WorldWideScience

Sample records for inca cultures attempted

  1. Inca Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Mariusz

    The ritual, central Inca calendar, adapted to the ecological, cultural, and ethnic realities of the Cuzco valley, was the basis of the imperial calendar, used for the administration of the Inca Empire. According to the main historical sources, it was composed of 12 synodic months calculated from new moon to new moon. The correlation of this cycle with the tropical year was achieved by the intercalation of an additional 13th month, every 2 or 3 years. Tom Zuidema's thesis about the existence of the "stellar lunar calendar" or "quipu-calendar" is also analyzed.

  2. Library of INCA

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Aeron

    2013-01-01

    LIBRARY OF INCA. Åpning: 25. august 2012. (18.00 til 21.00) Utstillingsperiode: 25. august - 22. september. Utstillere: Aurora Harris, Frido Evers, Lina Persson, Per-Oskar Leu, Cary Loren, Inger Wold Lund, Hamilton Poe. Kuratorer: Aeron Bergman and Alejandra Salinas. Visningssted: INCA - Institute for Neo Connotative Action, Detroit, USA.

  3. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  4. Inca Astronomy and Calendrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Bauer, Brian S.

    Half a millennium ago in the central Andes of Peru, the movements of the sun, moon, and stars were watched and interpreted by the Inca. The astronomical observations made in and near the former capital, Cuzco, formed the nuclei of the most important public rituals of the empire. As the regulator of time, the ruling Inca scheduled the rituals that bound this society together. In this article, we review the major astronomical observations that were made by the Inca and discuss their importance in defining the ritual calendar.

  5. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  6. Microscopic Rocks and Expansive Empires: Investigating Inca Ceramics from Cuzco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Ixer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High quality polychrome ceramics are an iconic aspect of Inca material culture. This ‘Cuzco Inca’ pottery appears suddenly in the archaeological record: but it draws upon technological and stylistic aspects of earlier local pottery and we discuss the specifics of how these pre-Inca traits were combined to form the distinctive new state ceramics. Using ceramic petrography, the dominant fabric of Cuzco Inca pottery is compared with those of two pre-Inca wares, Killke and Lucre. Andesite temper, identified in the Lucre and Cuzco Inca fabrics, is compared with samples of andesite from local geological outcrops. This suggests that Lucre pottery was made using similar materials to Cuzco Inca and was a technological precursor. Because these materials and technological knowledge would only have become available to the Inca after their conquest of the Lucre cultural area, this ceramic evidence has important implications for our understanding of Imperial expansion and state intervention in craft-production.

  7. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H; Gulbas, Lauren E

    2012-11-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multi-faceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions.

  8. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  9. El Inca Garcilaso y sus proyecciones // Inca Garcilaso and his projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad Barrera López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reading of Inca Garcilaso de la Vega faces the multiplicity of perspectives which emerge from his texts, and a number of discursive functions which create bridges between his cultural production and ours. His culture is defined by two coasts with his discourse moving between them; he adopts the position of a mediator in his cultural, creative, and translation practice. Inca Garcilaso emerges as an early model of a transplanted (transterrado intellectual. His works unite the oral and the written, the indigenous lore, the memory of his ancestors alongside the narrations of the chroniclers and that of the conquistadors, all for the sake of an identity which he reclaimed with urgency. It is this plurality of cultures and lores which makes him enormously topical today.

  10. Attempts at establishing the culture conditions for Lemna minor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krzychowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration, composition and pH of the substrate as well as of light intensity on the growth and vegetative propagation of Lemna minor L. was investigated. The media of Hutner, Hoagland and Pirson and Seidel were used. At first the experiments were carried out under unsterile conditions. Later sterilized duckweed was cultured in aseptic conditions. The dry matter was determined. Surface area increment and an increase in the number of fronds were evaluated by the planimetric method. For total protein determination in Lemna minor L. from unsterile and sterile cultures Lowry's method was used.

  11. Camino Inca Cajamarca – Baños del Inca

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Mareovich, Cecilia; León Ascurra, Wilder Javier

    2014-01-01

    En 1532 los capitanes Hernando de Soto y Hernando Pizarro recorrieron un antiguo camino desde la actual Plaza de Armas de Cajamarca hasta los Baños del Inca para entrevistarse con el Inca Atahualpa, quien recorrió por última vez este camino para su encuentro con Francisco Pizarro y sus huestes un 16 de noviembre de 1532. Esta información fue tomada de las descripciones del asentamiento inca que hicieran Hernando Pizarro (1537), Francisco de Xerez (1534), Miguel de Estete (1534), entre otros, ...

  12. Experts and Cultural Narcissism - An Attempt to Analyze the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Klimczuk, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the XXI century, human societies are entering a period of "late modernity" characterized by new forms of trust and risk, untransparent social situations and economic, political and cultural globalization. These processes are associated with the presence of abstract systems that surround people and which require support of people with expertise in the fields which include transport, telecommunications, finance, security, media, energy. At the same time, it is noted that the...

  13. Sonko-Nanay and epilepsy among the Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burneo, Jorge G

    2003-04-01

    The ancient American Inca culture was characterized by great cultural and organizational achievements. Medicine was also highly developed and epilepsy was a well-recognized disorder. Spanish chroniclers have given insightful accounts of the native point of view. Sonko-Nanay, a term that possibly refers to an epileptic event, is discussed in this article.

  14. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  15. Moessbauer studies of Inca ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.; Wagner, F.E.; Marticorena, B.; Salazar, R.; Schwabe, R.; Riederer, J.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain information on the firing of Inca ceramics, 7 samples from different locations were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy including a detailed laboratory refiring procedure. The glaze typical for the surface of this ware was studied by Moessbauer scattering. (Auth.)

  16. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  17. Inca expansion and parasitism in the lluta valley: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  18. Protocol and data INCA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelser, L.M.; Frankena, K.; Toorman, J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Dubios, R.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Haagen, T.A.; Rommelse, N.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    The file INCAdata.csv contains the data collected during the INCA study (100 records with 152 variables). The data have been analysed and outcomes were published by Pelsser et al (2011): "Effects of a restricted elimination diet on the behaviour of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity

  19. [Anesthesia in the Inca empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, H Barrie

    2007-11-01

    The Incas had no written language and their chroniclers say little about their surgery and nothing about their methods for relieving the pain it caused. It is possible that they did have some form of anesthesia. Available plants that had central effects include maize (which they used in different ways to prepare an alcoholic beverage called chicha), Datura, espingo, tobacco, San Pedro cactus, and coca. The Incas used chicha to induce unconsciousness during minor surgical operations and it was still being used in those regions in the 19th century to perform female circumcision. Datura, espingo, tobacco, and San Pedro cactus can produce a deep trance and, in all probability, anesthesia. There is evidence that they used Datura as a total or partial anesthetic. The Incas chewed coca leaves with lime and swallowed the resulting juice, and this allowed them to work long hours without eating or drinking. Modern-day Peruvian Indians say that coca only numbs the mouth, though it was observed in the 19th century that coca leaves placed in wounds provided pain relief. It is possible that the Incas used chicha - probably in combination with another narcotic - to achieve the total or partial anesthesia needed for their surgery. A decoction of coca leaves may have been used as a topical anesthetic.

  20. El Sistema Vial Inca y los desafíos para su conservación en tiempos modernos

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Canales, Moisés

    2013-01-01

    El Estado peruano, a través del Ministerio de Cultura, desarrolla dentro de su política cultural una estrategia para la identificación, protección, conservación y puesta en uso social del Sistema Vial Inca, el mayor monumento de la historia americana construida por el Estado Inca en el Siglo XV.

  1. The impact of migration and culture on suicide attempts of children and adolescents living in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Popow, Christian; Winkler, Dietmar; Bingöl, R Hülya; Demir, Türkay; Özlü, Zeliha

    2015-03-01

    Suicidal attempts are steadily increasing in societies with rapid urbanisation and dramatic social changes in places like Istanbul. Stress related to internal migration may increase suicidal behaviour. We investigated the impact of internal migration and culture on suicide attempts among youth in Istanbul. We retrospectively analysed the records of 210 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, who presented at the Emergency Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics at Cerrahpaşa Medical School in Istanbul because of suicide attempts between January 2008 and December 2010. The majority of patients (78.95%, N = 165) had a background of internal migration, mostly (65%, N = 136) originating from regions with large cultural differences compared with that of Istanbul. Noticeably, more migrants than non-migrants (18.8% vs. 6.8%) and more patients originating from regions with large cultural differences chose high-risk methods for suicide attempts (20.7% vs. 8.1%). Internal migration can be considered a serious risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Furthermore, the degree of cultural differences between the area of origin and the new environment can be of vital importance. Healthcare measures should, therefore, focus on internal migration as a risk factor for youth suicidal behaviour and provide assistance for appropriate resettlement and integration in countries with increased mobility.

  2. New multivariable capabilities of the INCA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly, efficient environment for the design and analysis of control systems, specifically spacecraft control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. The (INCA) program was initially developed as a comprehensive classical design analysis tool for small and large order control systems. The latest version of INCA, expected to be released in February of 1990, was expanded to include the capability to perform multivariable controls analysis and design.

  3. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu.

  4. The modern conception of the INCA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Ammosov, V.V.; Chechin, V.A.; Chubenko, A.P.; Erlykin, A.D.; Ladygin, E.A.; Merzon, G.I.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Murashev, V.N.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Ryabov, V.A.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Saito, T.; Sobolevskii, N.M.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Starkov, N.I.; Trostin, I.S.; Tsarev, V.A.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhdanov, G.B.; Zhukov, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The goals and status of the INCA Project are presented. New technique based on the ionization-neutron calorimeter (INCA) and designed to study the energy spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic radiation in the 'knee' region as well as the spectrum of primary electrons in the range 0.1-10 TeV is discussed

  5. La fuente Inca de Aypate

    OpenAIRE

    Astuhuamán Gonzáles, César W.; Ministerio de Cultura

    2013-01-01

    La mayor parte del cerro Aypate está cubierto por la tupida vegetación del húmedo bosque de neblina, la cual concentra y produce el elemento más valioso para los pueblos andinos: el agua. El asentamiento Inca de Aypate se construyó sobre el cerro que forma parte de una cadena montañosa de la que nacen pequeñas quebradas que alimentan las subcuencas de los ríos Quiroz y Macará, que a su vez integran la cuenca del Chira.

  6. Enclaves of genetic diversity resisted Inca impacts on population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Sandoval, José R; Valqui, Jairo; Shimelman, Aviva; Ziemendorff, Stefan; Schröder, Roland; Geppert, Maria; Roewer, Lutz; Gray, Russell; Stoneking, Mark; Fujita, Ricardo; Heggarty, Paul

    2017-12-12

    The Inca Empire is claimed to have driven massive population movements in western South America, and to have spread Quechua, the most widely-spoken language family of the indigenous Americas. A test-case is the Chachapoyas region of northern Peru, reported as a focal point of Inca population displacements. Chachapoyas also spans the environmental, cultural and demographic divides between Amazonia and the Andes, and stands along the lowest-altitude corridor from the rainforest to the Pacific coast. Following a sampling strategy informed by linguistic data, we collected 119 samples, analysed for full mtDNA genomes and Y-chromosome STRs. We report a high indigenous component, which stands apart from the network of intense genetic exchange in the core central zone of Andean civilization, and is also distinct from neighbouring populations. This unique genetic profile challenges the routine assumption of large-scale population relocations by the Incas. Furthermore, speakers of Chachapoyas Quechua are found to share no particular genetic similarity or gene-flow with Quechua speakers elsewhere, suggesting that here the language spread primarily by cultural diffusion, not migration. Our results demonstrate how population genetics, when fully guided by the archaeological, historical and linguistic records, can inform multiple disciplines within anthropology.

  7. The INCA project: present status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Ammosov, V.V.; Chechin, V.A.; Chubenko, A.P.; Erlykin, A.D.; Ladygin, E.A.; Merzon, G.I.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Murashov, V.N.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Ryabov, V.A.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Saito, T.; Sobolevskii, N.M.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Starkov, N.I.; Trostin, I.S.; Tsarev, V.A.; Wolfendale, A.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhdanov, G.B.; Zhukov, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific objectives, foundations, status, and outlook of the INCA Project are presented. Fundamentally new technique based on the ionization-neutron calorimeter (INCA) and designed to study local nearby sources of high-energy cosmic rays by direct measuring the spectrum and composition of the nuclear component in the 'knee' region and the spectrum of primary electrons in the energy range 0.1-10 TeV with the proton-background suppression factor up to 10 7 is discussed. Experimental data on exposition of the INCA prototypes to electron, pion, and proton beams at various energies and corresponding simulation results are presented. Prospects are considered

  8. Identidad y ética en los Comentarios reales de los incas del Inca Garcilaso de la Vega

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Julio Casado

    2003-01-01

    Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Historiografi. Renæssance. Spaniens erobring af Amerika. Etik. Paul Ricoeur......Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Historiografi. Renæssance. Spaniens erobring af Amerika. Etik. Paul Ricoeur...

  9. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  10. Inca and pre-Inca pottery: pottery from Cusichaca, Department of Cuzco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Lunt, S. W.

    1987-01-01

    Although important studies have been made of the Andean pottery of the Inca Empire and its predecessors, these studies usually have been based on pottery collections which lack good archaeological contexts. The usual interpretative framework for ceramic variation has been the hierarchical social organisation of the Inca Empire described in the Spanish chronicles. In this paper, the pottery differs from the previously studied collections in two ways: first in the classific...

  11. Radiocarbon dating of the Peruvian Chachapoya/Inca site at the Laguna de los Condores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.M.; Kutschera, W.; Seidler, H.; Steier, P.; Guillen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An archaeological site with several funerary houses built in the cliffs of the Laguna de los Condores by the Chachapoya people was discovered in 1997 in the cloud forest at a sea level of 2500 m in the Amazonas/San Martin area in Peru. The Chachapoya people and their culture is not fully understood until now and some myths entwine around the origin of that South American ancient civilisation. The Chachapoya are described as people of warriors, which were finally subdued by the Incas. A typical characteristic of their culture is the special burial of their dead in funeral bundles containing the remains of the bodies. At the Laguna de los Condores more that 200 mummies have been found and transferred to Leymebamba. During the rescue work of the mummies, which were in danger to be destroyed by looters, it turned out that two different burial patterns could be detected. It is assumed, that after conquering of the Chachapoyas, the Inca people took over also the burial cliff houses and used it for their own burials. The Incas themselves were subdued by the Spanish Conquistadors in 1532 AD. In order to shed light on the transition from the Chachapoya to the Inka dominance, which is connected with the history of the Laguna de los Condores funeral site, a multidisciplinary project between archaeologists, anthropologists and physicists has been started. VERA contributes to this project with several radiocarbon dates of archaeological objects and of the mummies from this Chachapoya/Inca site. (author)

  12. El Camino del Inca en el Norte Chico chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dentice Bacigalupe

    2011-09-01

    , collection and distribution of goods, regulation and censuses of the population, as well as population transfers and families formation related with a productive territory. The imperial interests flowed fast and silently over the network of roads, the main imperial structure. The Inca road infrastructure configured the conquered territory itself. Reading the territory implies a broad view of the historical, ecological and social context, as well as their potential and versatility to inhabit, linked to obtain profits without incurring in their deterioration, considering the density allowed by the medium in a given system. A sustainable eco-cultural tourism, of small scale, able to support the enormous human, geographical and archaeological potential that the place owns, could be managed by the local community itself, associated with its customs and traditional practices. This is consistent with the need to implement programs for heritage recognition and conservation. A minority of invited participants could be integrated in the experiential understanding of the territory, rather than just obtaining the benefit of an exotic landscape at an exotic location.

  13. Attempt to develop taste bud models in three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Miyako; Yuki, Saori; Fukano, Chiharu; Sako, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Takenori; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2011-09-01

    Taste buds are the end organs of taste located in the gustatory papillae, which occur on the surface of the oral cavity. The goal of the present study was to establish a culture model mimicking the lingual taste bud of the mouse. To this end, three cell lines were employed: taste bud-derived cell lines (TBD cell lines), a lingual epithelial cell-derived cell line (20A cell line), and a mesenchymal cell-derived cell line (TMD cell line). TBD cells embedded in collagen gel formed three-dimensional clusters, which had an internal cavity equipped with a tight junction-like structure, a microvilluslike structure, and a laminin-positive layer surrounding the cluster. The cells with this epitheliumlike morphology expressed marker proteins of taste cells: gustducin and NCAM. TBD cells formed a monolayer on collagen gel when they were co-cultured with TMD cells. TBD, 20A, and TMD cell lines were maintained in a triple cell co-culture, in which TBD cells were pre-seeded as aggregates or in suspension on the collagen gel containing TMD cells, and 20A cells were laid over the TBD cells. TBD cells in the triple cell co-culture expressed NCAM. This result suggests that co-cultured TBD cells exhibited a characteristic of Type III taste cells. The culture model would be useful to study morphogenesis and functions of the gustatory organ.

  14. Key concepts of the INCAS multicomputer project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehmer, J.; Haban, D.; Mattern, F.; Wybranietz, D.; Rombach, H.D.

    1987-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the INCAS (INCremental Architecture for distributed Systems) multicomputer project, which aims at the development of a comprehensive methodology for the design and implementation of locally distributed systems. A structuring concept for distributed operating systems has been developed and integrated into the system implementation language LADY. The concurrent high-level programming language CSSA, based on the actor model, has been designed for the implementation of distributed applications. A substantial effort in the INCAS project is directed towards the development of a distributed test methodology. An experimental system has been implemented on a network of ten MC68000 microcomputers. Preliminary experience with the methodology has been gained from a small number of prototype applications.

  15. Counting and Arithmetic of the Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Catepillán

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Inca Empire - the greatest pre-Columbian empire on the American continent - extended from Ecuador to central Chile for more than five thousand miles. Its capital was Cuzco established in the high Peruvian Andes. This highly advanced civilization developed a counting system used to run the empire - in particular, to build the 14,000 mile road structure and monumental architecture. Some of the algorithms believed to be used by the Inca to do computations using a yupana, an ancient calculating device, will be presented, as well as classroom activities for the course “Mathematics in Non-European Cultures” for non Mathematics and Science majors offered at Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  16. Inca Royal Estates in the Sacred Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    The royal estates lying between Cusco and Machu Picchu illustrate the remarkable variety by which the sun was honored and worshipped in the Inca Empire. The terraced basins of Moray combine the sun at both solstices and, perhaps, the zenith sun, with flowing water and offerings to Pachamama. The complex astronomy at Urubamba involves the palace of Quespiwanka, horizon pillars, solstices, and mountain worship. Ollantaytambo contains horizontal shadow-casting gnomons with a major water shrine.

  17. A Tramp Abroad Chronicles Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Attempts to Theorize Culture and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Dodge, Autumn M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper works organically from unique experiences the authors have teaching abroad with other trained teachers and scholars and in diverse contexts. It considers the culture and creativity literature, fundamental and relevant mechanisms in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages and educational psychology, and suggests a relational…

  18. The Cultural Missions Programme: An Early Attempt at Community Development in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alfredo

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the "Cultural Missions Programme" of Mexico's educational reform after 1920, in which groups of teachers using Catholic missionary methods fought poverty and ignorance in rural Mexico. These mission programs embody most of the community development principles and are still needed. (MF)

  19. Mental disorder among the Incas in ancient Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink, J G

    1999-09-01

    The work of the chroniclers served as a source of information about the occurrence of mental diseases among the Incas. From this source it appears that melancholy was by far the most important disease among mental disorders. The disease did not only affect the common Incas: melancholy was rather frequent among the family of the Inca emperor. Like other diseases, mental diseases were treated by the Incas with a mixture of magic and empirical medicinal products. The latter were mainly of botanical nature, but also some minerals were applied to treat depressive disorders. Some typical syndromes of contemporary folk medicine, such as susto and related ailments, were not mentioned by the chroniclers.

  20. "Apu Ollantay": Inca Theatre as an example of the modes of interaction between the Incas and Western Amazonian societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bertazoni

    Full Text Available The article looks closely at the Quechua play "Apu Ollantay" in order to better understand the relationships of power that the Incas established with the Amazonian corner of their empire, known in Inca terms as Antisuyu. It is argued that the drama "Apu Ollantay" functioned as a social and political device in order to enhance Inca imperial magnitude and project an image of a magnanimous ruler.

  1. Workplace activities to promote small attempts for safety. Toward development of safety culture in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hirokazu; Sugiman, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Activities that could possibly grow into learning activities for developing safety culture were explored by intensive fieldwork in a nuclear power plant depending on Engestroem's activity theory. As a first step to achieve this goal, workers' small attempts that might contribute to nurturing a safety culture were investigated. Eight kinds of activity were observed and interpreted as having the possibility to facilitate small recognition and small practice, i.e., activities including (1) workgroup as community, (2) other workgroups and other departments as community, (3) meeting drawing remarks as mediating artifacts, (4) study session and Off-the-Job-Training as mediating artifact, (5) award as mediating artifact, (6) extended leave as mediating artifact, (7) check sheet as mediating artifact, and (8) skill-transfer system as mediating artifact. (author)

  2. Inca Volcanic Stone Provenance in the Cuzco Province, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick N. Hunt

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of andesite and basalt as architectual ashlars by Inca stonemasons has been widely discussed throughout the literature. Most of these archaeological or architectural studies are in agreement that that primary Inca quarrying centers in the Cuzco area are in the Rio Huatanay valley at Rumiqolqa and Huaccoto, both to the southeast of Cuzco.

  3. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  4. Counting and Arithmetic of the Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Catepillán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Imperio Inca ¿ el imperio pre-Colombino más grande del continente Americano ¿ se extendió desde Ecuador hasta Chile central por más de cinco mil millas. La capital fue Cuzco, la que fue establecida en las Alturas de los Andes Peruanos. Esta civilización altamente avanzada desarrolló un sistema contable para organizar el imperio ¿ en particular, para construir una red de caminos de 14.000 millas y una arquitectura monumental. Algunos de los algoritmos que se creen haber sido usados por los Inca para hacer cálculos fue la "yupana". Este antiguo artefacto de cálculo será presentado, entre otras actividades del curso "Matemáticas en Culturas No-Europeas" para estudiantes de todas las áreas de concentración, excepto Matemáticas y Ciencia, ofrecido en la Universidad de Millersville en Pennsylvania.

  5. Cosmovisión Inca: nuevos enfoques y viejos problemas

    OpenAIRE

    García Escudero, María del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    [ES]En esta tesis se considera el caso de la cosmovisión inca. Ésta contiene aspectos muy peculiares, casi únicos, que ningún otro grupo humano presenta o ha presentado a lo largo de su historia como tales. Hechos como la forma que tomó el culto a los antepasados del inca, el dios-gobernante, casi llega al absurdo y entrañaba una crisis intrínseca del imperio según algunos especialistas. A medida que los incas muertos aumentaban en número, la tenencia de la tierra y la producción social te...

  6. Normal IncA Expression and Fusogenicity of Inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis Isolates with the incA I47T Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Eijk, Paul P.; van Marle, Jan; de Witte, Moniek A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Dankert, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types expressed IncA in the membrane of one large single inclusion. In conclusion, the incA I47T mutation is not associated with the nonfusogenic phenotype.

  7. El kero : vaso ritual de los incas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alonso Sagaseta

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando en los museos de todo el mundo encontramos colecciones de arqueología americana, es bastante habitual que nos llame la atención, la presencia de un tipo de recipiente de madera, de forma troncocónica y decoración en laca que relata de manera ingenua acontecimientos de distinta índole; nos referimos a los llamados «Keros« de la cultura Inca. Nuestros trabajos en los fondos del Museo de América de Madrid, del Museo del Hombre en París y del Museo Arqueológico de Lima, nos dieron la oportunidad de conocer estos recipientes mucho más de cerca, y a partir de este momento plantearnos una serie de interrogantes respecto a ellos.

  8. Astronomy in Inca Empire: a Ceque Based Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Nathalia Silva Gomes; de Nader, R. V.

    2007-08-01

    This work is a brief report about different kinds of arrangements and organization of the Inca astronomical calendar, approaching archaeological vestiges in Cuzco, such as observatories aligned to celestial objects which were observed for the computation of the time. We also analyze the ceques lines that can be associated to these techniques of Inca astronomical observation, according to the chroniclers and the researches in archaeoastronomy.

  9. A CASE REPORT OF QUADRANGULAR INCA BONE. Un caso de hueso cuadrangular inca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los huesos wormianos son estructuras osificadas que se encuentran dentro de las suturas. En frecuencia que varían extensamente entre grupos étnicos diferentes hay más predominio entre mujeres. En el presente estudio reportamos el caso de un verdadero hueso cuadrangular interparietal o hueso inca en el cráneo humano adulto. Los huesos de wormian interparietal o los huesos epactal se diferencian de los huesos suturales sobre la base de su posición. Los huesos wormianos interparietales están localizados dentro de la región interparietal, mientras los huesos suturales son formados a partir de centros de osificación adicionales que pueden ocurrir en o cerca de las suturas. La osificación inadecuada de la región interparietal lleva a la formación de los huesos wormianos. Ellos también pueden estar relacionados con factores genéticos. El hueso interparietal es formado por la separación del segmento intermedio del plato lateral por la sutura occipital transversa, por lo tanto este hueso es formado por las placas intermedias y laterales que pueden ser únicas o múltiples. La localización de tales huesos está, sobre todo, en la parte central superior de la región interparietal. La ocurrencia de la variable del inca es rara es seres humanos. El conocimiento del hueso del inca puede ser útil a las clínicas, disciplinas de la neurocirugía, ortopedia, antropología, radiología y para los expertos forenses. Wormian bones are ossified structures that are found within the sutures. Incidence of which varies widely among different ethnic groups with more prevalence among females. In the present study we hereby report a case of single true quadrangular interparietal or inca bone in adult human skull. Wormian interparietal bones or epactal bones differ from the sutural bones on the basis of their location. The wormian interparietal bones are located within the interparietal region, while the sutural bones are formed from additional

  10. Interrelationship between Polymorphisms of incA, fusogenic properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains, and clinical manifestations in patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Spaargaren, Joke; Langerak, Ankie A. J.; Merks, Judith; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2005-01-01

    IncA variation among Dutch Chlamydia trachomatis isolates was investigated. Of 98 strains, two carried an incA with a premature stop codon, lacked IncA, and were nonfusogenic, while 96 contained an intact incA, expressed IncA, and were fasogenic. Among these 96 strains, nine IncA sequence types were

  11. CONSENSO CULTURAL SOBRE EL INTENTO DE SUICIDIO EN ADOLESCENTES/ CULTURAL CONSENSUS REGARDING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN ADOLESCENTS/ CONSENSO CULTURAL SOBRE TENTATIVA DE SUICÍDIO EM ADOLESCENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Cruz Gaitán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar la estructura semántica del dominio cultural, el promedio de conocimiento y el grado de consenso cultural manifestado por los adolescentes sobre el intento de suicidio. Fue un estudio cualitativo de listas libres, con un muestreo propositivo no aleatorizado de 27 adolescentes entre 13 y 18 años. Los resultados evidenciaron un solo modelo semántico. En lo estructural se identificó el problema familiar como una causa importante del intento suicida; las categorías depresión y tristeza se consideraron como signos y síntomas previos a esta tentativa y no como causas. Como estrategias de prevención, se consideró recibir información mediante pláticas o establecer conversaciones sobre los problemas. Este modelo permite proponer estrategias de prevención que privilegien el núcleo familiar.

  12. Radiology in archaeological studies of incas mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previgliano, Carlos H.; Ceruti, Constanza; Arias Araoz, Facundo; Gonzalez Diez, Josefina; Reinhard, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to determine the imaging findings in three 500-year-old Inca mummies and how modern radiology can be used in other sciences such as archaeology. Material and Method: Three naturally mummified children were studied using conventional radiography, dental radiography, CT and puncture biopsies. Working sessions were limited to 20 minutes to prevent thawing of the corpses and radiological techniques were adjusted to their particular anatomic position. Results: CT images showed shrinkaged internal organs due to dehydration. The fatty tissue of the bodies was visibly white because of the transformation of it into adipocere, favoring white matter/gray matter differentiation at the central nervous system. The lungs were expanded in the three corpses and right lung and maxillary sinus pathologies were determined in the older girl. Chronological ages of the three children at the time of their deaths were established. DNA studies determined no family links among them. The spleen was not seen in any case. Conclusions: Modern radiology is an excellent tool in archaeological research. Nutritional state, ages and pathologies of the three mummies were evaluated. (author) [es

  13. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail: stephanie.jumel@edf.fr; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@edf.fr

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumel, Stephanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-01-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  16. New paleoparasitological investigations from the pre-inca to hispanic contact period in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Mônica Vieira; da Silva, Lucélia Guedes Ribeiro; Silva-Pinto, Verónica; Mendez-Quiros, Pablo; de Miranda Chaves, Sergio Augusto; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2018-02-01

    Paleoparasitological studies have demonstrated that changes in environment or culture are reflected in the patterns of parasitic infection diseases in populations worldwide. The advent of agriculture and animal domestication, with its accompanying reduction in human mobility and expanding population involves changes in or emergence of, parasites, the so-called first epidemiological transition. Cultural processes related to territory occupation contribute to both loss and acquisition of parasites. The archaeological site Lluta 57 in the Lluta Valley, Chile, provides a chronology of the transition from the pre-Inca or Late Intermediate Period (LIP), through the Late or Inca Period (LP), to the Hispanic Contact Period (HCP), providing the possibility of evaluating this epidemiological transition. The aim of this study was to conduct a paleoparasitological investigation of to gain insight into the dynamics of parasitism in Lluta people throughout the Inca expansion. Fourteen human coprolites from the three periods were rehydrated, submitted to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined by light microscopy for the presence of intestinal parasite eggs, pollen grains, and micro-remains. Eggs of four parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus sp., Trichuris sp., and Eimeria macusaniensis were recovered. Frequency, diversity, and number of parasite eggs per sample increased over the studied time period. Trichostrongylus sp. and E. macusaniensis were recorded in the region for the first time. Enterobius vermicularis eggs, absent in the LIP, were present as a hyper-infection in LP. The presence of E. macusaniensis is likely related to exploitation of llamas, which were used for food and transport and as sacrificial offerings. The paleobotanical analysis revealed ten families of pollen grains, as well as phytoliths and floral remains. In contrast to parasitological results, a diachronic pattern was not detected. Evolution of the settlements, with the advent of larger

  17. Inca Moon: Some Evidence of Lunar Observations in Tahuantinsuyu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Mariusz; Kościuk, Jacek; Astete, Fernando

    So far, scientists have not investigated thoroughly if and for what purpose the Incas observed the Moon. As far as the orientation of architectural structures is concerned, the researchers focus their attention almost entirely on the position of the Sun. However, a more accurate analysis of two well-known sites - the caves of Intimachay and Cusilluchayoc - may provide evidence of their function as observatories of the lunar 18.6-year cycle. Those results may confirm the hypothesis, presented some years ago, that the Incas had elaborated a rudimentary method of predicting lunar eclipses.

  18. Attempts to lower the detection limits of heavy metals in standardized grass cultures by using alternative growth substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.; Mueller, P.; Wagner, G.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the use of standardized grass cultures (cf. VDI 3792) within the framework of an effect cadastre, grass cultures were tested on two non-contaminated substrates with nutrient solution in the greenhouse and in the open land during different exposure cycles. The results: As compared to the standard cultures on standardized soil, the cultures have the same or a better growth performance and better dry resistance on the artificial substrates; the blind values and the refore the detection limits in particular for cadmium are by far lower; four-week exposure periods with a two-week overlap have an improved information yield for the same amount of work throughout the investigation period as compared to a two-week exposure. Recommendations are derived from the results for a simplified application of the grass culture method in practice. (orig.) [de

  19. historia en el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Majfud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen varios elementos ideológicos en la narración histórica del Inca Garcilaso de la Vega y una concepción de progreso de la historia que se opone a la más antigua de Hesíodo y de la Iglesia. En sus Comentarios Reales de los Incas procura una reivindicación de su pueblo original, en un contexto español; para ser aceptado, se propone no reescribir directamente la historia oficial, pero trastoca los significados de aquellos “hechos” narrados con anterioridad por los españoles en su Perú natal. Al mismo tiempo, realiza un mestizaje cosmológico que servirá como herramienta para confirmar su concepción de la historia y reivindicar, al mismo tiempo, sus orígenes étnicos y culturales. Pero, en gran medida, su perspectiva religiosa e intelectual ya pertenece a España. El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega no reconoce el panteísmo de los preincaicos y lo rechaza desde una perspectiva cristiana que separa al hombre de la naturaleza, lo que demuestra su concepción europea de la divinidad. Desprecia las culturas preincaicas porque adoraban lo inferior a ellos, mientras que los Incas –como los cristianos– adoraban lo superior y la unidad: el Sol. Más aún, Garcilaso de la Vega identifica, sin nombrarlo, al Sol con Dios y a Pachacámac con el Espíritu Santo. Jesu Christo será la culminación del progreso hacia la perfección de la Trinidad. La consecuencia es una concepción progresista de la historia que incluye a los incas y todos los pueblos (imperfectos que los precedieron. Pasa por encima del rito, del dogma y de las formas para encontrar en el pueblo inca un destino común a la civilización cristiana. Con ello también revela un componente humanista de una historia que se desarrolla con un objetivo universal y mestizo. No por casualidad, se nombra “Inca” con un apellido español, de la Vega, y lucha por conciliar ambas tradiciones: es un proyecto histórico, una voluntad de síntesis y una reivindicación personal.

  20. Cuzco and Rome, Peruvians and Andalucians in Inca Garcilaso’s work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Del Pino Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I offer a socio-cultural explanation of Inca Garcilaso’s Romanist program, taking into account the analysis of his biographical anchorages in both Perú and Spain, specially his andalusian experience. To do so, I follow the social events he lived through (the recent conquest of the Islamic world and presence of Jewish converts, as well as the more cultural aspects of his stay in Spain (Royal and nobility classicism, relationship with the Jesuits. By broadening the scope of the interpretation of his texts, we are no longer talking merely about an individual and isolated (if aristocratic experience, nor about a merely religious or literary option (even if it is expressed in such a way.

  1. Normal IncA expression and fusogenicity of inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis isolates with the incA I47T mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; van der Ende, A.; Eijk, P. P.; van Marle, J.; de Witte, M. A.; Ossewaarde, J. M.; van den Brule, A. J.; Morré, S. A.; Dankert, J.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types

  2. An attempt to conserve whatnot somniferum (L.) dual - a highly essential medicinal plant, through in vitro callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, J.R.; Sahoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple effective protocol was developed for conservation and plant propagation through callus cultures of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Seed germination percentage reached a maximum value of 64.3% on half MS + GA3 0.25 mg/l at third week of culture. Three different basal media compared for seed germination, MS was most effective. Out of 25 combinations of growth regulators evaluated, MS + 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D found to be best for callus induction and proliferation regardless to explants. Among the four different explants tested, In vivo leaf explant was found most suitable for callus induction, proliferation and fresh weight gain. The highest callus induction frequency percentage 86.4% was recorded with In vivo leaf explant whereas, 43.4% in In vitro leaf explant at day 30 on MS augmented with 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Among different growth regulator combinations tested in augmentation with MS for shoot initiation and elongation, 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA was the best eliciting a maximum of 82.3% shoot induction with highest shoot number 4.8 shoots/callus. The original callus was sub-cultured 2 times on fresh shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the shoots. Of three different auxins tested for In vitro rooting, IBA was most effective compared to IPA and NAA. Half-strength MS medium containing IBA at an optimum concentration of 2.0 mg/l induced rooting in 83.1% of the In vitro derived shoots. The rooted plantlets were acclimated and eventually established in soil. (author)

  3. The INCAS Project: An Innovative Contact-Less Angular Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, L.; Di Cintio, A.; Solimando, M.; Parzianello, G.

    2013-09-01

    Angular Positions sensors are widely used in all spacecrafts, including re-entry vehicles and launchers, where mechanisms and pointing-scanning devices are required. The main applications are on mechanisms for TeleMeasure (TM) related to the release and deployment of devices, or on rotary mechanisms such as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) and Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM). Longer lifetime (up to 7- 10 years) is becoming a new driver for the coming missions and contact technology sensors often incur in limitations due to the wear of the contacting parts [1].A Self-Compensating Absolute Angular Encoder was developed and tested in the frame of an ESA's ARTES 5.2 project, named INCAS (INnovative Contact-less Angular Sensor). More in particular, the INCAS sensor addresses a market need for contactless angular sensors aimed at replacing the more conventional rotary potentiometers, while featuring the same level of accuracy performances and extending the expected lifetime.

  4. The application of Inca khipuas an accountability and managerial control tool

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Schmidt; José Luiz dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to present the mechanisms of control and accountability used in the Inca society. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, a bibliographical and documental analysis regarding the use of khipus in this civilization was carried out, applying a qualitative approach. Findings – The results of the study indicate that the Inca khipu was the main instrument of tax registration and management adopted by the Inca empire. The Khipucamayocs were responsible for t...

  5. 'Inca City' is Part of a Circular Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-319, 8 August 2002 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Inca City' is the informal name given by Mariner 9 scientists in 1972 to a set of intersecting, rectilinear ridges that are located among the layered materials of the south polar region of Mars. Their origin has never been understood; most investigators thought they might be sand dunes, either modern dunes or, more likely, dunes that were buried, hardened, then exhumed. Others considered them to be dikes formed by injection of molten rock (magma) or soft sediment into subsurface cracks that subsequently hardened and then were exposed at the surface by wind erosion. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has provided new information about the 'Inca City' ridges, though the camera's images still do not solve the mystery. The new information comes in the form of a MOC red wide angle context frame taken in mid-southern spring, shown above left and above right. The original Mariner 9 view of the ridges is seen at the center. The MOC image shows that the 'Inca City' ridges, located at 82oS, 67oW, are part of a larger circular structure that is about 86 km (53 mi) across. It is possible that this pattern reflects an origin related to an ancient, eroded meteor impact crater that was filled-in, buried, then partially exhumed. In this case, the ridges might be the remains of filled-in fractures in the bedrock into which the crater formed, or filled-in cracks within the material that filled the crater. Or both explanations could be wrong. While the new MOC image shows that 'Inca City' has a larger context as part of a circular form, it does not reveal the exact origin of these striking and unusual martian landforms.

  6. Context-Related Melodies in Oral Culture: An Attempt to Describe Words-and-Music Relationships in Local Singing Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taive Särg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In oral folk song traditions we often find many lyrics, but not nearly as many melodies. The terms “polyfunctionalism”, “group melodies” or “general melodies” have been used by Estonian researches to indicate the phenomenon that many lyrics were sung to only one, or a small handful, of tunes. The scarcity of melodies is supposed to be one of several related phenomena characteristic to an oral, text-centred singing culture.In this article the Estonian folk song tradition will be analysed against a quantity of melodies and their usage in the following aspects: word-and-melody relationships and context-and-melody relationships in Karksi parish (south Estonia; a singer; and native musical terms and the process of singing and (recreation.

  7. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  8. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  9. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. Objectives: To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Results: Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%. The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. Conclusions: This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  10. PERIPHERY/CORE RELATIONS IN THE INCA EMPIRE CARROTS AND STICKS IN AN ANDEAN WORLD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Kuznar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Inca Empire exhibited labor exploitation and the rational extraction of resources from peripheral polities by a core polity. These characteristics fit the general definition of a world empire, although core/periphery relations were diverse. The nature of core/periphery relations depended on several attributes of the conquered polity including population size, political power, natural resources, and distance from the Inca core at Cuzco. A dynamic picture of core/periphery relations emerges as the outcome of Inca demands for labor and raw materials, and peripheral peoples' desire for control over their autonomy while seeking benefits from the Inca state.

  11. Inca: a novel p21-activated kinase-associated protein required for cranial neural crest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Xu, Yanhua; Hoffman, Trevor L; Zhang, Tailin; Schilling, Thomas; Sargent, Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Inca (induced in neural crest by AP2) is a novel protein discovered in a microarray screen for genes that are upregulated in Xenopus embryos by the transcriptional activator protein Tfap2a. It has no significant similarity to any known protein, but is conserved among vertebrates. In Xenopus, zebrafish and mouse embryos, Inca is expressed predominantly in the premigratory and migrating neural crest (NC). Knockdown experiments in frog and fish using antisense morpholinos reveal essential functions for Inca in a subset of NC cells that form craniofacial cartilage. Cells lacking Inca migrate successfully but fail to condense into skeletal primordia. Overexpression of Inca disrupts cortical actin and prevents formation of actin "purse strings", which are required for wound healing in Xenopus embryos. We show that Inca physically interacts with p21-activated kinase 5 (PAK5), a known regulator of the actin cytoskeleton that is co-expressed with Inca in embryonic ectoderm, including in the NC. These results suggest that Inca and PAK5 cooperate in restructuring cytoskeletal organization and in the regulation of cell adhesion in the early embryo and in NC cells during craniofacial development.

  12. Establecimientos incas en el subtramo Lampas – Pueblo Viejo en la región Ancash

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabé Romero, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Artículo sobre el registro de 5 asentamientos con componentes netamente Inca asociados al camino longitudinal de la sierra en el subtramo Lampas-Pueblo Viejo en Ancash. Entre los cuales destaca Pueblo Viejo (el de mayor extensión), pues presenta componentes del patrón de centros administrativos Inca.

  13. Political-Philosophical Perspectives about the Notions of Indian, Inca, and Mestizo on the «Comentarios reales de los Incas»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Javier Viveros Espinosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay posits certain political-philosophical perspectives on the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega’s Primera parte de los Comentarios reales de los Incas (1609. To this purpose we will develop two hermeneutical movements. The first refers to a theoretical and methodological questioning related to the notion of Indian as a discursive construction during colonial times in the Andes area. The second deploys a critical exercise grounded on the interaction between the notions of Indian, Inca, and Mestizo, which is focused on how they build alternative subjectivities. Both movements consolidate an interpretation about the Inca Garcilaso’s political-philosophical reflections, remarking his proposals of a bifurcated modern civilizational project in the New World.

  14. Human antibody and antigen response to IncA antibody of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P Y; Hsu, M C; Huang, C T; Li, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of C. trachomatis worldwide has underscored the importance of identifying specific immunogenic antigens in facilitating diagnosis as well as vaccine development. The aim of this study is to evaluate IncA antibody and antigen production in natural human infections. Our temporal expression study showed that IncA transcription and protein expression could be detected as early as 4 hours after the start of infection. Antibody responses could be detected in urine and genital swab samples from C. trachomatis-positive patients. It is especially interesting to note that the IncA antigen could be detected in urine. In conclusion, we have identified IncA as an important antigen in human. The potential applicability of the IncA antibody or antigen in the diagnosis as well as to vaccine development for C. trachomatis is also discussed.

  15. INCA project for investigation of primary cosmic radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Erlykin, A.D.; Zhdanov, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific purposes of the INCA project and application of the ionization-neutron calorimeter for direct measurements of the cosmic rays spectrum and composition in the knee area and the primary electrons spectrum by 10 14 - 10 13 eV are discussed. The new effective method for the primary electrons and protons separation with the complex rejection coefficient of 10 -5 - 10 -6 is proposed for studying the primary electrons spectrum by E e > 1 TeV. The experimental and calculation data are in good agreement [ru

  16. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  17. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Reconstruyendo el itinerario del camino Inca Cajatambo: Pumpu a través del registro arqueológico

    OpenAIRE

    Casaverde Ríos, Guido

    2013-01-01

    El camino Inca investigado pertenece al Sistema Vial Inca de la sierra central, el cual era parte del ramal que se desprendía muy cerca del sitio Inca de Huamachuco por el norte y recorría por todo el Callejón de Huaylas, se dirigía a las localidades de Mangas, Copa, Puquián, Cajatambo, Oyón hasta Pumpu por el sur. Aquel tramo iba de forma paralela al tramo de camino Inca que unía los asentamientos Inca de Huamachuco, Callejón de Conchucos, Huánuco Pampa y Pumpu.

  19. Inhibitor of CDK interacting with cyclin A1 (INCA1) regulates proliferation and is repressed by oncogenic signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumer, Nicole; Tickenbrock, Lara; Tschanter, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The cell cycle is driven by the kinase activity of cyclin/CDK complexes which is negatively regulated by CDK inhibitor proteins. Recently, we identified INCA1 as interaction partner and substrate of cyclin A1 in complex with CDK2. On a functional level, we identified a novel cyclin binding site...... in the INCA1 protein. INCA1 inhibited CDK2 activity and cell proliferation. The inihibitory effects depended on the cyclin-interacting domain. Mitogenic and oncogenic signals suppressed INCA1 expression, while it was induced by cell cycle arrest. We established a deletional mouse model that showed increased...... CDK2 activity in spleen with altered spleen architecture in Inca1-/- mice. Inca1-/- embryonic fibroblasts showed an increase in the fraction of S-phase cells. Furthermore, blasts from ALL and AML patients expressed significantly reduced INCA1 levels highlighting its relevance for growth control...

  20. The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy

    OpenAIRE

    G?mez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martin?n-Torres, Federico; Roewer, Lutz; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Nat...

  1. Powers of nostalgia: Ollanta and the neo-Inca movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cordiviola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the indigenous rebellions and its evolution in Perú during the XVIII century as well as the functions and impact that nostalgia and utopia had against the mastery of Spanish, keeping in mind that both, nostalgia and utopia, were used like instruments against this movement. The uprising increases due to the abuse of power and the constant inequalities of imperial economy in and around the viceroyalty based on specific unions between social actors. By the year 1780, they conformed a group called broad Inca nationalist movement whose clear expression was showed in the insurrection promoted by Tupac Amaru. We are going to present the possible interpretations to study the evolution of this movement through this project which is related to the history context OLLANTAY. Simultaneously we are going to take advantage of it in order to analyze other texts and arts.

  2. CASSINI E/J/S/SW MIMI INCA SENSOR UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument(MIMI) Imaging Neutral Camera (INCA) uncalibrated data set includes all data collected from the MIMI Data Processing...

  3. CASSINI E/J/S/SW MIMI INCA SENSOR UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument(MIMI) Imaging Neutral Camera (INCA) uncalibrated data set includes all data collected from the MIMI Data Processing...

  4. CASSINI S MIMI INCA SENSOR CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) obtains remote images of the global distribution of energetic ions for energies from 7 keV/nucleon to 8 MeV/nucleon, discriminated...

  5. The application of Inca khipuas an accountability and managerial control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study aims to present the mechanisms of control and accountability used in the Inca society. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, a bibliographical and documental analysis regarding the use of khipus in this civilization was carried out, applying a qualitative approach. Findings – The results of the study indicate that the Inca khipu was the main instrument of tax registration and management adopted by the Inca empire. The Khipucamayocs were responsible for the production of the Khipu, asserting that the information generated and consolidated in the imperial khipu was correct, considering that these professionals paid with their lives in case of errors. Originality/value – The main contributions to accounting are related to the understanding of the origin of the development of tax control and accountability tools created in the Inca Empire, before the Spanish invasions, that contributed significantly to the development of the first American societies

  6. A thermo mechanical benchmark calculation of a hexagonal can in the BTI accident with INCA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermomechanical behaviour of an hexagonal can in a benchmark problem (simulating the conditions of a BTI accident in a fuel assembly) is examined by means of the INCA code and the results systematically compared with those of ADINA

  7. PERIPHERY/CORE RELATIONS IN THE INCA EMPIRE CARROTS AND STICKS IN AN ANDEAN WORLD SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence A. Kuznar

    2015-01-01

    The Inca Empire exhibited labor exploitation and the rational extraction of resources from peripheral polities by a core polity. These characteristics fit the general definition of a world empire, although core/periphery relations were diverse. The nature of core/periphery relations depended on several attributes of the conquered polity including population size, political power, natural resources, and distance from the Inca core at Cuzco. A dynamic picture of core/periphery relations emerges...

  8. O inca pano: mito, história e modelos etnológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Calavia Sáez

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Os mitos relativos ao Inca recolhidos na Amazônia entre vários grupos de língua pano têm sido entendidos como memórias de um passado remoto regido por uma aristocracia quechua ou como expressão de uma estrutura identitária ou cosmológica em que o Inca significaria o Branco ou uma alteridade celestial. Tais interpretações, apesar de seu valor heurístico, limitam nossa compreensão dos aspectos estruturais e históricos do Inca Pano. Propõe-se aqui entender o Inca também como um símbolo eficiente, vinculado a modelos sociológicos e/ou artísticos de alto valor distintivo: povos como os Shipibo-Conibo e os Kaxinawá cristalizam em torno dessa figura uma tradição que os destaca do conjunto dos grupos nawa vizinhos.The Amazonian myths collected among certain Panoan-speaking peoples which make reference to the Inca figure have generally been subject to one of two interpretations. They are either seen to recall a remote past in which these peoples may have been ruled by Quechua aristocrats or they are seen to be structural aspects of identity or cosmology, in which the Inca would be representative of the White man or of some celestial alterity. These interpretations, in spite of their heuristic value, serve to limit our understanding of structural and historical aspects of the Pano Inca. This article proposes that we also try to understand the Pano Inca as an effective symbol, related to social and/or artistic models with their own distinctive values: people such as the Shipibo-Conibo and the Kaxinawa have shaped around this figure a tradition which sets them apart from the neighbouring Nawa groups.

  9. El cantar fúnebre atribuido al Inca Yupanqui. Estudio semántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ballón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chroniclers of the Spanish conquest of the Andes gathered in their texts some traces of the colonized people’s ancestral oral tradition. Thus, Juan de Betanzos included in his Suma y narración de los incas ([¿1551?] 1987 a funeral chant ascribed to Tupac Inca Yupanqui. In this article, I present a semantic and semiolinguistic interpretation of this chant.

  10. Exploring pain in the Andes--learning from the Quichua (Inca) people experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incayawar, Mario; Saucier, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    There is a mounting recognition that culture profoundly shapes human pain experience. The 28 million indigenous people of the Andes in South America, mainly the Quichua (Inca) people, share a distinctive culture. However, little is known about their pain experience and suffering. The aim of the present study was to explore how Quichua adults perceive, describe, and cope with the pain. An exploratory qualitative/descriptive study was conducted with a convenience sample of 40 Quichua adults, including 15 women and 25 men, in the Northern Highlands of Ecuador. Data were collected through structured interviews of approximately 3 h, using a Quichua questionnaire called "The Nature of Pain" [Nanay Jahua Tapuicuna]. The interviews covered the notions of causation of pain, vulnerability to pain, responses to pain, aggravating factors, frequent locations of pain, types of pain, duration, characteristics of pain, control of pain, pathways to care, and preventive measures of pain. Basic descriptive analyses were performed. The Quichuas' pain experience is complex and their strategies to cope with it are sophisticated. According to the Quichuas, emotions, life events, co-morbid conditions, and spirits, among others factors play an important role in the origin, diagnosis, and treatment of pain. They strongly embrace biomedicine and physicians as well as Quichua traditional medicine and traditional healers. Family members and neighbors are also valuable sources of health care and pain control. The pathway to pain care that the Quichua people prefer is inclusive and pluralistic. The knowledge of the Quichua ethnographic "emic" details of their belief system and coping strategies to control pain are clinically useful not only for the health professional working in the Andes, some Quichua cultural characteristics related to pain could be useful to the culturally competent health practitioner who is making efforts to provide high-quality medical care in rural and multicultural

  11. Evidence of neurofibromatosis type 1 in a multi-morbid Inca child mummy: A paleoradiological investigation using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Wittig, Holger; Zesch, Stephanie; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Blache, Sandra; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Hotz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an Inca bundle was examined using computed tomography (CT). The primary aim was to determine the preservation status of bony and soft tissues, the sex, the age at the time of death, possible indicators for disease or even the cause of death, as well as the kind of mummification. A secondary aim was to obtain a brief overview of the wrapping in order to gain additional information on the cultural background. The bundle belongs to the Museum of Cultures in Basel, Switzerland, and was bought in Munich, Germany, in 1921. Radiocarbon dating of the superficial textile yielded a calibrated age between 1480 and 1650 AD. The mummy was investigated using multi-slice CT with slice thickness of 0.75 mm and 110 kilovolt. For standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation, a recently developed checklist was applied. CT revealed the mummy of a seven to nine year old boy with superior preservation of bony and soft tissues allowing detailed assessment. Indicators of neurofibromatosis type 1 (paravertebral and cutaneous neurofibromas, a breast neurofibroma, sphenoid wing dysplasia), Chagas disease (dilatation of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, and large amounts of feces), and lung infection (pleural adherence, calcifications), probably due to tuberculosis, were found. Furthermore, signs of peri-mortem violence (transection of the chest and a defect in the abdominal wall) were detected. CT images revealed a carefully performed wrapping. CT examination of the Inca bundle proved to be an important non-destructive examination method. Standardized assessment, especially of the soft tissue structures, allowed for diagnoses of several diseases, indicating a multi-morbid child at the time of death. The careful wrapping pointed to a ceremonial burial. Within the cultural background, the signs of fatal violence were discussed as a possible result of war, murder, accident, or human sacrifice.

  12. Evidence of neurofibromatosis type 1 in a multi-morbid Inca child mummy: A paleoradiological investigation using computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available In this study, an Inca bundle was examined using computed tomography (CT. The primary aim was to determine the preservation status of bony and soft tissues, the sex, the age at the time of death, possible indicators for disease or even the cause of death, as well as the kind of mummification. A secondary aim was to obtain a brief overview of the wrapping in order to gain additional information on the cultural background.The bundle belongs to the Museum of Cultures in Basel, Switzerland, and was bought in Munich, Germany, in 1921. Radiocarbon dating of the superficial textile yielded a calibrated age between 1480 and 1650 AD. The mummy was investigated using multi-slice CT with slice thickness of 0.75 mm and 110 kilovolt. For standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation, a recently developed checklist was applied.CT revealed the mummy of a seven to nine year old boy with superior preservation of bony and soft tissues allowing detailed assessment. Indicators of neurofibromatosis type 1 (paravertebral and cutaneous neurofibromas, a breast neurofibroma, sphenoid wing dysplasia, Chagas disease (dilatation of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, and large amounts of feces, and lung infection (pleural adherence, calcifications, probably due to tuberculosis, were found. Furthermore, signs of peri-mortem violence (transection of the chest and a defect in the abdominal wall were detected. CT images revealed a carefully performed wrapping.CT examination of the Inca bundle proved to be an important non-destructive examination method. Standardized assessment, especially of the soft tissue structures, allowed for diagnoses of several diseases, indicating a multi-morbid child at the time of death. The careful wrapping pointed to a ceremonial burial. Within the cultural background, the signs of fatal violence were discussed as a possible result of war, murder, accident, or human sacrifice.

  13. Socio-Cultural Features and Sex Profile of the Individuals with Serious Suicide Attempts in Southeastern Turkey: A One-Year Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasan, Aziz; Danis, Ramazan; Tamam, Lut; Ozmen, Sehmus; Ozkan, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to elucidate potential causes of higher rates of suicide attempts in females compared to males in southeastern Turkey through a 1-year survey. Gender-related differences observed in 96 subjects who attempted suicide by poisoning for the first time were as follows: in comparison to male, females were predominantly within the age…

  14. Tras las huella del silencio: Potosí, los incas y Toledo Por traz das pegadas do silencio: Potosí, os Incas e o Toledo Behind the Footprints of Silence: Potosí, the Incas and Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Platt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué los señores aymaras de Charcas y el Inca Paullo, después de entregar las minas de plata de Porco a Hernando Pizarro en 1538, guardaron silencio sobre Potosí (distante a unas pocas leguas, que no se descubrió hasta abril de 1545? Reuniendo un mosaico de datos aparentemente inconexos, este artículo revisa las versiones corrientes del descubrimiento del cerro e interroga un curioso silencio presente en las fuentes. Reconstruyendo una red previamente desconocida de incas y españoles, se propone que, más que el hallazgo providencial de un yanacona aislado (la versión recibida, Potosí se manifestó como continuación de la política de "obediencia" subyacente en la entrega de Porco, ahora dirigida por el rival del Inca Paullo: el Inca Manco refugiado en Vilcabamba. Esta política de Manco buscaba apoyar al Rey y las Nuevas Leyes (1542 en contra de la amenaza mayor representada por Gonzalo Pizarro y los encomenderos. El artículo comenta, asimismo, la promoción toledana de la "leyenda providencial", retomando en cambio la interpretación de Guaman Poma de la entrega de Potosí como una iniciativa de los incas, quienes lo habrían fundado bajo Inca Túpac Yupanqui. Esta versión concuerda con las últimas investigaciones geológicas y arqueológicas.Por que os senhores aymaras de Charcas e o Inca Paullo, depois de entregar as minas de prata de Porco a Hernando Pizarro em 1538, ficaram em silencio em relação ao Potosí (distante a umas poucas léguas que não foi descoberta até abril de 1545? Resumindo um mosaico de dados aparentemente sem conexão, este artigo revisa as versões correntes em relação à descoberta do morro e se questiona em relação ao curioso silêncio presente nas fontes. Reconstruindo uma rede antes desconhecida de incas e espanhóis, a proposta é que, mais que a descoberta providencial de um yanacona isolado (a versão recebida, Potosí manifestou-se como a continuação da política de "obedi

  15. El testimonio inca de la conquista del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce témoignage de Cayo Inga est un document important qui retrace les succès des premières années de la pénétration espagnole au Pérou, de la côte de Tumbes à la ville de Cuzco. Sa valeur exceptionnelle tient à la qualité de l'informateur-membre du lignage inca et au fait qu'il ait été un témoin personnel des faits qu'il décrit. Par ce manuscrit, nous savons que Waskar Inga connut opportunément l'invasion étrangère à partir de la côte de Tumbes et que les Espagnols exigèrent une rançon au captif Atao Wallpa lui promettant de relâcher après. Nous sommes également renseignés sur le fameux pillage du temple de Pachacamac, sur la dramatique demande d'Atao Wallpa suppliant d'être exilé en Espagne et sur l'emprisonnement de Mango Inga Yupangui. Enfin, ce manuscrit éclaircit quelques faits quant aux sièges de la ville de Cuzco et de celle de Lima en 1536. El testimonio de Cayo Inga, es un documento excepcional para rehacer los sucesos de los primeros años de la penetración española en el Perú, de la costa tumbesina a la ciudad del Cuzco primero por la calidad del informante miembro del linaje Inca y segundo por su presencialidad en el lugar de los hechos. Este manuscrito, aclara que Waskar Inga conoció oportunamente la invasión de la costa tumbesina por los extranjeros y refiere que los españoles exigieron al cautivo Atao Wallpa un rescate, prometiéndole soltarlo después. Reseña a la vez el famoso saqueo del adoratorio de Pachacamac, el dramático pedido de Atao Wallpa para que lo exiliaran a España y el prendimiento de Mango Inga Yupangui, finalmente aporta datos sobre los asedios de la ciudad del Cuzco y de Lima en 1536. Cayo Inga's testimony is a document of exceptional value in the retracing of the events of the first years of the Spanish invasion and occupation of the country from Tumbes to Cuzco. It is remarkable for the quality of the source of information, since the reporter was both a member of the Inca

  16. The Location of Lake Titicaca's Coastal Area During the Tiwanaku and Inca Periods: Methodology and Strategies of Underwater Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaere, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    For more than 30 years, numerous research projects have revealed the dense and complex human settlement of the lacustrine basin of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and Peru. Physical evidence of such establishments has been discovered in plains, valleys, and highlands connected to the lake. These remains confirm human occupation and development in this environment, particularly during the Tiwanaku (AD 500-1150) and Inca (AD 1400-1532) Periods. The research project discussed in this paper includes consideration of submerged areas through underwater archaeology. This investigation involves analysis of two areas that have evidence of ancient human occupation but are poorly documented: the coastal and lacustrine regions. Due to its dominance in the landscape, Lake Titicaca has always been a major feature in the life and identity of populations of this vicinity. These inhabitants have developed socio-economic and ritual behaviours directly associated with the lake that have left cultural and material prints that are the foci of the present study.

  17. EL INTÉRPRETE FELIPILLO ENTRE INCAS Y CONQUISTADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Plötz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca contribuir a la investigación de los papeles atribuidos al mediador lingüístico y, por extensión, transcultural, como son los de traidor, el que no dice todo lo que sabe persiguiendo intereses propios, y otros más. Se establecen unas pautas que caracterizan las situaciones comunicativas conflictivas a lo largo de la historia. Asimismo, se propone una línea de investigación traductológica, interesada en la realización de la mediación lingüística misma y sus circunstancias, como aporte a la historia de la traducción. El caso al que se aplica este programa en el presente artículo es el enfrentamiento entre los incas y los conquistadores europeos en el Perú, en el cual actuaron unos intérpretes indígenas sobre los que se ha producido y se sigue produciendo toda una gama de proyecciones y atribuciones.

  18. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake; Saier, Milton H

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg(2+) transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. incaRNAfbinv: a web server for the fragment-based design of RNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drory Retwitzer, Matan; Reinharz, Vladimir; Ponty, Yann; Waldispühl, Jérôme; Barash, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, new methods for computational RNA design have been developed and applied to various problems in synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Lately, there is considerable interest in incorporating essential biological information when solving the inverse RNA folding problem. Correspondingly, RNAfbinv aims at including biologically meaningful constraints and is the only program to-date that performs a fragment-based design of RNA sequences. In doing so it allows the design of sequences that do not necessarily exactly fold into the target, as long as the overall coarse-grained tree graph shape is preserved. Augmented by the weighted sampling algorithm of incaRNAtion, our web server called incaRNAfbinv implements the method devised in RNAfbinv and offers an interactive environment for the inverse folding of RNA using a fragment-based design approach. It takes as input: a target RNA secondary structure; optional sequence and motif constraints; optional target minimum free energy, neutrality and GC content. In addition to the design of synthetic regulatory sequences, it can be used as a pre-processing step for the detection of novel natural occurring RNAs. The two complementary methodologies RNAfbinv and incaRNAtion are merged together and fully implemented in our web server incaRNAfbinv, available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/incaRNAfbinv. PMID:27185893

  20. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Giuffra, Valentina; Cano, Raul J

    2017-11-07

    Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.

  1. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.

  2. Tras las huella del silencio: Potosí, los incas y Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Platt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué los señores aymaras de Charcas y el Inca Paullo, después de entregar las minas de plata de Porco a Hernando Pizarro en 1538, guardaron silencio sobre Potosí (distante a unas pocas leguas, que no se descubrió hasta abril de 1545? Reuniendo un mosaico de datos aparentemente inconexos, este artículo revisa las versiones corrientes del descubrimiento del cerro e interroga un curioso silencio presente en las fuentes. Reconstruyendo una red previamente desconocida de incas y españoles, se propone que, más que el hallazgo providencial de un yanacona aislado (la versión recibida, Potosí se manifestó como continuación de la política de “obediencia” subyacente en la entrega de Porco, ahora dirigida por el rival del Inca Paullo: el Inca Manco refugiado en Vilcabamba. Esta política de Manco buscaba apoyar al Rey y las Nuevas Leyes (1542 en contra de la amenaza mayor representada por Gonzalo Pizarro y los encomenderos. El artículo comenta, asimismo, la promoción toledana de la “leyenda providencial”, retomando en cambio la interpretación de Guaman Poma de la entrega de Potosí como una iniciativa de los incas, quienes lo habrían fundado bajo Inca Túpac Yupanqui. Esta versión concuerda con las últimas investigaciones geológicas y arqueológicas.

  3. ¿Borradores utópicos del pasado? El poema Apu Inca Atawallpaman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne Marie Ejdesgaard; Schilling Cueto, Chandra Eugenie A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the perceptions of the relationship between the human being and the nature which comes forward in the poem Apu Inca Atawallpaman as possible utopian drafts or another knowledge from the past using for our analysis the concepts of Eduardo Gudynas and Walter Mignolo. We suggest in accord......We discuss the perceptions of the relationship between the human being and the nature which comes forward in the poem Apu Inca Atawallpaman as possible utopian drafts or another knowledge from the past using for our analysis the concepts of Eduardo Gudynas and Walter Mignolo. We suggest...

  4. The Making of the Hero in the Land of the Cinnamon Tree: Gonzalo Pizarro in the Royal Commentaries of Garcilaso Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Zanelli Velásquez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior to his rebellion against the Spanish Crown in 1544, Gonzalo Pizarro (Francisco’s younger brother accomplished the Conquest of Charcas (present-day northwestern Bolivia, survived the siege of Cuzco by Manco Inca and attempted the failed exploration of the mythical «Land of the Cinnamon Tree», located somewhere in the Amazonian basin, according to Garcilaso’s historical account. During this doomed expedition, Pizarro endured treason, lost companions and was defeated by the forces of an aggressive environment. However, he ma­naged to emerge as the legendary political and military leader that rebelled against the first Viceroy of Peru, Blasco Nuñez Vela in 1546. Nuñez Vela would be defeated in battlefield and later executed. Gonzalo Pizarro’s pretension of becoming king of Peru by virtue of a political alliance with the surviving Incas would be seen in Garcilaso’s account as a proof of Pizarro’s heroic stature, albeit a tragic one.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized C. trachomatis IncA.

  6. Cholos, incas y fusionistas: El nuevo Perú y la globalización de lo andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelou Ypeij

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Cholos, incas and fusionistas: The New Peru and the Globalization of 'Lo Andino'This Exploration deals with the cultural changes in Peru from the year 2000. Peru has become a society with more economic, political, social and global opportunities. Within this context, significant cultural changes can be noted. This essay explores cultural expressions such as the weaving associations of the women of Chinchero, the Peruvian cuisine and the rock band Uchpa. All have in common that they reinterpret 'lo andino', or what it is to be Andean, and that they integrate globalized elements. Based on this, a new identity becomes apparent which surpasses the known categories of ethnicity and class.Resumen:Esta exploración trata sobre los cambios culturales en Perú a partir del año 2000. Perú se ha convertido en una sociedad con más oportunidades económicas, políticas, sociales y globales. En este contexto se pueden notar cambios culturales significantes. El ensayo explora expresiones culturales como las asociaciones de tejidos de las mujeres de Chinchero, la gastronomía peruana y la banda de rock Uchpa. Todas tienen en común que reinterpretan lo andino y que integran elementos globalizados. Basándose en ello, surge una nueva identidad que sobrepasa las conocidas categorías de etnicidad y de clase.

  7. An α-Helical Core Encodes the Dual Functions of the Chlamydial Protein IncA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D.; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. PMID:25324548

  8. An α-helical core encodes the dual functions of the chlamydial protein IncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-11-28

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Couriers in the Inca Empire: Getting Your Message Across. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This lesson shows how the Inca communicated across the vast stretches of their mountain realm, the largest empire of the pre-industrial world. The lesson explains how couriers carried messages along mountain-ridge roads, up and down stone steps, and over chasm-spanning footbridges. It states that couriers could pass a message from Quito (Ecuador)…

  10. Radiocarbon dating of the Peruvian Chachapoya/Inca site at the Laguna de los Condores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Eva Maria; Guillen, Sonia; Kutschera, Walter; Seidler, Horst; Steier, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In 1997 a new archaeological site was discovered in the Peruvian tropical rain forest. The site is located in an area which has been occupied by the Chachapoya, a pre-Incan people, from about 800AD on. The site comprises a large funerary place with several mausoleums built in the cliffs next to the Laguna de los Condores. More than 200 human mummies and funerary bone-bundles together with numerous grave artefacts have been found there. Although the site has been ascribed to the Chachapoya, the mummification method used is very similar to the one applied by the Inca. As part of an ongoing multidisciplinary project to explore the history of this site and of the Chachapoya people, twenty-seven (27) 14 C-AMS age determinations were performed. Samples, bones and textile wrappings as well as samples from a funerary bone bundle plus associated grave artefacts were dated. The 14 C data show that the site originates from the Chachapoya pre-Inca period and that in addition, it was used as a funerary place during the subsequent Inca occupation era. The radiocarbon results indicate that the Chachapoya may have changed their burial tradition due to the colonization by the Inca

  11. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  12. Los tambos Inca: el caso de Camata Tambo valle alto de Moquegua

    OpenAIRE

    Chacaltana Cortez, Sofía; Ministerio de Cultura

    2013-01-01

    Camata Tambo está ubicado en la parte alta del valle alto de Moquegua. Por este tambo pasa un camino Inca que viene del altiplano y continúa hacia el centro provincial de Sabaya ubicado a 1 km valle abajo.

  13. Nuevos centros de almacenamiento inca en Huánuco Pampa

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Inga, Carlo José Alonso

    2013-01-01

    Se proporcionan nuevos alcances sobre la identificación y el estudio de nuevos lugares de almacenamiento o colcas asociados al Centro Administrativo Inca de Huánuco Pampa, los mismos que no fueron reconocidos por otros investigadores que trabajaron en la zona.

  14. The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Roewer, Lutz; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2015-11-12

    In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans. The expansion of C1b into the Americas, as estimated using 203 C1b mitogenomes, dates to the initial Paleoindian settlements (~18.3 thousand years ago [kya]); however, its internal variation differs between Mesoamerica and South America. By querying large databases of control region haplotypes (>150,000), we found only a few C1bi members in Peru and Bolivia (e.g. Aymaras), including one haplotype retrieved from ancient DNA of an individual belonging to the Wari Empire (Peruvian Andes). Overall, the results suggest that the profile of the mummy represents a very rare sub-clade that arose 14.3 (5-23.6) kya and could have been more frequent in the past. A Peruvian Inca origin for present-day C1bi haplotypes would satisfy both the genetic and paleo-anthropological findings.

  15. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2007-01-01

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies to...

  16. Preclinical evaluation of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl Ak; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the (111)In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X ((111)In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the (111)In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

  18. A Functional Core of IncA Is Required for Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary M; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bauler, Laura D; Lam, Jennifer L; Sager, Janet; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Hackstadt, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the etiological agent of a variety of human diseases, including blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydiae replicate within a membrane-bound compartment, termed an inclusion, which they extensively modify by the insertion of type III secreted proteins called Inc proteins. IncA is an inclusion membrane protein that encodes two coiled-coil domains that are homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) motifs. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that a functional core, composed of SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD-1) and part of SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD-2), is required for the characteristic homotypic fusion of C. trachomatis inclusions in multiply infected cells. To verify the importance of IncA in homotypic fusion in Chlamydia, we generated an incA::bla mutant. Insertional inactivation of incA resulted in the formation of nonfusogenic inclusions, a phenotype that was completely rescued by complementation with full-length IncA. Rescue of homotypic inclusion fusion was dependent on the presence of the functional core consisting of SLD-1 and part of SLD-2. Collectively, these results confirm in vitro membrane fusion assays identifying functional domains of IncA and expand the genetic tools available for identification of chlamydia with a method for complementation of site-specific mutants. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial inclusions are nonfusogenic with vesicles in the endocytic pathway but, in multiply infected cells, fuse with each other to form a single large inclusion. This homotypic fusion is dependent upon the presence of a chlamydial inclusion membrane-localized protein, IncA. Specificity of membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells is regulated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor) proteins on the cytosolic face of vesicles and target

  19. The metallurgic furnaces at the Curamba Inca site (Peru): a study by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huaypar, Yezena; Vetter, Luisa; Bravo, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The Inca site at Curamba is located in the Province of Apurimac in the southern highlands of Peru where, according to some historians, several thousand furnaces used for ore smelting were found. For this work, four samples of burned soil were gathered from these furnaces and classified as Curamba1, Curamba2, Curamba3, and Curamba4, and studied using transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD and the structural sites in the minerals occupied by iron cations were characterized by TMS. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the maximum temperature reached in these furnaces using the refiring technique of the samples in an oxidizing environment and monitoring the structural modifications at the iron sites by changes in the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. The TMS results of Curamba2 show that the maximum temperature reached in this furnace was about 900 deg. C, in agreement with the mineralogical composition found by XRD. In the case of Curamba1 and Curamba4 the maximum temperature estimated was about 400 deg. C.

  20. The inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5 depends on INCA1 as a co-factor for its antiproliferative effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available The proteins of the Inhibitor of Growth (ING family are involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. For ING5, its actual role in growth suppression and the necessary partners are not known. In a yeast-two-hybrid approach with human bone marrow derived cDNA, we identified ING5 as well as several other proteins as interaction partners of Inhibitor of cyclin A1 (INCA1 that we previously characterized as a novel interaction partner of cyclin A1/CDK2. ING5 expression in leukemic AML blasts was severely reduced compared to normal bone marrow. In line, ING5 inhibited bone marrow colony formation upon retroviral transduction. However, Inca1(-/- bone marrow colony formation was not suppressed by ING5. In murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells from Inca1(+/+ and Inca1(-/- mice, overexpression of ING5 suppressed cell proliferation only in the presence of INCA1, while ING5 had no effect in Inca1(-/- MEFs. ING5 overexpression induced a delay in S-phase progression, which required INCA1. Finally, ING5 overexpression enhanced Fas-induced apoptosis in Inca1(+/+ MEFs, while Inca1(-/- MEFs were protected from Fas antibody-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that ING5 is a growth suppressor with suppressed expression in AML whose functions depend on its interaction with INCA1.

  1. The Inca healer: empirical medical knowledge and magic in pre-Columbian Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elferink, Jan G. R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of medical practitioners among the Incas is addressed, based on archeological findings and especially the writings of the Spanish chroniclers. In Inca medicine a large role was reserved for religion and magic but at the same time an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants was available. As a consequence there were several types of healers who cured with a mixture of medicinal plants and religious-magic ceremonies. The hampicamayoc or ‘official in charge of medicines’ was the one who resembled somewhat the European physician of that time and was the most important type of healer. He relied largely but certainly not exclusively on the use of medicinal plants. There were also healers who cured mainly with religious-magic procedures. Surgery must have been important for the Inca healer but this is hardly reflected in the work of the Spanish chroniclers.La posición social de los profesionales de la medicina en la Cultura Inca se conoce gracias a los hallazgos arqueológicos y, sobre todo, gracias a los escritos de los cronistas españoles. En la medicina Inca, la religión y la magia ocupaban un papel destacado, aunque también era importante el conocimiento de las plantas medicinales. En consecuencia, existieron distintos tipos de curanderos que curaban con una mezcla más o menos mayor de plantas medicinales y ceremonias religiosas y mágicas. El hampicamayoc o «funcionario encargado de los medicamentos» sobresalía entre los curanderos y tenía cierto parecido con el médico europeo de la época. Su actuación se basaba sobre todo, aunque no exclusivamente, en el uso de plantas medicinales. Otros, en cambio, curaban básicamente con procedimientos mágicoreligiosos. La cirugía debió ser importante para el sanador Inca pero este hecho apenas se refleja en la obra de los cronistas españoles.

  2. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  3. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993. He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005 deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007 documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices, which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another

  4. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  5. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  6. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ronzone

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  7. Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Brown, Emma L; Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels; Healey, Andrew; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Reinhard, Johan; Previgliano, Carlos H; Araoz, Facundo Arias; Diez, Josefina Gonzalez; Taylor, Timothy

    2013-08-13

    Examination of three frozen bodies, a 13-y-old girl and a girl and boy aged 4 to 5 y, separately entombed near the Andean summit of Volcán Llullaillaco, Argentina, sheds new light on human sacrifice as a central part of the Imperial Inca capacocha rite, described by chroniclers writing after the Spanish conquest. The high-resolution diachronic data presented here, obtained directly from scalp hair, implies escalating coca and alcohol ingestion in the lead-up to death. These data, combined with archaeological and radiological evidence, deepen our understanding of the circumstances and context of final placement on the mountain top. We argue that the individuals were treated differently according to their age, status, and ritual role. Finally, we relate our findings to questions of consent, coercion, and/or compliance, and the controversial issues of ideological justification and strategies of social control and political legitimation pursued by the expansionist Inca state before European contact.

  8. Self Portrait of a Courtier: Juan Boscán, Inca Garcilaso’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ortiz Canseco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This text focuses on a chief masterpiece of the Renaissance, Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier, and aims to identify its influence on Inca Garcilaso’s work. Considering that he had this book in his library, we will examine the different levels of influence of Castiglione’s work, especially the translation into Spanish by the poet Juan Boscán. This study will address not only the importance of the translator, but also the significance of a piece that brought together all the ideals of the Renaissance: the perfect courtier’s form, style and attitude are omnipresent in Inca Garcilaso’s work and life.

  9. Dynamic intensity-modulated non-coplanar arc radiotherapy (INCA) for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krayenbuehl, Jerome; Davis, J. Bernard; Ciernik, I. Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To define the potential advantages of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) applied using a non-coplanar dynamic arc technique for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was planned in ten patients with head and neck cancer using coplanar IMRT and non-coplanar arc techniques, termed intensity modulated non-coplanar arc EBRT (INCA). Planning target volumes (PTV1) of first order covered the gross tumor volume and surrounding clinical target volume treated with 68-70 Gy, whereas PTV2 covered the elective lymph nodes with 54-55 Gy using a simultaneous internal boost. Treatment plan comparison between IMRT and INCA was carried out using dose-volume histogram and 'equivalent uniform dose' (EUD). Results: INCA resulted in better dose coverage and homogeneity of the PTV1, PTV2, and reduced dose delivered to most of the organs at risk (OAR). For the parotid glands, a reduction of the mean dose of 2.9 (±2.0) Gy was observed (p 0.002), the mean dose to the larynx was reduced by 6.9 (±2.9) Gy (p 0.003), the oral mucosa by 2.4 (±1.1) Gy (p < 0.001), and the maximal dose to the spinal cord by 3.2 (±1.7) Gy (p = 0.004). The mean dose to the brain was increased by 3.0 (±1.4) Gy (p = 0.002) and the mean lung dose increased by 0.2 (±0.4) Gy (p = 0.87). The EUD suggested better avoidance of the OAR, except for the lung, and better coverage and dose uniformity were achieved with INCA compared to IMRT. Conclusion: Dose delivery accuracy with IMRT using a non-coplanar dynamic arc beam geometry potentially improves treatment of head and neck cancer

  10. Un hallazgo singular de un grupo de quipus inca en Huaycán De Cieneguilla

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Vargas, Mario A.; Ministerio de Cultura

    2015-01-01

    El artículo informa sobre el hallazgo de un grupo de quipus inca en la Zona Arqueológica Huaycán de Cieneguilla, recuperados mediante excavación en un contexto de tumba saqueada, la cual fue intervenida como parte del PIA-2011 por el Proyecto Integral Huaycán de Cieneguilla, en el marco del Proyecto Qhapaq Ñan del Ministerio de Cultura.

  11. Modelling nitrogen dynamics and distributions in the River Tweed, Scotland: an application of the INCA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jarvie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The INCA (Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments model was applied to the River Tweed in the Scottish Borders, a large-scale (4400km2, spatially heterogeneous catchment, draining a wide range of agricultural land-use types, and which contributes approximately 20% of UK river flows to the North Sea. The model was calibrated for the first four years' data record (1994 to 1997 and tested over the following three years (1998 to 2000. The model calibration and testing periods incorporated a high degree of variability in climatic conditions and river flows within the Tweed catchment. The ability of the INCA model to reproduce broad-scale spatial patterns and seasonal dynamics in river flows and nitrate concentrations suggests that the processes controlling first order variability in river water nitrate concentrations have been represented successfully within the model. The tendency of the model to overestimate summer/early autumn baseflow nitrate concentrations during dry years may be linked to the operation of aquatic plant uptake effects. It is, therefore, suggested that consideration be given to incorporating a spatially and temporally variable in-stream plant uptake term for the application of INCA to lowland eutrophic rivers. Scenarios to examine possible impacts of environmental change on nitrate concentrations on the Tweed are examined. These include the effects of (i implementing different recommendations for fertiliser use and land use change under the Nitrate Sensitive Areas (NSA Scheme and the Scottish Code of Good Agricultural Practice, (ii worst case scenario changes linked to a dramatic reduction in livestock numbers as a result of a crisis in UK livestock farming and (iii changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Keywords: Nitrate, nitrogen, modelling, Tweed, INCA

  12. Los incas representados (Lima – siglo XVIII: ¿Supervivencia o renacimiento?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perissat, Karine

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 18th Century the indigenous people of Lima were accorded permission to celebrate the Spanish kings in a segregated group. The criollo elites expected them to represent their old kings in the demostrations, thus taking part in the exaltation of the Peruvian history. The descriptions of the limeño festivities, which show that the costumes of the Incas in the masquerades were highly hibridisized and baroque, allow us to analyse the characteristics of the Inca renaissance in the 18th Century. The costume played a basic role in the rehabilitation of the old Peruvian kings in the Colonial society.

    Al principio del siglo XVIII, se les otorgó a los indios de Lima la posibilidad de festejar a los monarcas españoles en grupo aparte. De ellos se esperaba que representasen a sus antiguos monarcas en desfiles o mascaradas y participaran por consiguiente, animados por las elites criollas, en la exaltación de la historia peruana. Fuertemente mestizada y apropiada a los gustos barrocos, la indumentaria de los incas de las mascaradas descrita en las relaciones de fiestas limeñas nos permite analizar las características del renacimiento incaico del siglo XVIII y ver cómo la vestimenta desempañaba un papel fundamental en la rehabilitación de los antiguos monarcas peruanos en la sociedad colonial.

  13. Putting the rise of the Inca Empire within a climatic and land management context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepstow-Lusty, A. J.; Frogley, M. R.; Bauer, B. S.; Leng, M. J.; Boessenkool, K. P.; Carcaillet, C.; Ali, A. A.; Gioda, A.

    2009-07-01

    The rapid expansion of the Inca from the Cuzco area of highland Peru (ca. AD 1400-1532) produced the largest empire in the New World. Although this meteoric growth may in part be due to the adoption of innovative societal strategies, supported by a large labour force and a standing army, we argue that it would not have been possible without increased crop productivity, which was linked to more favourable climatic conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy, high-resolution 1200-year lake sediment record from Marcacocha, located 12 km north of Ollantaytambo, in the heartland of the Inca Empire. This record reveals a period of sustained aridity that began from AD 880, followed by increased warming from AD 1100 that lasted beyond the arrival of the Spanish in AD 1532. These increasingly warmer conditions would have allowed the Inca and their immediate predecessors the opportunity to exploit higher altitudes (post-AD 1150) by constructing agricultural terraces that employed glacial-fed irrigation, in combination with deliberate agroforestry techniques. There may be some important lessons to be learnt today from these strategies for sustainable rural development in the Andes in the light of future climate uncertainty.

  14. Putting the rise of the Inca Empire within a climatic and land management context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Chepstow-Lusty

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the Inca from the Cuzco area of highland Peru (ca. AD 1400–1532 produced the largest empire in the New World. Although this meteoric growth may in part be due to the adoption of innovative societal strategies, supported by a large labour force and a standing army, we argue that it would not have been possible without increased crop productivity, which was linked to more favourable climatic conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy, high-resolution 1200-year lake sediment record from Marcacocha, located 12 km north of Ollantaytambo, in the heartland of the Inca Empire. This record reveals a period of sustained aridity that began from AD 880, followed by increased warming from AD 1100 that lasted beyond the arrival of the Spanish in AD 1532. These increasingly warmer conditions would have allowed the Inca and their immediate predecessors the opportunity to exploit higher altitudes (post-AD 1150 by constructing agricultural terraces that employed glacial-fed irrigation, in combination with deliberate agroforestry techniques. There may be some important lessons to be learnt today from these strategies for sustainable rural development in the Andes in the light of future climate uncertainty.

  15. Compatibility and entry exclusion of IncA and IncC plasmids revisited: IncA and IncC plasmids are compatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Stephanie J; Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2018-02-24

    In an early study, IncA and IncC plasmids that were reported to be compatible were grouped as the "A-C complex" based on similarities and on strong entry exclusion. However, recently, the term IncA/C has been used frequently to describe plasmids belonging to both of these two groups. Granted that the supporting data was not included in the original reports and that the consensus iteron sequences have since been shown to be essentially identical, we have addressed the question again. The original IncA plasmid, RA1, and the IncC plasmid pRMH760, were introduced into the same cell by transformation, and were found to be maintained stably for over 100 generations in the absence of selection for either plasmid, i.e. they were compatible. We conclude that use of the term IncA/C for this important plasmid group is indeed incorrect and it causes unnecessary confusion. Granted the importance of IncC plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, we recommend that use of the misleading terms IncA/C, IncA/C 1 and IncA/C 2 should cease. In addition, RA1 and pRMH760 were shown to each completely prevent entry of the other via conjugative transfer into the cell they reside in. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New discoveries on astronomical orientation of Inca site in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Hanzalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen. (1  He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2 deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (3 documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images were used to estimate the astronomical-solar-solstice orientation, together with terrestrial images from Salazar and Salazar (2. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the actual horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices, which were for Incas people very important. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with objects in Ollantaytambo. First, we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths.  We tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn´t connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation point. By Salazar and Salazar (2 we found observation

  17. WARI E INCA: EL SIGNIFICADO DE VILCABAMBA (Avance/Advance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidio M. Valdez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the unprecedented discovery of an elite Wari burial (circa AD 550-1000 in the tropical region (Vilcabamba northwest of Cuzco (Peru, this past March the Peruvian Ministry of Culture-Cuzco organized the First Colloquium named Tras las Huellas de los Wari. The colloquium was aimed at discussing the archaeological implications of the new findings from Vilcabamba.

  18. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake.

  19. The function of female and male ornaments in the Inca Tern: evidence for links between ornament expression and both adult condition and reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velando, A.; Lessells, C.M.; Marquez, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Inca Terns Larosterna inca are medium-size seabirds that breed along the Peruvian and Chilean coast. They are monogamous and both sexes incubate and contribute to chick provisioning. The sexes are similar in appearance and have elaborate ornaments, including a long white moustache of feathers and

  20. INCA Modelling of the Lee System: strategies for the reduction of nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Flynn

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Nitrogen Catchment model (INCA was applied successfully to simulate nitrogen concentrations in the River Lee, a northern tributary of the River Thames for 1995-1999. Leaching from urban and agricultural areas was found to control nitrogen dynamics in reaches unaffected by effluent discharges and abstractions; the occurrence of minimal flows resulted in an upward trend in nitrate concentration. Sewage treatment works (STW discharging into the River Lee raised nitrate concentrations substantially, a problem which was compounded by abstractions in the Lower Lee. The average concentration of nitrate (NO3 for the simulation period 1995-96 was 7.87 mg N l-1. Ammonium (NH4 concentrations were simulated less successfully. However, concentrations of ammonium rarely rose to levels which would be of environmental concern. Scenarios were run through INCA to assess strategies for the reduction of nitrate concentrations in the catchment. The conversion of arable land to ungrazed vegetation or to woodland would reduce nitrate concentrations substantially, whilst inclusion of riparian buffer strips would be unsuccessful in reducing nitrate loading. A 50% reduction in nitrate loading from Luton STW would result in a fall of up to 5 mg N l-1 in the reach directly affected (concentrations fell from maxima of 13 to 8 mg N l-1 , nearly a 40 % reduction, whilst a 20% reduction in abstractions would reduce maximum peaks in concentration in the lower Lee by up to 4 mg l-1 (from 17 to 13 mg N l-1, nearly a 25 % reduction,. Keywords: modelling, water quality, nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, INCA, River Lee, River Thames, land-use.

  1. Coca: High Altitude Remedy of the Ancient Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondich, Amy Sue; Joslin, Jeremy D

    2015-12-01

    The use of coca leaf for medicinal purposes is a centuries-old tradition of the native peoples of South America. Coca products are thought by many laypersons to provide risk-free benefits to users participating in strenuous activities at high altitude. Physiologic studies of coca have increased understanding of its possible mechanism of action as well as its potential impact on high altitude activities. This present work explores the role of coca throughout the history of the Andean peoples and explores whether this ancient remedy has a place in modern medicine. A focused summary of research articles with particular relevance to the field of wilderness medicine is also included to better provide the reader with lessons not only from history but also from another culture. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An assessment of the fine sediment dynamics in an upland river system: INCA-Sed modifications and implications for fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Attila N; Butterfield, Dan; Futter, Martyn N; Rankinen, Katri; Thouvenot-Korppoo, Marie; Jarritt, Nick; Lawrence, Deborah S L; Wade, Andrew J; Whitehead, Paul G

    2010-05-15

    There is a need for better links between hydrology and ecology, specifically between landscapes and riverscapes to understand how processes and factors controlling the transport and storage of environmental pollution have affected or will affect the freshwater biota. Here we show how the INCA modelling framework, specifically INCA-Sed (the Integrated Catchments model for Sediments) can be used to link sediment delivery from the landscape to sediment changes in-stream. INCA-Sed is a dynamic, process-based, daily time step model. The first complete description of the equations used in the INCA-Sed software (version 1.9.11) is presented. This is followed by an application of INCA-Sed made to the River Lugg (1077 km(2)) in Wales. Excess suspended sediment can negatively affect salmonid health. The Lugg has a large and potentially threatened population of both Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). With the exception of the extreme sediment transport processes, the model satisfactorily simulated both the hydrology and the sediment dynamics in the catchment. Model results indicate that diffuse soil loss is the most important sediment generation process in the catchment. In the River Lugg, the mean annual Guideline Standard for suspended sediment concentration, proposed by UKTAG, of 25 mg l(-1) is only slightly exceeded during the simulation period (1995-2000), indicating only minimal effect on the Atlantic salmon population. However, the daily time step simulation of INCA-Sed also allows the investigation of the critical spawning period. It shows that the sediment may have a significant negative effect on the fish population in years with high sediment runoff. It is proposed that the fine settled particles probably do not affect the salmonid egg incubation process, though suspended particles may damage the gills of fish and make the area unfavourable for spawning if the conditions do not improve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Chavez, Jose Antonio; Reinhard, Johan; Grimes, Vaughan; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Cartmell, Larry; Stern, Ben; Richards, Michael P.; Worobey, Michael; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies to obtain detailed genetic and diachronic isotopic information. This approach has allowed us to reconstruct aspects of individual identity and diet, make inferences concerning social background, and gain insight on the hitherto unknown processes by which victims were selected, elevated in social status, prepared for a high-altitude pilgrimage, and killed. Such direct information amplifies, yet also partly contrasts with, Spanish historical accounts. PMID:17923675

  4. INCA: method of analyzing in-core detector data in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, T.G.; Terney, W.B.; Marks, G.H.

    1975-04-01

    A method (INCA) is described by which signals from fixed in-core detectors are related to estimates of the three dimensional power distribution in an operating reactor core and to the maximum linear heat rate in the core. A description of the large library of data accompanying the method is provided. A detailed examination of the analytical verifications performed using the method is presented, and a summary of the uncertainty associated with the method is given. The uncertainty assigned to the maximum linear heat rate inferred by the method from operating reactor data is found to be 5.8 percent at a 95/95 confidence level. (U.S.)

  5. Putting the rise of the Inca Empire within a climatic and land management context

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Chepstow-Lusty; M. R. Frogley; B. S. Bauer; M. J. Leng; K. P. Boessenkool; C. Carcaillet; A. A. Ali; A. Gioda

    2009-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the Inca from the Cuzco area of highland Peru (ca. AD 14001532) produced the largest empire in the New World. Although this meteoric growth may in part be due to the adoption of innovative societal strategies, supported by a large labour force and a standing army, we argue that it would not have been possible without increased crop productivity, which was linked to more favourable climatic conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy, high-resolution 1200-year lake sedimen...

  6. Water quality improvements from afforestation in an agricultural catchment in Denmark illustrated with the INCA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bastrup-Birk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural land use across Europe has altered nitrogen (N budget of catchments substantially, causing widespread N pollution of freshwater. Although the N cycle in forests has changed due to increased N deposition, most forest soil waters in Europe have low nitrate concentrations. The protective function of forests on water quality has led to increasing interest in the planting of new forests on arable land as a measure to protect valuable or sensitive freshwater resources. The paper illustrates the effects of afforestation on water and N cycling using the Integrated Nitrogen Catchment (INCA model. The model was calibrated on the Horndrup catchment in the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, which is dominated by agricultural land use but also covered by 18% of forest land. The dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the stream water were simulated successfully by INCA over a three-year period. The simulation of the dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the soil water is closely linked to the simulation of the hydrological dynamics and especially to the rainfall. The best fit was achieved for both arable and forest land during the wettest year of the study period. The model was then used to simulate the effect of afforestation of a catchment dominated by agriculture on N fluxes with seepage and runoff. Scenarios of whole catchment conversion to forest were run, based on observations of evapotranspiration and N deposition from other Danish sites. The simulated conversion to mature forest reduced runoff by 30–45% and reduced the nitrate concentrations in the soil water by 50–70%. The simulated effect of afforestation on N leaching was an almost direct reflection of the change in the N input: substantial changes in the plant demand and soil N dynamics over the afforestation period were not simulated. To simulate the N dynamics over longer time-scales, appropriate for the study of afforestation, it is suggested that the INCA model be run

  7. Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Brown, Emma L.; Villa, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Examination of three frozen bodies, a 13-y-old girl and a girl and boy aged 4 to 5 y, separately entombed near the Andean summit of Volcán Llullaillaco, Argentina, sheds new light on human sacrifice as a central part of the Imperial Inca capacocha rite, described by chroniclers writing after...... of final placement on the mountain top. We argue that the individuals were treated differently according to their age, status, and ritual role. Finally, we relate our findings to questions of consent, coercion, and/or compliance, and the controversial issues of ideological justification and strategies...

  8. N fluxes in two nitrogen saturated forested catchments in Germany: dynamics and modelling with INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Langusch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The N cycle in forests of the temperate zone in Europe has been changed substantially by the impact of atmospheric N deposition. Here, the fluxes and concentrations of mineral N in throughfall, soil solution and runoff in two German catchments, receiving high N inputs are investigated to test the applicability of an Integrated Nitrogen Model for European Catchments (INCA to small forested catchments. The Lehstenbach catchment (419 ha is located in the German Fichtelgebirge (NO Bavaria, 690-871 m asl. and is stocked with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. of different ages. The Steinkreuz catchment (55 ha with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as the dominant tree species is located in the Steigerwald (NW Bavaria, 400-460 m asl.. The mean annual N fluxes with throughfall were slightly higher at the Lehstenbach (24.6 kg N ha-1 than at the Steinkreuz (20.4 kg N ha-1. In both catchments the N fluxes in the soil are dominated by NO3. At Lehstenbach, the N output with seepage at 90 cm soil depth was similar to the N flux with throughfall. At Steinkreuz more than 50 % of the N deposited was retained in the upper soil horizons. In both catchments, the NO3 fluxes with runoff were lower than those with seepage. The average annual NO3 concentrations in runoff in both catchments were between 0.7 to 1.4 mg NO3-N L-1 and no temporal trend was observed. The N budgets at the catchment scale indicated similar amounts of N retention (Lehstenbach: 19 kg N ha-1yr-1 ; Steinkreuz: 17 kg N ha-1yr-1. The parameter settings of the INCA model were simplified to reduce the model complexity. In both catchments, the NO3 concentrations and fluxes in runoff were matched well by the model. The seasonal patterns with lower NO3 runoff concentrations in summer at the Lehstenbach catchment were replicated. INCA underestimated the increased N3 concentrations during short periods of rewetting in late autumn at the Steinkreuz catchment. The model will be a helpful tool for the

  9. On the human capital of Inca Indios before and after the Spanish conquest: Was there a "pre-colonial legacy"?

    OpenAIRE

    Juif, Dácil-Tania; Baten, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Not only the colonial period, but also the pre-colonial times might have influenced later development patterns. In this study we assess a potential pre-colonial legacy hypothesis for the case of the Andean region. In order to analyze the hypothesis, we study the human capital of Inca Indios, using age-heaping-based techniques to estimate basic numeracy skills. We find that Peruvian Inca Indios had only around half the numeracy level of the Spanish invaders. The hypothesis holds even after adj...

  10. Mechanical analysis of the dry stone walls built by the Incas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jaime; Vallejo, Luis E.; Estrada, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the retaining walls in the agricultural terraces built by the Incas are analyzed from a mechanical point of view. In order to do so, ten different walls from the Lower Agricultural Sector of Machu Picchu, Perú, were selected using images from Google Street View and Google Earth Pro. Then, these walls were digitalized and their mechanical stability was evaluated. Firstly, it was found that these retaining walls are characterized by two distinctive features: disorder and a block size distribution with a large size span, i.e., the particle size varies from blocks that can be carried by one person to large blocks weighing several tons. Secondly, it was found that, thanks to the large span of the block size distribution, the factor of safety of the Inca retaining walls is remarkably close to those that are recommended in modern geotechnical design standards. This suggests that these structures were not only functional but also highly optimized, probably as a result of a careful trial and error procedure.

  11. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  12. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constanza Ceruti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m, Quehuar (6130 m, El Toro (6160 m, and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  13. The case of Inca´s National Tumor Bank management system in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies can provide the basis for new directions in cancer research, supplying tools that identify subtle but important signs from the analysis of clinical, behavioral, environmental and genetic data. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the system developed for managing Banco Nacional de Tumores (SISBNT – National Tumor Bank System - highlighting its role in the technological innovation of Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA – Brazilian National Cancer Institute. It is a qualitative empirical theoretical paper, descriptive and exploratory in nature, based on the single case study method and on participant observation. The results show the importance of good practices in information management for the full operation of a biobank in a research-oriented pharmaceutical company. There is also evidence that the implementation of SISBNT has contributed to the improvement of cancer treatment quality and to the support of efforts towards the organization of the integration of clinical, translational and basic research. The non-use of data mining techniques for the identification of molecular patterns and structures associated with the different types of cancer undergoing study at INCA seems to occur due to the early stage of Bioinformatics and translational research, as well as the National Tumor Bank, in the institution.

  14. What is the Radiotherapy Quality Program of the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - INCa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Castelo Branco Viegas, C.; Salomon de Souza, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiotherapy Quality Program (PQRT) of Cancer National Institute (INCA) has been functioning since 1999 as a pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to the optimal obtained results the program becomes a part of the INCA National Programs and his activities were extended to all radiotherapy services which attend the Health Unique Systems (SUS), approximately 130 institutions corresponding to 90 percent of the radiotherapy services available in Brazil. The PQRT main objective is to make the radiotherapy to be evaluated as planned, in accordance with quality assurance international standards. The principal activities of the PQRT are: local evaluation, TLD postal evaluation under reference and non-reference conditions, and training and development of research projects. The Local Evaluation System has already evaluated 85 teletherapy equipment (38 Co-60 and 47 linear accelerators), executing dosimetric, electric, mechanic and safety tests. The TLD postal system used for the 33 participants until 2002 was the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for reference conditions. Five evaluations has already been performed with this simply system. Since 2003, the postal evaluation of the PQRT is using his own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions, applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linear accelerators). The PQRT ras already performed 400 evaluations under reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linear accelerators). 18 courses have been provided for the participants, covering his main practical problems. In addition, some studies and research has been performed

  15. Shadow corrosion testing in the INCA facility in the Studsvik R2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, A.C.; Lassing, A.

    1999-01-01

    Shadow corrosion is a phenomenon which occurs when zirconium alloys are in contact with or in proximity to other metallic objects in a boiling water reactor environment (BWR, RBMK, SGHWR etc.). An enhanced corrosion occurs on the zirconium alloy with the appearance of a 'shadow' of the metallic object. The magnitude of the shadow corrosion can be significant, and is potentially limiting for the lifetime of certain zirconium alloy components in BWRs and other reactors with a similar water chemistry. In order to evaluate the suitability of the In-Core Autoclave (INCA) in the Studsvik R2 materials testing reactor as an experimental facility for studying shadow corrosion, a demonstration test has been performed. A number of test specimens consisting of Zircaloy-2 tubing in contact with Inconel were exposed in an oxidising water chemistry. Some of the specimens were placed within the reactor core and some above the core. The conclusion of this experiment after post irradiation examination is that it is possible to use the INCA facility in the Studsvik R2 reactor to develop a significant level of shadow corrosion after only 800 hours of irradiation. (author)

  16. INCA Modelling of the Lee System: strategies for the reduction of nitrogen loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, N. J.; Paddison, T.; Whitehead, P. G.

    The Integrated Nitrogen Catchment model (INCA) was applied successfully to simulate nitrogen concentrations in the River Lee, a northern tributary of the River Thames for 1995-1999. Leaching from urban and agricultural areas was found to control nitrogen dynamics in reaches unaffected by effluent discharges and abstractions; the occurrence of minimal flows resulted in an upward trend in nitrate concentration. Sewage treatment works (STW) discharging into the River Lee raised nitrate concentrations substantially, a problem which was compounded by abstractions in the Lower Lee. The average concentration of nitrate (NO3) for the simulation period 1995-96 was 7.87 mg N l-1. Ammonium (NH4) concentrations were simulated less successfully. However, concentrations of ammonium rarely rose to levels which would be of environmental concern. Scenarios were run through INCA to assess strategies for the reduction of nitrate concentrations in the catchment. The conversion of arable land to ungrazed vegetation or to woodland would reduce nitrate concentrations substantially, whilst inclusion of riparian buffer strips would be unsuccessful in reducing nitrate loading. A 50% reduction in nitrate loading from Luton STW would result in a fall of up to 5 mg N l-1 in the reach directly affected (concentrations fell from maxima of 13 to 8 mg N l-1 , nearly a 40 % reduction), whilst a 20% reduction in abstractions would reduce maximum peaks in concentration in the lower Lee by up to 4 mg l-1 (from 17 to 13 mg N l-1, nearly a 25 % reduction),.

  17. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  18. Review of Richard Parra, «La tiranía del Inca. El Inca Garcilaso y la escritura política en el Perú colonial (1568-1617», Lima, Ediciones Copé, 2015, 508 pp., ISBN 978-6124-20-221-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Adolfo Morong Reyes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of Richard Parra, «La tiranía del Inca. El Inca Garcilaso y la escritura política en el Perú colonial (1568-1617», Lima, Ediciones Copé, 2015, 508 pp., ISBN 978-6124-20-221-6

  19. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  20. Attempts at superunification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Maiani, L.; Zumino, B.; Gaillard, M.K.

    1980-04-01

    We describe attempts to construct a phenomenologically viable model which embeds a unified theory of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in an extended supergravity theory. Following Cremmer and Julia, we assume that the local unitary symmetry which they found for SO(N) supergravity theories is realized dynamically, and that the usual quarks, leptons, gauge bosons and Higgs scalars of the renormalizable gauge theory are composite states which appear point-like on a mass scale below the Planck mass. We argue that this picture leads uniquely to SO(8) (or SO(7)) supergravity with SU(5) as the grand unification gauge group. We find that conventional symmetry breaking schemes according to which particles acquire all allowed invariant masses at each stage of a step by step symmetry breakdown do not yield an acceptable particle spectrum. We argue that the original symmetries of the composite supermultiplet may break dynamically to an effective anomaly free renormalizable sub-theory, with the underlying supersymmetry serving at most to restrict the particle spectrum and to specify the couplings of the effective renormalizable Lagrangian at the Planck mass. Preliminary investigations suggest that this approach may be more promising

  1. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  2. Long-term modelling of nitrogen turnover and critical loads in a forested catchment using the INCA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Langusch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Many forest ecosystems in Central Europe have reached the status of N saturation due to chronically high N deposition. In consequence, the NO3 leaching into ground- and surface waters is often substantial. Critical loads have been defined to abate the negative consequences of the NO3 leaching such as soil acidification and nutrient losses. The steady state mass balance method is normally used to calculate critical loads for N deposition in forest ecosystems. However, the steady state mass balance approach is limited because it does not take into account hydrology and the time until the steady state is reached. The aim of this study was to test the suitability of another approach: the dynamic model INCA (Integrated Nitrogen Model for European Catchments. Long-term effects of changing N deposition and critical loads for N were simulated using INCA for the Lehstenbach spruce catchment (Fichtelgebirge, NE Bavaria, Germany under different hydrological conditions. Long-term scenarios of either increasing or decreasing N deposition indicated that, in this catchment, the response of nitrate concentrations in runoff to changing N deposition is buffered by a large groundwater reservoir. The critical load simulated by the INCA model with respect to a nitrate concentration of 0.4 mg N l–1 as threshold value in runoff was 9.7 kg N ha–1yr–1 compared to 10 kg ha–1yr–1 for the steady state model. Under conditions of lower precipitation (520 mm the resulting critical load was 7.7 kg N ha–1yr–1 , suggesting the necessity to account for different hydrological conditions when calculating critical loads. The INCA model seems to be suitable to calculate critical loads for N in forested catchments under varying hydrological conditions e.g. as a consequence of climate change. Keywords: forest ecosystem, N saturation, critical load, modelling, long-term scenario, nitrate leaching, critical loads reduction, INCA

  3. An Attempt at Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sztaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Witkacy’s Pure Form expresses the metaphysical essence of art. On the one side, it symbolizes the structure of the world, the unity in plurality (which is demonstrated in the picture’s composition and, on the other, the notion deals with the processes of creating and perceiving an art work. The moment in which the self feels itself embedded in the wholeness of the world is the moment in which the metaphysical feeling arises, and in which the experience of art is fulfilled. Witkacy provides many examples for situations evoking this feeling. He describes them in his novels, he finds synonyms as suchness, curiosity of existence, mystery of being or unity of identity, he switches from scientific to poetic language. And he emphasizes that this feeling, while defying verbalization, is a real, not a supernatural one: a psychophysical phenomenon accessible to introspection, and inseparable from one's cultural and individual background.

  4. Inca Trail porters: the health of local tourism employees as a challenge for travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2003-01-01

    Trekking is an activity that forms part of the increasing adventure and outdoor tourism. High altitude trekking in the Himalayas or Andes has been popular for some time. For longer treks, porters are employed to carry necessary equipment. Porters' working conditions are unfortunate and subsequent health problems considerable. Although Himalayan porters have received some attention in the press and research literature, porters on the popular Inca Trail in Peru have been neglected. In light of the growing awareness of health problems of local tourism employees, the purpose of this study was to describe Inca Trail porters' working conditions and their reports on their related health status to provide baseline information for further research and strategies for improvement. For this descriptive study, 101 Inca Trail porters were interviewed (August/September 2001) using a structured interview schedule. Porters were between 17 and 68 years old; estimated body weight ranged from 50 kg to 76 kg. The usual portering job lasts for 4 days with 9 to 10 hours of carrying per day. Estimated weight of loads ranged from 20 kg to 45 kg. Major concerns were lack of fuel, clothes, shelter, and equipment but foremost the lack of sufficient food provisions. A third described their general health as poor or very poor and attributed this to work. Health complaints included respiratory infections, kidney problems, or rheumatism. Thirty-eight porters recalled injuries while on the trail and over 90% had fallen ill on the job with cold, "majurki," and stomach pain due to lack of food or cold food being named most often. Porters' demands for improvement included increased pay and appropriate and sufficient food. The porters' working conditions and subsequent health problems need to be addressed. A range of stakeholders is responsible for the porters' conditions and are in a position to improve current situations. Specific responsibility for health care lies with travel health professionals

  5. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Literatura Inca (¿indígena? como representación de la literatura peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Espino Relucé

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta comunicación propone la relación entre las bellas letras y las manifestacionesdiscursivas vinculadas al indio; por eso, esboza las principales ideasliterarias que Jorge Basadre propone en Equivocaciones y cuyo trazo se puedeleer en Historia de la República del Perú.1 Se detiene en la importancia de laLiteratura inca, compilación de Basadre, cuya publicación constituye un recuentode la literatura prehispánica, la producción colonial y republicana de laescritura literaria quechua como representación de lo indígena para las culturasperuanas. Lo vinculo, asimismo, a la comprensión de la literatura como ejercicioheterogéneo y a las formas como el indio es representado en la escritura a finalesde la primera mitad del siglo XX.

  7. Impacto de la conquista inca en la metalurgia de Los Amarillos (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos I. Angiorama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos el impacto de la conquista inca en la producción y circulación de objetos metálicos en el asentamiento conocido como Los Amarillos, uno de los más complejos de los localizados en la Quebrada de Humahuaca (Jujuy. Luego comparamos los resultados de nuestras investigaciones con los obtenidos por arqueometalurgos en otros lugares del país, demostrando que las repercusiones de la conquista incaica no han sido las mismas en todos los centros metalúrgicos de la región. Por el contrario, el Imperio reorganizó la producción y la circulación de objetos metálicos aplicando estrategias diferentes en los diversos casos estudiados.

  8. Cuzco y Roma, peruanos y andaluces en la obra del Inca Garcilaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín del Pino-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se intenta ofrecer una explicación sociocultural del programa romanista del Inca Garcilaso en función de sus coordenadas biográficas (peruana y española, analizando especialmente su destino andaluz, tanto por sus coordenadas sociales (conquista reciente del mundo islámico y presencia de conversos judíos como por las propiamente culturales (clasicismo real y nobiliario, conexión con jesuitas. No se trata, pues, de una solución individual y aislada (por aristocrática, ni tampoco de una opción meramente literaria o religiosa (a pesar de expresarse en esa clave.

  9. The Context for IMAP: Voyager and INCA Observations of the Heliosheath at E > 5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    2016-04-01

    The basic premise of the proposed Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) is detailed scientific understanding of the Heliosheath (HS) and beyond, a region of space explored in situ by Voyager 1 (V1) since 2004, Voyager 2 (V2) since 2007, and remotely via energetic neutral atoms (ENA) by the Cassini/INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 and IBEX since 2009. The IMAP instrumentation proposed for this purpose combines and extends the IBEX and INCA ENA energy ranges (0.3- 20 keV and 3-200 keV, for low and high energy, respectively). All three missions-Voyagers, Cassini/INCA, and IBEX- have made discovery-class measurements in the HS, the Voyagers providing in situ ion intensities at E > 30 keV, while INCA images ENA in the range 5 INCA ENA allows for the possibility of observing the intensity and time evolution of ions in the HS, thought to give rise to the ENAs via charge-exchange, and the resultant ENA images in the inner heliosphere and their spatial and/or temporal variability. Unfortunately, no such "ground truth" ion measurements are possible at Voyager in the ENA energy range imaged by IBEX. Some of the key findings from the Voyager and Cassini/INCA measurements are as follows: (1) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50 %) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically >10. (2) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels.. (3) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2015, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter. (4) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS also show a similar SC dependence. The totality of the observations, together with the near

  10. Inhibition of Fusion of Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusions at 32°C Correlates with Restricted Export of IncA

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, K. A.; Fischer, E.; Hackstadt, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that develops within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The inclusion is nonfusogenic with lysosomes but intercepts lipids from a host cell exocytic pathway. Initiation of chlamydial development is concurrent with modification of the inclusion membrane by a set of C. trachomatis-encoded proteins collectively designated Incs. One of these Incs, IncA, is functionally associated with the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Incl...

  11. Micromamiferos andinos holocenicos del sitio arqueologico Inca Cueva 5, Ju Juy, Argentina: tafonomia, zoogeografia y reconstruccion paleoambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, P. E.; Teta, P.

    2002-01-01

    A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP) from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina) was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Fam...

  12. Simulating nitrogen budgets in complex farming systems using INCA: calibration and scenario analyses for the Kervidy catchment (W. France)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Durand; P. Durand

    2004-01-01

    The integrated nitrogen model INCA (Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments) was used to analyse the nitrogen dynamics in a small rural catchment in Western France. The agrosystem studied is very complex, with: extensive use of different organic fertilisers, a variety of crop rotations, a structural excess of nitrogen (i.e. more animal N produced by the intensive farming than the N requirements of the crops and pastures), and nitrate retention in both hydrological stores and riparian zones. The ...

  13. Navigation, findability and the usage of cultural heritage on the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    . On average cultural heritage objects are viewed in half of the session. In the analysis of the web survey answers two groups of users’ are distinguished, the professional user in a work context and users in a hobby or leisure context. School or study as a context is prominent in Guaman Poma, the Inca...

  14. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide...

  15. Del discurso escrito colonial al discurso prehispánico: hacia el sistema sociocosmológico inca de oposición y complementariedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available DU DISCOURS ECRIT COLONIAL AU DISCOURS PREHISPANIQUE : VERS LE SYSTEME SOCIOCOSMOLOGIQUE INCA D’OPPOSITION ET DE COMPLEMENTARITE. On retrouve dans les récits des chroniques coloniales sur la guerre des Incas contre les Chancas -et dans ceux de la guerre des Incas contre les Alcauizas- la tradition indigène des batailles rituelles (ou tinkuy qui commémoraient pour le solstice de décembre la nécessaire victoire de l’infant Yupanqui (incarnation du Jeune Soleil triomphant sur des ennemis conventionnels représentant le risque d’intempéries et de mauvaises récoltes. À cette occasion, le nouvel Inca qui succédait à son père (incarnation du Vieux Soleil, devait favoriser le changement harmonieux dans le cycle cosmique et végétal, en même temps qu’il devait reconstituer, au moins symboliquement, l’ordre social et politique. Encontramos en los relatos de las crónicas coloniales sobre la guerra de los incas contra los chancas -y en los de la guerra de los incas contra los alcauizas- la tradición indígena de unas batallas rituales (o tinkuy que conmemoraban, por el solsticio de diciembre, la necesaria victoria del infante Yupanqui (encarnación del Sol Joven triunfante sobre enemigos convencionales que representaban el riesgo de intemperie y de mala cosecha. Con este motivo, el nuevo Inca que sucedía a su padre (encarnación del Sol Viejo debía propiciar alternancias armoniosas en el ciclo cósmico y vegetal. Juntamente, debía reconstituir, por lo menos simbólicamente, el orden social y político. FROM COLONIAL WRITTEN DISCOURSE TO PREHISPANIC DISCOURSE: TOWARDS THE INCA SOCIOCOSMOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF OPPOSITION AND COMPLEMENTARITY. The indigenous tradition of ritual battles (or tinkuy, which, in connection with the December solstice, commemorated the necessary victory of the prince Yupanqui (incarnation of the triumphant Young Sun over his conventional enemies (symbolizing the risk of bad weather and poor crops is to be found in

  16. Modelling the long term impact of climate change on the carbon budget of Lake Simcoe, Ontario using INCA-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, S K; Futter, M N; Molot, L A; Dillon, P J

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a process-based model of dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) in catchments draining into Lake Simcoe, Ontario. INCA-C, the Integrated Catchment model for Carbon, incorporates carbon biogeochemical processes in a terrestrial system with hydrologic flow paths to simulate watershed wide [DOC]. The model successfully simulates present-day inter-annual and seasonal [DOC] dynamics in tributaries draining catchments with mixed or contrasting land cover in the Lake Simcoe watershed (LSW). The sensitivity of INCA-C to soil moisture, hydrologic controls and land uses within a watershed demonstrates its significance as a tool to explore pertinent environmental issues specific to the LSW. Projections of climate change under A1B and A2 SRES scenarios suggest a continuous monotonic increase in [DOC] in surface waters draining into Lake Simcoe. Large variations in seasonal DOC dynamics are predicted to occur during summer with a possibility of displacement of summer [DOC] maxima towards winter and a prolongation of summer [DOC] levels into the autumn. INCA-C also predicts possible increases in dissolved inorganic carbon in some tributaries with rising temperature suggesting increased CO(2) emissions from rivers as climate changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated Nitrogen and Flow Modelling (INCA) in a Boreal River Basin Dominated by Forestry: Scenarios of Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Lepistoe, Ahti; Granlund, Kirsti

    2004-01-01

    A new version (v1.7) of the Integrated Nitrogen in CAtchments model(INCA) was applied to the northern boreal Simojoki river basin (3160 km 2 ) in Finland. The INCA model is a semi-distributed, dynamic nitrogen (N) process model which simulates N transport and processes in catchments. The INCA model was applied to model flow and seasonal inorganic N dynamics of the river Simojoki basin over the period 1994-1996, and validated for two more years. Both calibration and validation of the model were successful. The model was able to simulate annual dynamics of inorganic N concentrations in the river. The effects of forest management and atmospheric deposition on inorganic N fluxes to the sea in 2010 were studied. Three scenarios were applied for forestry practices and two for deposition. The effects of forest cutting scenarios and atmospheric deposition scenarios on inorganic N flux to the sea were small. The combination of the maximum technically possible reduction of N deposition and a decrease of 100% in forest cutting and peat mining areas decreased NO 3 - -N flux by 6.0% and NH 4 + -N flux by 3.1%

  18. [Suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.

  19. Los palacios en la Costa Central durante los periodos Tardíos: de Pachacamac al Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PALAIS DE LA COTE CENTRALE DURANT LES PERIODES RECENTES : DE PACHACAMAC A L’INCA. Des études récentes portant sur la côte centrale du Pérou ont mis en évidence le fait que durant la période Intermédiaire récent (XIe au XVe s. dne l’architecture reliée au pouvoir était étroitement liée à un type particulier d’édifice : la résidence d’élite ou palais. Les données indiquent également que durant l’occupation inca dans la même région (15-16e siècles, ce type de bâtiment conserve toute son importance en tant que symbole spécifique du pouvoir politique des élites gouvernantes (c'est-à-dire les curacas. La persistance des palais de tradition locale comme référents de l’organisation politique de ce que l’on appelle la province inca de Pachacamac - tout du moins dans la zone correspondant au fleuve Rimac - met en evidence un thème toujours d’actualité dans le débat archéologique : quelles furent les caractéristiques du contrôle politique résultant de l’occupation inca dans cette partie du Tahuantinsuyu ? Quelle fut la reaction des élites locales face à l’ordre nouveau issu de la conquête ? Cet article développe ce thème à partir de la définition des attributs formels des palais, la description et l’usage des artefacts associés à ceux-ci, ainsi que l’analyse des sources historiques qui rendent compte des caractéristiques particulières de la société préhispanique récente de la côte centrale. Recientes estudios para la costa central del Perú han evidenciado que durante el periodo Intermedio Tardío (S. XI a XV d.C. la arquitectura del poder estuvo íntimamente ligada a un tipo particular de edificio: la residencia de elite o palacio. Las evidencias también indican que luego de la ocupación Inca de la misma región (S. XV, esta variedad de edificio conservó su vigencia como símbolo distintivo del poder político de las elites gobernantes (v.g. curacas. La persistencia de los palacios de

  20. Actinide Capture and Fission Cross Section Measurements Within the Mini-Inca Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Mini-INCA project is devoted to precise description of the transmutation chain of Actinides within high thermal neutron fluxes. It uses the High Flux Reactor of ILL (Laue Langevin Institute) as an intense thermal neutron source to measure capture and fission cross sections. Two irradiation channels are dedicated for those measurements offering a diversity of fluxes ranging from pure thermal neutrons to 15% epithermal neutrons with intensities as high as 1*10 15 n/cm 2 /s. Standard nuclear techniques for measurements, such as α and γ-spectroscopy of irradiated samples, have been extended in order to stand all constraints due to the irradiation in high fluxes. In particular new types of fission micro-chambers have been developed to follow online the evolution of one actinide and to measure its fission cross section in reference to 235 U(n,F) standard reaction. This type of neutron detector will be used within the MEGAPIE target to on-line characterise the neutron flux and to study the potentiality of such target in terms of incineration. (author)

  1. LMDzT-INCA dust forecast model developments and associated validation efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M; Cozic, A; Szopa, S

    2009-01-01

    The nudged atmosphere global climate model LMDzT-INCA is used to forecast global dust fields. Evaluation is undertaken in retrospective for the forecast results of the year 2006. For this purpose AERONET/Photons sites in Northern Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula are chosen where aerosol optical depth is dominated by dust. Despite its coarse resolution, the model captures 48% of the day to day dust variability near Dakar on the initial day of the forecast. On weekly and monthly scale the model captures respectively 62% and 68% of the variability. Correlation coefficients between daily AOD values observed and modelled at Dakar decrease from 0.69 for the initial forecast day to 0.59 and 0.41 respectively for two days ahead and five days ahead. If one requests that the model should be able to issue a warning for an exceedance of aerosol optical depth of 0.5 and issue no warning in the other cases, then the model was wrong in 29% of the cases for day 0, 32% for day 2 and 35% for day 5. A reanalysis run with archived ECMWF winds is only slightly better (r=0.71) but was in error in 25% of the cases. Both the improved simulation of the monthly versus daily variability and the deterioration of the forecast with time can be explained by model failure to simulate the exact timing of a dust event.

  2. Host adaptation of Chlamydia pecorum towards low virulence evident in co-evolution of the ompA, incA, and ORF663 Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Khalil Yousef; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Magnino, Simone; Sachse, Konrad; Rodolakis, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, may cause severe diseases in ruminants, swine and koalas, although asymptomatic infections are the norm. Recently, we identified genetic polymorphisms in the ompA, incA and ORF663 genes that potentially differentiate between high-virulence C. pecorum isolates from diseased animals and low-virulence isolates from asymptomatic animals. Here, we expand these findings by including additional ruminant, swine, and koala strains. Coding tandem repeats (CTRs) at the incA locus encoded a variable number of repeats of APA or AGA amino acid motifs. Addition of any non-APA/AGA repeat motif, such as APEVPA, APAVPA, APE, or APAPE, associated with low virulence (PincA CTRs (P = 0.0028). In ORF663, high numbers of 15-mer CTRs correlated with low virulence (P = 0.0001). Correction for ompA phylogram position in ORF663 and incA abolished the correlation between genetic changes and virulence, demonstrating co-evolution of ompA, incA, and ORF663 towards low virulence. Pairwise divergence of ompA, incA, and ORF663 among isolates from healthy animals was significantly higher than among strains isolated from diseased animals (P≤10-5), confirming the longer evolutionary path traversed by low-virulence strains. All three markers combined identified 43 unique strains and 4 pairs of identical strains among all 57 isolates tested, demonstrating the suitability of these markers for epidemiological investigations.

  3. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  4. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  5. Suicide attempts in Malaysia from the year 1969 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Maniam, T; Oei, Tian Po; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  6. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishvarya Sinniah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76% of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  7. Tres documentos inéditos para la historia de la guerra de reconquista inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont publiées les déclarations de trois témoins oculaires des événements de 1533 à 1558, c'est-à-dire depuis l'entrée de Manko Inka Yupanki à Cusco, avec ses alliés espagnols, jusqu'à la 'sortie' de l'auki Sayri Thupa, -un de ses enfants- en 1558, sur la pression militaire et diplomatique du Marquis de Cañete. Ces témoignages directs, confrontés avec d'autres contemporains, constituent de nouveaux éléments inédits pour éclairer la version donnée par les sources espagnoles de cette époque ils font connaître également, et presque en détail, les négociations du vice-roi Marquis de Cañete, lequel se proposait d'en finir pacifiquement avec la résistance héroïque de Vilcabamba, ainsi que la prudence Inca pour déjouer ce plan et éviter les dangers d'une guerre contre ce dernier réduit du Tawantinsuyo. Il ressort de ces témoignages, comparés avec d'autres fiables que nous avons consultés, la mise en question de la vérité sur la succession de Sayri Thupa à la mort de son père, Manko Inka, et la possibilité que le jeune auki ait simulé cette fonction par le truchement d'un artifice politique de la Cour de Vilcabamba. Se publican en este artículo las declaraciones de tres testigos presenciales de los sucesos de 1533 a 1558, es decir desde la entrada de Manko Inka Yupanki al Cusco, con sus aliados españoles, hasta la 'salida' del auki Sayri Thupa, -uno de sus hijos- en 1558, ante la presión militar y diplomática del Marqués de Cañete. Estos testimonios directos, confrontados con otros coetáneos, constituyen nuevos e inéditos elementos de juicio para aclarar la versión de las fuentes hispanas de estos años y para conocer casi en detalle las negociaciones del virrey Marqués de Cañete, que se proponía acabar pacíficamente con la resistencia heroica de Vilcabamba, y la cautela Inca para burlar este propósito y evitar los peligros de una guerra contra este último reducto del Tawantinsuyo

  8. Heliosheath ENA images by Cassini/INCA and in-situ hot plasma ion measurements by Voyagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios; Roelof, Edmond; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Dialynas, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    The advent of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging, (the result of charge-exchange with energetic ions), has revealed the global nature of the heliosheath (HS) at both high ( > 5 keV, Cassini from 10 AU) and low (INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 with a full image available since 2009, when IBEX global imaging observations also became available. The presence of the two Voyagers measuring ions locally in the HS contemporaneously with INCA global imaging through ENA in overlapping energy bands provides a powerful tool for examining the spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution of the source hot plasma ions and the global variability of the neutral component. Some of the key findings from the Voyagers and INCA measurements are as follows: (a) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50%) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically > 10. (b) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ˜~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels. (c) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2014, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ˜~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter, and (d) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS also show a similar SC dependence. The totality of the observations, together with the near-contemporaneous variability in intensities of ions in situ in the HS and ENA in the inner heliosphere suggests that the source of such emissions at E > 5 keV must reside in the HS. These observations constrain the shape of the HS and suggest configurations that are at some variance with current models.

  9. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cayla M; Fisher, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma) has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla) mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla) insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(-) mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla) mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  10. Hydrological application of the INCA model with varying spatial resolution and nitrogen dynamics in a northern river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rankinen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in applying the Integrated Nitrogen model for CAtchments (INCA to the Simojoki river basin (3160 km2, this paper focuses on calibration of the hydrological part of the model and nitrogen (N dynamics in the river during the 1980s and 1990s. The model application utilised the GIS land-use and forest classification of Finland together with a recent forest inventory based on remote sensing. In the INCA model, the Hydrologically Effective Rainfall (HER is used to drive the water flow and N fluxes through the catchment system. HER was derived from the Watershed Simulation and Forecast System (WSFS. The basic component of the WSFS is a conceptual hydrological model which simulates runoff using precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and temperature data as inputs. Spatially uniform, lumped input data were calculated for the whole river basin and spatially semi-distributed input data were calculated for each of the nine sub-basins. When comparing discharges simulated by the INCA model with observed values, a better fit was obtained with the semi-distributed data than with the spatially uniform data (R2 0.78 v. 0.70 at Hosionkoski and 0.88 v. 0.78 at the river outlet. The timing of flow peaks was simulated rather well with both approaches, although the semi-distributed input data gave a more realistic simulation of low flow periods and the magnitude of spring flow peaks. The river basin has a relatively closed N cycle with low input and output fluxes of inorganic N. During 1982-2000, the average total N flux to the sea was 715 tonnes yr–1, of which 6% was NH4-N, 14% NO3-N, and 80% organic N. Annual variation in river flow and the concentrations of major N fractions in river water, and factors affecting this variation are discussed. Keywords: northern river basin, nitrogen, forest management, hydrology, dynamic modelling, semi-distributed modelling

  11. Detecting Immune System Response Proteins in a 500 Year-old Inca Mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corthals, A.; Davalos, L.; Martin, D.W.; Rieger, R.; Chen, E.I.; Koller, A.

    2011-01-01

    Disease detection in ancient human samples currently relies on genomic-based assays, which are error prone due to contamination and cannot distinguish between active and latent pathogenic infection. On the other hand, protein-based assays such as global protein profiling offer complementary alternatives for the pathological diagnosis of archeological specimen. The discovery of three Inca mummies in 1998, perfectly preserved in the permafrost of the high Andes, allowed us to analyze mummy samples by protein-based and genomic-based assay. A buccal swab from one of the 500 year old mummy was analyzed by shotgun proteomics to detect the protein profile. Among the identified proteins, we found a signature of proteins indicating an immune response to a bacterial infection at the time of the mummy's death. Based on the external visible symptoms and the gamut of immune response proteins obtained from the mouth swab, we suspected that the pulmonary infection was caused by Mycobacterium. PCR assay followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium sp. in the mouth swab. Until now, immunoassays have been the only way to detect an active immune response and infer infection in historical samples, but these were plagued by low specificity and sensitivity. However, we demonstrate here the feasibility of incorporating global protein profiling in the diagnosis of infection from archeological samples. Protein signatures obtained from these samples could be extremely useful in determining the status of infection while genomic-based assays can be used to detect the identity of the pathogen.

  12. La vida pública de un príncipe inca residente en Quito, siglos XV y XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte relate la vie et les actions d'un prince inca, originaire du Cuzco, qui par décision des derniers souverains de l'Empire avait d’importantes charges administratives et politiques dans le royaume de Quito. Est joint à ce texte une information inédite de 1562 où l'on découvre que de telles personnes jouissaient de la concession de petites propriétés de type féodal, qui incluait la propriété des terres travaillées par les yanaconas et considérées comme leurs biens propres par ces nobles. De même, il est expliqué comment cette noblesse indigène s'est adaptée à la machine coloniale espagnole afin de ne pas perdre ses privilèges. Se refiere aquí a la vida y hechos de un príncipe inca, oriundo del Cuzco, que por disposición de los últimos soberanos del imperio desempeñó altos cargos administrativos y políticos en el reino de Quito. Se acompaña el texto de una información inédita de 1562, bastante notable debido a que descubre que tales personajes gozaban de la concesión de pequeños feudos, que incluía la propiedad de tierras trabajadas por yanaconas que dichos nobles consideraban como suyos. También se refiere cómo esta nobleza indígena pasó a acomodarse en la maquinaria colonial española para no perder sus privilegios señoriales. This text describes the life and activities of an Inca prince, originally from Cuzco, who, by order of the last rulers of the Inca Empire, had been charged with important administrative and political responsibilities in the Kingdom of Quito. The text is accompanied by an unpublished document dating from 1562 which is of considerable interest since it reveals that personalities such as this prince were privileged by the concession of small, feudal - type properties, which also included the ownership of land worked by yanaconas who were considered by these nobles as being part of their personal property. The document also refers to the way in which this native nobility went on to

  13. The helical tomo-therapy: appeal to projects Inca 2005 first assessment of the three equipped establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zefkili, S.; Francois, P.; Giraud, P.; Caron, J.; Dejean, C.; Kantor, G.; Munos, C.; Mahe, M.A.; Lisbona, A.

    2007-01-01

    The centers of fight against cancer ( C.L.C.C.) Institute Curie of Paris, Institute Bergonie of Bordeaux, Center Rene Gauducheau of Nantes have got to exploit the helical radiotherapy (tomo-therapy) in the frame of an appeal to projects launched in 2005 by the National Institute of cancer (I.n.c.a.) in relation with the innovating techniques in radiotherapy and presenting one of the measures of the Cancer plan 2003-2007. This communication constitutes a step report in the installation and use of equipments. (N.C.)

  14. Estrategias políticas y relaciones conyugales. El comportamiento de incas y españoles en Huaylas en la primera mitad del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available STRATÉGIES POLITIQUES ET RELATIONS CONJUGALES. COMPORTEMENT INCA ET ESPAGNOL À HUAYLAS PENDANT LA PREMIÈRE MOITIÉ DU XVIE SIÈCLE. Cette recherche tâche d’établir les relations politiques et régionales qui existaient dans la province de Huaylas à travers les relations conjugales, d’abord du temps de l’Inca Huayna Capac et ensuite avec Francisco Pizarro. De même que l’Inca favorisait ses femmes - Contarguacho avec la moitié de Ananguaylas et Añas Collque avec celle de Luringuaylas - Pizarro donna la parcialidad de sa femme à sa fille doña Francisca à titre d’encomienda. Bien des années après, les procès juridiques cherchèrent à établir un rapport intéréssé entre les concessions indigènes et les espagnoles. Enfin, l’article offre des données et des perspectives nouvelles sur les structures internes de la province de Huaylas, ses concessions, et sa première histoire coloniale, sur doña Inés Huaylas et Paullu Inca, ses deux enfants les plus engagés dans l’appui à la conquête espagnole. El estudio busca comprender las relaciones políticas establecidas en la provincia de Huaylas entre el poder central y el regional a través del vínculo conyugal, tanto por el Inca Huayna Cápac, en tiempos prehispánicos, como por el conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Así como el Inca favoreció a sus mujeres -Contarguacho en la parcialidad de Ananguaylas y Añas Collque en la de Luringuaylas- Pizarro otorgó la parcialidad de su mujer en encomienda a su hija doña Francisca. Años después, en los procesos judiciales se pretende efectuar un paralelismo interesado entre las concesiones indígena e hispana. Por último, el artículo proporciona nuevos datos y perspectivas sobre la estructura interna de la provincia de Huaylas, su concesión e historia colonial temprana y sobre doña Inés Huaylas y Paullu Inca, sus dos hijos más comprometidos con el apoyo a la conquista española. POLITICAL STRATEGIES AND MATRIMONIAL RELATION

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: analysis of 146 cases of the center of reference of the National Cancer Institute--INCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Eduardo; Gonçalves, Rinaldo; Valadão, Marcus; Vilhena, Bruno; Herchenhorn, Daniel; Romano, Sergio; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; Ramos, Cintia de Araujo; de Jesus, José Paulo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment of GIST in INCA. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all cases of GIST treated at INCA in the period from 1997 to 2009. We analyzed 146 patients with a mean age of 44.5 years and female predominance. The main symptom was abdominal pain. We observed the occurrence of a second primary tumor in 22% of cases and 92% of the immunohistochemistry exams were positive for CD117. The most frequent location was in the stomach and the high-risk group was predominant. Surgery was considered R0 (extensive) in 70% of the cases and the main sites of metastases were liver and peritoneum. Overall survival in two and five years was, respectively, 86% and 59%. There was a significant difference between overall survival (p = 0.29) of the high-risk group versus the other. Our patients presented mainly in the form of high-risk disease, with obvious impact on survival. The use of imatinib improved survival of patients with recurrent and metastatic disease. We should study its use in the setting of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy to improve results of the high risk group. The creation of reference centers is a need for the study of rare diseases.

  16. Qoyllur Rit'i, an Inca fiesta of the Pleiades: reflections on time and space in the andean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available - La fiesta de Qoyllur Rit'i, que se presenta todos los años para el tiempo de Corpus Christi en un valle aislado cerca del Cusco, es todavía dominada por creencias indígenas. En este trabajo se intenta demostrar que la fiesta es de origen precolombino y que originalmente se celebraba el tránsito de un año al próximo, del mundo pasado al presente. Este concepto de tránsito es luego examinado en el contexto de las ideas del espacio y tiempo, tanto de los Incas como de la actualidad andina. The fiesta of Qoyllur Rit'i, held every year at Corpus Christi in an isolated valley near Cusco, is still dominated by indigenous beliefs. In this paper it is suggested that the fiesta is actually pre-Columbian in origin and that it was originally intended as a celebration of the transition form one year to the next, from the past world to the present. This concept of transition is then placed within the context of both Inca and present-day Andean ideas of time and space.

  17. Time without clocks - an attempt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpman, G.

    1978-01-01

    A definition of time intervals separating two states of systems of elementary particles and observers is attempted. The definition is founded on the notion of instant state of the system and uses no information connected with the use of a clock. Applying the definition to a classical clock and to a sample of unstable particles, results are obtained in agreement with experiment. However, if the system contains 'few' elementary particles, the properties of the time interval present some different features. (author)

  18. Software INCAS (Convective Clouds Indicator to Seeding Activities) to convective clouds class forecast in Mendoza (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, R. C.

    2009-09-01

    With the objective of to get to forecast and operative determinations tool to seeding of hailstorm in the damage mitigations job that produces its precipitation in Mendoza (Argentina), we developed to software based in on surface and 500 mb. level atmospherics variable. We had used on surface dates because in this level exist to big amount of information, practically it is possible to get its measures continuously; in addition it is the level that data of damages are registered that the hail precipitation produces. The decision to use the level of 500 mb, it must to that it is the height in which the upset one of the air circulation takes place from the Pacific to Mendoza, who produces important changes and instability in the atmosphere of Mendoza, these data were obtained from the radiosonde of Santo Domingo in Santiago (Chile) and El Plumerillo (Mendoza). In the program is integrated the different indices and models obtained in ours works from investigation on the subject of last the five years. Since the October of 2004 to April of 2009 the values have been taken from the variables mentioned every day, hourly during the fight campaigns antihail (October-April). The results have integrated in the program INCAS, whom it is due to enter the surface variables: Temperature in °C, the dew point in °C, the atmospheric pressure in mb., the index of ultraviolet solar radiation, the direction and wind speed; whereas the variables of the level of 500 are due to introduce mb: height of the level of 500 mb in meters, temperature of the level in °C, the direction and wind speed to that height. From the process of these variables the type of convective process is obtained like exit of the program , that is more probable that it appears in Mendoza for these atmospheric conditions; the thresholds that trigger to the stormy processes and their possible severity. This year software was validated in his first version, obtaining itself very good results.

  19. Family presence at resuscitation attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Helen

    UK resuscitation guidelines suggest that parents and carers should be allowed to be present during a resuscitation attempt in hospital but no guidance is available regarding family presence when resuscitation takes place out of hospital. A new research study has suggested that relatives who were offered the opportunity to witness resuscitation were less likely to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder than those who were not given the chance. This article summarises the results of this study and provides an expert commentary on its conclusions.

  20. Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. PMID:23989753

  1. Attempted suicides in India: a comprehensive look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Prasad, M N V; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the biggest killers in the world, with suicide rates varying between 8.1 and 58.3/100,000 population for different parts of India. Andhra Pradesh, the fourth largest state in India, is responsible for more than 11% of these. Unfortunately, most suicides are under-reported and there is scant data on attempted suicides. This study aimed to comprehensively study the characteristics of attempted suicides in Andhra Pradesh and using the primary data, make secondary projections for the forthcoming years. Using Patient Care Record (PCR) forms of all emergencies serviced by 108, the first comprehensive emergency service in India, an analysis of all cases was done to detect possible suicides during the period January-December 2007. A follow up 48 hours later was then done to confirm status and diagnosis. A total of 1007 cases were recorded as confirmed suicides. Hanging and insecticide poisoning (72%) were the most common methods used. Males preferred hanging and insecticide poisoning while females preferred self-immolation and hanging as common methods. Self-immolation and insecticide poisoning had the highest mortality (41.6%). Estimates of attempted suicides for the year 2008 revealed a mean of 3.2-3.8 per 1000 population for males, 3.3-3.7 per 1000 population for females and 6.4-7.6 per 1000 population combined. A serious epidemic of suicides seems to be in store in the coming years unless preventive steps in the form of policy changes are undertaken. Restricting access to poisonous substances or prescription drugs and taking into consideration the prevailing social, economic and cultural factors could help in reducing numbers. Starting tele-help services or offering brief interventions during hospital stays are other programs which may be considered.

  2. Destabilization of IncA and IncC plasmids by SGI1 and SGI2 type Salmonella genomic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hamidian, Mohammad; Ambrose, Stephanie J; Hall, Ruth M

    Both the Salmonella genomic islands (SGI) and the conjugative IncC plasmids are known to contribute substantially to the acquisition of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and plasmids in the A/C group are known to mobilize the Salmonella genomic island SGI1, which also carries multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid pRMH760 (IncC; A/C 2 ) was shown to mobilize SGI1 variants SGI1-I, SGI1-F, SGI1-K and SGI2 from Salmonella enterica to Escherichia coli where it was integrated at the preferred location, at the end of the trmE (thdF) gene. The plasmid was transferred at a similar frequency. However, we observed that co-transfer of the SGI and the plasmid was rarer. In E. coli to E. coli transfer, the frequency of transfer of the IncC plasmid pRMH760 was at least 1000-fold lower when the donor carried SGI1-I or SGI1-K, indicating that the SGI suppresses transfer of the plasmid. In addition, pRMH760 was rapidly lost from both E. coli and S. enterica strains that also carried SGI1-I, SGI1-F or SGI2. However, plasmid loss was not seen when the SGI1 variant was SGI1-K, which lacks two segments of the SGI1 backbone. The complete sequence of the SGI1-I and SGI1-F were determined and SGI1-K also carries two single base substitutions relative to SGI1-I. The IncA (A/C 1 ) plasmid RA1 was also shown to mobilize SGI2-A and though there are significant differences between the backbones of IncA and IncC plasmids, RA1 was also rapidly lost when SGI2-A was present in the same cell. We conclude that there are multiple interactions, both cooperative and antagonistic, between an IncA or IncC plasmid and the SGI1 and SGI2 family genomic islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. On the source of the 5-55 keV Heliosphere ENAs measured with Cassini/INCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Roelof, Edmond; Mitchell, Donald; Krimigis, Stamatios; Decker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) in situ measurements from V1 and V2 have revealed a reservoir of ions and electrons that constitute the heliosheath (HS) after crossing the termination shock (TS) 35deg north and 32deg south of the ecliptic plane at 94 and 84 astronomical units (1 AU= 1.5 x10 ^{8} km), respectively. The outer Heliosphere boundary, the Heliopause (HP), has now been determined in the direction of V1 to be at ˜122 AU. The in situ measurements by each Voyager were placed in a global context by remote sensing images using ENA obtained with the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) onboard Cassini orbiting Saturn. The ENA images have revealed a 5.2-55 keV hydrogen (H) ENA region (Belt) that loops through the celestial sphere and contributes to balancing the pressure of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). Here we address one of the remaining and most important questions: Where do the 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures come from? We analyzed INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2015 and compare the solar cycle (SC) variation of the ENAs in both the nose (upstream) and anti-nose (downstream) directions with the intensities of > 30 keV ions (source of ENA through charge exchange-CE with H) measured in-situ by V1 and V2, in overlapping energy bands ˜30-55 keV. ENA intensities decrease during the declining phase of SC23 by ˜x3 from 2003 to 2011 but recover through 2014 (SC24); similarly, V1 and V2 ion intensities also decrease and then recover through 2014. The similarity of time profiles of remotely sensed ENA and locally measured ions are consistent with (a) ENA originating in the HS, and (b) the global HS responding promptly (within ˜1-1.5 years) to outward-propagating solar wind changes throughout the SC. Further, recovery of the Belt during SC24 precedes asymmetrically from south to north in the general direction of the nose. This may be related to the non-symmetric evolution of solar coronal holes during SC recovery.

  4. A three-coordinate system (ecliptic, galactic, ISMF) spectral analysis of heliospheric ENA emissions using CASSINI/INCA measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialynas, K.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we use all-sky energy-resolved energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps obtained by the Ion and Neutral CAmera (INCA) instrument on board Cassini that correspond to the time period from 2003 to 2009, in four discrete energy passbands (∼5.4 to ∼55 keV), to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the belt (a broad band of emission in the sky). The heliospheric ENA emissions are mapped in three different coordinate systems (ecliptic, Galactic, and interstellar magnetic field (ISMF)), and spectral analyses are performed to further examine the belt's possible energy dependence. Our conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) the high flux ENA belt identified in the energy range of 8-42 keV is moderately well organized in Galactic coordinates, as the ENA minima appear in the vicinity of the north and south Galactic poles; (2) using minimization criteria ( B · R ∼ 0), the deviation of the ENA emissions from the equator is effectively minimized in a rotated frame, which we interpret as ISMF, where its north pole points toward 190° ecliptic longitude and 15° ecliptic latitude; (3) ENA spectra show a power-law form in energy that can be fitted with a single function presenting higher spectral slopes in the belt region and lower outside (3.4 < γ < 4.4); (4) the spectra are almost indistinguishable between the tail and the nose regions, i.e., no noticeable asymmetry is observed; (5) the consistency of the ENA distributions as a function of latitude among the different INCA channels indicates that the morphology of the belt (peak, width, and structure) is nearly energy independent from 8 keV to 30 keV (minor deviations start to appear at >35 keV); and (6) in the low count rate regions, the long-term ENA count rate profiles do not match the measured cosmic ray profiles, indicating that even the minimum ENA emissions detected by INCA are foreground ENAs.

  5. INCAS residential building energy savings design code: User's guide. INCAS: guida all'uso del codice di calcolo di diagnosi energetica nell'abitazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carderi, A.

    1991-01-01

    The INCAS residential building energy savings design code comes complete with data banks giving designers all the necessary technical and economic information and energy savings options for the code's efficacious application to obtain the optimum energy efficient/cost beneficial solution. This user's manual contains descriptions of the types of data to be input, the code's methodology, the data banks, and complete instructions for the code's implementation. The energy savings alternatives include: choice of heating plant and fuel; choice, application location and thickness of thermal insulation. For the case of building heating system retrofits, the code takes into account the existing condition of building components.

  6. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine for HIV-infected patients: the INCAS Trial. Italy, The Netherlands, Canada and Australia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaner, J S; Reiss, P; Cooper, D; Vella, S; Harris, M; Conway, B; Wainberg, M A; Smith, D; Robinson, P; Hall, D; Myers, M; Lange, J M

    1998-03-25

    Current guidelines recommend that individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) be treated using combinations of antiretroviral agents to achieve sustained suppression of viral replication as measured by the plasma HIV-1 RNA assay, in the hopes of achieving prolonged remission of the disease. However, until recently, many drug combinations have not led to sustained suppression of HIV-1 RNA. To compare the virologic effects of various combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine. Double-blind, controlled, randomized trial. University-affiliated ambulatory research clinics in Italy, the Netherlands, Canada and Australia (INCAS). Antiretroviral therapy-naive adults free of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with CD4 cell counts between 0.20 and 0.60x10(9)/L (200-600/microL). Patients received zidovudine plus nevirapine (plus didanosine placebo), zidovudine plus didanosine (plus nevirapine placebo), or zidovudine plus didanosine plus nevirapine. Plasma HIV-1 RNA. Of the 153 enrolled patients, 151 were evaluable. At week 8, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels had decreased by log 2.18, 1.55, and 0.90 in the triple drug therapy, zidovudine plus didanosine, and zidovudine plus nevirapine groups, respectively (P<.05). The proportions of patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below 20 copies per milliliter at week 52 were 51%, 12%, and 0% in the triple drug therapy, zidovudine plus didanosine, and zidovudine plus nevirapine groups, respectively (P<.001). Viral amplification was attempted in 59 patients at 6 months. Viral isolation was unsuccessful in 19 (79%) of 24, 10 (53%) of 19, and 5 (31%) of 16 patients in the triple drug therapy, zidovudine plus didanosine, and zidovudine plus nevirapine groups, respectively. Among patients from whom virus could be amplified, resistance to nevirapine was found in all 11 patients receiving zidovudine plus nevirapine and in all 5 patients receiving triple drug therapy. Rates of disease progression or death

  7. Micromamiferos andinos holocenicos del sitio arqueologico Inca Cueva 5, Ju Juy, Argentina: tafonomia, zoogeografia y reconstruccion paleoambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, P. E.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Family Abrocomidae, Abrocoma cinerea; Family Chinchillidae, Lagidium viscacia; Family Octodontidae, Octodontomys gliroides. The taphonomy indicates that the sequence is an owl pellet accumulation inside the cave. The general landscape corresponds to the oriental border of the Puna steppe, with scattered shrub and low brush vegetation. Near the site there are small tree groups of Polylepis australis as well as small streams covered with grass and ciperaceous vegetation known as «vegas». Al1 the recorded taxa at Inca Cueva 5 exist today in Puna and Prepuna environments from Jujuy and Salta Provinces and southem Bolivia, excepting Cavia cf. C. tschudii. The modem records of this species in northem Argentina and southern Bolivia come from localities with high montane bunchgrass prairies and forests of the humid Yungas phytogeographical region. The presence of this species in the sequence suggests wetter climatic conditions on this region when the archaeological site was originated. Later drier conditions, caused probably by anthropic influence in the last 500 years, produced the retraction of Cavia tschudii to the moist eastern side of the Andes and its disappeareance of the Puna areas.El sitio arqueológico Inca Cueva 5 se encuentra en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina, en el borde oriental de la región de la Puna (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m s n m y está fechado entre 2120 f 120 y 780 f 100 años radiocarbónicos AP. El estudio de una pequeña muestra de

  8. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Oriol, L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chartier, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38 - Grenoble, (France); AlMahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 244}Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  9. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Oriol, L.; Chartier, F.; Mutti, P.; AlMahamid, I.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The 232 Th, 237 Np, 241 Am, and 244 Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  10. Itier César, Viracocha o el océano, naturaleza y funciones de una divinidad inca

    OpenAIRE

    Sendón, Pablo F.

    2016-01-01

    Según una parte de los estudios etnohistóricos dedicados a los incas, Viracocha es el Dios « creador » o « hacedor » de los astros y de los hombres. Sin embargo, y como se observa al comienzo de esta obra, el vocabulario de la lengua quechua de Diego González Holguín (1608) registra una discrepancia aparentemente pasada por alto: Viracocha es « epíteto » del sol, es el « nombre » del Dios que adoraban los indios. En esta dirección, el presente libro propone una lectura alternativa de la mitol...

  11. Implementing a dictionary culture for South Africa: attempt at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    This information should mainly be distributed through dictionary aware- .... could co-operate and share the costs of developing a marketing strategy which could be ... Pro (Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary Project) online dictionary in South African ... Examples of teaching lexicographic theory are workshops at certain lexi-.

  12. Sternfeld, Gabriela, La organización laboral del Imperio inca. Las autoridades locales básicas, Madrid-Frankfurt, Iberoamericana-Vervuert, 2007, 333 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Argouse, Aude

    2008-01-01

    Ce livre est la thèse publiée de Gabriela Sternfeld effectuée sous la direction de Jan Szemiñski. Dans la droite lignée de travaux de John Murra sur le monde inca, G. Sternfeld propose d'examiner à partir de sources manuscrites produites après l'arrivée des Espagnols les mécanismes de prise de décision à l'œuvre dans l'empire inca sur l'organisation du travail et leur réception à une échelle locale. Cinq sources principales sont exploitées séparément qui constituent les cinq chapitres de cet ...

  13. ORGANIZAÇÃO E DESEMPENHO: AVALIAÇÃO DA CENTRALIZAÇÃO DA PATOLOGIA DO INCA-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino José Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature widely assigns positive effects on entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance to decentralization of organizational structure; at the same time, there is evidence of positive effects of centralization of complex procedures in large hospitals on the results of cancer treatment. This study intends to evaluate the effects of centralization of pathology laboratories at the National Cancer Institute (INCA of Brazil in 2002 on the performance of diagnostic activity and cancer control. A non-parametric efficiency frontier for the pathology labs is calculated for the period 1997-2007 by means of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Findings show that centralization reversed the decline of technical efficiency in the laboratories along the period 1997-2001. The main conclusion is that the DEA model brings a contribution to knowledge about change in organizational structure in public health organizations, as well as a managerial contribution on the effectiveness of centralization to improve the support of pathology labs to INCA hospitals.

  14. Are our dynamic water quality models too complex? A comparison of a new parsimonious phosphorus model, SimplyP, and INCA-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Blake, L. A.; Sample, J. E.; Wade, A. J.; Helliwell, R. C.; Skeffington, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    Catchment-scale water quality models are increasingly popular tools for exploring the potential effects of land management, land use change and climate change on water quality. However, the dynamic, catchment-scale nutrient models in common usage are complex, with many uncertain parameters requiring calibration, limiting their usability and robustness. A key question is whether this complexity is justified. To explore this, we developed a parsimonious phosphorus model, SimplyP, incorporating a rainfall-runoff model and a biogeochemical model able to simulate daily streamflow, suspended sediment, and particulate and dissolved phosphorus dynamics. The model's complexity was compared to one popular nutrient model, INCA-P, and the performance of the two models was compared in a small rural catchment in northeast Scotland. For three land use classes, less than six SimplyP parameters must be determined through calibration, the rest may be based on measurements, while INCA-P has around 40 unmeasurable parameters. Despite substantially simpler process-representation, SimplyP performed comparably to INCA-P in both calibration and validation and produced similar long-term projections in response to changes in land management. Results support the hypothesis that INCA-P is overly complex for the study catchment. We hope our findings will help prompt wider model comparison exercises, as well as debate among the water quality modeling community as to whether today's models are fit for purpose. Simpler models such as SimplyP have the potential to be useful management and research tools, building blocks for future model development (prototype code is freely available), or benchmarks against which more complex models could be evaluated.

  15. Trends in food intake in French children from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA (étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires) dietary surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Carine; Dufour, Ariane; Touvier, Mathilde; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Maire, Bernard; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the intake of different food groups in French children aged 3-17 years (n 1455), and to analyse trends since a dietary survey undertaken 8 years ago. Dietary intake was evaluated using data from the 2006-7 cross-sectional INCA2 national dietary survey (étude Individuelle Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires), based on a 7 d food record. Dietary intake (percentage of subjects consuming the food group and amount eaten) was assessed for thirty-nine food categories. We observed variations in food consumption by age, sex, North-South regional gradient, seasonal period and educational level of the responding parent. Trends in dietary intake between 1999 and 2007 were determined by comparing the INCA1 (n 1126) and the INCA2 surveys. Both surveys had been carried out using the same methodology. The findings showed a decrease in energy intake in children aged 3-14 years, due to a reduction in the consumption of foods of animal origin and sweetened products. In adolescents aged 15-17 years, energy intake remained rather stable; during this 8-year period, the consumption of meat decreased, whereas the consumption of savoury snacks such as sandwiches and hamburgers significantly increased. These trends occurred during a time of growing concern about overweight and the associated co-morbidities in France. A number of public health measures were implemented over this period to improve dietary habits and physical activity patterns in children and adults. The periodic monitoring of dietary patterns through the INCA surveys is an essential part of the surveillance network in France.

  16. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  17. The INCA trial (Impact of NOD2 genotype-guided antibiotic prevention on survival in patients with liver Cirrhosis and Ascites): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Markus; Mengel, Martin; Fuhrmann, Christine; Herrmann, Eva; Appenrodt, Beate; Schiedermaier, Peter; Reichert, Matthias; Bruns, Tony; Engelmann, Cornelius; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank

    2015-03-08

    Patients with liver cirrhosis have a highly elevated risk of developing bacterial infections that significantly decrease survival rates. One of the most relevant infections is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Recently, NOD2 germline variants were found to be potential predictors of the development of infectious complications and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of the INCA (Impact of NOD2 genotype-guided antibiotic prevention on survival in patients with liver Cirrhosis and Ascites) trial is to investigate whether survival of this genetically defined high-risk group of patients with cirrhosis defined by the presence of NOD2 variants is improved by primary antibiotic prophylaxis of SBP. The INCA trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms (arm 1: norfloxacin 400 mg once daily; arm 2: placebo once daily; 12-month treatment and observational period). Balanced randomization of 186 eligible patients with stratification for the protein content of the ascites (INCA trial is first in the field of hepatology aimed at rapidly transferring and validating information on individual genetic risk into clinical decision algorithms. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005616 . Registered 22 January 2014. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2013-001626-26 . Registered 26 January 2015.

  18. Nissei incas system (FP-Plan) which databased the skilled sense and experiences in molding metal design. Kanagata sekkei ni okeru kan ya keiken wo data base kashita Nissei incas system (FP-plan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, K. (Nissei Plastic Industrial Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    Mold System Department of Nissei Resin Industies Co. has developed NISSEI INCAS SYSTEM, which is a CAD/CAM/CAE system specially for injection metal molding. Generally, high analysis methods such as flow analysis method have been considered for CAE, though, when making it to be linked with designing works for injection molding metals, economic conditions will not make a balance. Since authors have judged that to make an accurate mold metal drawing more quickly, before adopting such kind of flow analysis, more inportant and fundamental problems might be remained, they have started to develope their own system called FP-PLAN. This system, for example, is a software, which paying mainly attention to the most important and common problems for molding metal design to be solved, such as setting of shrinking factor, gate and runner design, estimation of cavity inside pressure, etc. Specially, they have developed only small molding products (product volume shall be under 200 cm {sup 3}). In this report, outlines of FP-PLAN such as the characteristics and programs have been intrduced. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Assimilation of Polder aerosol optical thickness into LMD2-Inca model in order to study aerosol-climate interactions; Etude des interactions entre aerosols et climat: assimilation des observations spatiales de Polder dans LMDz-Inca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, S.

    2004-12-15

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget both through their direct (scattering and absorption of solar radiation) and indirect (impacts on cloud microphysics) effects. The anthropogenic perturbation due to aerosol emissions is of the same order of magnitude than the one due to greenhouse gases, but less well known. To improve our knowledge, we need to better know aerosol spatial and temporal distributions. Indeed, aerosol modeling still suffers from large uncertainties in sources and transport, while satellite observations are incomplete (no detection in the presence of clouds, no information on the vertical distribution or on the chemical nature). Moreover, field campaigns are localized in space and time. This study aims to reduce uncertainties in aerosol distributions, developing assimilation of satellite data into a chemical transport model. The basic idea is to combine information obtained from spatial observation (optical thickness) and modeling studies (aerosol types, vertical distribution). In this study, we assimilate data from the POLDER space-borne instrument into the LMDz-INCA model. The results show the advantage of merging information from different sources. In many regions, the method reduces uncertainties on aerosol distribution (reduction of RMS error). An application of the method to the study of aerosol impact on cloud microphysics is shown. (author)

  20. Transgenderism and transformation: an attempt at a Jungian understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    While transgenderism as a cultural phenomenon seems to be based on a collective taste for the sensational, its emergence represents a collective shift towards a new or more differentiated way of experiencing and expressing sex and gender, a movement of world soul. This paper attempts to explore that emergence from a Jungian perspective. The paper utilizes clinical examples which illustrate how dissociated aspects of the personality are seeking assimilation and expression in order to move the personality towards greater wholeness. In that sense, it attempts to understand the teleology of transgenderism on an individual and collective level. The paper is intended as a starting-off point for discussion and explores gender as fantasy, anima/animus dynamics, the psyche/soma relationship, the role of hormones/biochemistry in our experience of ourselves and what transgender people carry and suffer for our culture. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2016-12-01

    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Probing the Boundaries of the Heliosphere Using Observations of the Polar ENA Flux from IBEX and Cassini/INCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Janzen, P. H.; Bzowski, M.; Dialynas, K.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Kubiak, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The IBEX Mission has been collecting ENAs from the outer heliosphere for nearly eight years, or three-quarters of a solar cycle. In that time, we have observed clear evidence of the imprint of the solar cycle in the time variation in the ENA flux. The most detailed of such studies has focused on the polar ENA flux observed by IBEX-Hi, as the IBEX spacecraft attitude allows for continuous coverage of the ENA flux incident from the ecliptic poles (Reisenfeld et al. 2012, 2016). By time correlating the ENA-derived heliosheath pressure to the observed 1 AU dynamic pressure, we can estimate the distance to the ENA source region. We can further derive the thickness of the ENA-producing region (presumably the inner heliosheath) by assuming pressure balance at the termination shock (TS). This requires using the 1 AU observations to derive the dynamic pressure at the TS shock by use of a mass-loaded solar wind propagation model (Schwadron et al. 2011), and by integrating ENA observations across all energies that significantly contribute to the heliosheath pressure. This means including polar ENA observations from not only IBEX-Hi, but from IBEX-Lo and Cassini/INCA, spanning an energy range of 15 eV to 40 keV. We will present our latest polar ENA observations and estimates for the distance to the TS and the thickness of the heliosheath.

  3. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) intensity gradients in the heliotail during year 2003, using Cassini/INCA measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialynas, K; Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we use all-sky energy-resolved (5-55 keV) energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps obtained by the Ion and Neutral CAmera (INCA) on board Cassini during the time period DOY 265/2003 to 268/2003, to investigate the properties of the peak-to-basin ENA emissions in the direction of the heliotail. Our conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) a relatively smooth boundary (called t ransition region ) between the very low (basin) and high (tail) ENA emissions from the heliosheath, with a spatial width of ∼30° deg in ecl. longitude, that no theory had predicted to date, is identified in the energy range of 5-55 keV; (2) the ENA intensity gradient in this transition region is almost invariant as a function of both ecl. Latitude and energy, with an average value of ∼2.4% per degree; (3) the deduced partial plasma pressure distributions in the 5-55 keV energy range are consistent with the ENA intensity distributions in the same energy range, while the ENA intensity gradient translates to a corresponding partial pressure gradient that occurs in the transition region; and (4) this partial pressure gradient is possibly not consistent with a tail magnetic field configuration that is similar to the measured magnetic fields by the Voyagers in the nose hemisphere

  4. Long-Term Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on Streamwater Salinity in New York State: INCA Simulations Offer Cautious Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Kristina; Jin, Li; Ledesma, José L J; Crossman, Jill; Kelleher, Christa; Lautz, Laura; Lu, Zunli

    2018-02-06

    The long-term application of road salts has led to a rise in surface water chloride (Cl - ) concentrations. While models have been used to assess the potential future impacts of continued deicing practices, prior approaches have not incorporated changes in climate that are projected to impact hydrogeology in the 21st century. We use an INtegrated CAtchment (INCA) model to simulate Cl - concentrations in the Tioughnioga River watershed. The model was run over a baseline period (1961-1990) and climate simulations from a range of GCMs run over three 30-year intervals (2010-2039; 2040-2069; 2070-2099). Model projections suggest that Cl - concentrations in the two river branches will continue to rise for several decades, before beginning to decline around 2040-2069, with all GCM scenarios indicating reductions in snowfall and associated salt applications over the 21st century. The delay in stream response is most likely attributed to climate change and continued contribution of Cl - from aquifers. By 2100, surface water Cl - concentrations will decrease to below 1960s values. Catchments dominated by urban lands will experience a decrease in average surface water Cl - , although moderate compared to more rural catchments.

  5. Culture, Liberty and Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Ura, Karma

    2007-01-01

    The author's intention here is to explore mainly the relationship between culture and globalization, and also to a limited extent the ties and differences, if any, between cultural liberty and happiness. This paper attempts to relate the concept of cultural liberty to the idea of Gross National Happiness. The author underlines strongly that the culture discussed is not about the particular culture of Bhutan; it is about culture in general and in abstract. Likewise happiness referred to here i...

  6. Trait impulsivity in suicide attempters: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doihara, Chiho; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Ohyama, Nene; Yamada, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Makiko; Iwamoto, Yohko; Odawara, Toshinari; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide. To investigate trait impulsivity among suicide attempters, 93 attempters admitted to an emergency department and 113 healthy controls were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11J). Impulsivity was analyzed in relation to clinical data in the attempters. Total BIS-11J, attention impulsiveness, and motor impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in the attempters than in the controls. Both total BIS-11J and non-planning impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in attempters with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders among the diagnostic groups. Control of impulsivity should be considered as one of the targets for suicide prevention. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  8. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  9. Association between level of suicide risk, characteristics of suicide attempts, and mental disorders among suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Youn, Tak; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Jong Ik; Kim, Haesoo; Lee, Hyo Chu; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2018-04-11

    Past attempted suicide is a strong predictor of future suicide risk, but the risk varies among suicide attempters. Hence, it is important to clarify distinguishing features of lifetime attempters with a high level of current suicide risk for efficient preventive management. We compared characteristics of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics among high-, moderate-, and low-risk attempters. Among the total of 6022 participants in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 193 reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime, 36 of which had high, 126 moderate, and 30 low levels of current suicide risk (1 incomplete response). High-risk suicide attempters had more past attempts compared with moderate- and low-risk suicide attempters. Suicide attempts were closely linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities regardless of degree of current level of suicide risk, but the relative risk for having at least one mental disorder was the highest in high-risk attempters. Specifically, the relative risks for depressive disorder, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders were higher in high-risk attempters, and relative risk for somatoform disorder was higher in low-risk attempters than others. Our findings indicated that special attention is required for suicide attempters with a history of repeated attempts and current mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders.

  10. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca) mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E; Pusch, Carsten M; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual that

  11. Reconstructing the Life of an Unknown (ca. 500 Years-Old South American Inca) Mummy – Multidisciplinary Study of a Peruvian Inca Mummy Suggests Severe Chagas Disease and Ritual Homicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451–1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more “terrestric” nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual

  12. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklander Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  13. Childhood suicide attempts with acetaminophen in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... Hospital, Denmark, 2006-2011. Study group: 107 children, 11 to 15 years old. Control group: 59 age- and gender-matched children. Results: 43.5% experienced a dissociated parental relationship characterized by the inability to speak to their parents about any problems, compared with 2% in the control group.......02). Prior to their suicide attempts, 41.5% of the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems but felt that they were not heard. There was a significant association among 'the feeling of not being heard' and the purpose of the suicide attempt (p = 0.002) and self-mutilation (p = 0...

  14. Mathematics across cultures the history of non-Western mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Mathematics Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Mathematics consists of essays dealing with the mathematical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Inca, Egyptian, and African mathematics, among others, the book includes essays on Rationality, Logic and Mathematics, and the transfer of knowledge from East to West. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate the mathematical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  15. Uso de las ideas matemáticas y científicas de los Incas, en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la geometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César E. Salas Valverde

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando una aproximación Etnomatemática, entendida como el estudio de los procesos matemáticos,símbolos, jergas, mitologías, razonamiento, practicados por grupos culturales identificados; valoramos las posibilidades didácticas que pueden desprenderse del uso de las ideas matemáticas utilizadas en la cultura Inca.El trabajo presenta dos partes. Una valoración del uso de la matemática en la cultura Inca y otra relativa a sugerencias didácticas. Se propone por ejemplo: que los alumnos reconozcan qué conocimientos, patrones, objetos o formas geométricas usaban los incas en sus diversas manifestaciones culturales y tecnológicas. Apartir de estas “tareas" podemos introducir al estudiante en el hermoso mundo de la geometría, haciendo que aprendan de un modo bastante intuitivo y natural.

  16. Uso de las Ideas Matemáticas y Científicas de los Incas, en la Enseñanza Aprendizaje de la Geometría.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Huapaya Gómez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando una aproximación Etnomatemática, entendida como el estudio de los procesos matemáticos, símbolos, jergas, mitologías, razonamiento, practicados por grupos culturales identificados4; valoramos las posibilidades didácticas que pueden desprenderse del uso de las ideas matemáticas utilizadas en la cultura Inca. El trabajo presenta dos partes. Una valoración del uso de la matemática en la cultura Inca y otra relativa a sugerencias didácticas. Se propone por ejemplo: que los alumnos reconozcan qué conocimientos, patrones, objetos o formas geométricas usaban los incas en sus diversas manifestaciones culturales y tecnológicas. A partir de estas "tareas" podemos introducir al estudiante en el hermoso mundo de la geometría, haciendo que aprendan de un modo bastante intuitivo y natural5.

  17. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  18. Modeling the terrestrial N processes in a small mountain catchment through INCA-N: A case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Chang; Chang, Chung-Te; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Wang, Lih-Jih; Wang, Chiao-Ping; Hsu, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jr-Chuan

    2017-09-01

    Riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is an important indicator of trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. High riverine DIN export in Taiwan, ~3800kg-Nkm -2 yr -1 , which is ~18 times higher than the global average, urges the need of thorough understanding of N cycling processes. We applied INCA-N (Integrated Nitrogen Catchment Model) to simulate riverine DIN export and infer terrestrial N processes using weekly rainwater and streamwater samples collected at the Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northern Taiwan. Results showed that the modeled discharge and nitrate export are in good agreement with observations, suggesting the validity of our application. Based on our modeling, the three main N removal processes, in the order of descending importance, were plant uptake, riverine N transport and denitrification at FEF. The high plant uptake rate, 4920kg-Nkm -2 yr -1 , should have led to accumulation of large biomass but biomass at FEF was relatively small compared to other tropical forests, likely due to periodic typhoon disruptions. The low nitrate concentration but high DIN export highlights the importance of hydrological control over DIN export, particularly during typhoons. The denitrification rate, 750kg-Nkm -2 yr -1 , at FEF was also low compared to other tropical forest ecosystems, likely resulting from quick water drainage through the coarse-loamy top soils. The high DIN export to atmospheric deposition ratio, 0.45, suggests that FEF may be in advanced stages of N excess. This simulation provides useful insights for establishing monitoring programs and improves our understanding N cycling in subtropical watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Defensas ribereñas en el río Chillón: Tramo puente Panamericana-puente Inca

    OpenAIRE

    Huacoto Díaz, Eduardo Cesar; Huacoto Díaz, Eduardo Cesar

    1997-01-01

    Durante todo el trayecto del Río Chillón existen numerosas áreas tanto urbanas como agrícolas asentadas en la ribera del río haciéndolas vulnerable a un posible desborde de sus aguas ocasionando desastres humanos y materiales. Justamente el área que está más expuesta es la parte baja de la cuenca del río Chillón; es decir el área en estudio del presente informe tramo: Puente Panamericana-Puente Inca, un tramo aproximado de 5 Km, anteriormente se han realizado trabajos de ...

  20. Water quality assessment and catchment-scale nutrient flux modeling in the Ramganga River Basin in north India: An application of INCA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Devanshi; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Sinha, Rajiv

    2018-03-07

    The present study analyzes the water quality characteristics of the Ramganga (a major tributary of the Ganga river) using long-term (1991-2009) monthly data and applies the Integrated Catchment Model of Nitrogen (INCA-N) and Phosphorus (INCA-P) to the catchment. The models were calibrated and validated using discharge (1993-2011), phosphate (1993-2010) and nitrate (2007-2010) concentrations. The model results were assessed based on Pearson's correlation, Nash-Sutcliffe and Percentage bias statistics along with a visual inspection of the outputs. The seasonal variation study shows high nutrient concentrations in the pre-monsoon season compared to the other seasons. High nutrient concentrations in the low flows period pose a serious threat to aquatic life of the river although the concentrations are lowered during high flows because of the dilution effect. The hydrological model is satisfactorily calibrated with R 2 and NS values ranging between 0.6-0.8 and 0.4-0.8, respectively. INCA-N and INCA-P successfully capture the seasonal trend of nutrient concentrations with R 2 >0.5 and PBIAS within ±17% for the monthly averages. Although, high concentrations are detected in the low flows period, around 50% of the nutrient load is transported by the monsoonal high flows. The downstream catchments are characterized by high nutrient transport through high flows where additional nutrient supply from industries and agricultural practices also prevail. The seasonal nitrate (R 2 : 0.88-0.94) and phosphate (R 2 : 0.62-0.95) loads in the catchment are calculated using model results and ratio estimator load calculation technique. On average, around 548tonnes of phosphorus (as phosphate) and 77,051tonnes of nitrogen (as nitrate) are estimated to be exported annually from the Ramganga River to the Ganga. Overall, the model has been able to successfully reproduce the catchment dynamics in terms of seasonal variation and broad-scale spatial variability of nutrient fluxes in the

  1. Properties of the Plasma Surrounding the Global Heliosphere Determined with Voyager 1&2 ions and ENA/INCA Observations at E > 5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Dialynas, K.; Mitchell, D. G.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    The basic goal of the proposed Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) is detailed scientific understanding of the Heliosheath (HS) and beyond, a region of space explored in situ by Voyager 1 (V1) since 2004, Voyager 2 (V2) since 2007, and remotely via energetic neutral atoms (ENA) by the Cassini/INCA (5.2-55 keV) since 2003 and IBEX (0.3-6 keV) since 2009. The partial overlap in energies (28 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically >10. (2) Based on the ENA-derived hot ion pressures, the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) was predicted to be more than twice that expected in the literature i.e. similar to what was measured by V1 after crossing the heliopause (B 0.5 nT). (3) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is 30 AU (predicted by INCA before the V1 HP crossing), but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2, now 30 AU into the HS, currently travels. We address here the key question of the source of 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures. The analysis of INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2014 show that the decrease and recovery of ENA in the global heliosphere during this period (declining phase of SC23 and rise of SC24) is similar to that of the ions at V1/V2, consistent with the HS ions being the source of ENA. The close correspondence between ENA and ion spectra (despite the 140 AU distance between V1 and V2) as well as the similarity of ENA spectra over the nose and anti-nose directions, together with the recent V1 measurement of a BISMF 0.5nT, suggest that the global distributions of >5 keV ions in the heliosheath resembles a diamagnetic bubble with no significant tail-like feature (the alternative Parker 1961 model), also consistent with some recent MHD simulations and models.

  2. Aprendizaje intergeneracional de la violencia familiar; experiencias en estudiantes de la escuela profesional de trabajo social. Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega – 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Castillo, Gisella Yaniré

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación es de enfoque cualitativo, en donde el trabajo fue realizado con una muestra de tres estudiantes, sus madres y sus abuelas, las estudiantes pertenecientes del quinto al séptimo ciclo de la Escuela Profesional de Trabajo Social de la Facultad de Psicologia y Trabajo Social de la Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega y que habían experimentado violencia familiar en su vida de pareja. El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer el aprendizaje intergene...

  3. Tupamaro de Caxamarca: tonadas sobre la muerte del Inca Atahualpa contenidas en el códice Martínez Compañón (1782-85 Tupamaro de Caxamarca: Tunes about the Death of the Inca Atahualpa contained in the Codex Martínez Compañón (1782-85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Palmiero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de la Colonia se va construyendo una memoria de la historia de los pueblos andinos que considera al Imperio incaico como su principal referente y a la figura del Inca1 como su símbolo natural. La narración de los hechos de la historia incaica, en especial aquellos relativos a la conquista española, generaron el mito de la muerte del Inca2, a la cual habrán contribuido colonizados y colonizadores. Durante el siglo XVIII serán numerosas las representaciones teatral-musicales de estos hechos. El códice Martínez Compañón (1782-85 consta de nueve tomos con alrededor de 1.500 láminas en colores que ilustran los diferentes aspectos de la vida social y natural de la zona de Trujillo, Perú. Treinta y ocho láminas, incluidas en el tomo II, se refieren directa o indirectamente a la música de tradición oral de la época, las láminas numeradas -foliación original, E. está por "Estampa"- desde la E.176 hasta la E.193 contienen un total de veinte partituras. A primera vista el título de las dos tonadas: "E.188: Allegro tonada El tupamaro, Caxamarca" y "E.191 (b: Adagio tonada el Tuppamaro de caxa-marca" sugiere que el contenido de las mismas podría tener relación con los sucesos de Cajamarca, es decir, con la captura y muerte del Inca Atahualpa3. En el mismo tomo II se encuentran además dos láminas que representan la decapitación del Inca: "Danza de la degollación del Ynga E.172; E.173.". De ser así las dos tonadas podrían ser dos fragmentos musicales únicos de las representaciones teatrales antes mencionadas4. Durante el análisis de las dos partituras encontramos que éstas tendrían relación con otras partituras del mismo códice: "E. 191, Magestuoso Cachua la Despedida de Guamachuco"; "E. 190 Allegro tonada la brugita para cantar de Guamachuco" y "E.187, Andantino Tonada El Diamante, para baylar de Chachapoyas". Se trató de analogías musicales o textuales que permitieron crear un hilo conductor con los tr

  4. Comparing Families of Suicide Attempters, Human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rezaei: Family process and content of suicide attempters and HIV positive patients. Annals of Medical ... the exclusion criteria (psychotic disorders, suicidal ideation, addiction, refusing ..... A review of mood disorders among juvenile offenders.

  5. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Amager Project was initiated as a quasi-experimental study in 2005, based on an active outreach suicide preventive intervention inspired by the Norwegian Baerum Model. A 1-year follow-up study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial showing that this kind of active outreach...... to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...

  6. Ethnic Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.

  7. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  8. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghi...

  9. Suicide attempts among incarcerated homicide offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Katie; Boduszek, Daniel; Hyland, Philip; Shagufta, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the role of age, drug abuse, period of confinement, loneliness, difficulty in controlling emotions, having no friends in prison, victimization in prison, guilt over crimes, insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, depression, and mood change in predicating suicide attempts in a sample of homicidal young prisoners. Poisson regression model indicated that five variables contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide attempts. Specifically, participants reporting drug ab...

  10. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-12-01

    The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral-decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases that may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. We assessed older and middle-aged (42-97 years) individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious) (n = 31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (n = 29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (n = 30), nonsuicidal depressed participants (n = 53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (n = 28). Attempters, ideators, and nonsuicidal depressed participants had nonpsychotic major depression (DSM-IV criteria). Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), underconfidence/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June 2010 and February 2014. Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects as compared to the other groups included in this study (P ≤ .05, ηp2 = 0.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (P ≤ .01, ηp2 = 0.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Suicide attempters' failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Failure of low-lethality attempters to resist sunk cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting

  11. Familism, Parent-Adolescent Conflict, Self-Esteem, Internalizing Behaviors and Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…

  12. Indigenous Knowledge Approach to Successful Psychotherapies with Aboriginal Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is disproportionately common among Aboriginal people in Canada. Life stories were collected from 54 Aboriginal suicide attempters in northern Saskatchewan. Constant comparison techniques and modified grounded theory identified common themes expressed. Three common plots/themes preceded suicide attempts: 1) relationship breakup, usually sudden, unanticipated, involving a third person; 2) being publicly humiliated by another person(s), accompanied by high levels of shame; and 3) high levels of unremitting, chronic life stress (including poverty) with relative isolation. We found 5 common purposes for suicide attempts: 1) to "show" someone how badly they had hurt the attempter, 2) to stop the pain, 3) to save face in a difficult social situation, 4) to get revenge, and 5) don't know/don't remember/made sense at the time, all stated by people who were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time of their suicide attempt. We found 5 common beliefs about death: 1) you just cease to exist, and everything just disappears; 2) you go into the spirit world and can see and hear everything that is happening in this world; 3) you go to heaven or hell; 4) you go to a better place; and 5) don't know/didn't think about it. The idea of personal and cultural continuity is essential to understanding suicide among First Nations youth. Interventions targeted to the individual's beliefs about death, purpose for suicide, and consistent with the life story (plot) in which they find themselves may be more successful than one-size-fits-all programs developed outside of aboriginal communities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Immune restoration does not invariably occur following long-term HIV-1 suppression during antiretroviral therapy. INCAS Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakker, N G; Kroon, E D; Roos, M T; Otto, S A; Hall, D; Wit, F W; Hamann, D; van der Ende, M E; Claessen, F A; Kauffmann, R H; Koopmans, P P; Kroon, F P; ten Napel, C H; Sprenger, H G; Weigel, H M; Montaner, J S; Lange, J M; Reiss, P; Schellekens, P T; Miedema, F

    1999-02-04

    Current antiretroviral treatment can induce significant and sustained virological and immunological responses in HIV-1-infected persons over at least the short- to mid-term. In this study, long-term immune reconstitution was investigated during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients enrolled in the INCAS study in The Netherlands were treated for 102 weeks (range 52-144 weeks) with nevirapine (NVP) + zidovudine (ZDV) (n = 9), didanosine (ddl) + ZDV (n = 10), or NVP + ddl + ZDV (n = 10). Memory and naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured using CD45RA and CD27 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), T-cell function was assayed by CD3 + CD28 mAb stimulation, and plasma HIV-1 RNA load was measured by ultra-direct assay (cut-off < 20 copies/ml). Compared to both double combination regimens the triple combination regimen resulted in the most sustained increase in CD4+ T cells (change in CD4+, + 253 x 10(6) cells/l; standard error, 79 x 10(6) cells/l) and reduction of plasma HIV-1 RNA. In nine patients (31%) (ddl + ZDV, n = 2; NVP + ddl + ZDV, n = 7) plasma HIV-1 RNA levels remained below cut-off for at least 2 years. On average, these long-term virological responders demonstrated a significantly higher increase of naïve and memory CD4+ T cells (P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively) as compared with patients with a virological failure, and showed improved T-cell function and normalization of the naïve; memory CD8+ T-cell ratio. However, individual virological success or failure did not predict the degree of immunological response. T-cell patterns were independent of baseline CD4+ T-cell count, T-cell function, HIV-1 RNA load or age. Low numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells at baseline resulted in modest long-term naïve T-cell recovery. Patients with prolonged undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels during antiretroviral therapy do not invariably show immune restoration. Naïve T-cell recovery in the setting of complete viral suppression is a gradual process, similar to that reported

  14. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine....... Statistically, the risk of repetition of parasuicide for patients with a somatic disease but without depression was significantly less. The 7 patients committing suicide were older and a tendency was found towards painful somatic diseases and depression as risk factors for suicide.......In the period January 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991 a sample of suicide attempters admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, underwent a structured interview. In the study 52% of the patients interviewed were found to suffer from a somatic disease, and 21% were daily...

  15. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases, which may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. Method We assessed older and middle-aged individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious; N=31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (N=29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (N=30), non-suicidal depressed (N=53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (N=28). Attempters, ideators, and non-suicidal depressed participants had unipolar non-psychotic major depression. Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), under/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June of 2010 and February of 2014. Results Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects, as compared to the other groups included in this study (p≤ 0.05, ηp2 =.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (p≤ 0.01, ηp2 =.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Conclusion Suicide attempters’ failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Low-lethality attempters’ failure to resist sunk-cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting on suicidal

  16. Familism, parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors and suicide attempts among adolescent Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlberg, Jill A; Peña, Juan B; Zayas, Luis H

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as familism, appears to protect youth's emotional and behavioral health, but parent-adolescent conflict has been found to be a risk factor for suicide attempts. The role of familism in relation to parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts has not been studied extensively. To address this question, we interviewed 226 adolescent Latinas, 50% of whom had histories of suicide attempts. Using path analysis, familism as a cultural asset was associated with lower levels of parent-adolescent conflict, but higher levels of internalizing behaviors, while self-esteem and internalizing behaviors mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and suicide attempts. Our findings point to the importance of family involvement in culturally competent suicide prevention and intervention programs. Reducing parent-daughter conflict and fostering closer family ties has the added effect of improving self-esteem and shrinking the likelihood of suicide attempts.

  17. Suicide attempts by chemicals poisoning in Colombia. 2007 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Calderón-Ramírez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to set the epidemiological profile of suicide attempts by chemical substances in Colombia during the period 2007-2013. It was carried out a descriptive cross sectional study. Data were obtained from Public Health Surveillance system (SIVIGILA about poisoning chemicals 2007-2013. It was found that 55% of cases in 7 years of study corresponds to the female gender. 73% of cases occur from 10 to 29 years, with the highest concentration (31% in the group of 15 to 19. By ethnicity the Black, Afro Colombian Mulato and shows a high number of cases from 2007 to 2009 and indigenous show an upward trend from 2011 to 2013. Most people who attempt suicide are single (58% have a high school education (50% and live in municipal head. Approximately 0.05% of the women who tried to kill themselves, were in a state of pregnancy. In conclusion, a significant incidence of suicide attempts was found with chemicals, and for analysis must take into account the socio-cultural characteristics of the regions and population groups that make up the Colombian nation

  18. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  19. A first attempt : k-center

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. A first attempt : k-center. Randomly select R= C x k points. expected C points from the “largest cluster”. Consider all C-points subsets of R. (at least one will be “purely” from largest cluster). Centroid of this will approximate cluster centre.

  20. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  1. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  2. [When a Suicide Attempt is Kid's Stuff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rojas, Rafael; Quijano-Serrano, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Attempted suicide in children and adolescents is a disturbing and painful issue for patients, their families and physicians. Current medical literature provides little information about minors who attempt suicide, possibly because there is under-reporting of this condition as a diagnosis, or maybe because it is sometimes considered as a way for the child to draw attention. To present the experience of the Department of Psychiatry (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia, from 2003 to 2013. An observational retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 213 cases of children and adolescents treated for attempted suicide at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia from January 1, 2003 to October 31, 2013, and who received hospital or outpatient care in Child Psychiatry. A review was performed of the diagnosis, the number of suicide attempts, the peak months of consultation for this reason, and the methods selected, as well as a detailed description of the group of patients under 12 years old, and those managed with outpatient follow-up. The average patient is a female teenager who becomes intoxicated with drugs. Most often, patients do not return to outpatient follow-up. Those with follow-up have multiple psychopathologies and a high level of suffering. The most common methods, other than poisoning by drugs, are hanging and jumping from heights. Patients under 12 years old generally have their first attempt by drug poisoning. There is a predominance of anxiety disorder and depression, with a strong association with cognitive dysfunction, as a vulnerability factor. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparisons of cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine air based on in-situ observations from the NSF HIPPO, EU INCA and NASA ATTREX campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Schumann, U.; Jensen, J. B.; Minikin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing of cirrus clouds is influenced by microphysical (e.g., ice crystal number concentration and size distribution) and macroscopic properties. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In this work, we use airborne in-situ observations to compare cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine regions. Our dataset includes: the NSF HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011), the EU Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign (2000) and the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) campaign (2014). The combined dataset include observations of both extratropical (HIPPO and INCA) and tropical (ATTREX) cirrus, over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We use the in-situ measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio as a pollution indicator, and compare ice microphysical properties (i.e., ice crystal number concentration (Nc) and number-weighted mean diameter (Dc)) between air masses with higher and lower CO. All analyses are restricted to T ≤ -40°C. By analyzing ice crystals (Fast-2DC, 87.5-1600 µm) in HIPPO, we found that Dc decreases with increasing CO concentration at multiple constant pressure levels. In addition, analysis of INCA data shows that Nc and extinction of small ice particles (FSSP 3-20 µm) increases with increasing CO. Particles < 87.5 µm in Fast-2DC data are not considered due to uncertainty in sample volume, and the FSSP measurements are subject to possible shattering. We further analyze the ice crystals (SPEC FCDP, 1-50 µm) in the tropical tropopause layer in ATTREX. At -70°C to -90°C, we found that the average Nc (Dc) increases (decreases) at higher CO. Overall, our results suggest that extratropical and tropical cirrus are likely to have more numerous small ice particles, when sampled in the more polluted background. Back

  4. Frequency and timing of leaders' mediation attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Demirağ, Elif Gizem; Demirag, Elif Gizem

    2015-01-01

    How do a state's political regime type and power status influence leader's mediation attempts? This study develops an explanation as a response to this question derived from the democratic peace theory which underlines the role of democratic norms in motivating state leaders to play a third party role in peace processes. Based on this approach, the expectation is that democratic country representatives are more likely to mediate especially in the early stage of their careers. In addition, I a...

  5. Attempting to model dissociations of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Paul J.

    2002-05-01

    Kinder and Shanks report simulations aimed at describing a single-system model of the dissociation between declarative and non-declarative memory. This model attempts to capture both Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) and recognition memory with a single underlying representation. However, the model fails to reflect an essential feature of recognition memory - that it occurs after a single exposure - and the simulations may instead describe a potentially interesting property of over-training non-declarative memory.

  6. "Piores que bestas feras": Garcilaso de la Vega e o imaginário hispano-inca sobre os Guarani Chiriguano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protasio Paulo Langer

    Full Text Available No presente artigo propomos uma análise do imaginário de Garcilaso de la Vega sobre os Chiriguano - povo guarani falante que, por volta do século XV, se estabeleceu nas fronteiras do império andino. O tenaz enfrentamento que travaram contra os exércitos imperiais incaicos e, posteriormente, contra os hispânicos ensejou que o cronista Garcilaso de la Vega descrevesse os Chiriguano como a antítese da civilização. Nossa análise incide sobre como esse cronista mestiço abordou os Chiriguano, no intuito de tecer similaridades entre o imaginário cristão e o inca.

  7. Controls on inorganic nitrogen leaching from Finnish catchments assessed using a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the INCA-N model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankinen, K.; Granlund, K. [Finnish Environmental Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Futter, M. N. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    The semi-distributed, dynamic INCA-N model was used to simulate the behaviour of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in two Finnish research catchments. Parameter sensitivity and model structural uncertainty were analysed using generalized sensitivity analysis. The Mustajoki catchment is a forested upstream catchment, while the Savijoki catchment represents intensively cultivated lowlands. In general, there were more influential parameters in Savijoki than Mustajoki. Model results were sensitive to N-transformation rates, vegetation dynamics, and soil and river hydrology. Values of the sensitive parameters were based on long-term measurements covering both warm and cold years. The highest measured DIN concentrations fell between minimum and maximum values estimated during the uncertainty analysis. The lowest measured concentrations fell outside these bounds, suggesting that some retention processes may be missing from the current model structure. The lowest concentrations occurred mainly during low flow periods; so effects on total loads were small. (orig.)

  8. Characteristics of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Admitted to an Acute Psychiatric Ward in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ning Chiou

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study confirms some previous Western reports that adolescents with depressive disorders commonly manifest suicide attempts. There are, however, some cultural differences in risk factors. School-related problems play an important role in Taiwan among the adolescent suicides, and prior suicide attempts predict future suicidal behavior. Enhancing school-based screening for adolescents with suicide risk and transferring them to psychiatric professionals for intervention is important. We should focus suicide prevention resources mainly on the adolescent population with psychiatric illness, prior suicide attempts, and with high risk factors.

  9. Assessment of the impact of oxidation processes on indoor air pollution using the new time-resolved INCA-Indoor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Maxence; Blond, Nadège; Blondeau, Patrice; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Hauglustaine, Didier A.

    2015-12-01

    INCA-Indoor, a new indoor air quality (IAQ) model, has been developed to simulate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxidants considering indoor air specific processes such as: emission, ventilation, surface interactions (sorption, deposition, uptake). Based on the detailed version of SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism, INCA-Indoor is able to analyze the contribution of the production and loss pathways of key chemical species (VOCs, oxidants, radical species). The potential of this model has been tested through three complementary analyses: a comparison with the most detailed IAQ model found in the literature, focusing on oxidant species; realistic scenarios covering a large range of conditions, involving variable OH sources like HONO; and the investigation of alkenes ozonolysis under a large range of indoor conditions that can increase OH and HO2 concentrations. Simulations have been run changing nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations, NOx levels, photolysis rates and ventilation rates, showing that HONO can be the main source of indoor OH. Cleaning events using products containing D-limonene have been simulated at different periods of the day. These scenarios show that HOX concentrations can significantly increase in specific conditions. An assessment of the impact of indoor chemistry on the potential formation of secondary species such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) has been carried out under various room configuration scenarios and a study of the HOx budget for different realistic scenarios has been performed. It has been shown that, under the simulation conditions, formaldehyde can be affected by oxidant concentrations via chemical production which can account for more than 10% of the total production, representing 6.5 ppb/h. On the other hand, acetaldehyde production is affected more by oxidation processes. When the photolysis rates are high, chemical processes are responsible for about 50% of the total production of

  10. Cuzco: a dessacralização da cidade imperial dos incas no romance de José María Arguedas

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    Jacqueline de Cassia Pinheiro Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto tem seu embasamento nas leituras e pesquisas que tiveram início em Cursos de Mestrado e Doutorado, culminando nas pesquisas hoje em um Programa de Pós-Graduação Interdisciplinar. Desde então, as leituras sobre a construção de uma América Latina mestiça e extremamente rica, mesmo empobrecida por diversos fatores de exploração que tiveram início com a chegada dos europeus ao continente, continuam a fazer parte dos estudos, projetos, aulas que estão sendo desenvolvidos. Os Rios profundos, o romance de José Maria Arguedas (1911-1969 que teve a primeira edição em 1958, começa nos apresentando Cuzco, a capital do império incaico, cidade considerada sagrada pelos indígenas. Sua fundação, em que se confundem a história concreta e a formação social do povo inca com o imaginário e o simbólico do homem andino, nos remete ao mito de origem desse povo em suas várias maneiras de ser apresentado. Com o processo colonizador implantado pelos espanhóis, acontece a construção de Lima, que passa a ser a capital do Peru. Para os descendentes do incanato essa mudança é aceita como uma divisão: Cuzco continuou a ser considerada a capital do império para eles. O presente artigo pretende apresentar a maneira pessoal de José María Arguedas olhar para a cidade sagrada dos incas em seus textos, sendo que, nesse artigo, a abordagem será feita a partir do romance Los ríos profundos, apenas.

  11. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal: análise de 146 casos do centro de referência do Instituto Nacional do Câncer - INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Linhares

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento de GIST no INCA. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de todos os casos de GIST tratados no INCA no período de 1997 a 2009. RESULTADOS: Analisamos 146 pacientes, com média de idade de 44,5 anos e predomínio do sexo feminino. O principal sintoma foi dor abdominal. Tivemos ocorrência de segundo primário em 22% dos casos e na imuno-histoquímica, 92% foram positivos para CD117. A localização mais frequente foi estômago e predominou o grupo de alto risco. A cirurgia foi R0 (extenso em 70% e os principais sítios de metástases foram fígado e peritônio. A sobrevida global foi, respectivamente, em dois e cinco anos de 86% e 59%. Houve significante diferença entre a sobrevida global (p=0,29 do grupo de alto risco versus os demais. CONCLUSÃO: Os nossos pacientes apresentam-se principalmente sob forma de doença de alto risco com repercussão óbvia na sobrevida. O uso de Imatinib melhorou a sobrevida dos pacientes com doença metastática e recidivada. Devemos estudar seu uso no cenário de adjuvância e neoadjuvancia visando melhorar os índices do grupo de alto risco. A criação de centros referenciais é uma necessidade para o estudo de doenças pouco frequentes.

  12. How do clinicians and suicide attempters understand suicide attempt impulsivity? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistencies in the definition of impulsive suicide attempts hamper research integration. To expand the currently limited data on how this construct is used in clinical practice, researchers interviewed eight suicide attempters to create timelines of their suicide process, then had seven experienced clinicians review these timelines. Thematic analysis of the patient and clinician data revealed three themes: "thinking out," build-up, and unclear intentionality. The results imply that assessing build-up of agitation and exhaustion symptoms can contribute to understanding acuteness of suicide risk. In addition, uncertainty about one's intentions during the attempt should not be equated to low intent to die.

  13. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide...... = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49). The cumulative rates of repeated attempts and suicide deaths in the total sample were particularly high within the first week of the index attempt, reaching 3.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive efforts need to target the period close to discharge from....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...

  14. An attempt at a macrorealistic quantum worldview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1992-11-01

    Many scientists agree that various difficulties arise when one tries to build up a worldview incorporating some form of realism which can accommodate our knowledge about natural phenomena. We investigate whether quantum mechanics (Q.M.), in the standard interpretation or in some of its more widely known and accepted variants, can be taken as a basis for such a program. Having pointed out that, in our opinion, this is not the case, we present an attempt to overcome the difficulties by accepting stochastic and nonlinear modifications of the evolution equation of the theory. (author). 30 refs

  15. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    was also found among adolescents who had psychiatric disorder or a physical handicap, those who had been sentenced, were addicted to drugs, or had unstable education and unemployment records. A common feature of these significant risk factors seemed to be stigmatisation or social exclusion......This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  16. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  17. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking-suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression-as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking-suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Understanding cultures beyond medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A patient with a terminal illness died of a horrible suicidal attempt and the case provoked deeper learning of how a certain cultural background can lead people to different behaviors. This case study is intended to stimulate more cultural competency–related discussions.

  19. Assessment of safety culture within the radiotherapy department of the Bordeaux University Hospital Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leysalle, A.; Vendrely, V.; Sarrade, C.; Boutolleau, J.B.; Vitry, E.; Trouette, R.; Maire, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of the safety culture within a radiotherapy department has been performed by using a Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). It assesses the safety environment, the team cooperation quality, the satisfaction related to professional activity, the approval of management actions, the perception of the work environment quality and of logistic support, and the acknowledgment of the influence of stress on performance. The survey has been performed before and after the support intervention of a hospital audit and expertise mission in relationship with the National cancer Institute (Inca). The comparison of results before and after this support intervention shows a general score improvement for the SAQ. Short communication

  20. Discontinuation of nicotine replacement therapy among smoking-cessation attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily K; Levinson, Arnold H

    2008-03-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) doubles successful quitting, but more than half of NRT users do not comply with optimal treatment regimens. From the 2005 Colorado state tobacco survey, quit attempters who utilized NRT (N=366) were analyzed in spring 2007. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to examine reasons for discontinuing NRT, length of time on NRT, and quit intentions. The reasons for discontinuing NRT were resuming smoking (34%), side effects (17%), NRT not helping with quitting (14%), quitting smoking (10%), and cost (5%). Poverty, age, and non-Latino minority status were associated with reasons for discontinuation other than quitting smoking. Having side effects was associated with a short duration of NRT use and 95% lower odds of intending to quit in the next month. In the first population-level study examining reasons for discontinuing NRT, general-population smokers who initiate NRT use when attempting to quit are highly likely to discontinue NRT prematurely. Age and culturally-appropriate medication management interventions may increase NRT compliance and improve cessation outcomes.

  1. An attempt to categorize Hungarian community currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Szemerédi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of complementary currencies in the 1980s there have been numerous attempts to classify them, despite that the terms local currency, community currency and many others describing place-based monetary tools are not considered similarly by scholars. The local currencies take many forms, and local governments play different roles in their emergence and development. In Hungary there has been an increasing attention and discussion around the idea of implementing these alternative monetary tools. There is a growing number of working complementary currencies in Hungary, but academic research focuses mostly on whether these can contribute to the local development and what kind of effects they have. The aim of this paper is to present a possible categorization of Hungarian complementary currencies based on the role local governments played in their implementation. I evaluate whether these community currencies are effective at first, and attempt to categorize them based on their purpose, association form and their relationships with local governments, with the purpose of increasing awareness for these initiatives in the process of policy-making.

  2. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  3. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

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    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  4. The Impact of Negative Life Events on Attempted Suicide in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzheng; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of negative life events (NLEs) on attempted suicide in a Chinese cultural setting. The sample comprised 791 suicide attempters and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and location from selected rural counties in China. Conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the association between NLEs and suicide risk. The impact of NLEs on attempted suicide was further examined using regression-based method to explore its mediation effect. The types of NLEs that were most likely to precede a suicide attempt in rural sample included the events in marriage/love, family/home, and friend/relationship. Rural women were more likely to experience more interpersonal conflicts than rural men. Approximately 75.6% of suicide attempters had experienced at least one NLE, and NLEs were strongly associated with attempted suicide. Total effect (0.676), direct effect (0.501), and the total indirect effect (0.301) of NLEs on suicide attempts were significantly mediated by hopelessness and depression. NLEs play a crucial role in predicting suicidal attempt in rural China, and they are mediated by depression and hopelessness.

  5. Clinical characteristics of depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts: results from the CRESCEND study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Tae-Suk; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Chul; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Jae-Min; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2010-10-01

    South Korea is a country with one of the highest suicide rates in the world, and the suicide rate is still on the rise. The purpose of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempts and risk factors related to suicide attempts among depressed patients in South Korea. Among the 1183 participants, 21.4% had a history of a suicide attempt. When the severity of depression was controlled, the risk factors for patients who attempted suicide included younger age, experienced significant life events before 12 years of age, psychotic symptoms, and previous depressive episodes. The characteristics of attempted suicide in depressed patients in South Korea can be summarized as a high suicide attempt rate with no difference in the number of suicide attempts and lethality between males and females. This unique tendency is probably related to the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics of South Korea.

  6. The Absence of Culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Magnus; Jomer, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This thesis attempts to investigate if national culture still is a factor to consider for large multinational organizations when choosing a supplier, or if the global business environment due to globalization has become so standardized and homogenous that the influence of national culture differences has diminished. Existing academic literature is divided regarding this matter; some studies indicate that the influence of national culture on business relations is subtle while other argues that...

  7. Can Better Mother-Daughter Relations Reduce the Chance of a Suicide Attempt among Latinas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Zayas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available National surveys and other research on adolescent Latinas show that adolescent females have higher rates of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts than other ethnic and racial minority youth. Internalizing behaviors and family conflicts are commonly associated with suicidality in research on adolescents. In the case of Latinas, we explore the connection between adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement, mother-adolescent mutuality, internalizing behaviors, and suicidality. This paper presents data from a study of 232 Latinas, some with a recent history of suicide attempts (n=122. The results show that higher adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement was associated with greater mother-daughter mutuality and thus led to reduction in the likelihood of suicide attempts. The relationship between mother-daughter mutuality and suicide attempts among Latinas is mediated by specific internalizing behaviors (withdrawn depressive. Our findings highlight the positive effect that Latino cultural values have in the relationship between Latina adolescent and their mothers and confirm the importance that internalizing behaviors and the mother-daughter relationship have for suicide attempters.

  8. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  10. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  11. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  12. Leadership and Organizational Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the relationship between leaders, organizational culture, and national culture. Leaders cre⁃ate“climate of the organization”with six mechanisms. Furthermore, leaders style of management is considerably influenced by their national culture based on Hofstede’s organizational culture theory. Varieties of examples and cases are analyzed to illustrate that leadership beliefs and practices have direct relationship with organizational culture and shape their individualistic communica⁃tion styles and goals that influence to a significant degree in establishing shared values, beliefs and practices among employees within an organization.

  13. La materia económica en «La Florida del Inca» y los «Comentarios reales»: testimonio colonial y discurso historiográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Díez Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega no escribió tratados sino obras de historia política, las referencias económicas en La Florida del Inca (1605 y las dos partes de los Comentarios reales (1609, 1617 ofrecen un testimonio indirecto de algunos de los procesos económicos del colonialismo temprano. Este artículo sintetiza las menciones de Garcilaso al comercio, los precios y los bienes materiales, y las sitúa dentro de la evolución de su manera de escribir historia y dentro de sus opiniones sobre la historia del Nuevo Mundo (incluyendo tanto interpretaciones de procesos históricos como recuerdos personales.

  14. A Content Analysis of Online Suicide Notes: Attempted Suicide Versus Attempt Resulting in Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, John; Ioannou, Maria; Coyne, Angela; Hemingway, Siobhan

    2017-09-28

    Fifty suicide notes of those who died by suicide and 50 suicide notes of those who survived their suicide attempt were analyzed using Smallest Space Analysis. The core of all suicide notes was discovered to be constructed with the use of four variables: saying goodbye to their audience, feelings of loneliness, method used to attempt suicide, and negative self-image. Furthermore, three different suicide note themes of those who died and three suicide note themes from those who survived were also identified. The analysis revealed that suicide note writers who died by their attempt were more likely to combine a dislike of themselves and a concern for loved ones. The implications of the work in terms of suicide prevention are discussed. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. Bayesian tests to quantify the result of a replication attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Replication attempts are essential to the empirical sciences. Successful replication attempts increase researchers’ confidence in the presence of an effect, whereas failed replication attempts induce skepticism and doubt. However, it is often unclear to what extent a replication attempt results in

  16. Characteristics of individuals who make impulsive suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has identified only a few variables that have been associated with making an impulsive suicide attempt. The aim of the current study was to compare individuals who made an impulsive suicide attempt with those who made a premeditated attempt on both previously examined and novel characteristics. Participants were classified as making an impulsive or premeditated attempt based on the Suicide Intent Scale (Beck et al., 1974a) and were compared on a number of characteristics relevant to suicidality, psychiatric history, and demographics. Individuals who made an impulsive attempt expected that their attempts would be less lethal; yet the actual lethality of both groups' attempts was similar. Those who made an impulsive attempt were less depressed and hopeless than those who made a premeditated attempt. Participants who made an impulsive attempt were less likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse and more likely to be diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder than those who made a premeditated attempt. Although the sample size was adequate for bivariate statistics, future studies using larger sample sizes will allow for multivariate analyses of characteristics that differentiate individuals who make impulsive and premeditated attempts. Clinicians should not minimize the significance of impulsive attempts, as they are associated with a similar level of lethality as premeditated attempts. Focusing mainly on depression and hopelessness as indicators of suicide risk has the potential to under-identify those who are at risk for making impulsive attempts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  18. Mother’s filicide with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Filicide is the killing of a son or daughter by a parent. The paper examines interaction between stress and maternal psychopathology that led to the killing. Case Outline. After prolonged conflict with her ex-husband and father of her only child, the respondent committed filicide. Two years before committing filicide, after she had divorced the father of the child, the respondent attempted suicide and had to be hospitalized. On that occasion, she was diagnosed with depressive disorder, which was not treated after hospitalization. Having killed her daughter by cutting her throat, she tried to commit suicide in the same manner, by slitting her throat. During further observation, the respondent was found to suffer from acute psychotic disorder, depressive disorder and histrionic personality disorder. These disorders in interaction with stress do not provide us with an explanation for an unusual and psychopathological motivation analysis of killing the child. Conclusion. Filicide is a violent act, most frequently multifactorial in its nature. Histrionic personality disorder in mother cannot explain the filicide act. Only interactive and dynamic evaluation of this psychiatric disorder in its longitudinal, development aspects and its potentiality to enable the expression of some other psychiatric disorders, especially dissociative states, as well as the importance of prolonged and acute stress and its subjective importance for the individual can shed some more light on the mental state of the mother at the time of filicide.

  19. [Euthanasia - an attempt to organize issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmes, Tomasz; Wilk, Mateusz; Chowaniec, Czesław

    This article is an attempt to complete and holistically discuss problem of euthanasia, especially its ethical and legal aspects, comparing to Polish law. The subject of euthanasia arouse interest of the society because it touches one of the most important aspects of life, which is the death. Even bigger emotions are aroused amongst physicians. They are forced to put on the line the life as biggest value on the one side and autonomy of human being on the other. It also touches the empathy for suffering. The euthanasia was divided into three forms: active euthanasia, passive euthanasia and assisted suicide. Any form of euthanasia is illegal in Poland according to both the Penal Code and Code of Medical Ethics. Range of possible penal consequences perpetrator is very wide from waiver of punishment to life imprisonment and it comes from different penal qualification of the euthanasia. Qualification of the euthanasia is based on terms of intent of perpetrator's act, request of patient, strong empathy for suffering if the patient and decision based on up-to-date medical knowledge. It is valuable to mention "do-not-resuscitate" DNR procedure, which in case of medical futility is legally accepted in Poland, but in other form may be qualified as passive euthanasia.

  20. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Aldemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases. After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting.

  1. Hydraulic fracturing - an attempt of DEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Alicja; Foltyn, Natalia; Klejment, Piotr; Dębski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique widely used in oil, gas and unconventional reservoirs exploitation in order to enable the oil/gas to flow more easily and enhance the production. It relays on pumping into a rock a special fluid under a high pressure which creates a set of microcracks which enhance porosity of the reservoir rock. In this research, attempt of simulation of such hydrofracturing process using the Discrete Element Method approach is presented. The basic assumption of this approach is that the rock can be represented as an assembly of discrete particles cemented into a rigid sample (Potyondy 2004). An existence of voids among particles simulates then a pore system which can be filled out by fracturing fluid, numerically represented by much smaller particles. Following this microscopic point of view and its numerical representation by DEM method we present primary results of numerical analysis of hydrofracturing phenomena, using the ESyS-Particle Software. In particular, we consider what is happening in distinct vicinity of the border between rock sample and fracking particles, how cracks are creating and evolving by breaking bonds between particles, how acoustic/seismic energy is releasing and so on. D.O. Potyondy, P.A. Cundall. A bonded-particle model for rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (2004), pp. 1329-1364.

  2. On the shape and properties of the global heliosphere over the Solar Cycle with Voyager/LECP ions and Cassini/INCA ENAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Krimigis, Stamatios; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Roelof, Edmond

    2017-04-01

    Voyager 1 (V1) and Voyager 2 (V2) have crossed the termination shock in 2004 (V1) and 2007(V2) and traversing the Heliosheath (HS) in the upstream (nose) hemisphere, while the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) on Cassini enables Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the celestial sphere that place the local ion measurements by each Voyager in a global context. We present an analysis of 5.2-55 keV ENA global images of the HS and 28-53 keV in-situ ions over an 11-year period (2003-2014) that corresponds to the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (SC23) and onset of SC24. The measurements reveal a coherent decrease and recovery between ENA in the global heliosphere and in-situ ions at V1/V2 during this time period, in overlapping energy bands, establishing that the HS ions are the source of >28 keV ENA. The similarity in the overall appearance of the images throughout the INCA energy range (5.2-55 keV), reveals that the source of ENAs at 5.2 keV ENA and ion variations with the Solar Sunspot Numbers (SSN) and solar wind parameters indicates that the Heliosphere responds promptly, within 2-3 years, to outward propagating solar wind changes in both the nose and anti-nose (tail) directions following the Solar Cycle (SC) phases. A detailed latitudinal examination of the global ENA emissions, verifies that the peak intensities between the nose and anti-nose directions are nearly similar, the power law ENA spectral index (γ) is largely the same near the equator in both the nose and anti-nose directions and displays similar spatial dependence with latitude. The totality of the ENA and in situ ion observations, together with the V1 measurement of a 0.5 nT interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) and recent modeling, suggest a "bubble-shape" heliosphere, i.e with little substantial tail-like feature. These observations are essential in determining the context for the measurements anticipated by the forthcoming IMAP mission.

  3. Tentativas de suicídio e suicídio em município de cultura pomerana no interior do estado do Espírito Santo Suicide attempts and suicide in a municipality of pomerana culture inside the state of Espírito Sant o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Bolzam Macente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil das tentativas de suicídio e mortalidade por suicídio no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, interior do Espírito Santo, no período de 2001 a 2007. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo, observacional e de abordagem quantitativa. A identificação dos casos de tentativas de suicídio e suicídios ocorreu por meio dos Boletins de Ocorrência Policial da Polícia Militar do Município, onde foram selecionados todos os casos. Para análise dos dados, foram utilizadas tabelas de frequência e os testes de hipótese t Student e Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente médio de mortalidade por suicídio foi de 12,9/100.000. Verificou-se que as mulheres realizam mais tentativas de suicídio, enquanto os homens foram mais eficientes, cometendo mais suicídio (p = 0,008. A média de idade para as vítimas de tentativas de suicídio foi de 30 ± 10,1 anos e de suicídio 42 ± 14,9 anos (p = 0,001. Os meios mais utilizados para os casos de suicídio foi o enforcamento (57,1%, enquanto para as tentativas foi o envenenamento por agrotóxico (42,5%. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que o perfil dos suicidas se diferencia dos que tentam, especialmente segundo o sexo, a idade e os meios utilizados, enfatizando a necessidade de se desencadear discussões acerca de programas, tratamento e prevenção para os grupos mais vulneráveis.OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of suicide attempts and suicide mortality in the municipality of Santa Maria de Jetibá, inside Espírito Santo, from 2001 to 2007. METHOD: A descriptive, observational and quantitative study. The identification of cases of suicide attempts and suicides occurred through the police records from the Military Police of the city, where we selected all cases. Frequency tables were used and tests of hypotheses Student t and Chi-square in the data analysis. RESULTS: The average mortality rate from suicide was 12.9/100,000. It was found that women carry out more suicide attempts, while men

  4. How is culture and cultural development possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the second law of thermodynamics it is difficult to explain any kind of process contributing to enhance order. Culture can be seen as such an ordering process, but then we have to explain how this is possible. In this paper I introduce an attempt to overcome and combine these

  5. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  6. A phenomenological attempt at understanding otherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KOVÁCS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenology of otherness is not satisfied with the reductionist definitions of the classical anthropological conceptions. The latter have identified the essence of man in his rationality, morality, createdness, or the possibility of moral and aesthetic self-perfection. The monolithic definition of human essence, based on uniform criteria, seems today one-sided and outdated. The parallel effects of cultural diversification, the pluralized political and social system, and multilingualism have directly and inevitably confronted us with otherness and strangeness. We could even say that we can understand our identity primarily through the experience of otherness. We will reach our conclusions related to the phenomenological constitutive of otherness by way of the interpretation of the relevant ideas of Baudrillad, Guillaume and Lévinas.

  7. Cultural Contrasts--A Broader Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sidney L.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes various attempts at teaching and learning cross-cultural understanding through workshops; preparing instructional materials, including magazine advertisements, to be analyzed; and interdisciplinary lectures and programs. Aspects of German culture are emphasized. (CHK)

  8. Assessment of safety culture within the radiotherapy department of the Bordeaux University Hospital Centre; Evaluation de la culture de securite au sein du service de radiotherapie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Bordeaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leysalle, A.; Vendrely, V.; Sarrade, C.; Boutolleau, J.B.; Vitry, E.; Trouette, R.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-10-15

    The assessment of the safety culture within a radiotherapy department has been performed by using a Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). It assesses the safety environment, the team cooperation quality, the satisfaction related to professional activity, the approval of management actions, the perception of the work environment quality and of logistic support, and the acknowledgment of the influence of stress on performance. The survey has been performed before and after the support intervention of a hospital audit and expertise mission in relationship with the National cancer Institute (Inca). The comparison of results before and after this support intervention shows a general score improvement for the SAQ. Short communication

  9. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14, following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  10. For Cultural Interpretation: A Study of the Culture of Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, John

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to demonstrate the value of conjunctural interpretive analysis (which is multilevel, multimodal, and explicitly theoretical and political) through an interpretation of the culture of homelessness in the United States. Addresses differences between positivist epistemologies. (SR)

  11. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  12. Response times of Cassini/INCA > 5.2 keV ENAs and Voyager ions in the heliosheath over the solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, K.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2017-09-01

    Both a magnetosphere-like tail and a bubble model of the heliosphere were posited by E. N. Parker in 1961. Recently, we showed that heliosheath ions are the source of > 5.2 keV Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA), whose images of the heliosphere exhibit a rough nose to anti-nose (tail) global symmetry that resembles a diamagnetic bubble. The comparison between energetic neutral atom (ENA) global images of the helioshphere obtained with the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) on board Cassini and ions measured in-situ by the Low Energy Charged Particle experiment (LECP) on board Voyager 1 and 2 (V1/V2) in overlapping energy bands over an 11-year period shows that the heliosphere responds promptly, within ∼2-3 years, to outward propagating solar wind changes in both the nose and tail directions. Here we focus on the recovery of solar cycle 24 and the response times of > 5.2 keV ENAs to show that this ∼2-3-year time delay is consistent with a “tail” of ∼80-120 AU. This preliminary rough calculation is generally consistent with lower energy ENA data (E < 6 keV, from the IBEX-Lo and IBEX-Hi) and is supported by recent modelling of the heliosphere.

  13. Thermal neutron capture cross-section measurements of 243Am and 242Pu using the new mini-INCA α- and γ-spectroscopy station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, F.; Letourneau, A.; Fioni, G.; Deruelle, O.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Faust, H.; Mutti, P.; AlMahamid, I.; Muhammad, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the Mini-INCA project, dedicated to the study of Minor Actinide transmutation process in high neutron fluxes, an α- and γ-spectroscopy station has been developed and installed at the High Flux Reactor of the Laue-Langevin Institut. This set-up allows short irradiations as well as long irradiations in a high quasi-thermal neutron flux and post-irradiation spectroscopy analysis. It is well suited to measure precisely, in reference to 59 Co cross-section, neutron capture cross-sections, for all the actinides, in the thermal energy region. The first measurements using this set-up were done on 243 Am and 242 Pu isotopes. Cross-section values, at E n =0.025eV, were found to be (81.8+/-3.6)b for 243 Am and (22.5+/-1.1)b for 242 Pu. These values differ from evaluated data libraries by a factor of 9% and 17%, respectively, but are compatible with the most recent measurements, validating by the way the experimental apparatus

  14. Predicting HIV RNA virologic outcome at 52-weeks follow-up in antiretroviral clinical trials. The INCAS and AVANTI Study Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboud, J M; Rae, S; Montaner, J S

    2000-08-15

    To determine the ability of intermediate plasma viral load (pVL) measurements to predict virologic outcome at 52 weeks of follow-up in clinical trials of antiretroviral therapy. Individual patient data from three clinical trials (INCAS, AVANTI-2 and AVANTI-3) were combined into a single database. Virologic success was defined to be plasma viral load (pVL) <500 copies/ml at week 52. The sensitivity and specificity of intermediate pVL measurements below the limit of detection, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 copies/ml to predict virologic success were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a pVL measurement <1000 copies/ml at week 16 to predict virologic outcome at week 52 were 74%, 74%, 48%, and 90%, respectively, for patients on double therapy. For patients on triple therapy, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a pVL measurement <50 copies/ml at week 16 to predict virologic outcome were 68%, 68%, 80%, and 47%, respectively. For patients receiving double therapy, a poor virologic result at an intermediate week of follow-up is a strong indicator of virologic failure at 52 weeks whereas intermediate virologic success is no guarantee of success at 1 year. For patients on triple therapy, disappointing intermediate results do not preclude virologic success at 1 year and intermediate successes are more likely to be sustained.

  15. Darwinism and cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2012-08-05

    Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles.

  16. Dimensions of cultural consumption among tourists : Multiple correspondence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, G.W.; van der Ark, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural tourism market has diversified and fragmented into many different niches. Previous attempts to segment cultural tourists have been largely unidimensional, failing to capture the complexity of cultural production and consumption. We employ multiple correspondence analysis to visualize

  17. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....

  18. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania.

  19. Suicide ideation and attempt in a community cohort of urban Aboriginal youth: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Joanne N; Anderson, Ian P; Gee, Graham J; Thorpe, Reg; Rowley, Kevin G; Reilly, Rachel E; Thorpe, Alister; Stewart, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing attention over the last decade on the issue of indigenous youth suicide. A number of studies have documented the high prevalence of suicide behavior and mortality in Australia and internationally. However, no studies have focused on documenting the correlates of suicide behavior for indigenous youth in Australia. To examine the prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt and the associated factors for a community1 cohort of Koori2 (Aboriginal) youth. Data were obtained from the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service (VAHS) Young People's Project (YPP), a community initiated cross-sectional data set. In 1997/1998, self-reported data were collected for 172 Koori youth aged 12-26 years living in Melbourne, Australia. The data were analyzed to assess the prevalence of current suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempt. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify closely associated social, emotional, behavioral, and cultural variables at baseline and Cox regression modeling was then used to identify associations between PCA components and suicide ideation and attempt. Ideation and attempt were reported at 23.3% and 24.4%, respectively. PCA yielded five components: (1) emotional distress, (2) social distress A, (3) social distress B, (4) cultural connection, (5) behavioral. All were positively and independently associated with suicide ideation and attempt, while cultural connection showed a negative association. Suicide ideation and attempt were common in this cross-section of indigenous youth with an unfavorable profile for the emotional, social, cultural, and behavioral factors.

  20. Behind impulsive suicide attempts: indications from a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyder, Marianne; De Leo, Diego

    2007-12-01

    A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are made on impulse. However, knowledge of characteristics of impulsive attempters is still limited. The present study investigated some of these characteristics and aimed to identify the pattern (if any) of suicidal ideation before an impulsive attempt. Data from a randomized and stratified population of 5130 individuals from Brisbane, Australia, were analysed. Computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) were adopted to recruit subjects. Those reporting previous suicidal behaviour were sent a questionnaire by mail. One hundred and twelve subjects reported a suicide attempt. One quarter of these described a pattern consistent with an impulsive attempt. Most impulsive attempters experienced suicidal thoughts before their attempt. They were less likely to believe that their attempt would cause death, and less likely to experience depression. Impulsive attempters did not differ significantly from non-impulsive attempters in regards to age, gender, and motivations for the attempt. Surprisingly, no differences in mean scores of trait impulsivity between impulsive and non-impulsive attempters were found. In addition, the majority of suicide attempters (whether impulsive or not) experienced the suicidal process as fluctuating and not as developing along a continuum. The number of attempters who validly entered the study limited our ability to identify potential confounders. Due to the retrospective nature of the survey, the reliability of the information collected may have been affected by recall biases. In addition, as the surveys were administered by mail, it is possible that some questions may have been misinterpreted. The presence of suicidal feelings prior to an attempt constitutes an opportunity for intervention also in impulsive attempters. However, the identification of impulsiveness requires more research efforts.

  1. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n=109) and non-attempters (n=107) were recruited from the NYC area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit; intermediate-knit; and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens that attempted...

  2. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiktorsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80 were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder (p = 0.02. At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55. Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79, and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64. We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  3. Few Sex Differences in Hospitalized Suicide Attempters Aged 70 and Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Rydberg Sterner, Therese; Mellqvist Fässberg, Madeleine; Skoog, Ingmar; Ingeborg Berg, Anne; Duberstein, Paul; Van Orden, Kimberly; Waern, Margda

    2018-01-16

    Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety. Forty-five percent of the men and 14% of the women had a history of substance use disorder ( p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men ( p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1%, p = 0.64). We found strikingly similar figures for depression scores, functional disability and attributions for attempting suicide in older men and women. Larger studies are needed in diverse settings as sex differences might be influenced by cultural context.

  4. Suicide Attempts among Depressed Adolescents in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…

  5. Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is Pre and Post Counseling Still Being Adequately Practiced? ... A case of attempted suicide in a recently diagnosed HIV positive subject without adequate counseling is reported. Subject ... Key Words: Suicide Attempt, HIV/AIDS, Pre and Post test Counseling.

  6. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  7. An attempt of classification of theoretical approaches to national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Đorđević Jasna S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is compulsory that complex social concepts should be defined in different ways and approached from the perspective of different science disciplines. Therefore, it is difficult to precisely define them without overlapping of meaning with other similar concepts. This paper has made an attempt towards theoretical classification of the national identity and differentiate that concept in comparison to the other related concepts (race, ethnic group, nation, national background, authoritativeness, patriarchy. Theoretical assessments are classified into two groups: ones that are dealing with nature of national identity and others that are stating one or more dimensions of national identity, crucial for its determination. On the contrary to the primordialistic concept of national identity, describing it as a fundamental, deeply rooted human feature, there are many numerous contemporary theoretical approaches (instrumentalist, constructivist, functionalistic, emphasizing changeable, fluid, instrumentalist function of the national identity. Fundamental determinants of national identity are: language, culture (music, traditional myths, state symbols (territory, citizenship, self-categorization, religion, set of personal characteristics and values.

  8. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  9. "Impulsive" youth suicide attempters are not necessarily all that impulsive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tracy K; Merrill, Katherine A; Stellrecht, Nadia E; Bernert, Rebecca A; Hollar, Daniel L; Schatschneider, Christopher; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    The relationship between impulsivity and suicide has been conceptualized in the literature as a direct one. In contrast, Joiner's [Joiner, T.E., 2005. Why people die by suicide. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.] theory posits that this relationship is indirect in that impulsive individuals are more likely to engage in suicidal behavior because impulsivity makes one more likely to be exposed to painful and provocative stimuli. Adolescents were selected from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) sample between the years of 1993-2003 who had planned for a suicide attempt but did not actually attempt (n=5685), who did not plan but did attempt ("impulsive attempters;" n=1172), and who both planned and attempted (n=4807). Items were selected from the YRBS to assess demographic variables, suicidal behaviors, and impulsive behaviors. Participants who had planned suicide without attempting were significantly less impulsive than those who had attempted without planning and than those who had both planned and attempted. Crucially, participants who had made a suicide attempt without prior planning were less impulsive than those who had planned and attempted. We were unable to conduct a multi-method assessment (i.e., measures were self-report); the measure of impulsivity consisted of items pulled from the YRBS rather than a previously validated impulsivity measure. The notion that the most impulsive individuals are more likely to plan for suicide attempts is an important one for many reasons both theoretical and clinical, including that it may refine risk assessment and attendant clinical decision-making.

  10. Should We Teach Culture along with English?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一帆

    2009-01-01

    Language is an important carrier of culture while culture is embodied by language.These two factors correlate with each other closely.The question"Should we teach culture Mong with English"is what we are focused on here.This essay attempts to define the notion of culture,to explore the relationship between language and culture,and to aim at leading to the conclusion that we should teach culture Mong with language in the EFL classroom.

  11. "Impulsive" suicide attempts: What do we really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2016-07-01

    Suicide attempts are often regarded as impulsive acts. However, there is little consensus regarding the definition or clinical characteristics of an "impulsive" attempt. To clarify this issue, we examined 3 indicators of the impulsivity of an attempt: (a) preparation, (b) time contemplating the attempt, and (c) self-report that impulsivity motivated the attempt. We examined relationships among the indicators and their relationship to trait impulsivity and characteristics of the suicide attempt. Adult participants (N = 205) with a history of suicide attempts were administered validated interviews and questionnaires. In general, the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators correlated only moderately with each other and not at all with trait impulsivity or with important characteristics of the attempt (e.g., lethality, preattempt communication, motivations). However, there were 2 exceptions. First, intent to die was inversely related to the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators (rs ranged from -.17 to .45) such that more impulsive attempts were associated with lower intent. Second, self-report that the attempt was motivated by impulsivity was related to 3 facets of trait impulsivity (rs ranged from .16 to .41). These findings suggest that individuals endorsing trait impulsivity are likely to describe their attempts as motivated by impulsivity, regardless of the presence of preparation or prolonged contemplation. Overall, study results suggest that the common conception of a unidimensional impulsive attempt may be inaccurate and that the emphasis on general impulsivity in prevention guidelines should be tempered. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A comparative study on the dental health status of five precolumbian Peruvian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzay, R P; Allison, M J; Pezzia, A

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of dental health status of ancient Southern Peru, 101 skeletal remains were studied from five cultures: Paracas, Nazca, Tiahuanaco, Ica, and Inca. The Paracas and Ica cultures exhibited more missing antemortem teeth per mandible than the other cultures. Frequency of missing one or more third molars was less than expected and not as high as reported in peoples of Mongoloid heritage. The Paracas, Ica and Nazca, "coastal" cultures had a higher caries incidence than the "inland" cultures. Whether this relates to some difference in diet or water supply remains unresolved and warrants further investigation. Moderate attrition was noted in all the Precolumbian cultures but pulpal involvement was not observed. Osteitis, noted in all the cultures, was more pronounced in the Nazca, Paracas and Ica cultures. There appeared to be a direct relationship between caries involvement and the number of missing antemortem teeth to osteitis. Calculus was heavier in the Paracas and Ica cultures. In addition, the Paracas culture exhibited a dark brown stain on the teeth which may imply some difference between the cultures in either the food, water or social habits.

  13. Del Colegio de caciques al Colegio de Granada: la educación problemática de un noble descendiente de los Incas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DU COLLÈGE DES CACIQUES AU COLLÈGE DE GRENADE : L’ÉDUCATION PROBLÉMATIQUE D’UN DESCENDANT DES INCAS En 1792 Charles IV, fonde de manière prématurée et afin de contenir le mécontentement croissant des créoles, un collège en Espagne pour les nobles américains. Le décret n’exclut pas les nobles indigènes et l’un d’eux, D. Bartolomé Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, homme cultivé et actif, sollicite l’inscription de son cousin Don Santiago Phelipe Camilo Tupac Yupanqui dont la candidature n’est pas retenue. Ses démarches et ses dissimulations, son opiniâtreté ainsi que les faux arguments du vice-roi laissent percevoir le climat de suspicion réciproque qui régnait dans la société péruvienne encore marquée par la révolte indienne de 1780, en même temps que se révèle la véritable nature de la parole royale. En 1792 Carlos IV funda de forma algo prematura con el fin de controlar el descontento creciente de los criollos, un colegio en España para educar a los nobles americanos. La cédula no excluye a los nobles indígenas. Uno de ellos, D. Bartolomé Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, solicita una beca para su primo Don Santiago Phelipe Camilo Túpac Yupanqui, beca que no le otorga el virrey. Sus diligencias y sus disimulaciones, su terquedad así como los falsos argumentos del virrey dejan ver la atmósfera de recíproca suspición de aquella sociedad peruana todavía marcada por la rebelión indígena de 1780, al mismo tiempo que revela la índole de la palabra real. FROM THE COLLEGE OF CACIQUES TO THE COLLEGE OF GRANADA: THE PROBLEMATICAL EDUCATION OF A NOBLE DESCENDANT OF THE INCAS In 1792, Charles IV founded a college in Spain for educating noble Americans. This somewhat premature move aimed at curbing the growing discontent of the criollos. The royal decree did not exclude indigenous nobles. One of them, D. Bartolome Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, asked for a scholarship for his cousin, D. Santiago Phelipe Camilo Tupac Yupanqui. However this

  14. Distinguishing the relevant features of frequent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria de las Mercedes; Jaussent, Isabelle; Alegria, Analucia A; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Freed, Peter; Guillaume, Sébastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; Malafosse, Alain; Oquendo, Maria A; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Courtet, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of suicide behaviours and the magnitude of the resultant burden, little is known about why individuals reattempt. We aim to investigate the relationships between clinical risk factors and the repetition of suicidal attempts. 1349 suicide attempters were consecutively recruited in the Emergency Room (ER) of two academic hospitals in France and Spain. Patients were extensively assessed and demographic and clinical data obtained. Data mining was used to determine the minimal number of variables that blinded the rest in relation to the number of suicide attempts. Using this set, a probabilistic graph ranking relationships with the target variable was constructed. The most common diagnoses among suicide attempters were affective disorders, followed by anxiety disorders. Risk of frequent suicide attempt was highest among middle-aged subjects, and diminished progressively with advancing age of onset at first attempt. Anxiety disorders significantly increased the risk of presenting frequent suicide attempts. Pathway analysis also indicated that frequent suicide attempts were linked to greater odds for alcohol and substance abuse disorders and more intensive treatment. Novel statistical methods found several clinical features that were associated with a history of frequent suicide attempts. The identified pathways may promote new hypothesis-driven studies of suicide attempts and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Definition of a quit attempt: a replication test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    The incidence of quit attempts is often used to measure the effects of tobacco control interventions. Many surveys of quit attempts require that the attempt last ≥24 hr, presumably to provide a more objective definition and to eliminate less serious attempts; however, this criterion may bias outcomes by excluding the more dependent quitters who cannot stop for 1 day despite a serious quit attempt. We examined the 2003 and the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine the prevalence of quit attempts that did and did not last 24 hr, both in the last 12 months and in one's lifetime among current daily smokers. We also tested the hypothesis that those unable to quit for 24 hr were the more dependent smokers. Requiring quit attempts to last 24 hr excluded 6%-17% of smokers who stated they made a quit attempt. Whether smokers who could not quit for more than 24 hr were more dependent varied across survey, recall duration, and measure. We conclude restricting quit attempts to those who have quit for 24 hr underestimates the prevalence of attempts. Whether those unable to quit for 24 hr are the more dependent smokers is unclear. Empirical tests of whether the addition of a 24-hr criterion increases reliability or validity are needed.

  16. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  17. Lower lip squamous cell carcinoma in patients with photosensitive disorders: Analysis of cases treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) from 1999 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J-F-P; Lanaro, N-D; Bernardo, V-G; Albano, R-M; Dias, F; de Faria, P-A-S; Pinto, L-F-R; Lourenço, S-Q-C

    2018-01-01

    Lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC) is a common malignancy of the head and neck, being mainly a consequence of a chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light solar radiation. Here, we evaluated the clinicopathological profile of patients with photosensitive disorders (xeroderma pigmentosum, lupus erythematosus and albinism) that developed LLSCC. Data from patients who had a diagnosed LLSCC with a prior xeroderma pigmentosum, lupus erythematosus or albinism diagnosis that were treated at INCA from 1999 to 2012 were collected from patients medical records (n=16). The control group was composed of 68 patients with LLSCC without a medical history of photosensitivity. The clinicopathological data of this study population were collected and the association between these variables was analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistics package. The mean age of patients in the photosensitive and non-photosensitive groups was 42 years and 67 years, respectively (p<0.0001). A previous history of malignant diseases was more common in the photosensitive group (p=0.001). In both groups, most tumors showed a pathological stage I/II disease. Overall and cancer-specific survival were not statistically different. However, disease-free interval showed a significant difference (p=0.01) between the photosensitive and non-photosensitive patients. Photosensitive patients presented LLSCC at earlier age but it usually was not the primary tumor in these patients. Furthermore, a more aggressive pathological behavior was not seen when compared with tumors from non-photosensitive patients. The disease-free interval was lower in photosensitive patients, as expected.

  18. Highly active antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors does not confer a unique CD4 cell benefit. The AVANTI and INCAS Study Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-07

    To determine if triple combination therapy, particularly including HIV protease inhibitors (PI), confers an unique immunological benefit that is independent of reductions of plasma viral load (pVL). The correlation between changes from baseline in CD4 cell count and pVL was examined at all time points up to 52 weeks in three randomized clinical trials (AVANTI-2, AVANTI-3 and INCAS) that compared dual nucleoside therapy with triple combination therapy. Individual pVL and CD4 cell counts changes from baseline were entered into multivariate linear regression models for patients receiving double therapy and for those receiving triple therapy including a PI and/or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and the null hypothesis was tested. After 52 weeks of therapy, the relationship between changes from baseline CD4 cell count and pVL was independent of whether patients were assigned double or triple therapy (P = 0.23 and 0.69 for intercept and slope, respectively), or whether patients were assigned triple therapy including a PI or triple therapy including an NNRTI (P = 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Less than 5% of patients ever had 'discordant' increases in both CD4 cell count and pVL compared with baseline, and this proportion was unrelated to the class of therapy used. 'Discordant' decreases from baseline in both parameters were observed in up to 35% of individuals. The correlation between pVL and CD4 cell count changes from baseline improved over time on therapy, regardless of the therapeutic regimen involved. The data provide no evidence for a CD4 cell count benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) unique to triple therapy or PI-containing regimens.

  19. Estimating the terrestrial N processes in subtropical mountainous forestry catchment through INCA-N: A case study in FuShan catchment, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Chang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Chang, Chung-Te; Shih, Yu-Ting; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2016-04-01

    The riverine DIN is a crucial indicator for eutrophication in river network. The riverine DIN export in Taiwan is featured by the extremely high yield, ~3800 kg-N km-2yr-1, nearly 20-fold than the global average, showing the interesting terrestrial N process yet rarely documented. In this study we collected the DIN samples in rainwater, soil water, and stream water in a mountainous forest watershed, FuShan experimental forest watershed 1 (WS1) which is a natural broadleaf forest without human activities. Based on the intensive observations, we applied the INCA-N to simulate the riverine DIN response and thus estimate the terrestrial N processes in a global synthesis. The result showed that both discharge and DIN yield were simulated well with the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.83 and 0.76 , respectively. Among all N processes, N uptake, mineralization, nitrification, denitrfication, and immobilization are significantly positive correlated with soil moisture (R2>0.99), which indicates that soil moisture greatly influences N cycle processes. The average rate of mineralization and nitrification in wet years are consistent with documented values, whereas the rates in dry years are lower than the observations. Despite the high nitrification rate, the secondary forest may uptake abundant N indicating the plant uptake, which responds for removing considerable nitrate, is a controlling factor in forest ecosystem. Our simulated denitrification rate falls between the documented rates of temperate forest and agricultural area, and that may be affected by the high N-deposition in Taiwan. Simulated in-stream denitrification rate is less than 10% of the rate in soil, and is a little lower than that in temperate forest. This preliminary simulation provides an insightful guide to establish the monitoring programme and improve the understanding of N cycle in subtropical.

  20. Evaluación de la actividad antifúngica del gel de Satureja brevicalyx Epling “Inca Muña” frente a Candida spp. de pacientes portadores de prótesis

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Andamayo, Diana Esmeralda

    2017-01-01

    Evalúa el efecto antifúngico de gel formulado con aceite esencial de Satureja brevicalyx Epling “Inca Muña” frente a Candida spp. de pacientes portadores de prótesis. Los pacientes fueron divididos en tres grupos: pacientes no portadores de prótesis, pacientes portadores de prótesis parcial removible metálica, pacientes portadores de prótesis total. A los pacientes no portadores se les recolectó muestras de saliva en frascos estériles y aquellos que portaban prótesis removible, se les solicit...

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN QUÍMICA DEL GRANO MOLIDO Y LA TORTA DE SOYA DESGRASADA (Glycine max, Merr; VAR. INCA SOY 24) QUE SE EMPLEAN EN EL MEDIO DE CULTIVO PARA Bradyrhizobium elkanii

    OpenAIRE

    Aida T. Rodríguez; María C. Nápoles; M. A. Ramírez; Yamilet Gutiérrez; Daimy Costales

    2004-01-01

    Algunos derivados de la soya se han utilizado como medio de cultivo para Bradyrhizobium, demostrándose su efecto positivo sobre la dinámica de crecimiento de estos microorganismos, así como su poder inductor sobre la expresión de los genes de nodulación. El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en el Departamento de Fisiología y Bioquímica Vegetal, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), donde se realizó la caracterización química del grano molido y la torta desgrasada de...

  2. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...

  3. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...... who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses...... admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). LIMITATIONS: Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts....

  4. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...

  5. Common problems affecting supranational attempts in Africa: an analytical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbayibo, Babatunde

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the colonial era, attempts have been made throughout the various regions of Africa at building supranational units chiefly for administrative and legal convenience. Examples of such attempts include the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the East African High Commission and the federations in former French West and Equatorial Africa, all of which were attempts at forging a supranational nation state. These experiments laid the foundation for further supranational initiatives in ...

  6. Sociodemographic profile, clinical factors, and mode of attempt in suicide attempters in consultation liaison psychiatry in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.

  7. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA Y TAFONOMÍA DEL PERÍODO TARDÍO-INCA EN PEÑAS COLORADAS, ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA (PUNA DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA/Zooarchaeology and taphonomy of the Late Period-INCA in Peñas Coloradas, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Puna of Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Guillermo Ortiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis integrado del conjunto arqueofaunístico, constituido por vertebrados e invertebrados, del sitio Peñas Coloradas 3-cumbre (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina. El sitio se localiza en la cumbre de un farallón de ignimbrita y está conformado por estructuras arquitectónicas asignadas a momentos Tardíos-Incas, algunas de las cuales han sido reutilizadas hasta principios del siglo XX. Con la finalidad de complementar los datos y reconstruir la historia tafonómica de los conjuntos faunísticos, se estudió el contexto sedimentario mediante métodos físico-químicos (textura; pH; determinación de albúmina, P y MO. Los materiales analizados brindaron datos sobre algunas de las actividades realizadas en las estructuras, el consumo de animales, temporalidad, estacionalidad de las ocupaciones, y sobre los procesos diagenéticos actuantes. La integración contextual de los datos materiales analizados y del emplazamiento del sitio y sus estructuras, nos permite inferir prácticas sociales diferenciadas entre las estructuras con cubierta y sin cubierta. Las primeras, se vinculan a depósitos de alimentos y manufacturas, mientras que las segundas se asocian con  prácticas residenciales, procesamiento y consumo de alimentos. Abstract In this paper, an integrated analysis of archaeofaunal data consisting of vertebrates and invertebrates of the Peñas Coloradas 3-summit (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina is conducted. The site is located at the top of an ignimbrite hill and is composed of architectural structures attributed to Late Inca times, some of which had been re-used until the early 20th century. In order to complement the data and reconstruct the taphonomic history of the faunal assemblages, we studied the sedimentary context by physicochemical methods (texture, pH, determination of albumin, P and MO. The material tested has provided data on some of the activities in the structures

  8. Elderly suicide attempters by self-poisoning in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo-Ra; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2011-08-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern. The elderly have the highest rate of suicide and they make more lethal suicide attempts and have fewer psychiatric interventions than young people. Furthermore, they have old-age specific psychosocial difficulties. The present study investigated psychosocial risk factors and characteristics of an index suicide attempt of the elderly suicide attempters. Subjects included 388 patients who were admitted to the emergency room following self-poisoning. Two age groups were defined: younger patients (aged less than 65 years) and older patients (aged over 65 years). Data including demographic factors, suicidal risk factors and information about the current suicide attempt were obtained from a retrospective chart review. The number of suicide attempters over the age of 65 years old was 57, and their mean age was 73.5 ± 7.5 years. The elderly patients had more underlying medical illnesses than the under-65 group (p suicide attempters had higher risk-rating scores (p suicide attempters had different psychosocial stressors such as physical illness and more lethal suicide attempts. Our study suggests the need for development of specific preventive strategies and management guidelines for the elderly suicide attempters.

  9. Chronotype differences in suicidal behavior and impulsivity among suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Atli, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat; Selvi, Fatih; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2011-03-01

    Morning- and evening-type individuals differ on a number of psychological and biological variables. There has been increasing interest in the relationship between chronotype and personality traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and chronotype in suicide attempters. Eighty-nine suicide attempters were included in the study, and systematic information on suicide attempts was recorded. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire was applied to determine chronotype, and attempter impulsivity was measured by the total score of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Significant differences between chronotype and impulsivity scores were found. Evening-type subjects reported significantly higher impulsivity scores than both neither- and morning-types. A significant association between chronotype and type of suicide attempt was detected. The largest proportion of violent suicide attempters were evening-type subjects. Violent suicide attempters also reported significantly higher impulsivity scores than nonviolent attempters. Previous studies have pointed out possible relations between eveningness and impulsivity. Current findings suggest that eveningness may be a risk factor for violent suicide attempts by increasing impulsivity.

  10. Lifetime suicide attempts in juvenile assessment center youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Scott; McReynolds, Larkin S; DeComo, Robert E; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M; Wasserman, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    To describe suicide risk in youth seen at a Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC), we examined relationships among self-reported lifetime attempts and demographic, justice, and psychiatric data via logistic regression. Similar to other settings, youth reporting lifetime attempts were more likely to be older, female, not living with both parents and currently arrested for a violent or felony crime. Mood, substance use, and behavior disorder each increased prediction substantially. Anxiety Disorder was associated with elevated attempt rates for boys only. JACs need to develop protocols for identifying suicide risk; further, since suicide history predicts future attempts, Anxiety Disordered boys may be at particular risk.

  11. Organizational Culture and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  12. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. OBJECTIVE To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). RESULTS Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75–13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37–12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94–16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29–56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder

  13. [Factors related to suicide attempts in a Tunisian sample of patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, S; M'solly, M; Benhawala, S; Jones, Y; El-Hechmi, Z

    2013-02-01

    The mortality rate in schizophrenia is 4.5 times higher than in the general population. Suicide is one of the main causes of premature death in this affection. Life time prevalence of this behavior ranges from 10 to 15%, which represents a risk 20 to 50 times higher than in the general population. In addition, 40 to 93% of patients who committed suicide had attempted suicide previously. Thus, assessment of correlated variables with suicide attempts is a fundamental issue for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies in suicidal behavior. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic study has yet investigated suicide attempts in an Arabic Muslim population with schizophrenia, although many authors have demonstrated cultural differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables related to suicide attempts within many geographic areas around the world. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and characteristics of lifetime suicide attempts in Tunisian schizophrenic outpatients and to determine the correlated socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables. A total of 134 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who attended the outpatient department of the university psychiatric hospital of Tunis were included. The main demographic and lifetime clinical variables considered were: gender, marital status, family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, age at time of recruitment, age at onset of illness, duration of untreated psychosis defined as the interval between the onset of the illness and the first antipsychotic treatment, the type and dose of current treatment, dose of antipsychotic drugs converted to chlorpromazine equivalents, extrapyramidal side effects assessed with the Simpson Angus rating scale, number of hospitalizations, comorbid substance abuse, cigarette smoking, severity of psychopathology measured with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and history of at least one suicide attempt

  14. Classification of attempted suicide by cluster analysis: A study of 888 suicide attempters presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Bora; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, C Hyung Keun; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, Yong Min

    2018-08-01

    It is essential to understand the latent structure of the population of suicide attempters for effective suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups among Korean suicide attempters in terms of the details of the suicide attempt. A total of 888 people who attempted suicide and were subsequently treated in the emergency rooms of 17 medical centers between May and November of 2013 were included in the analysis. The variables assessed included demographic characteristics, clinical information, and details of the suicide attempt assessed by the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Cluster analysis was performed using the Ward method. Of the participants, 85.4% (n = 758) fell into a cluster characterized by less planning, low lethality methods, and ambivalence towards death ("impulsive"). The other cluster (n = 130) involved a more severe and well-planned attempt, used highly lethal methods, and took more precautions to avoid being interrupted ("planned"). The first cluster was dominated by women, while the second cluster was associated more with men, older age, and physical illness. We only included participants who visited the emergency department after their suicide attempt and had no missing values for SIS or C-SSRS. Cluster analysis extracted two distinct subgroups of Korean suicide attempters showing different patterns of suicidal behaviors. Understanding that a significant portion of suicide attempts occur impulsively calls for new prevention strategies tailored to differing subgroup profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  16. Three attempts to replicate the moral licensing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, I.; van de Ven, N.; Zeelenberg, M.; Meijers, Marijn H. C.

    2014-01-01

    The present work includes three attempts to replicate the moral licensing effect by Sachdeva, Iliev, and Medin (2009). The original authors found that writing about positive traits led to lower donations to charity and decreased cooperative behavior. The first two replication attempts (student

  17. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  18. Suicide Neurosis--A Study of Sixty Young Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; Johnson, Shelonitda

    Suicide and deviance are related because loss in social interaction is a consequence of deviance and an antecedent to suicide. This study examined the cognitive and affective experiences of suicidal individuals for evidence of neurosis. Sixty young attempted suicides with a history of a serious suicidal attempts attending the suicide prevention…

  19. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt: associations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, and cormorbid psychiatric disorders in post-conflict areas is still limited. Aim: We explored the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, associated psychiatric disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife ...

  20. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  1. Attempted - to -Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-18

    ARL-TN-0824 MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Attempted α- to β-Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling by...Laboratory Attempted α- to β-Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling by Steven W Dean, Rose A Pesce-Rodriguez, and Jennifer A Ciezak...

  2. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength : How many attempts are needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B.

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to

  3. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkol, Tonguç D; İslam, Serkan; Kırlı, Ebru; Pınarbaşı, Rasim; Özyıldırım, İlker

    2016-06-01

    To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two  hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Axis-I (SCID-I) in order to detect all possible psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Clinical predictors of suicide attempts were examined in attempters and non-attempters. The study design was retrospective. The lifetime suicide attempt rate for the entire sample was 19.2%. Suicide attempters with bipolar disorder had more lifetime comorbidity of eating disorder. Female gender and family history of mood disorder were significant predictors for suicide attempts. There was no difference between groups in terms of bipolar disorder subtype, onset age of bipolar disorder, total number of episodes, first and predominant episode type, suicide history in first degree relatives, severity of episodes, and hospitalization and being psychotic. Our study revealed that female gender, family history of mood disorder, and eating disorder are more frequent in bipolar patients with at least one suicide attempt.

  4. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Wientjes, H.J.F.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Backgroud: a prospective study was done to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in suicide attempters who took benzodiazepines (BZ) and to study the correlation with sedation. Method: in 43 patients, who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory perfomrance was tested on a

  5. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  6. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  7. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  8. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  9. Attempted suicide in Denmark. I. Some basic social characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W; Kolmos, L

    1985-01-01

    During a 6 months' period, 99 persons, randomly chosen among patients admitted for attempted suicide to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, were interviewed. This paper, which is the first in a series, deals with the theoretical and methodological background of the survey...... and the validity of the sample and also with some basic social characteristics of the suicide attempters. The majority of the suicide attempters were found to be single and many of them were living alone or alone with children. The sample could also be characterized by a low level of vocational education...... and by lack of association with the labour market. The suicide attempters could not, however, be unequivocally described as being in bad financial circumstances, neither were they solely from the lower social classes; the social status profile of the suicide attempters was closer to the status profile...

  10. Some psychological characteristics of adolescents hospitalized following a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraš, J S; Kolundžija, K; Dukić, O; Marković, J; Okanović, P; Stokin, B; Mitrović, D; Ivanović-Kovačević, S

    2013-02-01

    In most countries, suicide is second or third leading cause of death in youth. Suicidal tendencies among youth have been the subject of extensive research. Reports of increased rate of suicide attempts in the past few decades indicate that this phenomenon has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of adolescent suicide behavior by defining some specific psychological characteristics of adolescents who were hospitalized at the psychiatric ward because of the suicide attempt. 62 participants were assigned to two groups: clinical (adolescents who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt) and non-clinical (adolescents without psychiatric symptoms). They filled in a series of instruments: a questionnaire examining adolescents' demographic characteristics, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Youth Self Report. Compared to the non-clinical populaton adolescents attempting suicide had significantly more frequent suicidal thoughts (χ2 = 18.627, df = 1, p self-esteem (t = 4.23, p suicide attempt.  

  11. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. METHOD: The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all women...... in Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period, which extended from 1996 through 2013. Nationwide registers provided individually updated information about use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt......, suicide, and potential confounding variables. Psychiatric diagnoses or antidepressant use during the study period were considered potential mediators between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of suicide attempt. Adjusted hazard ratios for suicide attempt and suicide were estimated for users of hormonal...

  12. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...

  13. APROPIACIÓN INCA EN LA CORDILLERA DE CHILLA, SUROESTE DE LOS ANDES DEL ECUADOR: EL CASO DEL SITIO GUIÑAYZHU (Inca Appropriation in the Chilla Mountain Range, Southwest of the Andes of Ecuador: the Case of the Guiñayzhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jadán V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discuten los resultados del trabajo realizado en el sitio Guiñayzhu, al suroeste de los Andes del Ecuador. Esta investigación revela que el sitio, además de presentar evidencias de poblaciones locales, tiene colcas o qullcas para el almacenaje de productos, terrazas de pirca y caminos empedrados entre otras instalaciones. Se interpreta que Guiñayzhu es uno de los sitios de la cordillera de Chilla que refleja la expansión del incario y expresa una efectiva dominación de esta región como un enclave estratégico del imperio en su avance hacia el norte. ENGLISH: In this article, the results of research carried out in Guiñayzhu, located at the southwest of the Andes of Ecuador, are discussed. This work reveals that in addition to presenting evidence of local populations, the site has colcas or qullqas for the storage of products, terraces of pirca, and roads paved with stone, among other constructions. Guiñayzhu is interpreted as one of the sites of the Chilla mountain range that reflects the expansion of the Inca and expresses an effective domination of this region, representing a strategic enclave of the empire in its advance northward.

  14. Los capítulos primero y segundo del libro I de la Primera parte de los Comentarios Reales del Inca Garcilaso a la luz de la retórica grecolatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Pérez Custodio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer an example of the influence of ancient rhetoric in the first and second chapters of the first book of the Primera parte de los Comentarios reales by the Inca Garcilaso, where the author deals with several cosmographic and geographic topics under controversy, as it is usual in other chronicles of the Indies. In order to do it, the argumentative structure of these chapters is compared to the argumentative strategies contained in the thesis, the progymnasma used from the Antiquity to practice how to amplify a matter of debate. One of the variations of the thesis was the “theoretical thesis”, dealing with cosmographic issues closely related to the ones discussed by Garcilaso. The similarity between the argumentative strategies recommended in the thesis and the ones used in the two chapters analysed here suggest that the Inca took advantage of the resources provided by this training exercise. It also reinforces the idea that the Peruvian historian mastered the rhetorical technique, although he didn't received any academic education.

  15. Los capítulos primero y segundo del libro I de la Primera parte de los Comentarios Reales del Inca Garcilaso a la luz de la retórica grecolatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Custodio, Violeta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer an example of the influence of ancient rhetoric in the first and second chapters of the first book of the Primera parte de los Comentarios reales by the Inca Garcilaso, where the author deals with several cosmographic and geographic topics under controversy, as it is usual in other chronicles of the Indies. In order to do it, the argumentative structure of these chapters is compared to the argumentative strategies contained in the thesis, the progymnasma used from the Antiquity to practice how to amplify a matter of debate. One of the variations of the thesis was the “theoretical thesis”, dealing with cosmographic issues closely related to the ones discussed by Garcilaso. The similarity between the argumentative strategies recommended in the thesis and the ones used in the two chapters analysed here suggest that the Inca took advantage of the resources provided by this training exercise. It also reinforces the idea that the Peruvian historian mastered the rhetorical technique, although he didn't received any academic education

  16. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  17. Family Conflict – The Major Underlying Influence in Suicide Attempts in Northern Bihar, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Nair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempts in North India are generally underreported but have been considered to be rising. The number of admissions due to attempted suicide at Duncan Hospital, North Bihar, rose from 82 in 2007 to 419 in 2011.A structured interview and the WHO (World Health Organization Major (ICD-10 Depression Inventory were completed by 157 suicide-attempt survivors. Immediate relatives were also interviewed. Only 23% of patients came from India; 77% of patients came from Nepal. The highest incidence was in the age group 16-20 years. Females have higher rates in the 21-30 year age group (p=0.012, but after 30 years of age, the number of males becomes higher than the females (p=0.048; 81.5% of the respondents were below the age of 30 years.Pesticide poisoning was the major mode of attempted suicide (94.3%. Using the WHO Major (ICD-10 Depression Inventory, 28 of the participants suffered from depression (17.7%. Ninety people (56.9% admitted to previous thoughts of suicide, and nine (5.7% people had attempted suicide previously.Hindus made up 84.0% of the respondents. Almost 50% of respondents only carried out their religious rituals on an occasional basis or not at all. 70.2% had not completed education beyond primary school, and 49.7% earned less than Rs10,000 per month (US$200. Eighty percent of the participants stated conflicts with family members led to the attempted suicide. Relatives did not expect the attempted suicide in 97.4% of cases. Knowledge of the suicide of a neighbour, friends, or relative influenced 77.0% of the participants to attempt suicide.Efforts to prevent suicide attempts and deaths need to be multifaceted. Banning the most poisonous pesticides and improving poison storage in the community must be encouraged. Prevention, early intervention and treatment all are required in a suicide prevention plan. The lack of psychiatrists necessitates that other professionals and trained non-professionals be utilised in the mental health team

  18. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  19. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Paula; Matthews, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26 o -27 o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  20. Geochemical studies of abyssal lavas recovered by DSRV Alvin from Eastern Galapagos Rift, Inca Transform, and Ecuador Rift: 2. Phase chemistry and crystallization history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfit, Michael R.; Fornari, Daniel J.

    1983-12-01

    A diverse suite of lavas recovered by DSRV Alvin from the eastern Galapagos rift and Inca transform includes mid-ocean ridge tholeiitic basalts (MORB), iron- and titanium-enriched basalts (FeTi basalts), and abyssal andesites. Rock types transitional in character (ferrobasalts and basaltic andesites) were also recovered. The most mafic glassy basalts contain plagioclase, augite, and olivine as near-liquidus phases, whereas in more fractionated basalts, pigeonite replaces olivine and iron-titanium oxides crystallize. Plagioclase crystallizes after pyroxenes and iron-titanium oxides in andesites, possibly due to increased water contents or cooling rates. Apatite phenocrysts are present in some andesitic glasses. Ovoid sulfide globules are also common in many lavas. Compositional variations of phenocrysts in glassy lavas reflect changes in magma chemistry, temperature of crystallization, and cooling rate. The overall chemical variations parallel the chemical evolution of the lava suite and are similar to those in other fractionated tholeiitic complexes. Elemental partitioning between plagioclase-, pyroxene-, and olivine-glass pairs suggests that equilibration occurred at low pressure in a rather restricted temperature range. Various geothermometers indicate that the most primitive MORB began to crystallize between 1150° and 1200°C with fo2 PH 2 o could have been as high as 1 kbar during andesite crystallization. Compositions of the lavas from the Galapagos rift follow the experimentally determined (1 atm-QFM) liquid line of descent. Least squares calculations for the major elements indicate that the entire suite of lavas can be produced by fractional crystallization of successive residual liquids from a MORB parent magma. FeTi basalts represent 30-65 cumulative weight percent crystallization of plagioclase, augite, and olivine. An additional 30-50% fractionation of pyroxenes, plagioclase, titanomagnetite, and possible apatite is required to generate andesite from Fe

  1. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  2. Patient-Identified Priorities Leading to Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulz, Niklaus; Hepp, Urs; Gosoniu, Dominic G; Grize, Leticia; Muheim, Flavio; Weiss, Mitchell G; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify patient-identified problems and triggers typically leading to attempted suicide. A representative sample of 66 adult patients was recruited from all clinical sites and psychiatrists who treat patients after attempted suicide in the Canton of Basel-City (Switzerland). Patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and interviewed with a local adaptation of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to study underlying problems and triggers of attempted suicide. Of the patients, 92.4% had at least one DSM-IV disorder, with depressive disorders being the most prevalent disorder. Although half (50.0%) of the patients identified a health problem, 71.2% identified an interpersonal conflict as underlying problem leading to the suicide attempt. Furthermore, an interpersonal conflict was identified as the trigger of the suicide attempt by more than half of the patients (54.5%). The study included German-speaking patients only. According to patients, interpersonal problems often amplify underlying psychiatric problems, leading to suicide attempts. Social and interpersonal stressors should be acknowledged with integrated clinical and social interventions to prevent suicidal behavior in patients and populations.

  3. Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Attempts in Bipolar Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Carballo, Juan J.; Moreno, Carmen; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with high rates of suicide attempt and completion. Substance use disorders (SUD) have been identified as potent risk factors for suicidal behavior in BD. However, little is known concerning differences between BD subtypes with regard to SUD as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. We studied previous suicidal behavior in adults with a major depressive episode in context of BD type I (BD-I; N=96) or BD type II (BD-II; N=42), with and without history of SUD. Logistic regressions assessed the association between SUD and suicide attempt history by BD type, and exploratory analyses examined the effects of other clinical characteristics on these relationships. SUD were associated with suicide attempt in BD-I but not BD-II, an effect not attributable to sample size differences. The higher suicide attempt rate associated with alcoholism in BD-I was mostly explained by higher aggression scores, and earlier age of BD onset increased the likelihood that alcohol use disorder would be associated with suicide attempt(s). The higher suicide attempt rate associated with other drug use disorders in BD-I was collectively explained by higher impulsivity, hostility, and aggression scores. The presence of both alcohol and drug use disorders increased odds of a history of suicide attempt in a multiplicative fashion: 97% of BD-I who had both comorbid drug and alcohol use disorders had made a suicide attempt. A critical next question is how to target SUD and aggressive traits for prevention of suicidal behavior in BD-I. PMID:18590916

  4. The patient suicide attempt – An ethical dilemma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jie

    2015-12-01

    Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.

  5. Ethnic Variations of Trajectories in Suicide Ideation and Attempt: From Middle School to High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jahun; Pike, Kenneth; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2018-02-14

    The purpose of this study was to compare patterns of suicide ideation and suicide attempt in three ethnic groups. We analyzed data from 463 students with ethnic backgrounds of African American (AA), Asian American (ASA), and European American (EA) for 6 years. The best fit model was a three-trajectory class model for all groups. The majority of adolescents belonged in the nonideators trajectory. The high level of ideation was found in the high ideators (4%), high-fluctuating ideators (8%), and high-decreasing ideators (4%) trajectory in AA, ASA, and EA, respectively. In the AA group, being a member of ideators was not a significant predictor of suicide attempt. In the ASA group, being a member of high-fluctuating ideators was a significant predictor. In the EA group, being a member of both ideators predicted suicide attempt. The timing of onset, patterns of change, and peak time in the ideators trajectories in the three ethnic groups were markedly different. The high level of attempts found in the ASA-AA group was not explained by having suicide ideation. Findings suggest the need for in-depth examination of suicide behaviors across ethnic groups and culturally adapted preventive efforts with distinct developmental timing for adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Somatic comorbidity and other factors related to suicide attempt among Polish methadone maintenance patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Kołodziejczyk, Iwona; Podgórska, Anna; Serafin, Piotr; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Blow, Frederic C.; Bohnert, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Fatal and non-fatal suicide attempts are far more common in opioid dependent individuals than in the general population. More research is needed to understand the specific risk factors for suicidal behaviors in this patient population, particularly outside of the U.S. and Western Europe. This study investigated the correlates of suicide attempts among Polish patients in methadone maintenance treatment and interpreted results in the context of findings from other countries. Methods The study was based on a sample of 240 individuals recruited from a methadone maintenance clinic in Poland. Participants were interviewed using standardized measures. Results Consistent with studies in other countries, sexual abuse, depression, alcohol dependence and impulsivity were associated with suicide attempt. Additionally, those patients with somatic comorbidity had an increase in odds (OR=2.6) of suicide attempt. Conclusion The results of our study suggest a potential benefit to treatment approaches that address somatic concerns of methadone maintenance patients. More research is needed to identify, assess and understand possible cultural and regional differences between opioid dependent populations to better tailor prevention strategies. PMID:26335004

  7. Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression and attempted suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality traits, brie' recurrent depression and attempted suicide. ... South African Medical Journal ... After 5 years, 205 respondents were traced to complete a follow-up questionnaire and, where possible, a personality assessment was ...

  8. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  9. The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profile analysis of attempted-suicide patients referred to Pelonomi ... The main precipitating factors included problematic relationships (55.4%), ... physical – 18.2%), low self-esteem/ worthlessness/hopelessness/humiliation (16.7%), and

  10. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchi, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle...

  11. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...

  12. [Life Experience following Suicide Attempt among Middle-aged Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to identify the meaning of life experience following suicide attempt among middle-aged men. A qualitative research design was adopted using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The participants were six middle-aged men who had attempted suicide at least one time. Data were collected in 2013 through in-depth interviews. Individual interviews were recorded; and literary, art works and phenomenological literature were searched to identify the meaning of the experience. The five essential themes of the life experience of middle-aged men who attempted suicide were 'Bitter reality confronted again', 'Anger buried deep inside', 'Broken family, inescapable fetters', 'Blocked relationships, closed world' and 'A step towards a new life'. The meaning of lived experience found in this study provides deep insight into the experience following suicide attempt in middle-aged men and crucial information to give directions to appropriate support and nursing interventions.

  13. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    KAUST Repository

    Kubiak, Jan J.; Khankhane, Premraj J.; Kleingeld, Pieter J.; Lima, Ana T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately

  14. Qualitative Research to study the attempted suicide of Tabasco´s young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela B. Martínez G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: this paper intends to give an account concerning the progress of a doctoral research with regards to suicidal attempts in young people along with their meanings. Methodology: qualitative research. It presents the theories which support my work (collective health, cultural studies, and youth sociology in the search of understanding how the hegemonic medical thinking has had an influence in the production of scientific knowledge about suicide. Results: there is a need to construct an overlook which may allow discovering the meanings that death, life, and life style may have for men and women with suicidal attempts. Discussion: It concludes with the presentation of the development that has taken this research with regard to the analysis interviews that give it origin.

  15. Attempts to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics through nitrifies addition and filler gradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yina; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Jinhe; Yan, Runxin

    2016-04-01

    Aquaponics has attracted worldwide attention in recent years and is considered as an alternative technology for conventional aquaculture. In this study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) were cultured in lab-scale aquaponics, and attempts were conducted to enhance its nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through two optimization methods, i.e., nitrifies addition (NA) and filler gradation (FG). Results showed that NA and FG could improve the NUE of aquaponics by 8.8 and 16.0%, respectively, compared with control. The total ammonia (TAN) and nitrite (NO2(-)) concentrations in NA and FG systems were maintained at relatively low level (TAN aquaponics also contributed to global warming. Although the two proposed attempts in this study caused more N2O emission, they made new breakthrough in improving the NUE of aquaponics.

  16. Characteristics of suicidal attempts among farmers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, farming as an industry is considered a high-risk occupation for suicides. Certain states in India like Karnataka have a suicide rate higher than the national average, and this is generally attributed to the farmers' suicide. Aims: The aim is to study the characteristics of suicidal attempts among the farmer community in South India, with special emphasis on gender differences, modes used, and the immediate precipitant causes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, case register-based, explorative-descriptive study of 426 consecutive medicolegal case files of patients whose stated occupation was farming and who were admitted as cases of deliberate self-harm or suicide attempt to a rural tertiary care hospital in rural South India. Results: Out of the 426 farmers who attempted suicide, majority were male (355, 83.3%, in the age group of 21–40 years (318, 75%, married (358, 84%, and belonging to lower socioeconomic status (268, 62.9%. About 54% of them had attempted suicide by consuming pesticides (230. Surprisingly, 183 (43% and 86 (20.2% reported the immediate precipitant as being relationship issues and marital conflict, respectively, and only 100 (23.5% attributed it to financial reasons. Females were significantly associated with a past history of suicidal attempt while males tended to abuse alcohol before an attempt more frequently. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning was the most common mode for attempting suicide among the farmers. Contrary to public perception and other studies, relationship, and marital issues, not financial reasons were found to be the most common immediate precipitant for the attempters in our study.

  17. Attempts to grow human noroviruses, a sapovirus, and a bovine norovirus in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoichiro Oka

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs and Sapoviruses (SaVs are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans. Currently, efficient cell culture systems have been established only for murine NoVs and porcine SaV Cowden strain. Establishment of an efficient in vitro cell culture system for other NoVs and SaVs remains challenging; however, human NoV (HuNoV replication in 3D cultured Caco-2 cells and a clone of Caco-2 cells, C2BBe1, human enteroids and in human B cells has been reported. In this study, we tested various cells and culture conditions to grow HuNoVs and a human SaV (HuSaV to test the possibility of the propagation in different cells and culture conditions. We also attempted to grow a bovine NoV (BoNoV in ex vivo organ cultures. We did not observe significant RNA level increases for HuSaV and BoNoV under our test conditions. HuNoV RNA levels increased to a maximum of ~600-fold in long-term Caco-2 cells that were cultured for 1-2 months in multi-well plates and inoculated with HuNoV-positive and bacteria-free human stool suspensions using serum-free medium supplemented with the bile acid, GCDCA. However, this positive result was inconsistent. Our results demonstrated that HuNoVs, BoNoV and HuSaV largely failed to grow in vitro under our test conditions. Our purpose is to share our findings with other researchers with the goal to develop efficient, reproducible simplified and cost-effective culture systems for human and animal NoVs and SaVs in the future.

  18. Systematic Literature Review of Attempted Suicide and Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ingeborg; Myhre Reigstad, Marte; Frisch Moe, Kristin; Grimholt, Tine K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Exposure to parental suicide attempt is associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes like lower educational performance, drug abuse and delinquent behavior. When a patient is hospitalized after a suicide attempt, this presents a unique opportunity to identify whether the patient has children, and thereby provide adequate follow-up for both the parent/patient and their children. The objective of this paper was to review the existing literature on follow-up measures for children subjected to parental suicide attempt. Methods: In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, we conducted a systematic literature search. Results: The search resulted in a total of 1275 article titles, of which all abstracts were screened. Out of these, 72 full text papers were read, and a final four articles were included. Three of the included papers described parts of the same study from an emergency department in The Hague, where a protocol was implemented for monitoring and referring children of parents attempting suicide. The fourth article described the association between maternal attempted suicide and risk of abuse or neglect of their children. Conclusions: The lack of research in this particular area is striking. The circumstances surrounding a parent’s suicide attempt call for appropriate familial care. PMID:29738447

  19. Characteristic Risk Factors Associated with Planned versus Impulsive Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeha; Lee, Kang-Sook; Kim, Dai Jin; Hong, Seung-Chul; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Wang, Sheng-Min; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-12-31

    The present study aimed to investigate predictors for planned suicide attempters. This study included 1,003 patients who attempted suicide and visited emergency department. They were divided into two groups, planned suicide attempters (SAs; n=133 [13.3%]) and impulsive SAs (n=870, [86.7%]), and the demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related to suicide, and psychiatric resources of the groups were compared. Major depressive disorder and substance use disorders were more common among planned SAs than among impulsive SAs. Additionally, the planned SAs were older, more likely to be divorced, separated or widowed, and more likely to have comorbid medical illnesses, severe depression, higher suicidality, and self-blaming tendencies than the impulsive SAs. Financial problems and physical illnesses were more common in planned SAs but interpersonal conflicts were more frequent in impulsive SAs. Planned SAs had fewer previous suicide attempts but these were more serious suicide attempts. The presence of the hope to die, a written will, and suicidal ideation of a repetitive, intense, and continuous nature were predictive of planned SAs. The present findings demonstrated that planned SAs had more severe psychopathology and medical illnesses than impulsive SAs. Therefore, screening for depression, substance use disorders, and suicidal plans among old and medically ill patients may be important for preventing suicide attempts.

  20. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh faraji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.

  1. Systematic Literature Review of Attempted Suicide and Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Lunde

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to parental suicide attempt is associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes like lower educational performance, drug abuse and delinquent behavior. When a patient is hospitalized after a suicide attempt, this presents a unique opportunity to identify whether the patient has children, and thereby provide adequate follow-up for both the parent/patient and their children. The objective of this paper was to review the existing literature on follow-up measures for children subjected to parental suicide attempt. Methods: In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement, we conducted a systematic literature search. Results: The search resulted in a total of 1275 article titles, of which all abstracts were screened. Out of these, 72 full text papers were read, and a final four articles were included. Three of the included papers described parts of the same study from an emergency department in The Hague, where a protocol was implemented for monitoring and referring children of parents attempting suicide. The fourth article described the association between maternal attempted suicide and risk of abuse or neglect of their children. Conclusions: The lack of research in this particular area is striking. The circumstances surrounding a parent’s suicide attempt call for appropriate familial care.

  2. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  3. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Flavian Clipa; Raluca Irina Clipa

    2009-01-01

    When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  4. 'Mystic fires of Tamaatea' : attempts to creatively rewrite New Zealand's cultural and tectonic past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.; Hulme, K.; McFadgen, B.

    2003-01-01

    'Mystic fires of Tamaatea' is the title given to a section of a book entitled 'Tsunami: the underrated hazard' written by Edward Bryant and published by Cambridge University Press in 2001. In it the author links New Zealand evidence for widespread forest destruction and Maori place-names and legends with the 15th century timing of an apparent Tunguska-type meteor impact in the South Island of New Zealand, Chinese, and Japanese meteor sightings, comets, and m ega - tsunamis in Australia. This paper critically reviews the lines of evidence used, and finds no evidence, either Maori or geological, for a 15th century meteor impact in New Zealand. In the book, all Maori place-names have been incorrectly translated, the radiocarbon chronology is incorrect, and there is no consideration of the numerous potential tsunami sources that were active in New Zealand in the 15th century. (author). 49 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Solar Cycle dependence of 5-55 keV Cassini/INCA energetic neutral atom (ENA) images of the Heliosheath and in situ Voyager/LECP ion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Dialynas, K.; Mitchell, D. G.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    The heliosheath has been identified as the most probable source of ENAs that INCA detects but its variability due to solar activity throughout the solar cycle (SC) has not been resolved to date. We show all-sky, 5-55 keV ENA H maps from the year 2003 to 2014 and compare the solar cycle variation of the ENAs in both the heliospheric nose (upstream) and anti-nose (downstream) directions with the > 30 keV ions measured within the heliosheath by the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) detector on Voyagers 1, 2 (V1, V2) where we measure protons in overlapping energy bands ~30-55 keV. We find that a) Toward the anti-nose direction the ENA-H intensities decline during SC23, i.e. after 2003 ENA intensities decreased by ~ x2 at all energies by the end of year 2011, ~1 year after the observed minimum in solar activity; b) This ENA decrease (5.2-55 keV) during 2009-2011 is consistent with the concurrent intensity decrease of the > 30 keV ions (by a factor of 2-3) observed in situ by V1 and V2 in the heliosheath; c) Toward the nose direction, minimum intensities in both INCA ENAs and the V2 ions at E > 28 keV occur during the year 2013, with a subsequent recovery from 2014 to date (by a factor of ~2 in the > 35 keV ENA data). These quantitative correlations between the decreases of INCA ENAs (in both the heliospheric nose and anti-nose directions) and the in situ V1 and V2 ion measurements (separated by > 130 AU) during the declining phase of SC23, along with their concurrent jointly shared recoveries at the onset of SC24, imply that: 1) the 5-55 keV ENAs are produced in the heliosheath (because their transit times over 100 AU are less than a few months at energies > 40 keV), thus proving that our ENA observations can provide the ground truth for constructing comprehensive global heliosphere models; 2) the global heliosheath responds promptly (within ~1-1.5 yrs) to outward-propagating solar wind changes throughout the solar cycle.

  6. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  7. Consumer and family experiences in the emergency department following a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerel, Julie; Currier, Glenn W; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-11-01

    To understand the separate experiences of consumers (patients) and family members in the Emergency Department (ED) following a suicide attempt. Separate anonymous surveys were created for two groups: 1) consumers (n = 465) who had made a suicide attempt and been to the ED, and 2) others (referred to here as family members; n = 254) who had a close friend or relative treated in an ED due to suicidal behavior. Surveys were available on the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) website (www.nami.org) for 2 months. Almost half of consumers were accompanied by a family member to the ED following their suicide attempt. Over half of consumers and family members felt that staff treated them with respect and addressed ethnic and cultural issues appropriately. However, fewer than 40% of consumers felt that staff listened to them, described the nature of treatments to them, or took their injury seriously. Family members were more likely than consumers to feel heard or to receive information about treatment. More than half of consumers and almost a third of family members felt directly punished or stigmatized by staff. Consumers and family members also reported negative experiences involving a perception of unprofessional staff behavior, feeling the suicide attempt was not taken seriously, and long wait times. Individuals who visited the NAMI website reported a range of negative experiences in EDs following visits for suicide attempts. The effects of these experiences on retention in care and subsequent self-injurious behavior are largely unexplored. A greater understanding of these effects may inform development of interventions to increase the satisfaction of consumers and their families and friends and improve outcomes that result from emergency care of suicidal patients and their families.

  8. Reward/Punishment reversal learning in older suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Clark, Luke; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Ichikawa, Naho; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin

    2010-06-01

    Suicide rates are high in old age, and the contribution of cognitive risk factors remains poorly understood. Suicide may be viewed as an outcome of an altered decision process. The authors hypothesized that impairment in reward/punishment-based learning, a component of affective decision making, is associated with attempted suicide in late-life depression. They expected that suicide attempters would discount past reward/punishment history, focusing excessively on the most recent rewards and punishments. The authors further hypothesized that this impairment could be dissociated from executive abilities, such as forward planning. The authors assessed reward/punishment-based learning using the probabilistic reversal learning task in 65 individuals age 60 and older: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, nonsuicidal depressed elderly, and nondepressed comparison subjects. The authors used a reinforcement learning computational model to decompose reward/punishment processing over time. The Stockings of Cambridge test served as a control measure of executive function. Suicide attempters but not suicide ideators showed impaired probabilistic reversal learning compared to both nonsuicidal depressed elderly and nondepressed comparison subjects, after controlling for effects of education, global cognitive function, and substance use. Model-based analyses revealed that suicide attempters discounted previous history to a higher degree relative to comparison subjects, basing their choice largely on reward/punishment received on the last trial. Groups did not differ in their performance on the Stockings of Cambridge test. Older suicide attempters display impaired reward/punishment-based learning. The authors propose a hypothesis that older suicide attempters make overly present-focused decisions, ignoring past experiences. Modification of this "myopia for the past" may have therapeutic potential.

  9. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  10. Some thoughts on practising physiotherapy in a multi-cultural country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jelsma

    2004-02-01

    issues, which arise from the multi-cultural nature of the society. This paper discusses the ethical theory of cultural relativism in an attempt to highlight the complexities of making moral judgements across cultural, ethnic and religious boundaries.

  11. The Association Between Positive Relationships with Adults and Suicide-Attempt Resilience in American Indian Youth in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Courtney A; Fullerton, Lynne; Green, Dan; Hall, Meryn; Peñaloza, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community. The language spoken at home was used as a proxy measure for cultural connectedness. Positive relationships with adults were negatively associated with the prevalence of past-year suicide attempts in bivariate analysis. However, language spoken at home was not associated with the prevalence of suicide attempts. Multivariate analysis showed that among girls, relationships with adults at home, at school, and in the community were independently associated with lower suicide-attempt prevalence. Among boys, only relationships with adults at home showed such an association. These results have important implications for the direction of future research about protective factors associated with AI/AN youth suicide risk as well as in the design of suicide intervention and prevention programs.

  12. South African Journal of Cultural History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Cultural History. ... attempt to change the Afrikaner's views of San rock art · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Two unknown music fragments in the Grey Collection of the South African Library, Cape Town ...

  13. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  14. Personality differences in early versus late suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Denzin, Sebastian; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael; Jabs, Burkhard

    2016-08-09

    Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late). We carried out structured interviews with these subjects addressing diagnosis (MINI), suicidality (Scale for suicide ideation), depression (HAMD-17), temperament and character inventory (TCI), and impulsivity (BIS-10). Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Our two groups did not differ significantly in sociodemographics or suicidality. However, patients in the SA early group were significantly more depressed (p impulsivity (p suicide attempt. Further investigations are necessary to verify our results, ideally in longitudinal studies with larger, carefully-described cohorts. It would be also clinically important to investigate the influence of therapeutic strategies on the variability of personality traits and their impact on suicidal behavior.

  15. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  16. Epidemiology of Suicide Attempts among Youth Transitioning to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P; Swartout, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for older adolescents and young adults. Although empirical literature has identified important risk factors of suicidal behavior, it is less understood if changes in risk factors correspond with changes in suicide risk. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed if there were different trajectories of suicidal behavior as youth transition into young adulthood and determined what time-varying risk factors predicted these trajectories. This study used four waves of data spanning approximately 13 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample included 9027 respondents who were 12-18 years old (M = 15.26; SD = 1.76) at Wave 1, 50% male, 17% Hispanic, and 58% White. The results indicated that 93.6% of the sample had a low likelihood for suicide attempts across time, 5.1% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide in adolescence but not young adulthood, and 1.3% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide during adolescence and adulthood. The likelihood of a suicide attempt corresponded with changes on depression, impulsivity, delinquency, alcohol problems, family and friend suicide history, and experience with partner violence. Determining how suicide risk changes as youth transition into young adulthood and what factors predict these changes can help prevent suicide. Interventions targeting these risk factors could lead to reductions in suicide attempts.

  17. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newl...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention.......In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... prescribed medicine for the parasuicide. It is concluded that the availability of psychological support and a more restrictive prescription of medicine could have a preventive effect on parasuicidal behaviour. Patients suffering from depression and pain have more often than other patients been in contact...

  18. TOURISM AND CULTURAL REVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George NICULESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the tourism and the cultural revival. Cultural change is a recurrent concern in tourism studies. Host societies frequently remodel their culture following the creation of a tourist resort. But, that does not necessarily imply an acculturating process, since what actually takes place is pragmatic cultural production work in response to the touristic demands that offer consolidated economic alternatives and livelihood. Culture change has been a concern in tourism anthropology studies ever since this field of research established itself, particularly concerning the changes host societies undergo. But that does not necessarily imply the phenomenon is to be analyzed exclusively under the focus of the acculturation paradigm, since researchers often come across the production of new cultural elements of a traditional character among host populations in their attempt to occupy new spaces from which to address the world. in fact, that applies to various social situations where local actors seek to display certain lifestyles and cultural traits in order to draw attention to their ethnic, regional, or national features. Therefore, the object of study no longer focuses on the gradual loss of local and cultural (or ethnic substance, but rather on the relative ethnicity triggered by and among translocal flows that may lead to the deliberate turnaround of different cultural aspects of the host populations. Based on those premises, this article deals with the investigation of a cultural change process, making use of the historic perspective that includes an analysis of the “strategies of cultural mobilization” activated by the social subjects that are constantly recreating themselves in the tourism areas.

  19. Creación del material didáctico escolar videográfico de animación para la enseñanza de la historia del período Inca en el Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Caisa Sangucho, Martha Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    En este proyecto de animación se hizo uso de las tecnologías de información y comunicación para crear un material didáctico escolar enfocado en la materia de Estudios Sociales con el fin de enseñar sobre la historia de los Incas en el territorio ecuatoriano, siendo un material educativo pero también entretenido para los niños y niñas con el objetivo de contribuir con la enseñanza aprendizaje a la captación y retención de conocimientos. Además, la investigación para la parte didáctica del proy...

  20. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (pdepression, and unwanted pregnancies. Many cases of suicide......BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...... profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  1. Suicide attempts, platelet monoamine oxidase and the average evoked response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Haier, R.J.; Murphy, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between suicides and suicide attempts and two biological measures, platelet monoamine oxidase levels (MAO) and average evoked response (AER) augmenting was examined in 79 off-medication psychiatric patients and in 68 college student volunteers chosen from the upper and lower deciles of MAO activity levels. In the patient sample, male individuals with low MAO and AER augmenting, a pattern previously associated with bipolar affective disorders, showed a significantly increased incidence of suicide attempts in comparison with either non-augmenting low MAO or high MAO patients. Within the normal volunteer group, all male low MAO probands with a family history of suicide or suicide attempts were AER augmenters themselves. Four completed suicides were found among relatives of low MAO probands whereas no high MAO proband had a relative who committed suicide. These findings suggest that the combination of low platelet MAO activity and AER augmenting may be associated with a possible genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. (author)

  2. [The prevalence of suicide attempts among children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewelina; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    Suicide is the act of a fatal outcome. People who think about suicide perceive death as a way to avoid problems. Suicide attempts by children and young people likely to arise from the fact that the identified single or co-occurring mental disorders. was to illustrate the suicide problem, which is increasingly frequent attempts to take their own life for children and youth. Its main objective is to determine the prevalence and determinants of suicide attempts made by young people. The study group consisted of patients Babinski Hospital in Lodz. The study included 18 patients, 9 boys and 9 girls. Research methodology is based on the stories of young patients diseases. In order to verify the prevalence of trial and / or thoughts, suicidal tendencies among children and adolescents, was used as a research,tool - a survey of its own design. The survey consists of 21 questions about basic information on the state of social, physical and mental patients. Subjective verification made disseminate ideas, trends and / or suicide attempts among children and adolescents in most reflects the actual collection of information gathered by various authors. Children coming from families reconstructed and largely incomplete exhibit suicidal behavior. The main risk factors indicating the attempt on his own life are mental disorders: depression and behavioral disorders. Family situation of young people: conflicts between the father and the mother, violence, physical / mental, has a significant effect on the risk of an attempt on his own life. Superficial self-mutilation, is the main way to make a suicide bombing.

  3. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willour, Virginia L.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela B.; Jancic, Dubravka; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Steele, Jo; Schweizer, Barbara; Goes, Fernando S.; Mondimore, Francis M.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Perlis, Roy H.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Huang, Jie; Kelsoe, John R.; Shilling, Paul D.; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W.; Craddock, Nicholas; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Schulze, Thomas G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. While attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11–12 and 6q25–26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1,201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1,497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. 2,507 SNPs with evidence for association at p<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (p= 5.07 × 10−8). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  4. Personality and attempted suicide. Analysis of anger, aggression and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegling, Ina; Olgiati, Paolo; Hartmann, Annette M; Calati, Raffaella; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, mortality from suicide being approximately 2%. Attempted suicide appears to be a major risk factor for suicide completion. Anger, aggression and impulsivity are personality traits associated with suicide attempt. In this study we analysed a part of a previously reported sample in order to test anger, impulsivity and temperament/character scales as predictors of aggression and self-aggression in suicide attempters and to compare anger- and aggression-related traits between impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts as well as between violent and non-violent suicide methods. One-hundred-eleven consecutively admitted inpatients with a lifetime history of attempted suicide were assessed for anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI), aggression (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression, FAF) and temperament/character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI). Higher aggression scores, as measured by FAF, were predicted by being male, meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder and having higher angry temperament scores as assessed by STAXI; low cooperativeness was also associated with aggression but not after controlling for STAXI scales. TCI dimensions associated with self-aggression were high harm avoidance, high impulsivity and low self-directedness; state anger, inwardly directed anger and inhibition of aggression were also predictors of self-aggression. In conclusion, impulsivity and harm avoidance have emerged as temperament dimensions independently associated with self-aggressive tendencies in personality. Such interactions could explain the correlation between temperament and suicidality but further research is needed. Anger and self-directedness appear to have some effects on suicide attempt.

  5. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  7. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  8. Suicide Attempts with Sodium Hipochlorid Injection: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Kavalci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A suicide attempt is a health problem affecting all age groups. Suicides are usually by medicine overdose, gun-shot injury and hanging. 35 year old male patient was brought to our emergency department by 112 EMS due to suicidal attempt. Approximately two hours before the story of both arms, by iv injection of sodium hipochlorid was learned that he wants to commit suicide. On physical examination, his right arm 3,5 cm in diameter and his left arm 3 cm diameter red color ecchymosis and edema was present. There was no evidence of sistemical pathological finding. The patient was discharged after 24 hours of observation.

  9. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 100 years ago, Haberlandt envisioned the concept of plant tissue culture and provided the groundwork for the cultivation of plant cells, tissues and organs in culture. Initially plant tissue cultures arose as a research tool and focused on attempts to culture and study the development of small, isolated cells and segments ...

  10. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  11. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  12. Attempts to revive Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 300-year-old human mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Eshetu; Zimhony, Oren; Greenblatt, Charles L; Koltunov, Viktoria; Zylber, María Inés; Vernon, Kim; Spigelman, Mark

    2008-06-01

    Environmental persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is subject to speculation. However, the reality that infected postmortem tissues can be a danger to pathologists and embalmers has worrisome implications. A few experimental studies have demonstrated the organism's ability to withstand exposure to embalming fluid and formalin. Recently, a failure was reported in an attempt to resuscitate an original isolate of Robert Koch to determine the lifetime of the tubercle bacillus. The present study also considers a historical approach to determine persistence under favorable environmental conditions. It asks whether acid-fast forms observed in tissues of 300-year-old Hungarian mummies can be resuscitated. Finding organisms before the advent of antibiotics and pasteurization may yield valuable genetic information. Using various media modifications, as well as guinea pig inoculation, an attempt was made to culture these tissues for M. tuberculosis. In addition, a resuscitation-promoting factor, known to increase colony counts in high G+C bacteria, was applied to the cultures. Although an occasional PCR-positive sample was detected, no colonies of M. tuberculosis were obtained. Our results may indicate that the life span of the tubercle bacillus is less than a few hundred years, even though in the short run it can survive harsh chemical treatment.

  13. Free Publishing Culture. Sustainable Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nanclares Escudero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the collective research on the possibilities for publishing production and distribution offered nowadays by the Free Culture scenario, we present here a mapping of symptoms in order to propose a transitory diagnostic of the question: Is it possible to generate an economically sustainable publishing model based on the uses and customs generated and provided by Free Culture? Data, intuitions, experiences and ideas attempt to back up our affirmative answer.

  14. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  15. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical ...

  16. Suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts in substance and gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Koh, Puay Kee; Yang, Yi; Ng, Andrew; Guo, Song; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam; Wong, Kim Eng

    2015-02-28

    Suicidality is more commonly reported among individuals with addictions relative to the general population, though data from Asian countries remain scarce. The medical records of 2187 Singaporean patients with drug (n=879), alcohol (n=754) or gambling (n=554) disorders entering an outpatient treatment service were examined to explore differences in suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts between substance and gambling addictions. The relationship between suicidality, co-morbidity and addiction severity were also examined. 25.0% reported thoughts of suicide in the past month, 11.8% had a suicide plan and 12.2% reported lifetime attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation (thoughts, and plan) but not lifetime attempts were significantly higher among gambling than substance use patients. Co-morbid (DSM-IV axis-1) disorders were found among 32.5%, 38% and 40% of those reporting thoughts, plan and lifetime attempts respectively. Addiction severity was higher and quality of life lower among those reporting suicidal behaviors. Logistic regression revealed co-morbidity, debt, gender (being female) and being a gambling patient as significant predictors of suicidal behaviors. The findings highlight the importance of screening for suicidality, even in the absence of co-morbidity, particularly among gambling disorder patients with debts. Suicide risk should be assessed periodically and referral to suicidal prevention interventions routinely offered to this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in a Slovenian High School Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2000-01-01

    In a study of Slovenian high school students (N=3,687) results show that those who had attempted suicide and those who had not differed in levels of self-esteem, emotional reaction to family problems, running away from home, and substance abuse. Differences in depression, suicide ideation, family suicide ideation, family suicide occurrence,…

  18. Suicidal ideations, plans and attempts in primary care: cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in primary health care system. Methods: we conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among ...

  19. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  20. Goal management as an attempt to evaluate nature conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews international approaches to evaluation research and attempts to apply this to the evaluation of the efficiency of environmental education campaigns in Southern Africa. It discusses the objectives of evaluation, looks into current practices in the evaluation of resident outdoor educational programmes in the ...

  1. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  2. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations and attempts among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multivariate logistic regression showed that smoking, past and present use of alcohol, use of marijuana, and engagement in prostitution, were associated with suicidal ideations and suicide attempts. Suicidal ideations were associated with having been physically beaten, robbed, and assaulted with a weapon; while a ...

  3. The Pretesting Effect: Do Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Kornell, Nate; Kao, Liche Sean

    2009-01-01

    Testing previously studied information enhances long-term memory, particularly when the information is successfully retrieved from memory. The authors examined the effect of unsuccessful retrieval attempts on learning. Participants in 5 experiments read an essay about vision. In the test condition, they were asked about embedded concepts before…

  4. An Attempt for an Emergent Scenario with Modified Chaplygin Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerji, Sudeshna; Chakraborty, Subenoy; Dutta, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The present work is an attempt for emergent universe scenario with modified Chaplygin gas. The universe is chosen as spatially flat FRW space-time with modified Chaplygin gas as the only cosmic substratum. It is found that emergent scenario is possible for some specific (unrealistic) choice of the parameters in the equation of state for modified Chaplygin gas.

  5. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  6. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  7. BULGARIA'S PLACE IN WORLD TOURISM (AN ATTEMPT TO POSITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Levkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to determine the place of Bulgaria in global tourism by using the indicators included in the report of the World Economic Forum in 2015. The positions of the country are compared with those of its main competitors in the Balkan region.

  8. [A phenomenological study of suicide attempts in elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Mi Young; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and essence of suicide for elderly people who had previously attempted suicide as an older person. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenology was used for analysis. The researchers carried out in-depth interviews, recordings and memos individually with four elders. The elders were individuals who had attempted suicide sometime in the past 5 yr. They were interviewed from 5 to 10 times using open-ended questions and a semi-structural format. Demographic data were also collected. The meaning of suicide before a suicide attempt in older people had four core components: conflict with family, powerlessness and despair in their life with a drop in self-esteem, using internal and external resources to resolve their troubles and awareness of imminent crisis. These results of this study will increase understanding of suicide in older people by defining their subjective experience of suicide attempts and applying grounded data in the development of programs that provide concrete intervention strategies to prevent suicide in elderly people.

  9. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Navajo Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines risk factors for adolescent suicide among Navajos by comparing survey responses of students having attempted suicide with those of other students. A history of mental health problems, alienation from family and community, and having a friend commit suicide put students at a higher risk for suicide. (CJS)

  10. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubiak, J.J.; Khankhane, P.J.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As

  11. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a

  12. Personality Traits as Prospective Predictors of Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Daversa, Maria T.; Gunderson, John G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine higher order personality factors of negative affectivity (NA) and disinhibition (DIS), as well as lower order facets of impulsivity, as prospective predictors of suicide attempts in a predominantly personality disordered (PD) sample. METHOD Data were analyzed from 701 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS) with available follow-up data for up to 7 years. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses was used to examine NA and DIS, and facets of impulsivity (e.g., urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, and sensation seeking), as prospective predictors of suicide attempts. RESULTS NA, DIS, and all facets of impulsivity except for sensation seeking were significant in univariate analyses. In multivariate models which included sex, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), course of major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders (SUD), only NA and lack of premeditation remained significant in predicting suicide attempts. Disinhibition and the remaining impulsivity facets were not significant. CONCLUSION Negative affectivity emerged as a stronger and more robust predictor of suicide attempts than disinhibition and impulsivity, and warrants greater attention in suicide risk assessment. Distinguishing between facets of impulsivity is important for clinical risk assessment. PMID:19298413

  13. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  14. Errors and clinical supervision of intubation attempts by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tracheal intubation is an essential skill for anaesthetists and other disciplines that require emergency establishment of a secure airway. Early attempts in patients often meet with failure. Existing publications focus mainly on trainees in emergency settings and highlight the role of experience in success; most ...

  15. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in elderly people - subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Grubits, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the subjective experiences of elderly people who show suicidal ideation and/or attempts at suicide, based on their own reports. We understand the concept of 'subjective' as referring to intra-psychic experience resulting from social, economic, relationship or biographical conditions. Although the subject is sparsely covered in the literature, it is important, because it is in the field of subjectivity that ideations of, and attempts at, suicide develop and occur until they become a concrete act. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews focusing on: social characterization, portrayal and mode of life, previous mental state, atmosphere of the attempt, effects on the health of the elderly person and family. Based on the analysis of the meanings that emerge, five empirical categories were generated: (1) subject's feeling of being in a non-place; (2) absence of acceptance of losses; (3) suffering due to ingratitude of family members; (4) feeling of uselessness of, and in, life; (5) re-signification of the situations that generate suicide-related conduct. The results point to a fundamental need to incorporate knowledge about the subjective processes into programs for prevention of suicide among the elderly who have ideation of, or attempts at, suicide.

  16. Interrogating globalization and culture in anthropological perspective the Indian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Sekh

    2012-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to examine and highlight the issues of cultural globalization and globalization of cultures with particular reference to India. To deal with these, I will discuss and analyze the concepts of globalization, cultural globalization and the nature of interrelation between global and local cultures in general and of India in particular. How the non-Indian global cultural elements are spreading among the Indians and how the Indian cultural elements are diffusing ov...

  17. The Effect of Organizational Culture on Employee Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jumana, Mariyam

    2016-01-01

    The study attempt to examines the impact of organizational cultures on employee job satisfaction. In this study four company with four different dominant cultures are explored. The sample includes, Company A a family business signifying clan culture, Company B Information Technology Company indicating adhocracy culture, Company C hardware franchise representing market culture and Company D an automobile company signifying hierarchy culture. Data was accumulated for the research through interv...

  18. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  19. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  20. Internal colonization, material culture and power in the Inka Empire

    OpenAIRE

    DeMarrais, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se emplean perspectivas de la teoría postcolonial para entender la “experiencia discrepante” del personal imperial y de las poblaciones sujetas dentro del Imperio inca. El análisis de la cultura material revela procesos –que incluyen la aculturación, la emulación, la cooptación y la hibridación– que resaltan las variadas relaciones de poder existentes entre el estado inca y los grupos locales. Dependiendo en gran parte de la amenaza y la coerción, la ideología inca fue reforz...

  1. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male. There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%, drug dependence or abuse (21.8%, psychoses (21.2%, depression (18.5%, and hypertension (14.2%. A total of 1,836 (18.1% veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years. The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1. Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22

  3. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  4. Cultural realities of being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Realities of Being offers a dialogue between academic activity and everyday lives by providing an interface between several perspectives on human conduct. Very often, academic pursuits are arcane and obscure for ordinary people, this book will attempt to disentangle these dialogues, lift...... fresh light on the everyday events presented in the text. Cultural Realities of Being will be essential reading for those studying Cross Cultural Psychology as well as those interested in social representation and identity......., lifting everyday discourse and providing a forum for advancing discussion and dialogue. Nandita Chaudhary, S. Anandalakshmy and Jaan Valsiner bring together contributors from the field of cultural psychology to consider how people living within social groups, regardless of how liberal, are guided...... of cultural psychology. The book builds upon rich cultural traditions present in India, and precisely because of this focus, the book has much larger implications and relevance to the field and aims to orient the academic reader from around the world to viewing India and Indian society as a valuable area...

  5. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.

  6. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  7. First Attempts at using Active Halo Control at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Joschka [CERN; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Garcia Morales, Hector [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Kotzian, Gerd [CERN; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina [CERN; Langner, Andy [CERN; Mereghetti, Alessio [CERN; Quaranta, Elena [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN; Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Tomás, Rogelio [CERN; Valentino, Gianluca [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN

    2016-06-01

    The beam halo population is a non-negligible factor for the performance of the LHC collimation system and the machine protection. In particular this could become crucial for aiming at stored beam energies of 700 MJ in the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) project, in order to avoid beam dumps caused by orbit jitter and to ensure safety during a crab cavity failure. Therefore several techniques to safely deplete the halo, i.e. active halo control, are under development. In a first attempt a novel way for safe halo depletion was tested with particle narrow-band excitation employing the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT). At an energy of 450 GeV a bunch selective beam tail scraping without affecting the core distribution was attempted. This paper presents the first measurement results, as well as a simple simulation to model the underlying dynamics.

  8. Suicide attempts among children and adolescents: partial or total injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Alexandra Gomes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to verify the records on file and the number of cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents who were attended by Emergency Care health professionals in the municipality of Matozinhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Documentary and descriptive research was conducted, the data for which was collected by means of an investigation of Outpatient Records from 2008 to 2010. Of the 73,000 files evaluated, those dealing with cases of attempted suicide among children and adolescents between the age of 3 and 18 years were selected. It was revealed that the health professionals, particularly physicians and nurses, fail to register the cases appropriately, invalidating information about the problem and potential prevention measures. The conclusion reached was that underreporting and the discrepancy of the diagnoses which were not duly referred to the competent agencies require rethinking and reviewing medical practices, and taking a systematic and careful look to address the individual as a complex whole.

  9. Novel psychoactive substance intoxication resulting in attempted murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard; Tuddenham, Laurence

    2014-07-01

    A man in his twenties who had no previous history of violence, snorted large quantities of two substances he identified as 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP), and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV); both are recognised as novel psychoactive substances, or commonly described in the media as "legal highs". He also inhaled butane gas. He experienced vivid hallucinations and developed bizarre ideas. During this state of mind he stabbed his father multiple times and was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He had a previous history of drug induced psychosis and although he had some slight residual symptoms before he consumed the substances, these were not considered relevant to his criminal liability at the time of the offence. The hallucinations caused by the use of these substances took six weeks to completely recede. He was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to four years in prison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  11. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  12. Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale predicts suicide in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Forslund, Kaj; Ahnemark, Ewa; Gustavsson, J Petter; Nordström, Peter; Asberg, Marie

    2010-08-01

    Both childhood trauma and violent behavior are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to construct and validate a clinical rating scale that could measure both the exposure to and the expression of violence in childhood and during adult life and to study the ability of the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) to predict ultimate suicide in suicide attempters. A total of 161 suicide attempters and 95 healthy volunteers were assessed with the KIVS measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). The Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), "Urge to act out hostility" subscale from the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), and the Early Experience Questionnaire (EEQ) were used for validation. All patients were followed up for cause of death and a minimum of 4 years from entering in the study. Five patients who committed suicide within 4 years had significantly higher scores in exposure to violence as a child, in expressed violent behavior as an adult, and in KIVS total score compared to survivors. Suicide attempters scored significantly higher compared to healthy volunteers in 3 of the 4 KIVS subscales. There were significant correlations between the subscales measuring exposure to and expression of violent behavior during the life cycle. BDHI, Urge to act out hostility, and EEQ validated the KIVS. Exposure to violence in childhood and violent behavior in adulthood are risk factors for completed suicide in suicide attempters. Behavioral dysregulation of aggression is important to assess in clinical work. The KIVS is a valuable new tool for case detection and long-term clinical suicide prevention. Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients

    OpenAIRE

    Berkol, Tongu? D.; ?slam, Serkan; K?rl?, Ebru; P?narba??, Rasim; ?zy?ld?r?m, ?lker

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition...

  14. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a preexisting psychiatric disorder. DESIGN We followed up a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individu...

  15. Attempted Suicide in a Pediatric Population, Alarming Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Jiménez Quenguan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the research process that led to the clinical characterization of cases of attempted suicide in the pediatric population treated at the Hospital Infantil Los Angeles in Pasto, between June 2005 and June 2011. Materials and Methods: 242 records were studied, from a perspective of the general — including clinical and legal — aspects, thus allowing a conceptualization of the term suicide. The description of certain signs and symptoms characteristic of those who have attempted suicide was essential in contributing to identify some possible causes for further understanding this phenomenon, based on the study of 15 variables. Results: The results evidence a progressive increase in the cases of attempted suicide in the pedriatic population, particularly in females, and between 13 and 16 years of age. Conclusion: This situation has developed to a problem that is very difficult to treat; for this reason, it is essential to continue researching, as well as to establish interdisciplinary groups of professionals who can address the problem and create relevant and comprehensive treatments regarding this phenomenon.

  16. Psychiatric analysis of suicide attempt subjects due to maxillofacial gunshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Serdar; Bozkurt, Ali; Durmus, Muzaffer; Deveci, Mustafa; Sengezer, Mustafa

    2006-11-01

    The studies of maxillofacial gunshot injuries mainly focused on evaluating the surgical interventions and physical outcomes of the procedures. In this study we aimed to analyze the pre- and post-injury psychiatric status of the patients with self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the face. This study is based on 12 subjects who attempted suicide resulting in extensive maxillofacial injuries using guns placed beneath their chins. The psychiatric evaluation was conducted by interview and using SCID-I, SCID-II, MMPI, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Suicide Probability Scale. Two subjects were healthy, 1 had bereavement, 6 had current and 5 had previous MDD (major depressive disorder), 2 had dysthymic disorder, 3 had alcohol abuse, 2 had drug abuse and 4 had antisocial personality disorder. The suicidal group was more socially introverted according to MMPI. According to Rosenberg self-esteem subscale, self esteem, the constancy of self respect and depressive mood subtests were statistically significant in the suicide group compared to the healthy controls (P suicide. The changes in the physical facial appearance after the suicide attempt caused impairment of self-esteem and the constancy of self-respect. Similar to other studies, none of our patients reattempted suicide and all tried to return to their pre-injury lifestyle and appeared to accommodate to the stigma of their physical deformities. Early diagnosis and treatment should be considered as a factor to reduce the risk for suicide attempt.

  17. EVALUATION OF SUICIDE ATTEMPT CASES ADMITTED TO EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2015-06-01

    Material and Methods: A total of 70 attempted suicide cases admitted to Emergency Department of Kahramanmaras Sutcu imam University Medical Faculty Hospital between 01.03.2012 and 01.03.2013 examined retrospectively. Results: Among the 70 patients included in the study, 26 (37.1% were male and 44 (62.9% were female with a mean age of 26.3+/-11.2 years. Of all, 10 (14.3% cases were reported to have one or more previous suicide attempts. Investigation of methods of suicide revealed that 64 (91.4% used medication or toxic substance ingestion, 5 (7.1% stabbing, and 1 (1.4% preferred hanging as suicide method. All of those of preferred stabbing as a means of suicide were males. Conclusion: In order to tackle suicidal attempts author suggests that collective preventive policies should be developed by local governments, non-governmental organizations and health care providers. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 102-105

  18. [Experiences of Individuals With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Quintero, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt. A qualitative study with a psychodynamic approach. In-depth interviews were conducted in order to explore thought processes, emotions, motivations and experiences that underlie and accompany the suicide attempt. Five women and 3 men were interviewed. The average age was 29 years. The exploration of subjective experiences in the present study showed that loneliness and psychic pain were linked to hopelessness, pessimism and discouragement. Also, the illusion of death represents an invitation to suicide attempt. It is important to consider the subjective assessment that patients with suicidal risk make of their depression and stressful life situations. Additionally, the concepts of loneliness and psychic pain have a leading role in the interaction between discourse and the experiences of the participants interviewed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents with Self-Reported Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tally

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the relative risk for suicide attempts (SA) among high-school students self-identifying with one or more disability classifications (nine); assesses the extent to which youth with disabilities are disproportionately vulnerable to risk factors that predict suicidal behavior among all adolescents; and explores whether disability status adds to risk for SA after accounting for a comprehensive set of known risk and protective factors for SA. Analyses using Wisconsin's 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment Survey data found that youth in each disability category were 3-9 times more likely to report suicide attempt(s) relative to peers, and the endorsement of multiple disabilities tripled the risk SA relative to youth reporting a single disability. Some disability sub-groups, including youth reporting autism spectrum disorder, hearing, and vision impairments reported surprisingly high rates of SA. While youth with disabilities reported disproportionate exposure to adversity in every life domain examined, similar to youth reporting SA, disability status added unique risk for suicidal behavior. This suggests that disability may be a 'fundamental cause' of suicidal behavior, a question that requires further investigation.

  20. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  1. Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD an attempt has been made to deliver a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge in tourism and leisure studies. The necessity of this attempt originates in: thegrowing cultural complexity in a globalising world. From a cross-cultural

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  3. [Neonatal palliative care and culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétrémieux, P; Mannoni, C

    2013-09-01

    The period of palliative care is a difficult time for parents and caregivers because they are all weakened by the proximity of death. First of all, because of religious and cultural differences, parents and families cannot easily express their beliefs or the rituals they are required to develop; second, this impossibility results in conflicts between the caregiver team and the family with consequences for both. Caregivers are concerned to allow the expression of religious beliefs and cultural demands because it is assumed that they may promote the work of mourning by relating the dead child to its family and roots. However, caregivers' fear not knowing the cultural context to which the family belongs and having inappropriate words or gestures, as sometimes families dare not, cannot, or do not wish to describe their cultural background. We attempt to differentiate what relates to culture and to religion and attempt to identify areas of potential disagreement between doctors, staff, and family. Everyone has to work with the parents to open a space of freedom that is not limited by cultural and religious assumptions. The appropriation of medical anthropology concepts allows caregivers to understand simply the obligations imposed on parents by their culture and/or their religion and open access to their wishes. Sometimes help from interpreters, mediators, ethnopsychologists, and religious representatives is needed to understand this reality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  5. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences.

  6. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cultural Sensitivity in English Language Teaching Materials

    OpenAIRE

    MEHMET, Sean Collin

    2008-01-01

    This expository paper will begin by uncovering and examining some lesser known, Western journal articles, ones that deal specifically with the issue of cultural sensitivity in language classrooms. This opening discussion will attempt to reveal that cultural sensitivity in teaching materials is by no means an issue limited solely to the Western world. After this, the discussion will focus on Edward Said's widely-known Culture and Imperialism. Said's monograph will be used as a springboard to e...

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of suicide attempters and ideators among acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørlie, Tore; Sørgaard, Knut W; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Bratlid, Trond; Rezvy, Grigory

    2015-08-04

    More knowledge about suicidality and suicide risk profiles in acute psychiatric hospital patients (both first-time and chronic patients) is needed. While numerous factors are associated with suicidality in such populations, these may differ across cultures. Better understanding of factors underlying suicide risk can be informed by cross-cultural studies, and can aid development of therapeutic and preventive measures. An explorative, cross-sectional cohort study was carried out. Acutely admitted patients at one psychiatric hospital in northwest Russia and two in northern Norway were included. At admission, demographic, clinical, and service use data were collected, in addition to an assessment of suicidal ideation and attempts, comprising five dichotomic questions. Data from 358 Norwegian and 465 Russian patients were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistics. Within each cohort, attempters and ideators were compared with patients not reporting any suicidality. The observed prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts was significantly higher in the Norwegian cohort than in the Russian cohort (χ(2) = 168.1, p suicidal ideators and attempters had more depressed moods, more personality disorders, and greater problems with alcohol/drugs, but fewer psychotic disorders, cognitive problems or overactivity than non-suicidal patients. Russian suicidal ideators and attempters were younger, more often unemployed, had more depressed mood and adjustment disorders, but had fewer psychotic disorders and less alcohol/drug use than the non-suicidal patients. Rates of suicidal ideation and non-fatal attempts in Norwegian patients were intermediate between those previously reported for patients admitted for the first time and those typical of chronic patients. However, the significantly lower rates of suicidal ideation and non-fatal attempts in our Russian cohort as compared with the Norwegian, contrasted with what might be expected in a region with much higher suicide

  9. Attempted suicide in Ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities.

  10. Suicidal attempts in psychiatric institutions: a report of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jiménez Genchi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 5% of suicides occur inside of the psychiatric institutions. This report describes two cases of suicide inside of a psychiatric hospital which illustrate, on one hand, the characteristics of suicidal risk among psychiatric inpatients, and on the other hand, the limitations, we may have, to prevent suicide. The rate of suicides inside psychiatric hospitals are explained by the very low presentation of this behavior, among patients and the poor specificity for suicidal risk, that may provide the clinical evaluation with standard clinical criteria . Nevertheless, hospitalization in psychiatric institutions avoids more suicide attempts and suicides than those are committed inside of them.

  11. A Suicide Attempt Using Zinc Phosphide (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Sumer Coskun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phosphide is a toxin that is added to wheat for use in rodent control and is the active ingredient of rodenticide. A 17 year-old male attempted suicide by drinking pesticide [Zinc PHOSPHIDE (Zn3P2] and was subsequently admitted to the emergency department: the patient’s general condition was poor, he was unconscious and vomiting, the skin had a garlic odor and advanced acidosis was present. The patient was treated symptomatically, followed by mechanical ventilation, and was transferred to a psychiatric clinic on the fifth day.

  12. An attempt to observe directly beauty particles in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Arnold, R.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musset, P.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Price, M.J.; Ramello, L.; Sletten, H.; Allasia, D.; Bisi, V.; Gamba, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Lavopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Baroni, G.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Liberto, S.; Manfredini, A.; Meddi, F.; Petrera, S.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Santonico, R.; Sebastiani, F.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Sacton, J.; Schorochoff, G.; Wickens, J.; Breslin, A.C.; Montwill, A.; O'Connor, A.; Davis, D.G.; Davis, D.H.; Downes, J.K.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Gjerpe, I.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Tasaka, S.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt at the direct observation of the cascade decay of beauty particles, produced by π - of 350 GeV/c leading to 3 muons or 4 muons in the final state, has been made in an emulsion/counter hybrid experiment at CERN. Under the assumption that the lifetime of beauty particles is of the order of 10 - 13 s the non-observation of any candidates provides an upper limit for beauty production of approx.=90 nb at the 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  13. The Concept of Culture and CulturalTransformation: Views of Malik Bennabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Berghout

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at contributing to an integrated understanding of Malik Bennabi's view of culture and cultural transformation. An attempt is made to analyze Bennabi's concepts and ideas that constitute the core of his study of culture and its dynamic civilizing function. The paper introduces Bennabi's understanding of culture as a project with a pivotal educational value. His cultural envisioning shows that ethics, aesthetics, practical reasoning and technical skills form the nucleus of any civilizational change. The paper highlights Bennabi's view that culture is an important social and educational agent of change that can restore the sense of efficacy and creativity to the Islamic society.

  14. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  15. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry.

  16. Psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in urban adolescents with suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, M B; Kaslow, N J; Abbate, M F; Cronan, S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in 121 African-American adolescents who attempted suicide. Group means suggested that these youths, when taken together, were not reporting significant psychological distress. However, after classifying the youths into three groups by level of depressive symptoms interesting findings emerged. Youth self-reports of depressive symptoms on the Children's Depression Inventory were associated with the presence of internalizing and externalizing disorders on the Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist, and with a maladaptive attributional style. Sixty-seven percent of participants classified their family types as maladaptive in terms of levels of cohesion and/or adaptability. In fact, the majority of adolescents and parents reported their families as disengaged. These findings are discussed from a culturally and developmentally sensitive framework which considers key demographic variables (race, socioeconomic status, age). Clinical implications are offered for individual and family interventions.

  17. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  18. Recherche chronologique sur la culture mochica du Pérou : datation de la tombe du Prêtre de Sipán par thermoluminescence (TL) et par radiocarbone

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, Céline; Vartanian, Emmanuel; Guibert, Pierre; Schvoerer, Max; Lévine, Daniel; Alva, Walter; Jungner, Hogne

    2007-01-01

    La culture mochica du Pérou et le site de Sipán : problématique chronologiqueDe l’importance des recherches chronologiques sur la culture mochica du PérouLa culture Moche, ou mochica, est sans doute l’une des plus brillantes de l’époque pré-Inca. Elle s’épanouit sur la côte nord du Pérou, parallèlement aux civilisations Paracas Nécropolis et Nasca, qui se développent sur la côte sud du pays. Elle marque l’apogée d’un art particulièrement raffiné qui se manifeste notamment à travers l’orfèvrer...

  19. Attempts to prepare an all-carbon indigoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Yildizhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First attempts are described to prepare a precursor for an all-carbon analog of indigo, the tetracyclic triene 4. Starting from indan-2-one (9 the α-methylene ketone 13 was prepared. Upon subjecting this compound to a McMurry coupling reaction, it dimerized to the bis-indene derivative 17, rather than providing the tetramethyl derivative of 4, the hydrocarbon 14. In a second approach, indan-1-one (18 was dimerized to the conjugated enedione 21 through the bis-1-indene dimer 19. All attempts to methylenate 21 failed, however. When 19 was treated with the Tebbe reagent, the dimer 23 was produced, presumably through a Cope reaction of the intermediately generated isomer 22. The bis-indene derivative 23 can be alkylated with 1,2-dibromoethane to produce a 1:1 mixture of the spiro compounds 24 and 25. Although 9 could be reductively dimerized to 30, the conversion of this olefin to 14 failed.

  20. ĐURO AUGUSTINOVIĆ'S ATTEMPT TO REFORM ORTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijas Baković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay depicts an attempt to reform ortography taken by a military doctor Đuro Augustinović through which he strived to unify the Southslavic people, especially the Croats and the Serbs. The potential movements that he was exposed to and that he was influenced by were stated in the essay, along with his persevere promotion of his own standpoint. Since his proposal appeared in amidst of Gaj's triumphant orto-graphical proposals, his ideas were not widely accepted. In the spirit of ongoing Panslavic movements Augustinović insisted on reconstruction of Latin script by introducing Cyrillic graphems (in opposition to Gaj's solutions which involved diacritic signs intending to unify in writing the two bigger nations. This equilization of Cyrillic and Latin script failed because both, the Croats and the Serbs had a deep-rooted tradition which prevented every intervention in its core. His untiring advocating of phonetical solutions in ortographical issues had a similar destiny. Therefore, Augustinović's attempt remained solely a testimony of an era without a true impact.