DNA fragmentation values. Preimplantation genetic screening enables the detection of euploid embryos in couples affected by balanced chromosome rearrangements and increased sperm DNA fragmentation. Even though sperm DNA fragmentation may potentially have clinical consequences on fertility, comprehensive preimplantation genetic screening allows for the identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Land Potential Productivity and Population Carrying Capacity of Yan’an City

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Rsults shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north, while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation, moisture a...

  11. On the number of independent cultural traits carried by individuals and populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Laurent; Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    In species subject to individual and social learning, each individual is likely to express a certain number of different cultural traits acquired during its lifetime. If the process of trait innovation and transmission reaches a steady state in the population, the number of different cultural traits carried by an individual converges to some stationary distribution. We call this the trait-number distribution. In this paper, we derive the trait-number distributions for both individuals and pop...

  12. On load carrying capacity of frames taking into account finite displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkoaski, A.; Saran, M.

    1981-01-01

    An approximate method that takes into account the influence of finite displacements upon the load carrying capacity of planar unbraced frames is described. It is the iterative procedure where Quadratic Programming is applied for evaluation of subsequent configurations of the frame, whereas Linear Programming serves to find ultimate load factors for each configuration. Numerical tests show that the procedure gives practically acceptable results being at the same time much cheaper than the exact geometrically and physically non-linear incremental analysis. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new chloroquine analogues carrying a multifunctional linear side chain

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaniuk, Daniel P.; Whetmore, Eric D.; Rosa, Nicholas; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C.; Roepe, Paul D.; Wolf, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of several new 4-amino-and 4-alkoxy-7-chloroquinolines carrying a linear dibasic side chain. Many of these chloroquine analogues have submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strain of P. falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Importantly, compounds 11–15 and 24 proved to be more potent against Dd2 than chloroquine. Branching of the side chain st...

  14. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load

    OpenAIRE

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jos? C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Dominguez-Mu?oz, Francisco J.; Maestre-Cascales, Cristina; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy co...

  15. Electronic Equipment of Self-Actuated Mobile Device for Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janecka

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The device dealt in this work is determined namely for carrying invalid persons on various types of stairs or other not flat surfaces. But it can serve also to other purposes.To enable fulfilling all given demands, the design was consulted with other research workers solving the tasks of similar features.Resulting mechanical device, enabling aspects of movement required, is controlled by electronic and microprocessor circuits that obtain the input information from sensitive units investigating the terrain.

  16. CARRYING OF FRENCH VISAS FOR HOLDERS OF CATEGORY 'EF' FRENCH ATTESTATIONS DE FONCTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organisation that members of the personnel resident in Switzerland and holding Category 'EF' French Attestations de functions are not obliged to be in possession of French visas. When temporarily travelling through France on OFFICIAL CERN BUSINESS, provided they are carrying the valid Attestation and a valid national passport with them.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  17. Handling and carrying head for nuclear fuel assemblies and installation including this head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, R.; Cransac, J.P.; Jogand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention proposes a handling and carrying head ensuring efficiently the cooling of the nuclear fuel asemblies it transports so that any storage in liquid metal in a drum within or adjacent the reactor vessel is suppressed. The invention claims also a nuclear fuel handling installation including the head; it allows a longer time between loading and unloading campaigns and the space surrounding the reactor vessel keeps free without occupying a storage zone within the vessel [fr

  18. Development of Uranium-Carrying Ball method for calibration of fuel element failure detecting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yupu; Bao Wanping; Lu Cungang

    1988-01-01

    A Uranium-Carrying Ball method used for the determination of sensitivity, stability of the fuel element failure detecting systems is developed. A special facility for transporting the ball can be carried out by the flow of the cooling water, so that the failure signal can be simulated. Five different types of the Uranium-Carrying Ball have been developed. Type-I to Type-IV may provide failure signal in terms of uranium quantity or exposure area of uranium. Type-V can be used to simulate micro-flaw and examine the detectability of various detective methods for this kind of defect, at the same time it is difficult for the delayed neutron detector to detect micro-flaw. The results of long-time irradiation and washing test show that the working life of the balls is satisfactory. Using the experimentel facility with the balls, detailed study of the capability of various fuel failure detecting systems have been conducted successfully. The operation is easy and safe, the accuracy of this method is higher than that of other methods, the nuclear fuel consumption as well as the radioactive contamination is low. At present, the research on the failure mechanism is being conducted by means of this method

  19. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... differences in the patterns were identified between stocks located in the upper and lower thermal range. In the latter, strong year-classes occurred mainly during warmer seasons and vice versa. For stocks located in the warmer waters, however, no significant patterns were obtained, suggesting that increased......, to incorporate the influence of ecosystem factors, mainly temperature and habitat size, on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. The pattern of temperature effects on cod productivity at the species level were identified and SR model parameters were estimated...

  20. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F.

    2006-01-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  1. Evaluation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Shandong Province Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity is the maximum available water resources supporting by the social and economic development. Based on investigating and statisticing on the current situation of water resources in Shandong Province, this paper selects 13 factors including per capita water resources, water resources utilization, water supply modulus, rainfall, per capita GDP, population density, per capita water consumption, water consumption per million yuan, The water consumption of industrial output value, the agricultural output value of farmland, the irrigation rate of cultivated land, the water consumption rate of ecological environment and the forest coverage rate were used as the evaluation factors. Then,the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was used to analyze the water resources carrying capacity Force status evaluation. The results showed : The comprehensive evaluation results of water resources in Shandong Province were lower than 0.6 in 2001-2009 and higher than 0.6 in 2010-2015, which indicating that the water resources carrying capacity of Shandong Province has been improved.; In addition, most of the years a value of less than 0.6, individual years below 0.4, the interannual changes are relatively large, from that we can see the level of water resources is generally weak, the greater the interannual changes in Shandong Province.

  2. Ecological carrying capacity assessment of diving site: A case study of Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ye; Chung, Shan-Shan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Despite considered a non-consumptive use of the marine environment, diving-related activities can cause damages to coral reefs. It is imminent to assess the maximum numbers of divers that can be accommodated by a diving site before it is subject to irreversible deterioration. This study aimed to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a diving site in Mabul Island, Malaysia. Photo-quadrat line transect method was used in the benthic survey. The ecological carrying capacity was assessed based on the relationship between the number of divers and the proportion of diver damaged hard corals in Mabul Island. The results indicated that the proportion of diver damaged hard corals occurred exponentially with increasing use. The ecological carrying capacity of Mabul Island is 15,600-16,800 divers per diving site per year at current levels of diver education and training with a quarterly threshold of 3900-4200 per site. Our calculation shows that management intervention (e.g. limiting diving) is justified at 8-14% of hard coral damage. In addition, the use of coral reef dominated diving sites should be managed according to their sensitivity to diver damage and the depth of the reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carry-over effects of smoking cue exposure on working memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen J.; Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.; Brough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of drug cue exposure on working memory performance in cigarette smokers. Adult smokers (N=23) deprived for 12 hr performed a working memory task during which they were exposed to three types of task-irrelevant stimuli: Pictures containing smoking related-content, pictures devoid of smoking content, and a fixation cross. Consistent with prior research, we found that drug cue exposure affected the processing of subsequent items (i.e., carry-over effects). Specifically, we found that working memory performance was worse on trials containing neutral pictures preceded by trials containing smoking cues compared with performance on trials containing neutral pictures preceded by trials not containing smoking-related stimuli. Previously observed effects of smoking cue exposure on cognitive processing were replicated but only after removing trials subject to carry-over effects. These results replicate and extend previous research demonstrating similar effects and highlight the significant methodological and conceptual implications of carry-over effects. PMID:17454718

  4. Is Learning in Low Immersive Environments Carried over to High Immersive Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror David Lev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the more debated issues regarding training simulators is their validity for transfer of skills to sensory environments that differ from the simulator. In two experiments, the advantages of three-dimensional (3D and collocated (Col visual displays were evaluated in a realistic and complex visuomotor task. The two factors were evaluated independently, comparing Col-2D with dislocated-2D (experiment 1 and with Col-3D (experiment 2. As expected, in both cases the more immersive presentation condition facilitated better performance. Furthermore, improvement following training in the more immersive condition carried over to the following less immersive condition but there was no carry over in the opposing order of presentation. This is taken as an indication for the differential development of skills conditioned by the level of immersiveness of the training environment. This further suggests that learning of complex realistic tasks is not carried over from less immersive simulator to the complex sensory environment of reality, due to the large gap in sensory patterns.

  5. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  6. Study of information-orientation carry-out plan in energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, T W [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Carrying out an information-orientation plan in the energy sector is indispensable if Korea is to survive in this unlimited competition age and global management system. It is also for maximizing the management efficiency of national energy resources as well as increasing the development of related industries and national welfare. The management of the energy resources sector of Korea, which is becoming diversified escaping from the past simple quantitative management of supplier-orientation, requires versatile and ample high-class information management system and high-level decision support system. In order to satisfy these requests, this study investigated and analyzed overall policies of the energy sector for carrying out information-orientation, neighborhood environment, organizational chart, information transfer method, the current condition of information-orientation, problems and improvements, demand of information-orientation of the future, and also reviewed the information-orientation status of advanced countries. Based on these, an information-orientation carryout plan in the energy sector is broken into three stages of `establishment of information transfer system`, `development of database`, and `establishment of decision support system` and presented per detailed work. It advised manpower, equipment and budget implementation plan, and a development schedule plan required for carrying out information-orientation as well as overall environmental build-up, and policy recommendation for the successful implementation of information-orientation. 24 refs., 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Effects of carrying a backpack in a symmetrical manner on the shape of the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir; Rachwał, Maciej; Rykała, Justyna; Podgórska, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in the shape of the feet while carrying a backpack constituting 10% of a child's weight. It was an observational, cross-sectional study involving 118 primary school children aged 11-13 years. Selected parameters of foot shape were assessed in both a normal position and with a backpack using podoscopy and a CQ-ST examination device. The study revealed significant differences in the length and width of the right and left feet between assessments. Moreover, the longitudinal arch of the foot was significantly lowered and deformity of the great toe was reported. Carrying a backpack constituting 10% of a child's weight results in lowering of the longitudinal and traverse arches of the feet and advanced toe deformities. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study examining the effect of carrying a backpack constituting 10% of a child's weight on parameters of foot shape and observed significant lowering of the longitudinal and traverse arches of the feet and advanced toe deformities.

  8. Identification of virulence genes carried by bacteriophages obtained from clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasartova, Djursun; Cavusoglu, Zeynep Burcin; Turegun, Buse; Ozsan, Murat T; Şahin, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors. In the study, 43 phages isolated from 48 MRSA were investigated for carrying toxin genes including the sak, eta, lukF-PV, sea, selp, sek, seg, seq chp, and scn virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze phage genomes to investigate the relationship between the phage profiles and the toxin genes' presence. MRSA strains isolated from HA infections tended to have higher prophage presence than the MRSA strains obtained from the CA infections (97% and 67%, respectively). The study showed that all the phages with the exception of one phage contained one or more virulence genes in their genomes with different combinations. The most common toxin genes found were sea (83%) followed by sek (77%) and seq (64%). The study indicates that prophages encode a significant proportion of MRSA virulence factors.

  9. Demonstration of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for 20 Gbit/s QPSK carrying data transmission in few-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Shimao; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode emission from a high emission efficiency OAM emitter for 20 Gbit/s QPSK carrying data transmission in few-mode fiber (FMF). Two modes propagate through a 3.6km three-mode FMF with measured OSNR penalties less than 4 dB at a BER of 2e...

  10. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles underestimated? Insights from near and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, John; Gordon, Mark; Smallwood, Gregory; Li, Shao-Meng; Stroud, Craig; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Lee, Patrick; Taylor, Brett; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) with a high-sensitivity laser-induced incandescence (HS-LII) instrument and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) were conducted upwind, downwind, and while driving on a highway dominated by gasoline vehicles. The results are used with concurrent CO(2) measurements to derive fuel-based BC emission factors for real-world average fleet and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. The derived emission factors from both instruments are compared, and a low SP2 bias (relative to the HS-LII) is found to be caused by a BC mass mode diameter less than 75 nm, that is most prominent with the gasoline fleet but is not present in the heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust on the highway. Results from both the LII and the SP2 demonstrate that the BC emission factors from gasoline vehicles are at least a factor of 2 higher than previous North American measurements, and a factor of 9 higher than currently used emission inventories in Canada, derived with the MOBILE 6.2C model. Conversely, the measured BC emission factor for heavy-duty diesel vehicles is in reasonable agreement with previous measurements. The results suggest that greater attention must be paid to black carbon from gasoline engines to obtain a full understanding of the impact of black carbon on air quality and climate and to devise appropriate mitigation strategies. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Seawater-groundwater exchange and nutrients carried by submarine groundwater discharge in different types of wetlands at Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wenjing; Li, Hailong; Huang, Hao; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wang, Chaoyue; Wang, Xuejing; Zhang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    In Jiaozhou Bay, there are four wetland types, including sandy beaches, mud flats, tidal marshes, and estuarine intertidal zones. Four typical transects representing each of the wetland types were selected to investigate the flow dynamics, seawater-groundwater exchange and nutrients carried by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Based on field measurements of groundwater heads and salinity along each transect, the SGD averaged over the observation period was estimated using generalized Darcy's law. The SGD along the four transects ranges from 3.6 × 10-3 to 7.6 cm/d with the maximum occurring at the sandy beach. The SGD rate has a good correlation with the hydraulic conductivities of the wetland sediments. There is a positive correlation between the ratio of NO3-N/DIN and SGD rates. The SGD-associated nutrient output rate ranges from 3.3 × 10-2 to 9.5 mmol/m2/d for DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), and from 6.2 × 10-5 to 1.8 × 10-2 mmol/m2/d for DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus). Compared to the nutrients delivered by the river, nutrients carried by SGD provide a more important source for the phosphate-limited environment to plankton in Jiaozhou Bay.

  12. The predictive influence of family and neighborhood assets on fighting and weapon carrying from mid- to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L

    2014-08-01

    Using a developmental, social-ecological approach to understand the etiology of health-risk behavior and inform primary prevention efforts, we assess the predictive effects of family and neighborhood social processes on youth physical fighting and weapon carrying. Specifically, we focus on relationships among youth and their parents, family communication, parental monitoring, as well as sense of community and neighborhood informal social control, support, concerns, and disorder. This study advances knowledge through its investigation of family and neighborhood structural factors and social processes together, employment of longitudinal models that estimate effects over adolescent development, and use of self-report and observational measures. Data from 1,093 youth/parent pairs were analyzed from the Youth Assets Study using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach; family and neighborhood assets and risks were analyzed as time varying and lagged. Similar family assets affected physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas different neighborhood social processes influenced the two forms of youth violence. Study findings have implications for the primary prevention of youth violence, including the use of family-based approaches that build relationships and parental monitoring skills and community-level change approaches that promote informal social control and reduce neighborhood concerns about safety.

  13. Carry-over effects on the annual cycle of a migratory seabird: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Annette L; Freeman, Robin; Shoji, Akiko; Kirk, Holly L; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a controlled, bidirectional manipulation of the duration of reproductive effort on the migratory, wintering and subsequent breeding behaviour of a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus. By cross-fostering chicks of different age between nests, we successfully prolonged or shortened by ∼25% the chick-rearing period of 42 breeding pairs. We tracked the adults with geolocators over the subsequent year and combined migration route data with at-sea activity budgets obtained from high-resolution saltwater-immersion data. Migratory behaviour was also recorded during non-experimental years (the year before and/or two years after manipulation) for a subset of birds, allowing comparison between experimental and non-experimental years within treatment groups. All birds cared for chicks until normal fledging age, resulting in birds with a longer breeding period delaying their departure on migration; however, birds that finished breeding earlier did not start migrating earlier. Increased reproductive effort resulted in less time spent at the wintering grounds, a reduction in time spent resting daily and a delayed start of breeding with lighter eggs and chicks and lower breeding success the following breeding season. Conversely, reduced reproductive effort resulted in more time resting and less time foraging during the winter, but a similar breeding phenology and success compared with control birds the following year, suggesting that

  14. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the rural area in Progo river basin consists 56 sub districts (34 sub districts part of Jawa Tengah Province, and 22 sub districts part of Yogyakarta Special Region. The whole sub districts are such as unit analysis, and research method is based on secondary data analysis. Several data consist Districts Region in Figure 1997 and 2003 (Temanggung, Magelang, Kulon Progo, Sleman and Bantul such as secondary data analysis. Data analysis employs of frequency and cross tabulation, statistics of regression and test. Result of the research shows that population growth of the rural areas in Progo river basin are about 0.72% annum; or the household growth about 3.15% annum as long as five years (1996-2003. Spatial distribution of the population growth in the upper part of the Progo river basin is higher than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The number proportion of farmer in every sub district area in this river basin have increased from 69.95% in 1997 to 70.81% in the year of 2003. It means that work opportunities broadening are still sluggish. However, the number proportion of farmers in the upper part of the Progo river basin is lower than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The rates of settlement land areas changes (0.32 ha/annum as long as five years (1997-2003 is not as fast as the rates of agricultural land areas changes (0.47 ha/annum. Spatial land settlement areas changes in the lower (6.1 ha/annum and middle parts (2.4 ha/annum faster than

  15. The study of environmental carrying capacity for sustainable tourism in Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateu, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melat Aryasa, Alexander; Nur Bambang, Azis; Muhammad, Fuad

    2017-06-01

    The increasing in quantity of the tourists visiting Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateau, Central Java, can cause a potential threat toward the conservation sustainability of the tourist attraction and the surrounding area. The utilization of conservation area for tourist attraction has to be carried out based on the principal of Environmental Carrying Capacity so that it will not affect the ecosystem. This study aims to determine the value of Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park environmental carrying capacity as a conservation area used for tourism activities. The environmental carrying capacities calculated in this study were physical carrying capacity, real carrying capacity, and effective carrying capacity. Results of this research show that the physical carrying capacity of The Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park was 31,302 visitors, the real capacity was 869 visitors/day and the effective carrying capacity was 579 visitors/day. Thus, the sustainable tourism development strategy is needed to manage the everlasting natural resources.

  16. Distant Measurement of Plethysmographic Signal in Various Lighting Conditions Using Configurable Frame-Rate Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybyło Jaromir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Videoplethysmography is currently recognized as a promising noninvasive heart rate measurement method advantageous for ubiquitous monitoring of humans in natural living conditions. Although the method is considered for application in several areas including telemedicine, sports and assisted living, its dependence on lighting conditions and camera performance is still not investigated enough. In this paper we report on research of various image acquisition aspects including the lighting spectrum, frame rate and compression. In the experimental part, we recorded five video sequences in various lighting conditions (fluorescent artificial light, dim daylight, infrared light, incandescent light bulb using a programmable frame rate camera and a pulse oximeter as the reference. For a video sequence-based heart rate measurement we implemented a pulse detection algorithm based on the power spectral density, estimated using Welch’s technique. The results showed that lighting conditions and selected video camera settings including compression and the sampling frequency influence the heart rate detection accuracy. The average heart rate error also varies from 0.35 beats per minute (bpm for fluorescent light to 6.6 bpm for dim daylight.

  17. The feasibility of a targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying genes and cell-penetrating peptides to hypoxic HUVEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ju; Wang Zhigang; Ren Jianli; Zhang Qingfeng; Liu Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare an anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying genes and cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) and to investigate its feasibility of delivery to hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods: Anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying a green fluorescent protein gene (pEGFP-N1) and CPP was prepared by mechanical vibration and carbodiimide techniques. The appearance, distribution, concentration and diameter of the ultrasound contrast agent were measured. The gene and CPP distribution on the agent was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The efficiency of the ultrasound contrast agent to carry the gene and CPP was investigated by fluorospectrophotometry. HUVEC were cultured in vitro and hypoxic HUVEC were prepared using hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hypoxic HUVEC were randomly assigned targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for transfection. The transfection effect of green fluorescent protein in the two groups was observed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. T-test and linear correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The average diameter of anti-P-selectin targeted ultrasound contrast agents carrying gene and CPP was (2.15 ±0.36) μm and the concentration was (1.58 ± 0.23) × 10 7 /ml.The results of CLSM showed that gene and CPP were distributed on the shell of the agent. The gene encapsulation efficiency was 28% (y=0.932x-0.09, r=0.993, P<0.05), and the CPP encapsulation efficiency was 25% (y=5.875x-0.81, r=0.987, P<0.05). EGFP expression was observed using fluorescence microscopy in targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents. The average transfection efficiencies of targeted ultrasound contrast agents and non-targeted ultrasound contrast agents were (18.74 ± 0.47) % and (15.34 ± 0.22) % after 24 h (t=10.923, P<0.001). Conclusions: The in vitro studies

  18. Very low cost stand-off suicide bomber detection system using human gait analysis to screen potential bomb carrying individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greneker, Gene, III

    2005-05-01

    Individuals who carry bombs on their bodies and detonate those bombs in public places are a security problem. There is belief that suicide bombings currently used in the mid-east may spread to the United States if the organized terrorist groups operating in the United States are not identified and the cell members arrested. While bombs in vehicles are the primary method currently used to spread terror in Iraq, U. S. warfighters are starting to face suicide bombers. This may become more of the situation if a stand-off detection capability is developed for the vehicle bomb case. This paper presents a concept, that if developed and commercialized, could provide an inexpensive suicide bomber screening system that could be used to screen individuals approaching a checkpoint while the individual is still 500 to 1,000 feet from the checkpoint. The proposed system measures both the radar cross-section of the individual and the radar derived gait characteristics that are associated with individuals carrying a bomb on their body. GTRI researchers propose to use human gait characteristics, as detected by radar, to determine if a human subject who is carrying no visible load on the body is actually carrying a concealed load under their clothes. The use of radar gait as a metric for the detection (as opposed to a video system) of a suicide bomber is being proposed because detection of gait characteristics are thought to be less sensitive to where the bomb is located on the body, lighting conditions, and the fact that the legs may be shrouded in a robe. The detection of a bomb using radar gait analysis may also prove to be less sensitive to changing tactics regarding where the bomb is placed on the body. An inert suicide bomb vest was constructed using water pipes to simulate the explosive devices. Wiring was added to simulated detonators. The vest weighs approximately 35 pounds. Radar data was taken on the volunteer subject wearing the vest that simulated the suicide bomb. This

  19. Study of low energy thermal constraints for a copper-plated niobium structure carried out by thermal projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassot, H.; Durante, M.; Thiebault, A.; Vernay, E.

    1999-06-01

    In the framework of T.T.F. (Tesla Test Facility), the international collaboration on research and development of superconducting cavities, a study of a new method of manufacturing cavities was launched, which consists in deposing a metal (copper) or an alloy by thermal projection on niobium cavities in order to stiffen them. Analytical and numerical calculations showed that when cooled this bi-material cavities behave very differently in comparison with classical pure niobium cavities and strong thermal constraints do occur in niobium as well as in copper. These strong constraints may have important consequences upon the functioning of superconducting cavities. In addition these constraints may induce in time cracks in materials and interfaces. In this paper an experiment for measuring constraints at the temperature of cavity operation, i.e., at the liquid helium temperature, is proposed in order to compare the measured constraints with the calculated constraints. The sample studied has a cylindrical shape, rather representative for the geometrical shape of cavities, but easier to handle than a prototype cavity. The experimental approach consists in carrying out two deformation measurements. The first one, is done on single material sample (niobium and copper) to establish the laws of compensation of the constraint gauges as a function of temperature. The other measurement establishes the global deformations of a bi-metallic tube (Nb-Cu) when the interior surface (niobium) and the external surface (porous copper) of the tube are cooled. From these deformation data the thermal constraints of the bi-metallic tube at low temperature have been derived. The implementation of the entire setup of the methods of measuring the constraints at low temperature constitutes a new development in the field of superconducting cavities. The experiments have also indicated certain further developments which should be achieved if the plastic deformations induced by the freezing regime

  20. Transport characteristics of nanoscale zero-valent iron carried by three different "vehicles" in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Zhao, Yong S; Li, Lu L; Qin, Chuan Y; Wu, Fan; Geng, Nan N; Lei, Jian S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transport properties of nanoscale zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) (nZVI) carried by three vehicles: water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, and SDS foam. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the sedimentation capability of nZVI particles in these three vehicles. Column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport properties of nZVI in porous media formed with different sizes of sand (0.25 mm to 0.5 mm, 0.5 mm to 0.9 mm, and 0.9 mm to 1.4 mm). Three main results were obtained. First, the batch experiments revealed that the stabilities of nZVI particles in SDS solution and SDS foam were improved, compared with that of nZVI particles in water. Moreover, the sedimentation of nZVI in foam was closely associated with the foam drainage volume. The nZVI content in foam was similar to that in the original foaming suspension, and the nZVI particle distribution in foam became significantly more uniform at a stirring speed of 3000 r/min. Second, the transport of nZVI was enhanced by foam compared with water and SDS solution for 0.25 mm to 0.5 mm diameter sand. For sand with diameters of 0.5 mm to 0.9 mm and 0.9 mm to 1.4 mm, the mobility of nZVI carried by SDS solution was optimal, followed by that of nZVI carried by foam and water. Thus, the mobility of nZVI in finer sand was significantly enhanced by foam, compared with that in coarse sand. In contrast, compared with the bare nZVI suspension and nZVI-laden foam, the spatial distribution of nZVI particles carried by SDS solution was significantly uniform along the column length. Third, the SDS concentration significantly influenced the migration of nZVI in porous media. The enhancement in the migration of nZVI carried by SDS solution was greater at an SDS dose of 0.25% compared with that at the other three doses (0.2%, 0.5%, and 1%) for sand with a 0.25 mm to 0.5 mm diameter. Increased SDS concentrations positively affected the transport of nZVI by foam for sand with a

  1. 33 CFR 157.610 - Operational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Interim Measures for Certain Tank Vessels Without Double Hulls Carrying Other Non-Petroleum Oil § 157.610 Operational measures. An owner or operator of a tank vessel that carries other non-petroleum oil in bulk as...

  2. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  3. Area/latency optimized early output asynchronous full adders and relative-timed ripple carry adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, P; Yamashita, S

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two area/latency optimized gate level asynchronous full adder designs which correspond to early output logic. The proposed full adders are constructed using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adhere to the four-phase return-to-zero handshaking. For an asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) constructed using the proposed early output full adders, the relative-timing assumption becomes necessary and the inherent advantages of the relative-timed RCA are: (1) computation with valid inputs, i.e., forward latency is data-dependent, and (2) computation with spacer inputs involves a bare minimum constant reverse latency of just one full adder delay, thus resulting in the optimal cycle time. With respect to different 32-bit RCA implementations, and in comparison with the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output full adder designs, one of the proposed early output full adders achieves respective reductions in latency by 67.8, 12.3 and 6.1 %, while the other proposed early output full adder achieves corresponding reductions in area by 32.6, 24.6 and 6.9 %, with practically no power penalty. Further, the proposed early output full adders based asynchronous RCAs enable minimum reductions in cycle time by 83.4, 15, and 8.8 % when considering carry-propagation over the entire RCA width of 32-bits, and maximum reductions in cycle time by 97.5, 27.4, and 22.4 % for the consideration of a typical carry chain length of 4 full adder stages, when compared to the least of the cycle time estimates of various strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output asynchronous RCAs of similar size. All the asynchronous full adders and RCAs were realized using standard cells in a semi-custom design fashion based on a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology.

  4. A method for prediction of extent of microbial pollution of seawater and carrying capacity of beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1989-07-01

    The increase in the number of tourists visiting a coast is desired by most of the countries for economic reasons. However, this increase in tourism may cause pollution of the sea. This can be only avoided by proper planning and by predicting the “carrying capacity” of the coast in terms of sea pollution. This is especially important for developing countries where part of the wastewater is discharged without any treatment into the sea. In the present study the beaches were classified according to their use — and consequently the amount of waste discharged into the sea — into four groups: (1) coasts that are used only for swimming and recreational purposes; (2) coasts used simultaneously for dwelling, swimming, and recreational purposes; (3) coasts along which only dwellings exist; and (4) natural and man-made harbors, i.e., coasts used as shelters. During the survey,40,320 observations were made between December 1985 and February 1988 to determine the effect of the number of tourists on seawater quality. The results obtained were analyzed by a multilinear regression program to obtain an empirical equation giving the extent of the sea pollution in terms of coliform concentration as a function of population density and some other environmental factors. The equations derived in this study enable the determination of the carrying capacity of a beach in terms of pollution as well as the expected degree of pollution corresponding to a given population density. Furthermore, it allows the prediction of the extra carrying capacity that can be obtained by improving the waste-disposal conditions.

  5. Estimating carrying capacity in a newly colonized sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Erika; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ferro, Cristina

    2002-02-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Damasceno & Arouck) was mass-reared tinder conditions of varying densities in an effort to improve colony production efficiency. To do this, the experimental carrying capacity of a standard rearing chamber was determined, i.e., the optimum population size in relation to density (individuals per unit of space). Rearing chambers of 100 cm3 were populated with 1-50 L. serrana engorged females and an equal number of males. Laboratory conditions were maintained at 23-26 degrees C and 85-95% RH. The following parameters were recorded for each experimental chamber (three replicates): (1) female mortality without oviposition, (2) number of eggs oviposited and (3) number of adults emerging from the egg cohort. Female mortality began to increase substantially in the 26-female chamber, from 5.7% to 15% and finally reaching 60.2% in the 46-50 female chambers. In the chambers containing 1-20 females, egg number and realized adult progeny increased linearly to reach an asymptote. In the 20-50 female chambers, the number of eggs ranged from 420 to 699, and adult production from 306 to 432. The optimum carrying capacity for the 100-cm3 chambers was 22 +/- 2 females. Beyond this number, auto-regulation was initiated, i.e., female mortality without oviposition increased as the number of females per chamber increased. Total number of eggs and adult production was similar in all chambers containing 20-50 females. In conclusion, for optimizing production of mass reared sand flies, determination of the carrying capacity is essential to optimize use of insectary resources, to avoid loss of valuable potentially ovipositing females, and to increase overall production efficiency.

  6. Estimation of the number of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano

    2004-03-01

    Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree.

  7. A phenotype of atypical apraxia of speech in a family carrying SQSTM1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Camuzat, Agnès; Le Ber, Isabelle; Bouya-Ahmed, Kawtar; Guerreiro, Rita; Deruet, Anne-Laure; Evrard, Christelle; Bras, José; Lamy, Estelle; Auffray-Calvier, Elisabeth; Pallardy, Amandine; Hardy, John; Brice, Alexis; Derkinderen, Pascal; Vercelletto, Martine

    2015-01-01

    SQSTM1 mutations, coding for the p62 protein, were identified as a monogenic cause of Paget disease of bone and of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. More recently, SQSTM1 mutations were identified in few families with frontotemporal dementia. We report a new family carrying SQSTM1 mutation and presenting with a clinical phenotype of speech apraxia or atypical behavioral disorders, associated with early visuo-contructional deficits. This study further supports the implication of SQSTM1 in frontotemporal dementia, and enlarges the phenotypic spectrum associated with SQSTM1 mutations.

  8. MODELLING STUDIES ON THE USE OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS IN LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD-CARRYING CRANE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian GĄSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical analysis whose aim was to compare the basic dynamic and strength parameters of lightweight load-carrying crane structures made of aluminium alloys and steel. The analysis covered the typical construction of workshop cranes with a span of 3 to 5 meters, girders in the form of an I-beam and maximum load capacities amounting to 5 tons. The values of stresses, deflections and natural frequencies were compared and then matched with the masses of the various structures. In the simulation a girder model was used and computed by the finite element method.

  9. Soil Enzyme Activities in Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) Plantations in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wang; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Chen Xiao; Guolei Li; Yong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in forest stand structure may alter the activity of invertase, urease, catalase and phenol oxidase after thinning Pinus tabuliformis (Carriére) plantations in Yanqing County of Beijing, China. We examined changes in these soil enzymes as influenced by time since thinning (24, 32, and 40 years since thinning) for 3 seasons (spring, summer and autumn) following harvesting at two depths in the mineral soil (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm). Invertase and urease increased significantly with time sin...

  10. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  11. Streptococcus lutetiensis Bacteremia. First Clindamycin Resistant Isolate Carrying lnuB Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Almuzara, Marisa; Bonofiglio, Laura; Cittadini, Roberto Arnaldo; Vera Ocampo, C.; Montilla, A.; del Castillo, M.; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Mollerach, Marta Eugenia; Vay, C.

    2015-01-01

    First Case of Streptococcus lutetiensis Bacteremia Involving a Clindamycin-Resistant Isolate Carrying the lnuB Gene Fil: Almuzara, Marisa. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica; Argentina; Fil: Bonofiglio, Laura. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología y Biotecnología; Argentina; Fil: Cittadini, Roberto Arnaldo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria;...

  12. Study on ac losses of HTS coil carrying ac transport current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Taozhen; Tang Yuejin; Li Jingdong; Zhou Yusheng; Cheng Shijie; Pan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ac loss has an important influence on the thermal performances of HTS coil. It is necessary to quantify ac loss to ascertain its impact on coil stability and for sizing the coil refrigeration system. In this paper, we analyzed in detail the ac loss components, hysteresis loss, eddy loss and flux flow loss in the pancake HTS coil carrying ac transport current by finite element method. We also investigated the distribution of the ac losses in the coil to study the effects of magnetic field distribution on ac losses

  13. Sound insulation property of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials carrying different masses at adjacent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen

    2013-08-01

    We present the experimental realization and theoretical understanding of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials embedded with different masses at adjacent cells, capable of increasing the transmission loss at low frequency. Owing to the reverse vibration of adjacent cells, Transmission loss (TL) peaks appear, and the magnitudes of the TL peaks exceed the predicted results of the composite wall. Compared with commonly used configuration, i.e., all cells carrying with identical mass, the nonuniformity of attaching masses causes another much low TL peak. Finite element analysis was employed to validate and provide insights into the TL behavior of the structure.

  14. Levitation of current carrying states in the lattice model for the integer quantum Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschny, T; Potempa, H; Schweitzer, L

    2001-04-23

    The disorder driven quantum Hall to insulator transition is investigated for a two-dimensional lattice model. The Hall conductivity and the localization length are calculated numerically near the transition. For uncorrelated and weakly correlated disorder potentials the current carrying states are annihilated by the negative Chern states originating from the band center. In the presence of correlated disorder potentials with correlation length larger than approximately half the lattice constant the floating up of the critical states in energy without merging is observed. This behavior is similar to the levitation scenario proposed for the continuum model.

  15. The energy-carrying velocity and rolling of tachyons of unstable D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Hyun; L'Yi, Won Sik

    2004-01-01

    We show that the tachyons that originate from unstable D-branes carry energy and momentum at a velocity β = c 2 /v; where v is the phase velocity, which is greater than c. For an observer who moves with velocity β, the tachyon is observed to be moving from one of the ground states of the tachyon potential to a potential hill. The tachyon is found to either pass over the hill or bounce back to the original ground state. Another possible solution is the case that is margial to these; that is, the tachyon reaches the top of the potential hill and stays there forever.

  16. Generation of zonal magnetic fields by drift waves in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that zonal magnetic fields (ZMFs) can be nonlinearly excited by incoherent drift waves (DWs) in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma. The dynamics of incoherent DWs in the presence of ZMFs is governed by a wave-kinetic equation. The governing equation for ZMFs in the presence of nonlinear advection force of the DWs is obtained from the parallel component of the electron momentum equation and the Faraday law. Standard techniques are used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation, which depicts instability via which ZMFs are excited in plasmas. ZMFs may inhibit the turbulent cross-field particle and energy transport in a nonuniform magnetoplasma.

  17. Forces on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field: the macro-micro connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Kneubil, Fabiana; Robilotta, Manoel

    2017-01-01

    The classic problem of determining the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field is critically analysed. A common explanation found in many introductory textbooks is to represent the force on the wire as the sum of the forces on charge carriers. In this approach neither the nature...... of the forces involved nor their application points are fully discussed. In this paper we provide an alternative microscopic explanation that is suitable for introductory electromagnetism courses at university level. By considering the wire as a superposition of a positive and a negative cylindrical charge...

  18. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingeldein, Andrea L; White, J Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry over to affect post-settlement survival on the reef, with higher-larval-condition fish experiencing less post-settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry-over effects on post-settlement antipredator behaviours. We predicted that better-condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI) and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group-joining behaviour. Secondly, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1-4 days post-settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group-joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post-settlement. Larval traits carry over to affect post

  19. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new chloroquine analogues carrying a multifunctional linear side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Daniel P; Whetmore, Eric D; Rosa, Nicholas; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D; Wolf, Christian

    2009-09-15

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of several new 4-amino- and 4-alkoxy-7-chloroquinolines carrying a linear dibasic side chain. Many of these chloroquine analogues have submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Importantly, compounds 11-15 and 24 proved to be more potent against Dd2 than chloroquine. Branching of the side chain structure proved detrimental to the activity against the CQR strain.

  20. Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi

    1987-06-01

    Workshop on ''Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and diagnostics'' was held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University on 3. and 4. December 1986 under a collaborating research Program. The workshop was attended by 43 researchers from 19 labolatories. A total of 22 papers were submitted and are presented in these proceedings. The largest group of papers was that on soft X-ray emission. It seems this topic is a foremost interest for groups which engaged in research of the Z pinch and the plasma focus. A variety of problems in pinched dense plasmas, namely spectroscopy, diagnostics, pinch dynamics, and related engineering aspects were also discussed. (author)

  1. Goiania radiation accident: activities carried out and lessons learned based on personal experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Goiânia Radiological Accident, on September 13, 1987, with a radioactive source of cesium-137 with 50.9 TBq, used in radiotherapy, is one of the most important accidents in the scientific area, representing a milestone for all workers in the areas of radiation protection and radiological emergency that worked during the event. A personal view of the Goiânia Radiological Accident is presented, showing some activities carried out in contaminated areas and lessons learned based on own experience during the event

  2. Special training for drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1993-01-01

    In Germany drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials have to undergo special training since midyear 1991. Training is organized in a modular system, which means that the driver can customize his dangerous goods training programme by combining several modules. The contents of the training programme, its organization and supervision as well as the means for checking the successful completion of the programme can be seen from the slides. This paper will close with an outlook on the European development, considering the framework set by the regulations of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the European Community (EC). (J.P.N.)

  3. Studies on esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of ganoderma lucidum carried by Shenzhou spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianjun; Chen Xiangdong; Lan Jin

    2002-01-01

    The esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of four Ganoderma lucidum strains carried by Shenzhou spaceship were studied. The results showed that different effects occurred to esterase and mycelium growth speed. The SX, S3 esterase band had changed compared with their control CX, C3, respectively, but there were no differences between SH and CH, S4 and C4. The growth speed of S4 strain was faster than its control C4, SX strain lower than its control CX, and there were no difference between SH and CH, S3 and C3

  4. Research on the behaviour of pressure suppression containment systems carried out at the University of Pisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, R.; Bovalini, R.; Mazzini, M.; Micheletti, E.

    1978-01-01

    A research programme has been carried out at the University of Pisa to study the thermo-hydraulic transient in pressure suppression containment systems during a LOCA. In the first series of experimental tests remarkable oscillations of pressure were observed both in dry and in wet-well. In order to describe these dynamic phenomena, a mathematical model has been set up; the main out-lines of this model are briefly described and the comparison between the calculated and experimental results is reported. (author)

  5. Review of evaluation on ecological carrying capacity: The progress and trend of methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Xu, Y.; Liu, T. J.; Ye, J. M.; Pan, B. L.; Chu, C.; Peng, Z. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ecological carrying capacity (ECC) has been regarded as an important reference to indicate the level of regional sustainable development since the very beginning of twenty-first century. By a brief review of the main progress in ECC evaluation methodologies in recent five years, this paper systematically discusses the features and differences of these methods and expounds the current states and future development trend of ECC methodology. The result shows that further exploration in terms of the dynamic, comprehensive and intelligent assessment technologies needs to be provided in order to form a unified and scientific ECC methodology system and to produce a reliable basis for environmental-economic decision-makings.

  6. Synthesis of nanodiamond derivatives carrying amino functions and quantification by a modified Kaiser test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Jarre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanodiamonds functionalized with different organic moieties carrying terminal amino groups have been synthesized. These include conjugates generated by Diels–Alder reactions of ortho-quinodimethanes formed in situ from pyrazine and 5,6-dihydrocyclobuta[d]pyrimidine derivatives. For the quantification of primary amino groups a modified photometric assay based on the Kaiser test has been developed and validated for different types of aminated nanodiamond. The results correspond well to values obtained by thermogravimetry. The method represents an alternative wet-chemical quantification method in cases where other techniques like elemental analysis fail due to unfavourable combustion behaviour of the analyte or other impediments.

  7. A Pilot Study On A Moment Carrying Beam-column Connection For Precast Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Vedat

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a moment carrying beam-column connection detail for precast structures has been investigated in the experimental and analytical manner. The 1/2 scaled beam-column test specimen is representing a real exterior precast connection detail. The cast-in-situ welded connection is applied at bottom face of the beams and additional re-bars and cast-in-situ concrete is introduced at the upper part of the beams. The experimental study is conducted in the form of varying beam top diplaceme...

  8. Standard test method for measurement of light reflectance value and small color differences between pieces of ceramic tile

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) and visually small color difference between pieces of glazed or unglazed ceramic tile, using any spectrophotometer that meets the requirements specified in the test method. LRV and the magnitude and direction of the color difference are expressed numerically, with sufficient accuracy for use in product specification. 1.2 LRV may be measured for either solid-colored tile or tile having a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface. For tile that are not solid-colored, an average reading should be obtained from multiple measurements taken in a pattern representative of the overall sample as described in 9.2 of this test method. Small color difference between tiles should only be measured for solid-color tiles. Small color difference between tile that have a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface, are not valid. 1.3 For solid colored tile, a comparison of the test specimen and reference specimen should be made under incandescent, f...

  9. Grip force and heart rate responses to manual carrying tasks: effects of material, weight, and base area of the container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien; Tseng, Chia-Yun

    2014-01-01

    This study recruited 16 industrial workers to examine the effects of material, weight, and base area of container on reduction of grip force (ΔGF) and heart rate for a 100-m manual carrying task. This study examined 2 carrying materials (iron and water), 4 carrying weights (4.4, 8.9, 13.3, 17.8 kg), and 2 base areas of container (24 × 24 cm, 35 × 24 cm). This study showed that carrying water significantly increased ΔGF and heart rate as compared with carrying iron. Also, ΔGF and heart rate significantly increased with carrying weight and base area of container. The effects of base area of container on ΔGF and heart rate were greater in carrying water condition than in carrying iron condition. The maximum dynamic effect of water on ΔGF and heart rate occurred when water occupied ~60%-80% of full volume of the container.

  10. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  11. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  12. The Fetal Care Team: Care for Pregnant Women Carrying a Fetus with a Serious Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyet, Margaret; McLean, Amy; Graham, Karen; Antoine, Cheryl; Fossick, Kathy

    Women carrying a fetus with a suspected or known fetal anomaly have complex needs such as emotional and informational support and help with the logistical aspects of arranging care and treatment from numerous specialists. IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE FOR WOMEN CARRYING A FETUS WITH A SUSPECTED OR KNOWN FETAL ANOMALY:: Our fetal care team was initiated in 2012 to meet the needs of this high-risk pregnant population. The fetal care team nurse coordinator supports the woman and her family through all aspects of care during the pregnancy and neonatal period including scheduling appointments with multiple specialists, being there with her as a support person, keeping her updated, making sure she has accurate information about the fetal diagnosis, and helping her to navigate the complex healthcare system. Since the program was started, the number of women enrolled has nearly doubled. Women overwhelmingly are satisfied with the various services and care provided by the nurse coordinators and believe the fetal care team has value for them. We present the development and operations of our fetal care team with a focus on the role of the fetal care team nurse coordinator.

  13. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Plogistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  14. Nonlinear calculation of the M=1 internal kink instability in current carrying stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1978-02-01

    Nonlinear properties of the m = 1 internal kink mode are shown in a low β current carrying stellarator. The effects of the external helical magnetic fields are considered through a rotational transform and the magnetic surface is assumed to be circular. Magnetic surfaces inside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface shift and deform non-circularly, while magnetic surfaces outside the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 are not disturbed, where iota sub(h) is a rotational transform due to helical magnetic fields and iota sub(σ) is due to a plasma current. Many higher harmonics are excited after the fundamental mode saturates. When the external helical magnetic fields are lowered, the m = 1 tearing mode similar to that in a low β tokamak grows and magnetic islands appear near the iota sub(h) + iota sub(σ) = 1 surface. For adequate helical magnetic fields, the current carrying stellarator becomes stable against both the m = 1 internal kink mode and the m = 1 tearing mode, without lowering the rotational transform. (auth.)

  15. One hundred fold increase in current carrying capacity in a carbon nanotube-copper composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Yamada, Takeo; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    Increased portability, versatility and ubiquity of electronics devices are a result of their progressive miniaturization, requiring current flow through narrow channels. Present-day devices operate close to the maximum current-carrying-capacity (that is, ampacity) of conductors (such as copper and gold), leading to decreased lifetime and performance, creating demand for new conductors with higher ampacity. Ampacity represents the maximum current-carrying capacity of the object that depends both on the structure and material. Here we report a carbon nanotube-copper composite exhibiting similar conductivity (2.3-4.7 × 105Scm-1) as copper (5.8 × 105Scm-1), but with a 100-times higher ampacity (6 × 108Acm-2). Vacuum experiments demonstrate that carbon nanotubes suppress the primary failure pathways in copper as observed by the increased copper diffusion activation energy (~2.0eV) in carbon nanotube-copper composite, explaining its higher ampacity. This is the only material with both high conductivity and high ampacity, making it uniquely suited for applications in microscale electronics and inverters.

  16. Control technologies for quadruped walking robot to facilitate carrying operations in reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, Naotaka; Uehara, Takuya; Nakamura, Norihito

    2014-01-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which was seriously damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it has been difficult for workers to approach the reactor buildings due to the hazardous surrounding environment. The need has therefore arsen for remote-controlled robots to facilitate inspection and restoration work on behalf of workers in such a high-level radiation environment. Toshiba has developed a quadruped walking robot that can carry various tools for decommissioning work. This robot is capable of maintaining its balance while walking on uneven surfaces, slopes, and stairs due to the adoption of control technologies to not only autonomously determine the leg trajectories and center of gravity, but also to correct the leg landing positions and posture with operator intervention according to the walking situation. It also offers high mobility and workability through a manipulation function that allows it to unload tools carried on its back storage area by using two of its legs like arms. This quadruped walking robot was applied to the investigation of suspected water leakage areas in the reactor building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 in December 2012. (author)

  17. Characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyatmo, B.; Rustadi; Priyono, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture. This study was conducted in 2015 by characterizing land and water dynamics, land use, and the suitability of coastal environments for aquaculture. Evaluation on the coastal environments suitability for aquaculture ponds was based on the landforms, soil properties, water quality and land. Selection of coastal locations for aquaculture development was based on the level of suitability of coastal environment. The results showed that the coastal in Kulon Progo and Bantul Regencies were characterized by sand dune and beach ridge with sandy soil texture, while in Gunungkidul Regency was characterized by limestone hill with rocky texture. Water sources of the coastal area were the sea, river, and ground water with the salinity of 31–37, 7–11, 7–31 ppt and pH of 7.4–8.4 7.0–8.2 and 7.4–9.9, respectively. The coastal lands were used for seasonal/annual planting, ponds, fish landing sites, tourism areas and conservation areas. The coastal carrying capacity was rather suitable for aquaculture, especially in the sandy soil area. Aquaculture in that area can be done intensively for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), using biocrete (biological material) or plastic sheet.

  18. Synthesis and optical properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid carrying a clicked Nile red label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Yotapan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA or its analogues with an environment-sensitive fluorescent label are potentially useful as a probe for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids. In this work, pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA was labeled at its backbone with Nile red, a solvatochromic benzophenoxazine dye, by means of click chemistry. The optical properties of the Nile red-labeled acpcPNA were investigated by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of DNA. In contrast to the usual quenching observed in Nile red-labeled DNA, the hybridization with DNA resulted in blue shifting and an enhanced fluorescence regardless of the neighboring bases. More pronounced blue shifts and fluorescence enhancements were observed when the DNA target carried a base insertion in close proximity to the Nile red label. The results indicate that the Nile red label is located in a more hydrophobic environment in acpcPNA–DNA duplexes than in the single-stranded acpcPNA. The different fluorescence properties of the acpcPNA hybrids of complementary DNA and DNA carrying a base insertion are suggestive of different interactions between the Nile red label and the duplexes.

  19. Modeling Jet Interaction of a Round Jet with a Subsonic Carrying Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Korobkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes numerical simulation of the round jet with a subsonic carrying flow. Performs calculations for different tilt angles of the jet ωj blowing and constructs the fields of velocities and pressures of the flow, jet trajectory, as well as calculates the pressure coefficients on the plate surface.To solve this problem, the CAD Solidworks Flow Simulation software was used. This package contains the solution of the Nowier-Stokes equation, which is necessary for modeling this problem.To test operation capability of the closing condition (k-th model of turbulence and proper choice of the boundaries of the computational domain, was solved a test problem forThe solution analysis has shown that the k-th model of turbulence was capable, and has a good agreement with other authors' experiment results [4]. Based on the selected conditions, further calculations were carried out for different tilt angles of jet blowing.In the course of research activities, it was revealed that the tilt angle of the jet blowing has a strong impact on redistribution of velocity and pressure in the area of the jet interaction, which allows the efficient use of such jets to control aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft with the same power consumption for blowing out the gas. The solution of this problem is very relevant in wide application in aviation and rocket and space technology.

  20. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Land Use Changes in Da'an City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, J.; Li, B.

    2018-04-01

    Based on GIS and RS technology, this paper analyzed the land use change in Da'an city from 1995 to 2010. land-use ecological evaluation index was constructed to evaluate the land-use ecological risk of Da 'an city dynamically, and the land-use ecological risk level map was made, and then the distribution and change of the land-use ecological carrying capacity pattern of Da'an city were analyzed qualitatively. According to the evaluation results of ecological carrying capacity, the ecological environment of Da'an city has deteriorated in fifteen years. in 1995, the poor ecological environment area is mainly distributed in the northeast area of Da'an city, and the area is small, while the area of the central and southern areas is large; In 2010, the western region also appeared environmental degradation, the northeast environment deterioration is serious, the dominant area is reduced, and a small amount of deterioration in the central and southern regions. According to the study of this paper, in the future, we should strengthen the comprehensive management of this part of the area, strengthen vegetation coverage, reduce soil erosion, ensure the effective improvement of ecological environment.