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Sample records for inbred population derived

  1. Registration of Wyandot × PI 567301B soybean recombinant inbred line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] mapping population (Reg. No., SNL MAP) consisting of 357 F7-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) in Wooster, OH. The population was ...

  2. Population genomics of the inbred Scandinavian wolf

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Olsson, Maria; Parker, Heidi G.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population represents one of the genetically most well characterized examples of a severely bottlenecked natural population (with only two founders), and of how the addition of new genetic material (one immigrant) can at least temporarily provide a “genetic rescue”. However, inbreeding depression has been observed in this population and in the absence of additional immigrants, its long-term viability is questioned. To study the effects of inbreeding and selection on geno...

  3. Population genomics of the inbred Scandinavian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Olsson, Maria; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-04-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population represents one of the genetically most well-characterized examples of a severely bottlenecked natural population (with only two founders), and of how the addition of new genetic material (one immigrant) can at least temporarily provide a 'genetic rescue'. However, inbreeding depression has been observed in this population and in the absence of additional immigrants, its long-term viability is questioned. To study the effects of inbreeding and selection on genomic diversity, we performed a genomic scan with approximately 250 microsatellite markers distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. We found linkage disequilibrium (LD) that extended up to distances of 50 Mb, exceeding that of most outbreeding species studied thus far. LD was particularly pronounced on the X chromosome. Overall levels of observed genomic heterozygosity did not deviate significantly from simulations based on known population history, giving no support for a general selection for heterozygotes. However, we found evidence supporting balancing selection at a number of loci and also evidence suggesting directional selection at other loci. For markers on chromosome 23, the signal of selection was particularly strong, indicating that purifying selection against deleterious alleles may have occurred even in this very small population. These data suggest that population genomics allows the exploration of the effects of neutral and non-neutral evolution on a finer scale than what has previously been possible.

  4. Affected sib pair tests in inbred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Weir, B S

    2004-11-01

    The affected-sib-pair (ASP) method for detecting linkage between a disease locus and marker loci was first established 50 years ago, and since then numerous modifications have been made. We modify two identity-by-state (IBS) test statistics of Lange (Lange, 1986a, 1986b) to allow for inbreeding in the population. We evaluate the power and false positive rates of the modified tests under three disease models, using simulated data. Before estimating false positive rates, we demonstrate that IBS tests are tests of both linkage and linkage disequilibrium between marker and disease loci. Therefore, the null hypothesis of IBS tests should be no linkage and no LD. When the population inbreeding coefficient is large, the false positive rates of Lange's tests become much larger than the nominal value, while those of our modified tests remain close to the nominal value. To estimate power with a controlled false positive rate, we choose the cutoff values based on simulated datasets under the null hypothesis, so that both Lange's tests and the modified tests generate same false positive rate. The powers of Lange's z-test and our modified z-test are very close and do not change much with increasing inbreeding. The power of the modified chi-square test also stays stable when the inbreeding coefficient increases. However, the power of Lange's chi-square test increases with increasing inbreeding, and is larger than that of our modified chi-square test for large inbreeding coefficients. The power is high under a recessive disease model for both Lange's tests and the modified tests, though the power is low for additive and dominant disease models. Allowing for inbreeding is therefore appropriate, at least for diseases known to be recessive.

  5. Inbreeding depression in maize populations and its effects on the obtention of promising inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclecio Domingos Garbuglio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding can potentially be used for the development of inbred lines containing alleles of interest, but the genetic causes that control inbreeding depression are not completely known, and there are few studies found in the literature. The present study aimed to obtain estimates of inbreeding depression for eight traits in seven tropical maize populations, analyze the effects of inbreeding over generations and environments, and predict the behavior of inbred lines in future generation S? through linear regression methods. It was found that regardless of the base population used, prediction values could vary when the model was based on only 2 generations of inbreeding due to the environmental component. The influence of the environment in this type of study could be reduced when considering 3 generations of inbreeding, allowing greater precision in predicting the phenotypes of inbred lines. The use of linear regression was effective for inbred line prediction for the different agronomic traits evaluated. The use of 3 levels of inbreeding minimizes the effects of the environmental component in inbred line prediction for grain yield. GO-S was the most promising population for inbred line extraction.

  6. The Genetic Basis of Plant Architecture in 10 Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingchun; Xu, Yuancheng; Li, Kun; Peng, Yong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Lin; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-10-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor affecting planting density and grain yield in maize ( Zea mays ). However, the genetic mechanisms underlying plant architecture in diverse genetic backgrounds have not been fully addressed. Here, we performed a large-scale phenotyping of 10 plant architecture-related traits and dissected the genetic loci controlling these traits in 10 recombinant inbred line populations derived from 14 diverse genetic backgrounds. Nearly 800 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with major and minor effects were identified as contributing to the phenotypic variation of plant architecture-related traits. Ninety-two percent of these QTLs were detected in only one population, confirming the diverse genetic backgrounds of the mapping populations and the prevalence of rare alleles in maize. The numbers and effects of QTLs are positively associated with the phenotypic variation in the population, which, in turn, correlates positively with parental phenotypic and genetic variations. A large proportion (38.5%) of QTLs was associated with at least two traits, suggestive of the frequent occurrence of pleiotropic loci or closely linked loci. Key developmental genes, which previously were shown to affect plant architecture in mutant studies, were found to colocalize with many QTLs. Five QTLs were further validated using the segregating populations developed from residual heterozygous lines present in the recombinant inbred line populations. Additionally, one new plant height QTL, qPH3 , has been fine-mapped to a 600-kb genomic region where three candidate genes are located. These results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling plant architecture and will benefit the selection of ideal plant architecture in maize breeding. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Soda, El M.; Kim, H.K.; Fritsche, S.; Jung, C.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

  8. Whole exome sequencing of wild-derived inbred strains of mice improves power to link phenotype and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peter L; Kopania, Emily; Keeble, Sara; Sarver, Brice A J; Larson, Erica; Orth, Annie; Belkhir, Khalid; Boursot, Pierre; Bonhomme, François; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D

    2017-10-01

    The house mouse is a powerful model to dissect the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, and serves as a model to study human diseases. Despite a wealth of discoveries, most classical laboratory strains have captured only a small fraction of genetic variation known to segregate in their wild progenitors, and existing strains are often related to each other in complex ways. Inbred strains of mice independently derived from natural populations have the potential to increase power in genetic studies with the addition of novel genetic variation. Here, we perform exome-enrichment and high-throughput sequencing (~8× coverage) of 26 wild-derived strains known in the mouse research community as the "Montpellier strains." We identified 1.46 million SNPs in our dataset, approximately 19% of which have not been detected from other inbred strains. This novel genetic variation is expected to contribute to phenotypic variation, as they include 18,496 nonsynonymous variants and 262 early stop codons. Simulations demonstrate that the higher density of genetic variation in the Montpellier strains provides increased power for quantitative genetic studies. Inasmuch as the power to connect genotype to phenotype depends on genetic variation, it is important to incorporate these additional genetic strains into future research programs.

  9. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus

  10. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov; Earl, Patricia L., E-mail: pearl@nih.gov

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  11. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  12. A new set of BXD recombinant inbred lines from advanced intercross populations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jing

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant inbred (RI strains are an important resource for mapping complex traits in many species. While large RI panels are available for Arabidopsis, maize, C. elegans, and Drosophila, mouse RI panels typically consist of fewer than 30 lines. This is a severe constraint on the power and precision of mapping efforts and greatly hampers analysis of epistatic interactions. Results In order to address these limitations and to provide the community with a more effective collaborative RI mapping panel we generated new BXD RI strains from two independent advanced intercrosses (AI between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 progenitor strains. Progeny were intercrossed for 9 to 14 generations before initiating inbreeding, which is still ongoing for some strains. Since this AI base population is highly recombinant, the 46 advanced recombinant inbred (ARI strains incorporate approximately twice as many recombinations as standard RI strains, a fraction of which are inevitably shared by descent. When combined with the existing BXD RI strains, the merged BXD strain set triples the number of previously available unique recombinations and quadruples the total number of recombinations in the BXD background. Conclusion The combined BXD strain set is the largest mouse RI mapping panel. It is a powerful tool for collaborative analysis of quantitative traits and gene function that will be especially useful to study variation in transcriptome and proteome data sets under multiple environments. Additional strains also extend the value of the extensive phenotypic characterization of the previously available strains. A final advantage of expanding the BXD strain set is that both progenitors have been sequenced, and approximately 1.8 million SNPs have been characterized. This provides unprecedented power in screening candidate genes and can reduce the effective length of QTL intervals. It also makes it possible to reverse standard mapping strategies and

  13. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  14. Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent Populations with the Collaborative Cross as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Xiong, Sican; Sun, Wei; Zou, Fei

    2018-02-02

    Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. In mice, the collaborative cross (CC) is one of the most popular MPP and is derived from eight genetically diverse inbred founder strains. The strategy of generating RI intercrosses (RIX) from MPP in general and from the CC in particular can produce a large number of completely reproducible heterozygote genomes that better represent the (outbred) human population. Since both maternal and paternal haplotypes of each RIX are readily available, RIX is a powerful resource for studying both standing genetic and epigenetic variations of complex traits, in particular, the parent-of-origin (PoO) effects, which are important contributors to many complex traits. Furthermore, most complex traits are affected by >1 genes, where multiple quantitative trait locus mapping could be more advantageous. In this paper, for MPP-RIX data but taking CC-RIX as a working example, we propose a general Bayesian variable selection procedure to simultaneously search for multiple genes with founder allelic effects and PoO effects. The proposed model respects the complex relationship among RIX samples, and the performance of the proposed method is examined by extensive simulations. Copyright © 2018 Liu et al.

  15. The little women of Loja--growth hormone-receptor deficiency in an inbred population of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, A L; Guevara Aguirre, J; Rosenfeld, R G; Fielder, P J

    1990-11-15

    Laron-type dwarfism, which is characterized by the clinical appearance of isolated growth hormone deficiency with elevated serum levels of growth hormone and decreased serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), has been described in approximately 50 patients. This condition is caused by a deficiency of the cellular receptor for growth hormone, and it is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, as indicated by an equal sex distribution and a high rate of consanguinity in affected families. We studied 20 patients (19 females and 1 male, 2 to 49 years of age), from an inbred Spanish population in southern Ecuador, who had the clinical features of Laron-type dwarfism. Seventeen patients were members of two large pedigrees. Among the 13 affected sibships, there were 19 affected and 24 unaffected female siblings and 1 affected and 21 unaffected male siblings. The patients' heights ranged from 10.0 to 6.7 SD below the normal mean height for age in the United States. In addition to the previously described features, 15 patients had limited elbow extensibility, all had blue scleras, affected adults had relatively short extremities, and all four affected women over 30 years of age had hip degeneration. Basal serum concentrations of growth hormone were elevated in all affected children (30 to 160 micrograms per liter) and normal to moderately elevated in the adults. The serum level of growth hormone-binding protein ranged from 1 to 30 percent of normal; IGF-I concentrations were low--less than or equal to 7 micrograms per liter in the children and less than or equal to 66 micrograms per liter in the adults (normal for Ecuadorean women, 98 to 238). Serum levels of IGF-II and growth hormone-dependent IGF-binding protein-3 were also low. We describe an inbred population with a high incidence of growth hormone-receptor deficiency resulting in a clinical picture resembling Laron-type dwarfism but differing principally in showing a marked predominance of affected

  16. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  17. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  18. Identification of quantitative trait Loci for resistance to southern leaf blight and days to anthesis in a maize recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint-Kurti, P J; Krakowsky, M D; Jines, M P; Robertson, L A; Molnár, T L; Goodman, M M; Holl, J B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines NC300 (resistant) and B104 (susceptible) was evaluated for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O and for days to anthesis in four environments (Clayton, NC, and Tifton, GA, in both 2004 and 2005). Entry mean and average genetic correlations between disease ratings in different environments were high (0.78 to 0.89 and 0.9, respectively) and the overall entry mean heritability for SLB resistance was 0.89. When weighted mean disease ratings were fitted to a model using multiple interval mapping, seven potential quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, the two strongest being on chromosomes 3 (bin 3.04) and 9 (bin 9.03-9.04). These QTL explained a combined 80% of the phenotypic variation for SLB resistance. Some time-point-specific SLB resistance QTL were also identified. There was no significant correlation between disease resistance and days to anthesis. Six putative QTL for time to anthesis were identified, none of which coincided with any SLB resistance QTL.

  19. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  20. Heritability and Components of Resistance to Cercospora zeae-maydis Derived from Maize Inbred VO613Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart G; Lipps, Patrick E; Pratt, Richard C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most important foliar diseases of maize. This study was undertaken to estimate heritability of C. zeae-maydis resistance and examine the relationship between previously identified resistance loci and certain components of resistance including incubation period, lesion number, and maximum lesion length. Partially inbred progenies arising from hybridization between maize inbred lines VO613Y (high level of partial resistance) and Pa405 (susceptible) were examined in Ohio and South Africa. Heritability estimates of resistance were calculated based on severity and incubation period values. The range of heritability estimates based on severity was broad, with values ranging from approximately 0.46 to 0.81 (mean = 0.59). Estimates of mean heritability for incubation period were lowest (0.18), indicating that this component would likely be unsuitable for selection of germ plasm intended for deployment in diverse regions. Length of GLS lesions was significantly affected by host genotype, with resistant genotypes having shorter lesions from one site in Ohio during two seasons. Genotype also had a significant effect on incubation period and lesion number; the lower values for these components also were associated with resistant genotypes. The combined action of these resistance components resulted in lower overall disease severity.

  1. Genome-Wide Search for Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Important Plant and Flower Traits in Petunia Using an Interspecific Recombinant Inbred Population of Petunia axillaris and Petunia exserta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Guo, Yufang; Yang, Qian; He, Yanhong; Fetouh, Mohammed; Warner, Ryan M; Deng, Zhanao

    2018-05-15

    A major bottleneck in plant breeding has been the much limited genetic base and much reduced genetic diversity in domesticated, cultivated germplasm. Identification and utilization of favorable gene loci or alleles from wild or progenitor species can serve as an effective approach to increasing genetic diversity and breaking this bottleneck in plant breeding. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wild or progenitor petunia species that can be used to improve important horticultural traits in garden petunia. An F 7 recombinant inbred population derived between Petunia axillaris and P. exserta was phenotyped for plant height, plant spread, plant size, flower counts, flower diameter, flower length, and days to anthesis, in Florida in two consecutive years. Transgressive segregation was observed for all seven traits in both years. The broad-sense heritability estimates for the traits ranged from 0.20 (days to anthesis) to 0.62 (flower length). A genome-wide genetic linkage map consisting 368 single nucleotide polymorphism bins and extending over 277 cM was searched to identify QTL for these traits. Nineteen QTL were identified and localized to five linkage groups. Eleven of the loci were identified consistently in both years; several loci explained up to 34.0% and 24.1% of the phenotypic variance for flower length and flower diameter, respectively. Multiple loci controlling different traits are co-localized in four intervals in four linkage groups. These intervals contain desirable alleles that can be introgressed into commercial petunia germplasm to expand the genetic base and improve plant performance and flower characteristics in petunia. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  3. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To estimate the genetic variability levels maintained by inbred lines selected for body weight and to compare them with a nonselected population from which the lines were derived, we calculated the per cent polymorphic loci (P) and marker diversity (MD) index from data on 43 putative loci of inter simple sequence repeats ...

  4. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  5. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Identification of candidate genes associated with cell wall digestibility and eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci analysis in a Flint × Flint maize recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-wall digestibility is the major target for improving the feeding value of forage maize. An understanding of the molecular basis for cell-wall digestibility is crucial towards breeding of highly digestible maize. Results 865 candidate ESTs for cell-wall digestibility were selected according to the analysis of expression profiles in 1 three sets of brown-midrib isogenic lines in the genetic background of inbreds 1332 (1332 and 1332 bm3, 5361 (5361 and 5361 bm3, and F2 (F2, F2 bm1, F2 bm2, and F2 bm3, 2 the contrasting extreme lines of FD (Flint × Dent, AS08 × AS 06, DD1 (Dent × Dent, AS11 × AS09, and DD2 (Dent × Dent, AS29 × AS30 mapping populations, and 3 two contrasting isogenic inbreds, AS20 and AS21. Out of those, 439 ESTs were assembled on our "Forage Quality Array", a small microarray specific for cell wall digestibility related experiments. Transcript profiles of 40 lines of a Flint × Flint population were monitored using the Forage Quality Array, which were contrasting for cell wall digestibility. Using t-tests (p Conclusion 102 candidate genes for cell-wall digestibility were validated by genetical genomics approach. Although the cDNA array highlights gene types (the tested gene and any close family members, trans-acting factors or metabolic bottlenecks seem to play the major role in controlling heritable variation of gene expression related to cell-wall digestibility, since no in silico mapped ESTs were in the same location as their own eQTL. Transcriptional variation was generally found to be oligogenic rather than monogenic inherited due to only 26% ESTs detected a single eQTL in the present study. One eQTL hotspot was co-localized with cell wall digestibility related QTL cluster on bins 3.05, implying that in this case the gene(s underlying QTL and eQTL are identical. As the field of genetical genomics develops, it is expected to significantly improve our knowledge about complex traits, such as cell

  7. Genetic structure analysis of a highly inbred captive population of the African antelope Addax nasomaculatus. Conservation and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E; Leizagoyen, C; Martínez, A M; González, S; Delgado, J V; Postiglioni, A

    2011-01-01

    The African antelope Addax nasomaculatus is a rare mammal at high risk of extinction, with no more than 300 individuals in the wild and 1,700 captive animals distributed in zoos around the world. In this work, we combine genetic data and genealogical information to assess the structure and genetic diversity of a captive population located at Parque Lecocq Zoo (N=27), originated from only two founders. We amplified 39 microsatellites previously described in other Artiodactyls but new to this species. Seventeen markers were polymorphic, with 2-4 alleles per locus (mean=2.71). Mean expected heterozygosity (He) per locus was between 0.050 (marker ETH3) and 0.650 (marker D5S2), with a global He of 0.43. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the population computed from pedigree records of all registered individuals (N=53) was 0.222. The mean coancestry of the population was 0.298 and F(IS) index was -0.108. These results reflect the importance of an adequate breeding management on a severely bottlenecked captive population, which would benefit by the incorporation of unrelated individuals. Thanks to the successful amplification of a large number of microsatellites commonly used in domestic bovids, this study will provide useful information for the management of this population and serve as future reference for similar studies in other captive populations of this species. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Índice baseado em RFLPs para seleção de linhagens visando sintéticos de milho RFLP marker index for selection of inbred lines aimed at synthetic maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauce Cristina Ricardo Rumin

    2001-06-01

    maize populations. It is based on field data and the RFLP genotypes of seed parents. Index usefulness was examined, considering its efficiency for generating synthetics with high QTL frequencies, in contrast with line selection based solely on topcross performance. Seed parents were genotyped for 157 RFLP marker loci with an average distance between loci of 15.30 cM. Sixty-eight S2 lines, stemming from an F2 population derived from a cross between two homozygous inbred lines, were topcrossed and evaluated in four locations in Iowa, USA, in 1996. From these 157 loci, 18 were identified as significantly associated with yield QTLs explaining 74.70 % of the genetic variance among topcross progenies. The proposed index included measures which are function of the per se line behaviour and the genetic complementarity between lines, and led to a diallel table homologue for all parental lines. These properties cannot be accomplished using only the topcross selection criterion. The index led to synthetic populations which are expected to be superior to the best synthetic population selected by topcross performance alone. However, this superiority is valid only for QTL regions covered by the markers used. This procedure allowed a useful monitoring of the genetic constitution of all possible synthetic populations.

  9. Quantitative trait loci underlying resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) in MD96-5722 by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line population of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Akond, M; Kassem, M A; Meksem, K; Kantartzi, S K

    2015-04-01

    The best way to protect yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] due to sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki, O'Donnel, Homma & Lattanzi), is the development and use of resistant lines. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to SDS help developing resistant soybean germplasm through molecular marker-assisted selection strategy. QTL for SDS presented herein are from a high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map of MD 96-5722 (a.k.a 'Monocacy') by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line using SoySNP6K Illumina Infinium BeadChip genotyping array. Ninety-four F 5:7 lines were evaluated for 2 years (2010 and 2011) at two locations (Carbondale and Valmeyer) in southern Illinois, USA to identify QTL controlling SDS resistance using disease index (DX). Composite interval mapping identified 19 SDS controlling QTL which were mapped on 11 separate linkage group (LG) or chromosomes (Chr) out of 20 LG or Chr of soybean genome. Many of these significant QTL identified in one environment/year were confirmed in another year or environment, which suggests a common genetic effects and modes of the pathogen. These new QTL are useful sources for SDS resistance studies in soybean breeding, complementing previously reported loci.

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance in a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Idrissi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 % and 28.9 % for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labour-intensive conventional breeding methods.

  11. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Callus induction capacity was highest in inbred lines IL3, IL15 and IL1. The. Varieties Hudiba-2 and ... Maize plant regeneration can take place through two avenues, that is ..... regenerants were tussel ear formation and dwarfism. These abnormalities are typical of tissue-cultured cells, plants derived from ...

  12. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  13. Cluster Analysis of Maize Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of diversity among inbred lines is important for heterosis breeding. Sixty maize inbred lines were evaluated for their eight agro morphological traits during winter season of 2011 to analyze their genetic diversity. Clustering was done by average linkage method. The inbred lines were grouped into six clusters. Inbred lines grouped into Clusters II had taller plants with maximum number of leaves. The cluster III was characterized with shorter plants with minimum number of leaves. The inbred lines categorized into cluster V had early flowering whereas the group into cluster VI had late flowering time. The inbred lines grouped into the cluster III were characterized by higher value of anthesis silking interval (ASI and those of cluster VI had lower value of ASI. These results showed that the inbred lines having widely divergent clusters can be utilized in hybrid breeding programme.

  14. Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daros Máskio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 families were obtained, which were then divided into six sets and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications within the sets. Experiments were carried out in two Brazilian localities. The analysis of variance revealed environmental effects for all evaluated traits, except popping and stand, showing that, for most traits, these environments affected genotype behavior in different ways. In addition, the set as source of variation was significant for most of the evaluated traits, indicating that dividing the families into sets was an efficient strategy. Genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for most traits, except popping expansion and stand. Differences among genotypes were also detected (1% F-test, making viable the proposition of using the genetic variability in the popcorn population as a basis for future recurrent selection cycles. Superior families were selected using the Smith and Hazel classic index, with predicted genetic gains of 17.8% for popping expansion and 26.95% for yield.

  15. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens and male sterile cytoplasm of chaisma frequency in pearl millet inbreds and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.B.; Singh, R.M.; Vijay Laxmi

    1977-01-01

    Chiasma frequency was recorded in normal and treated [10, 20, 30 Kr γ-rays, 0.2% ethyl methane-sulphonate (EMS) and 10 Kr γ-rays + 0.2% EMS] populations of 7 inbreds and 3 hybrids of pearl millet. Inbreds in general showed lower chiasma frequency than hybrids. However, inbred Bi13B showed the highest chiasma frequency. The male sterile cytoplasm reduced the chaisma frequency and increased the among-plant-variability in the inbreds and, therefore, possibly in the hybrids which had male sterile cytoplasm. γ-rays were more effective than EMS in reducing chiasma frequency. In most of the genotypes 10Kr γ-rays and 0.2% EMS promoted chiasma frequency. The combination treatments showed greater effect than γ-rays and EMS applied individually. Hybrids as a group, showed lower variation for chiasma number than inbreds in response to the mutagenic treatments. (author)

  16. Procedimento para escolha de populações de milho promissoras para extração de linhagens Procedure to select superior maize populations for inbred line extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAX WENDEL PAULA LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de um programa de melhoramento de milho visando à obtenção de híbridos está intimamente ligado à identificação da população mais promissora para a extração de linhagens. O presente trabalho objetivou identificar procedimentos para a escolha dessas populações. Para isso, foram obtidas populações segregantes S0, S1 e 196 famílias S0:1 de cada um dos quatro materiais comerciais avaliados: híbridos simples (C 333B e Z 8392, duplo (AG 1051 e variedade (BR-105. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na safra agrícola 98/99 em duas localidades na região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais: Lavras e Ijaci. Na avaliação das 196 famílias S0:1 de cada população foi empregado o delineamento látice simples 14 x 14. Adicionalmente foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, para avaliação simultânea das gerações F1, S0 e S1 A partir dos dados de produtividade de espigas despalhadas (kg por parcela das gerações F1, S0 e S1, foram obtidas as estimativas da contribuição dos locos em homozigose (m + a e em heterozigose (d. Foram também foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos com os experimentos das famílias S0:1. Constatou-se que houve boa associação (r = 0,81 entre a estimativa de (m + a e a média das famílias S0:1 e que população com maior potencial para a extração de linhagens, maior (m + a, foi a AG 1051. A correlação entre as estimativas de (d e h² foi baixa, indicando que a estimativa da contribuição dos locos em heterozigose não foi bom indicador da variabilidade potencial da população.The identification of the population with greatest potential for inbred line extraction is directly linked to the success of a maize hybrid breeding program. This study was carried out to identify procedures for selecting these populations. Segregant S0, S1 populations and 196 S0:1 families were obtained from each of four commercial cultivars assessed: single hybrids (C 333B and

  17. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  18. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain yield, yield .... mass selection followed by self-pollination for generating inbred lines. The inbred lines ... for the experiment was an alpha (0, 1) lattice (Patterson and Williams, 1996) with two replications at each ...

  19. QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaar, Wybe van der; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Léon-Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Ooijen, Johan W. van; Koornneef, Maarten

    1997-01-01

    The genetic differences for seed germination between two commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Ler and Col, both showing a low level of seed dormancy, were investigated. The analysis was performed with 98 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the two ecotypes, and

  20. Artificial induction of third-stage dispersal juveniles of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using newly established inbred lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru E Tanaka

    Full Text Available The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. This nematode has two developmental forms in its life cycle; i.e., the propagative and dispersal forms. The former is the form that builds up its population inside the host pine. The latter is specialized for transport by the vector. This form is separated into two dispersal stages (third and fourth; the third-stage dispersal juvenile (JIII is specialized for survival under unfavorable conditions, whereas the fourth-stage juvenile (JIV, which is induced by a chemical signal from the carrier Monochamus beetle, is transported to new host pines and invades them. Because of its importance in the disease cycle, molecular and chemical aspects of the JIV have been investigated, while the mechanism of JIII induction has not been sufficiently investigated. In an effort to clarify the JIII induction process, we established inbred lines of B. xylophilus and compared their biological features. We found that the total number of nematodes (propagation proportion was negatively correlated with the JIII emergence proportion, likely because nematode development was arrested at JIII; i.e., they could not develop to adults via the reproductive stage. In addition, JIII induction seemed to be regulated by a small number of genes because the JIII induction proportion varied among inbred lines despite the high homozygosity of the parental line. We also demonstrated that JIII can be artificially induced by the nematode's secreted substances. This is the first report of artificial induction of JIII in B. xylophilus. The dauer (dispersal juvenile of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans corresponds functionally to JIII of B. xylophilus, and this stage is known to be induced by a chemical signal referred to as daumone, derived from the nematodes' secretion. The artificial induction of JIII suggests the presence of daumone-like material in B. xylophilus.

  1. Identification of resistance to Maize rayado fino virus in maize inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is one of the most important virus diseases of maize in America. Severe yield losses, ranging from 10 to 50% in landraces to nearly 100% in contemporary cultivars, have been reported. Resistance has been reported in populations, but few inbred lines have been identifie...

  2. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations ... Both cluster and principal component analyses revealed two major groups ...... simulations. Theor ... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics.

  3. Analysis of the genetic diversity of super sweet corn inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W R; Sa, K J; Roy, N S; Choi, H-J; Lee, J K

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) markers for analyzing genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and population structure of 87 super sweet corn inbred lines from different origins. SSR markers showed higher average gene diversity and Shannon's information index than SSAP markers. To assess genetic relationships and characterize inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers, genetic similarity (GS) matrices were constructed. The dendrogram using SSR marker data showed a complex pattern with nine clusters and a GS of 53.0%. For SSAP markers, three clusters were observed with a GS of 50.8%. Results of combined marker data showed six clusters with 53.5% GS. To analyze the genetic population structure of SSR and SSAP marker data, the 87 inbred lines were divided into groups I, II, and admixed based on the membership probability threshold of 0.8. Using combined marker data, the population structure was K = 3 and was divided into groups I, II, III, and admixed. This study represents a comparative analysis of SSR and SSAP marker data for the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in super sweet corn inbred lines. Our results would be useful for maize-breeding programs in Korea.

  4. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Toropi wheat is conditioned by Lr78 and three minor QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, was noted to have long lasting leaf rust resistance that was effective only in adult plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the chromosome location of the leaf rust resistance genes derived from Toropi in two populations of recombinant inbred lines in a partial Thatcher wheat...

  5. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  6. Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than outbred individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Barnett, C A; Pettinger, A M; Weddle, C B; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2010-09-01

    Inbreeding is assumed to have negative effects on fitness, including the reduced ability to withstand immune challenges. We examined the immunological consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets from the outbred founder population. Surprisingly, crickets from inbred lines had a greater encapsulation ability compared with crickets from the outbred population. We suggest that because inbred crickets have reduced reproductive effort, they may, therefore, have the option of devoting more resources to this form of immunity than outbred individuals. We also found that both inbred and outbred females had higher immunity than males in PO activity and implant darkness. This result supports the hypothesis that females should devote more effort to somatic maintenance and immunity than males. PO activity and implant darkness were heritable in both males and females, but lytic activity was only heritable in females. Males and females differed in the heritability of, and genetic correlations among, immune traits, suggesting that differences in selective pressures on males and females may have resulted in a sexual conflict over optimal immune trait values.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the growth hormone (GH encoding gene in inbred and outbred domestic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyana Gencheva Hristova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the growth hormone (GH gene in rabbits is a candidate for meat production, understanding the genetic diversity and variation in this locus is of particular relevance. The present study comprised 86 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus divided into 3 groups: New Zealand White (NZW outbred rabbits; first-generation inbred rabbits (F1 and second-generation inbred rabbits (F2. They were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A 231 bp fragment of the polymorphic site of the GH gene was digested with Bsh1236 restriction enzyme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for the studied GH locus corresponding to 3 genotypes were detected in the studied rabbit populations: CC, CT and TT. In the synthetic inbred F1 and F2 populations, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype CT was 0.696 and 0.609, respectively, while for the homozygous CC genotype the frequency was lower (0.043 and 0.000, and respective values for the homozygous TT genotype were 0.261 and 0.391. This presumed a preponderance of the T allele (0.609 and 0.696 over the C allele (0.391 and 0.304 in these groups. In outbred rabbits, the allele frequencies were 0.613 (allele C and 0.387 (allele Т; consequently, the frequency of the homozygous CC genotype was higher than that of the homozygous TT genotype (0.300 vs. 0.075. Observed heterozygosity for the GH gene was higher than expected, and the result was therefore a negative inbreeding coefficient (Fis=–0.317 for outbred NZW rabbits; –0.460 for inbred F1 and –0.438 for inbred F2, indicating a sufficient number of heterozygous forms in all studied groups of rabbits. The application of narrow inbreeding by breeding full sibs in the synthetic population did not cause a rapid increase in homozygosity.

  8. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  9. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  11. Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D R; Goldsmith, M R

    2000-04-01

    Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor ? S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map ha...

  13. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrović Antun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  14. Calculating second derivatives of population growth rates for ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shyu, E.; Caswell, H.

    2014-01-01

    Second derivatives of the population growth rate measure the curvature of its response to demographic, physiological or environmental parameters. The second derivatives quantify the response of sensitivity results to perturbations, provide a classification of types of selection and provide one way

  15. Maize forage aptitude: Combining ability of inbred lines and stability of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Máximo Bertoia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of forage maize should combine improvement achieved for grain with the specific needs of forage hybrids. Production stability is important when maize is used for silage if the planting area is not in the ideal agronomic environment. The objectives of the present research were: (i to quantify environmental and genetic and their interaction effects on maize silage traits; (ii to identify possible heterotic groups for forage aptitude and suggest the formation of potential heterotic patterns, and (iii to identify suitable inbred line combinations for producing hybrids with forage aptitude. Forty-five hybrids derived from diallelic crosses (without reciprocals among ten inbred lines of maize were evaluated in this study. Combined ANOVA over environments showed differences between genotypes (G, environments (E, and their interactions (GEI. Heritability (H2, and genotypic and phenotypic correlations were estimated to evaluate the variation in and relationships between forage traits. Postdictive and predictive AMMI models were fitted to determine the importance of each source of variation, G, E, and GEI, and to select genotypes simultaneously on yield, quality and stability. A predominance of additive effects was found in the evaluated traits. The heterotic pattern Reid-BSSS × Argentine flint was confirmed for ear yield (EY and harvest index (HI. High and broad genetic variation was found for stover and whole plant traits. Some inbred lines had genes with differential breeding aptitude for ear and stover. Stover and ear yield should be the main breeding objectives in maize forage breeding.

  16. Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387

  17. Outcrossed sex allows a selfish gene to invade yeast populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, M R; Greig, D; Burt, A

    2001-12-22

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) in eukaryotes are optional genes that have no obvious effect on host phenotype except for causing chromosomes not containing a copy of the gene to be cut, thus causing them to be inherited at a greater than Mendelian rate via gene conversion. These genes are therefore expected to increase in frequency in outcrossed populations, but not in obligately selfed populations. In order to test this idea, we compared the dynamics of the VDE HEG in six replicate outcrossed and inbred populations of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). VDE increased in frequency from 0.21 to 0.55 in four outcrossed generations, but showed no change in frequency in the inbred populations. The absence of change in the inbred populations indicates that any effect of VDE on mitotic replication rates is less than 1%. The data from the outcrossed populations best fit a model in which 82% of individuals are derived from outcrossing and VDE is inherited by 74% of the meiotic products from heterozygotes (as compared with 50% for Mendelian genes). These results empirically demonstrate how a host mating system plays a key role in determining the population dynamics of a selfish gene.

  18. Outcrossed sex allows a selfish gene to invade yeast populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, M. R.; Greig, D.; Burt, A.

    2001-01-01

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) in eukaryotes are optional genes that have no obvious effect on host phenotype except for causing chromosomes not containing a copy of the gene to be cut, thus causing them to be inherited at a greater than Mendelian rate via gene conversion. These genes are therefore expected to increase in frequency in outcrossed populations, but not in obligately selfed populations. In order to test this idea, we compared the dynamics of the VDE HEG in six replicate outcrossed and inbred populations of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). VDE increased in frequency from 0.21 to 0.55 in four outcrossed generations, but showed no change in frequency in the inbred populations. The absence of change in the inbred populations indicates that any effect of VDE on mitotic replication rates is less than 1%. The data from the outcrossed populations best fit a model in which 82% of individuals are derived from outcrossing and VDE is inherited by 74% of the meiotic products from heterozygotes (as compared with 50% for Mendelian genes). These results empirically demonstrate how a host mating system plays a key role in determining the population dynamics of a selfish gene. PMID:11749707

  19. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  20. Niche-dependent development of functional neuronal networks from embryonic stem cell-derived neural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebler Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work was performed to investigate the ability of two different embryonic stem (ES cell-derived neural precursor populations to generate functional neuronal networks in vitro. The first ES cell-derived neural precursor population was cultivated as free-floating neural aggregates which are known to form a developmental niche comprising different types of neural cells, including neural precursor cells (NPCs, progenitor cells and even further matured cells. This niche provides by itself a variety of different growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins that influence the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor and progenitor cells. The second population was cultivated adherently in monolayer cultures to control most stringently the extracellular environment. This population comprises highly homogeneous NPCs which are supposed to represent an attractive way to provide well-defined neuronal progeny. However, the ability of these different ES cell-derived immature neural cell populations to generate functional neuronal networks has not been assessed so far. Results While both precursor populations were shown to differentiate into sufficient quantities of mature NeuN+ neurons that also express GABA or vesicular-glutamate-transporter-2 (vGlut2, only aggregate-derived neuronal populations exhibited a synchronously oscillating network activity 2–4 weeks after initiating the differentiation as detected by the microelectrode array technology. Neurons derived from homogeneous NPCs within monolayer cultures did merely show uncorrelated spiking activity even when differentiated for up to 12 weeks. We demonstrated that these neurons exhibited sparsely ramified neurites and an embryonic vGlut2 distribution suggesting an inhibited terminal neuronal maturation. In comparison, neurons derived from heterogeneous populations within neural aggregates appeared as fully mature with a dense neurite network and punctuated

  1. Development of CACTA transposon derived SCAR markers and their use in population structure analysis in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Neha Samir; Park, Kyong-Cheul; Lee, Sung-Il; Im, Min-Ji; Ramekar, Rahul Vasudeo; Kim, Nam-Soo

    2018-02-01

    Molecular marker technologies have proven to be an important breakthrough for genetic studies, construction of linkage maps and population genetics analysis. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute major fractions of repetitive sequences in plants and offer a wide range of possible areas to be explored as molecular markers. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker development provides us with a simple and time saving alternative approach for marker development. We employed the CACTA-TD to develop SCARs and then integrated them into linkage map and used them for population structure and genetic diversity analysis of corn inbred population. A total of 108 dominant SCAR markers were designed out of which, 32 were successfully integrated in to the linkage map of maize RIL population and the remaining were added to a physical map for references to check the distribution throughout all chromosomes. Moreover, 76 polymorphic SCARs were used for diversity analysis of corn accessions being used in Korean corn breeding program. The overall average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.34, expected heterozygosity was 0.324 and Shannon's information index was 0.491 with a percentage of polymorphism of 98.67%. Further analysis by associating with desirable traits may also provide some accurate trait specific tagged SCAR markers. TE linked SCARs can provide an added level of polymorphism as well as improved discriminating ability and therefore can be useful in further breeding programs to develop high yielding germplasm.

  2. Reproductive value, sensitivity, and nonlinearity: Population-management heuristics derived from classical demography

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten R.; Teismann H.; Vogels A.

    2013-01-01

    In classical demographic theory, reproductive value and stable age distribution are proportional to the sensitivities of the asymptotic population size to changes in mortality and maternity, respectively. In this note we point out that analogous relationships hold if the maternity function is allowed to depend on the population density. The relevant formulae can essentially be obtained by replacing the growth rate ("Lotka'sr") with zero. These facts may be used to derive heuristics for popula...

  3. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan AO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  4. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  5. Reproductive value, sensitivity, and nonlinearity: population-management heuristics derived from classical demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Richard; Teismann, Holger; Vogels, Angela

    2013-05-01

    In classical demographic theory, reproductive value and stable age distribution are proportional to the sensitivities of the asymptotic population size to changes in mortality and maternity, respectively. In this note we point out that analogous relationships hold if the maternity function is allowed to depend on the population density. The relevant formulae can essentially be obtained by replacing the growth rate ("Lotka's r") with zero. These facts may be used to derive heuristics for population management (pest control). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡

  7. Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Ryoichi; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Shiratori-Hayashi, Miho; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates spinal microglia that are necessary for neuropathic pain. Recent studies using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice have reported that after PNI, circulating BM-derived cells infiltrate into the spinal cord and differentiate into microglia-like cells. This raises the possibility that the population of spinal microglia after PNI may be heterogeneous. However, the infiltration of BM cells in the spinal cord remains controversial because of experimental adverse effects of strong irradiation used for generating BM chimeric mice. In this study, we evaluated the PNI-induced spinal infiltration of BM-derived cells not only by irradiation-induced myeloablation with various conditioning regimens, but also by parabiosis and mice with genetically labelled microglia, models without irradiation and BM transplantation. Results obtained from these independent approaches provide compelling evidence indicating little contribution of circulating BM-derived cells to the population of spinal microglia after PNI. PMID:27005516

  8. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between two RIL populations derived from Peking x 7605 under two ecological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchun; Guo, Na; Zhao, Jinming; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ran; Ding, Hui; Zhao, Weiguo; Gai, Junyi; Xing, Han

    2016-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a plant-parasitic nematode that feeds on the roots of soybean and most economically devastating pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most effective control method. To understand SCN resistance in different environments, two recombinant-inbred lines (RILs) populations NJ(RN)P7 (217 F 2:8:11 lines) and JN(RN)P7 (248 F 2:7:9 lines) were developed from the cross of the cultivars Peking x 7605 in Nanjing and Jinan, respectively, and examined in this study. Peking is resistant to SCN race 1 (HG types 2.5.7), while 7605 is highly susceptible. Chi-square test of frequency distribution of families' female index (FI) showed that resistance to SCN was significantly different between NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. Three recessive genes conditioned the inheritance of resistance to SCN race 1 in both populations, but significant difference was detected for the mean of FI on two populations (DM= -16.68, P< 0.01). This indicated that natural selection may affect resistance to SCN. By analysing the variation of phenotype, the genetic structure of the two populations was determined to be different. The inheritance and variation of resistance were confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. For the two populations, 10 SSR markers showed polymorphism of resistant and susceptible DNA bulks. Some markers associated with the resistance of SCN races 1, 2, 3 and 5, and two markers, Satt163 and Satt309, reportedly related to rgh1 were detected both in NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. The results support the view that a disease acts as a selective force on plant resistance characteristics, which may alter the relative fitness of resistance alleles.

  9. Genealogical analyses in open populations: the case of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Molina, A; Goyache, F; Valera, M

    2009-10-01

    This research assesses the genetic composition of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds as an example to highlight the major shortcomings related to genealogical analyses in open populations and to propose approaches useful to deal with this task. The studbooks of three Spanish Arab (SA)-derived horse breeds, Spanish Anglo-Arab (dAA), Hispano-Arab (dHA) and Spanish Sport Horse (dSSH) and those of their parental breeds SA, Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Thoroughbred (TB), totalling 211 754 individuals, were available. The genealogies of the dAA, dHA and dSSH were analysed not only using the corresponding studbook (breed exclusive dataset) but also including the genealogies of the founders from parental breeds (completed dataset). Coancestry analyses revealed that the present SA-derived populations share more genes with the Arab than with the other parental breeds. Effective population size was computed by accounting for migration rates to obtain an equivalent closed-population effective size ((eq)N(e)) of 39.2 for the dAA, 56.3 for dHA and 114.1 for dSSH. The essayed methodologies were useful for characterising populations involving migration. The consequences of the management of the analysed breeds are discussed. The results emphasize the need to include the complete genealogies of the individuals to attain reliable genealogical parameters.

  10. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. HABSEED: a Simple Spatially Explicit Meta-Populations Model Using Remote Sensing Derived Habitat Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, B. W.; Guichard, F.; Seaquist, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    The HABSEED model uses remote sensing derived NPP as a surrogate for habitat quality as the driving mechanism for population growth and local seed dispersal. The model has been applied to the Sahel region of Africa. Results show that the functional response of plants to habitat quality alters population distribution. Plants more tolerant of medium quality habitat have greater distributions to the North while plants requiring only the best habitat are limited to the South. For all functional response types, increased seed production results in diminishing returns. Functional response types have been related to life history tradeoffs and r-K strategies based on the results. Results are compared to remote sensing derived vegetation land cover.

  12. Induced cytomictic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been used for improving oligogenic and polygenic characters, disease resistance and quantitative characters including yielding ability. The cytological stability of maize inbred lines is an important consideration in view of their extensive use in genetics and plant breeding research. Investigation in Zea mays L. confirms that the migration of chromosomes is a real event that cannot be misunderstood as an artifact produced by fixation or mechanical injuries. During present investigation, we found that out of six inbred lines of Zea mays L. viz. CM-135, CM-136, CM-137, CM-138, CM-142 and CM-213 at various treatment doses of gamma irradiations viz. 200, 400 and 600 Gy, some of the plants of inbred line CM- 138 at 200 Gy dose displayed characteristic cytoplasmic connections during all the stages of meiosis. Four plants from this treatment set were found to be engaged in a rare phenomenon reported as "Cytomixis". It elucidates that in inbred of Zea mays L., induced cytomixis through gamma rays treatment may be considered to be a possible source of production of aneuploid and polyploid gametes. This phenomenon may have several applications in Zea mays L. improvement in the sense of diversity and ever yield potential.

  13. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain ... variance revealed significant difference among the hybrids for all studied traits. General ... Guto LMS5, L15 x SC22 and L20 x TSC22) gave significantly higher grain yield advantage over the two standard ...

  14. Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their hybrids under normal and drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for most of the characters under study which indicates the presence of sufficient amount of variability offering ample scope for ...

  15. Substrains of Inbred Mice Differ in Their Physical Activity as a Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Coletti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies strengthen the belief that physical activity as a behavior has a genetic basis. Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. We found that only a minority of the population of one of these substrains, the BALB/c J, performs spontaneous physical activity. In addition, the runners of this substrain cover a significantly smaller distance than the average runners of two other substrains, namely, the BALB/c ByJ and the BALB/c AnNCrl. The latter shows a striking level of voluntary activity, with the average distance run/day reaching up to about 12 kilometers. These runners are not outstanders, but they represent the majority of the population, with important scientific and economic fallouts to be taken into account during experimental planning. Spontaneous activity persists in pathological conditions, such as cancer-associated cachexia. This important amount of physical activity results in a minor muscle adaptation to endurance exercise over a three-week period; indeed, only a nonsignificant increase in NADH transferase+ fibers occurs in this time frame.

  16. Field screening of experimental corn hybrids and inbred lines for multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Brown, Steve L; Lee, R Dewey; Coy, Anton E

    2007-10-01

    Identifying and using native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. In this study, 10 experimental corn, Zea mays L., hybrids and 10 inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern Coastal Plain region of the United States during 2004 and 2005. Ear-feeding insect damage was assessed at harvest by visual damage rating for the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and by the percentage of kernels damaged by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and stink bugs [combination of Euschistus servus (Say) and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)]. Among the eight inbred lines and two control populations examined, C3S1B73-5b was resistant to corn earworm, maize weevil, and stink bugs. In contrast, C3S1B73-4 was resistant to corn earworm and stink bugs, but not to maize weevil. In a similar manner, the corn hybrid S1W*CML343 was resistant to all three ear-feeding insects, whereas hybrid C3S1B73-3*Tx205 was resistant to corn earworm and maize weevil in both growing seasons, but susceptible to stink bugs in 2005. The silk-feeding bioassay showed that corn earworm developed better on corn silk than did fall armyworm. Among all phenotypic traits examined (i.e., corn ear size, husk extension, and husk tightness), only corn ear size was negatively correlated to corn earworm damage in the inbred lines examined, whereas only husk extension (i.e., coverage) was negatively correlated to both corn earworm and maize weevil damage on the experimental hybrids examined. Such information could be used to establish a baseline for developing agronomically elite corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

  17. Grouping and clustering of maize Lancaster germplasm inbreds according to the results of SNP-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Derkach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is the grouping and clustering of maize inbred lines based on the results of SNP-genotyping for the verification of a separate cluster of Lancaster germplasm inbred lines. As material for the study, we used 91 maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines, including 31 Lancaster germplasm lines and 60 inbred lines of other germplasms (23 Iodent inbreds, 15 Reid inbreds, 7 Lacon inbreds, 12 Mix inbreds and 3 exotic inbreds. The majority of the given inbred lines are included in the Dnipro breeding programme. The SNP-genotyping of these inbred lines was conducted using BDI-III panel of 384 SNP-markers developed by BioDiagnostics, Inc. (USA on the base of Illumina VeraCode Bead Plate. The SNP-markers of this panel are biallelic and are located on all 10 maize chromosomes. Their range of conductivity was >0.6. The SNP-analysis was made in completely automated regime on Illumina BeadStation equipment at BioDiagnostics, Inc. (USA. A principal component analysis was applied to group a general set of 91 inbreds according to allelic states of SNP-markers and to identify a cluster of Lancaster inbreds. The clustering and determining hierarchy in 31 Lancaster germplasm inbreds used quantitative cluster analysis. The share of monomorphic markers in the studied set of 91 inbred lines equaled 0.7%, and the share of dimorphic markers equaled 99.3%. Minor allele frequency (MAF > 0.2 was observed for 80.6% of dimorphic markers, the average index of shift of gene diversity equaled 0.2984, PIC on average reached 0.3144. The index of gene diversity of markers varied from 0.1701 to 0.1901, pairwise genetic distances between inbred lines ranged from 0.0316–0.8000, the frequencies of major alleles of SNP-markers were within 0.5085–0.9821, and the frequencies of minor alleles were within 0.0179–0.4915. The average homozygosity of inbred lines was 98.8%. The principal component analysis of SNP-distances confirmed the isolation of the Lancaster

  18. QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × ¤H. spontaneum¤ 41-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Backes, G.

    2003-01-01

    A genetic linkage map has been developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross 'Arta' x Hordeum spontaneum 41-1. One hundred and ninety four RILs, randomly chosen from a population of 494 RILs, were mapped with 189 markers including one morphological trait (btr = brittle rachis locus...

  19. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Huimin Dai; Lei Qian; Qing Tian; Lei Xiao; Xiaojun Tan; Hui Li; Lingjun Rao; Lixiazi He; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Zhenyu Zuo; Qiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types in the human body. Therefore, they are valuable in regenerative medicine, human developmental biology and drug discovery. A number of hESC lines have been derived from the Chinese population,but limited of them are available for research purposes. Here we report the derivation and characterization of two hESC lines derived from human blastocysts of Chinese origin. These hESCs express alkaline phosphatase and hESC-specific markers, including Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4,TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. They also have high levels of telomerase activity and normal karyotypes. These cells can form embryoid body in vitro and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vivo by teratoma formation. The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes.The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups.

  20. Evaluation of Spring Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghaddaszadeh-Ahrabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Wheat as a strategic agricultural products faces water deficiency in most areas of the country. Therefore, identification of the resistant varieties to drought stress is one of main aims for breeders. To assess effect of drought stress at heading on 72 spring wheat recombinant inbred lines derived from American Yecora Rojo (high yielder, dwarf and early maturity as paternal parent and Iranian No. 49 line (tall and late maturiting as maternal parent cross were studied. The experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the University of Tabriz using a randomized complete block design with two replications during 2009 growing season. Based on the results from combined analysis of variance significant difference was observed among lines for all of traits studied, except for harvest index, grain number per spike and days to heading. There was significant difference between normal and drought stress conditions. Since the interaction between line and conditions was insignificant for all traits, it does therefore, provide the possibility of comparing the lines without regard to irrigation levels. Based on the means of, the traits it was found that the lines 96, 122, 123 and 155 were superior. MP, GMP and STI indices were recognized to be suitable indices to identify superior lines. With respect to these indices, lines 96, 122, 123, 138, 149 and 155 were found superior as compared with remaining lines. Based on stepwise regression analysis of grain yield with other traits, respectively grain number per spike, number of spikes/m2 and 1000 kernel weight were inserted into final model as effective variables on grain yield, which made 81/9 percent of the grain yield variation. Path analysis of grain yield and related traits, based on stepwise regression, demonstrated the significant positive direct effect for grain number per spike, number of spikes/m2 and 1000 kernel weight on grain yield

  1. Potencial de híbridos simples de milho para extração de linhagens Potential of maize single hybrids to generate inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos simples comerciais de milho é uma das opções de populações para a extração de linhagens, porque são adaptados e provavelmente concentram alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis já fixados. Mesmo nos locos que estão segregando, a freqüência de alelos favoráveis é 0,5. Assim, a identificação de populações promissoras, derivadas de híbridos simples superiores, é uma boa estratégia para aumentar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. As populações derivadas dos híbridos simples comerciais AG9012 e C333 foram avaliadas com o objetivo de verificar o potencial dessas para extração de linhagens superiores, por meio das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, da estimativa de m+a e a metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976. Foram avaliadas 169 famílias S1 de cada população, durante a safra agrícola de 1999/2000, na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da UFLA, em Lavras - MG, em látice simples 13x13, sendo as parcelas constituídas por uma linha de 3 m. As características analisadas foram incidência de Phaeosphaeria maydis em duas épocas, altura de plantas, altura de espigas e produtividade de espigas despalhadas. Foi constatado que há possibilidade de se obterem linhagens com bom desempenho per se, sendo a população derivada do C333 a mais promissora, por associar resistência a Phaeosphaeria maydis e possuir média mais alta e maior probabilidade de obtenção de linhagens superiores. A metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976 mostrou-se mais informativa do que a estimativa de m+a para a escolha de populações, mas, quando possível, as duas podem ser utilizadas simultaneamente para auxiliar na decisão dos melhoristas.Populations derived from commercial single hybrids are one of the breeder options for inbred line extraction because of their adaptation and probable high frequency of loci with fixed favorable alleles. Even the segregating loci carry

  2. Nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity of RTCS gene in China elite maize inbred lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enying Zhang

    Full Text Available The maize RTCS gene, encoding a LOB domain transcription factor, plays important roles in the initiation of embryonic seminal and postembryonic shoot-borne root. In this study, the genomic sequences of this gene in 73 China elite inbred lines, including 63 lines from 5 temperate heteroric groups and 10 tropic germplasms, were obtained, and the nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity were detected. A total of 63 sequence variants, including 44 SNPs and 19 indels, were identified at this locus, and most of them were found to be located in the regions of UTR and intron. The coding region of this gene in all tested inbred lines carried 14 haplotypes, which encoding 7 deferring RTCS proteins. Analysis of the polymorphism sites revealed that at least 6 recombination events have occurred. Among all 6 groups tested, only the P heterotic group had a much lower nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and selection analysis also revealed that only this group was under strong negative selection. However, the set of Huangzaosi and its derived lines possessed a higher nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and no selection signal were identified.

  3. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxelaere, Michiel; Clements, Jason; Callaerts, Patrick; D'Hooge, Rudi; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  4. Correlation and path analysis on main agronomic traits of progeny from space mutation maize inbred lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caibo; Wu Zhangdong; Xu Wei; Rong Tingzhao; Cao Moju

    2013-01-01

    In order to discover and utilize the valuable resources from spaceflight mutagenesis maize offspring effectively, cross combinations derived from the offspring of three different maize inbred lines induced by space flight were made to investigate the yield and related agronomic traits under different environmental conditions. Correlation and path analysis indicated that the factors affecting the yield of combinations varied with different mutagenic materials and environmental effects with larger effect coming from environment. Therefore, different selection strategies should be chosen for different induced maize. For the 08-641 mutagenic material, the 100-kernel weight should be first considered to select while taking into account the number of rows per ear and kernels per row. For the RP125 mutagenic material, the kernels per row should be first selected, and then to select the 100-kernels weight and the number of rows per ear traits. For 18-599 mutagenic material, the 100-seed weight should be first selected, then the plant height, ear diameter, ear height, kernels rate and other traits should be selected in different environments. Combined with field resistance, plant types and other traits, excellent maize inbred lines with high yield potential from space mutagenesis offspring were selected. Thus study has obtained some breeding materials useful for further breeding purpose, and provide a reference method as how to use the spaceflight induced materials for for maize breeding. (authors)

  5. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boxelaere

    Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  6. Analysis of in vitro secretion profiles from adipose-derived cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaber Sinead P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue is an attractive source of cells for therapeutic purposes because of the ease of harvest and the high frequency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Whilst it is clear that MSCs have significant therapeutic potential via their ability to secrete immuno-modulatory and trophic cytokines, the therapeutic use of mixed cell populations from the adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF is becoming increasingly common. Methods In this study we have measured a panel of 27 cytokines and growth factors secreted by various combinations of human adipose-derived cell populations. These were 1. co-culture of freshly isolated SVF with adipocytes, 2. freshly isolated SVF cultured alone, 3. freshly isolated adipocytes alone and 4. adherent adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs at passage 2. In addition, we produced an ‘in silico’ dataset by combining the individual secretion profiles obtained from culturing the SVF with that of the adipocytes. This was compared to the secretion profile of co-cultured SVF and adipocytes. Two-tailed t-tests were performed on the secretion profiles obtained from the SVF, adipocytes, ADSCs and the ‘in silico’ dataset and compared to the secretion profiles obtained from the co-culture of the SVF with adipocytes. A p-value of  Results A co-culture of SVF and adipocytes results in a distinct secretion profile when compared to all other adipose-derived cell populations studied. This illustrates that cellular crosstalk during co-culture of the SVF with adipocytes modulates the production of cytokines by one or more cell types. No biologically relevant differences were detected in the proteomes of SVF cultured alone or co-cultured with adipocytes. Conclusions The use of mixed adipose cell populations does not appear to induce cellular stress and results in enhanced secretion profiles. Given the importance of secreted cytokines in cell therapy, the use of a mixed cell population such as the

  7. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  8. POPULATION EFFECTS ON THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION DERIVED FROM THE RED GIANT BRANCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata

    2015-01-01

    We have tested the reliability of the red giant branch (RGB) as a metallicity indicator accounting for observational errors as well as the complexity of star formation histories and chemical evolution histories observed in various stellar systems. We generate model color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) produced with a variety of evolutionary histories and compare the resultant metallicity estimates from the colors and magnitudes of RGB stars to the true input metallicities. We include realistic models for photometric errors and completeness in our synthetic CMDs. As expected, for simple simple stellar populations dominated by old stars, the RGB provides a very accurate estimate of the modular metallicity value for a population. An error in the age of a system targeted for this type of study may produce metallicity errors of a few tenths of a dex. The size of this metallicity error depends linearly on the age error, and we find this dependence to be stronger with more precise photometry. If the population has experienced any significant star formation within the last ∼6 Gyr, the metallicity estimates, [M/H], derived from the RGB may be in error by up to ∼0.5 dex. Perhaps the most important consideration for this technique is an accurate, independent estimate of the average age for the target stellar system, especially if it is probable that a significant fraction of the population formed less than ∼6 Gyr ago

  9. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Crocker, Alison F.; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Naab, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS 3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α dyn ≡ (M/L) stars /(M/L) Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α dyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α dyn -[α/Fe] and α dyn –Age correlations and no significant α dyn –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis

  10. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermid, Richard M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Alatalo, Katherine [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp- CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocker, Alison F. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krajnović, Davor [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: richard.mcdermid@mq.edu.au [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  11. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡ (M/L)stars/(M/L)Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of αdyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak αdyn-[α/Fe] and αdyn -Age correlations and no significant αdyn -[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  12. BXSB/long-lived is a recombinant inbred strain containing powerful disease suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Michelle E K; Gabriel, Luisa; Rose, S Jane; Rogers, Nicola J; Izui, Shozo; Morley, Bernard J

    2007-08-15

    The BXSB strain of recombinant inbred mice develops a spontaneous pathology that closely resembles the human disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Six non-MHC loci, Yaa, Bxs1-4, and Bxs6, have been linked to the development of aspects of the disease while a further locus, Bxs5, may be a BXSB-derived disease suppressor. Disease development is delayed in a substrain of BXSB, BXSB/MpJScr-long-lived (BXSB/ll). We compared the genetic derivation of BXSB/ll mice to the original strain, BXSB/MpJ, using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. These differences were clustered and included two regions known to be important in the disease-susceptibility of these mice, Bxs5 and 6, as well as regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, and 13. We compared BXSB/ll to >20 strains including the BXSB parental SB/Le and C57BL/6 strains. This revealed that BXSB/ll is a separate recombinant inbred line derived from SB/Le and C57BL/6, but distinctly different from BXSB, that most likely arose due to residual heterozygosity in the BXSB stock. Despite the continued presence of the powerful disease-susceptibility locus Bxs3, BXSB/ll mice do not develop disease. We propose that the disappearance of the disease phenotype in the BXSB/ll mice is due to the inheritance of one or more suppressor loci in the differentially inherited intervals between the BXSB/ll and BXSB strains.

  13. CD71(high) population represents primitive erythroblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruihua; Gong, Xueping; Wang, Libo; Wang, Pengxiang; Wang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The CD71/Ter119 combination has been widely used to reflect dynamic maturation of erythrocytes in vivo. However, because CD71 is expressed on all proliferating cells, it is unclear whether it can be utilized as an erythrocyte-specific marker during differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In this study, we revealed that a population expressing high level of CD71 (CD71(high)) during mouse ESC differentiation represented an in vitro counterpart of yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts (EryPs) isolated at 8.5days post coitum. In addition, these CD71(high) cells went through "maturational globin switching" and enucleated during terminal differentiation in vitro that were similar to the yolk sac-derived EryPs in vivo. We further demonstrated that the formation of CD71(high) population was regulated differentially by key factors including Scl, HoxB4, Eaf1, and Klf1. Taken together, our study provides a technical advance that allows efficient segregation of EryPs from differentiated ESCs in vitro for further understanding molecular regulation during primitive erythropoiesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Distinguishing plant population and variety with UAV-derived vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joseph; Balota, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Variety selection and seeding rate are two important choice that a peanut grower must make. High yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional input costs, while seeding rate often determines input cost a grower will incur from seed costs. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect that seeding rate has on different peanut varieties. With the advent of new UAV technology, we now have the possibility to use indices collected with the UAV to measure emergence, seeding rate, growth rate, and perhaps make yield predictions. This information could enable growers to make management decisions early in the season based on low plant populations due to poor emergence, and could be a useful tool for growers to use to estimate plant population and growth rate in order to help achieve desired crop stands. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) images were collected from a UAV platform starting two weeks after planting and continued weekly for the next six weeks. Ground NDVI was also collected each time aerial images were collected. Vegetation indices were derived from both the RGB and NIR images. Greener area (GGA- the proportion of green pixels with a hue angle from 80° to 120°) and a* (the average red/green color of the image) were derived from the RGB images while Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) was derived from NIR images. Aerial indices were successful in distinguishing seeding rates and determining emergence during the first few weeks after planting, but not later in the season. Meanwhile, these aerial indices are not an adequate predictor of yield in peanut at this point.

  15. The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

  16. Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M Shulman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95% documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6 and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6 and 5x10(4. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0 amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5. SIGNIFICANCE: VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of

  17. SNP frequency, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Oscar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of ancestral maize populations indicate that linkage disequilibrium tends to dissipate rapidly, sometimes within 100 bp. We set out to examine the linkage disequilibrium and diversity in maize elite inbred lines, which have been subject to population bottlenecks and intense selection by breeders. Such population events are expected to increase the amount of linkage disequilibrium, but reduce diversity. The results of this study will inform the design of genetic association studies. Results We examined the frequency and distribution of DNA polymorphisms at 18 maize genes in 36 maize inbreds, chosen to represent most of the genetic diversity in U.S. elite maize breeding pool. The frequency of nucleotide changes is high, on average one polymorphism per 31 bp in non-coding regions and 1 polymorphism per 124 bp in coding regions. Insertions and deletions are frequent in non-coding regions (1 per 85 bp, but rare in coding regions. A small number (2–8 of distinct and highly diverse haplotypes can be distinguished at all loci examined. Within genes, SNP loci comprising the haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium with each other. Conclusions No decline of linkage disequilibrium within a few hundred base pairs was found in the elite maize germplasm. This finding, as well as the small number of haplotypes, relative to neutral expectation, is consistent with the effects of breeding-induced bottlenecks and selection on the elite germplasm pool. The genetic distance between haplotypes is large, indicative of an ancient gene pool and of possible interspecific hybridization events in maize ancestry.

  18. The impact of maternally derived immunity on influenza A virus transmission in neonatal pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerson, Matt; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan E; Gramer, Marie R; Joo, Han Soo; Romagosa, Anna; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-07

    The commonality of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure and vaccination on swine farms in the United States ensures that the majority of neonatal pigs will have some degree of maternal immunity to IAV. The influence of maternal immunity on IAV transmission in neonatal pig populations will impact virus prevalence and infection dynamics across pig populations. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of maternally derived immunity on IAV transmission in an experimental setting. Neonatal pigs suckled colostrum and derived maternal (passive) immunity from sows in one of three treatment groups: (a) non-vaccinated control (CTRL) or vaccinated with (b) homologous (PASSV-HOM) or (c) heterologous (PASSV-HET) inactivated experimental IAV vaccines. Sentinel neonatal pigs derived from the groups above were challenged with IAV via direct contact with an experimentally infected pig (seeder pig) and monitored for IAV infection daily via nasal swab sampling. A susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) experimental model was used to obtain and estimate transmission parameters in each treatment group via a generalized linear model. All sentinel pigs in the CTRL (30/30) and PASSV-HET (30/30) groups were infected with IAV following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimates (95% confidence interval) were 10.4 (6.6-15.8) and 7.1 (4.2-11.3), respectively. In contrast, 1/20 sentinel pigs in the PASSV-HOM group was infected following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimate was significantly lower compared to the CTRL and PASSV-HET groups at 0.8 (0.1-3.7). Under the conditions of this study, IAV transmission was reduced in neonatal pigs with homologous maternal immunity compared to seronegative neonatal pigs and pigs with heterologous maternal immunity as defined in this study. This study provides estimates for IAV transmission in pigs with differing types of maternal immunity which may describe the influence of maternal immunity on

  19. Estimating the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol on stochastic population growth rate of fathead minnows: a population synthesis of empirically derived vital rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Urban freshwater streams in arid climates are wastewater effluent dominated ecosystems particularly impacted by bioactive chemicals including steroid estrogens that disrupt vertebrate reproduction. However, more understanding of the population and ecological consequences of exposure to wastewater effluent is needed. We used empirically derived vital rate estimates from a mesocosm study to develop a stochastic stage-structured population model and evaluated the effect of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the estrogen in human contraceptive pills, on fathead minnow Pimephales promelas stochastic population growth rate. Tested EE2 concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 10.9 ng L−1 and produced stochastic population growth rates (λ S ) below 1 at the lowest concentration, indicating potential for population decline. Declines in λ S compared to controls were evident in treatments that were lethal to adult males despite statistically insignificant effects on egg production and juvenile recruitment. In fact, results indicated that λ S was most sensitive to the survival of juveniles and female egg production. More broadly, our results document that population model results may differ even when empirically derived estimates of vital rates are similar among experimental treatments, and demonstrate how population models integrate and project the effects of stressors throughout the life cycle. Thus, stochastic population models can more effectively evaluate the ecological consequences of experimentally derived vital rates.

  20. Intrinsically active and pacemaker neurons in pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Sebastian; Jakab, Martin; Beyer, Felix; Gelfert, Renate; Couillard-Despres, Sébastien; Schnitzler, Alfons; Ritter, Markus; Aigner, Ludwig

    2014-03-11

    Neurons generated from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) self-organize into functional neuronal assemblies in vitro, generating synchronous network activities. Intriguingly, PSC-derived neuronal assemblies develop spontaneous activities that are independent of external stimulation, suggesting the presence of thus far undetected intrinsically active neurons (IANs). Here, by using mouse embryonic stem cells, we provide evidence for the existence of IANs in PSC-neuronal networks based on extracellular multielectrode array and intracellular patch-clamp recordings. IANs remain active after pharmacological inhibition of fast synaptic communication and possess intrinsic mechanisms required for autonomous neuronal activity. PSC-derived IANs are functionally integrated in PSC-neuronal populations, contribute to synchronous network bursting, and exhibit pacemaker properties. The intrinsic activity and pacemaker properties of the neuronal subpopulation identified herein may be particularly relevant for interventions involving transplantation of neural tissues. IANs may be a key element in the regulation of the functional activity of grafted as well as preexisting host neuronal networks.

  1. Enrichment of skin-derived neural precursor cells from dermal cell populations by altering culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Vahid; Gazor, Rohoullah; Nejatbakhsh, Reza; Negad Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    As stem cells play a critical role in tissue repair, their manipulation for being applied in regenerative medicine is of great importance. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) may be good candidates for use in cell-based therapy as the only neural stem cells which can be isolated from an accessible tissue, skin. Herein, we presented a simple protocol to enrich neural SKPs by monolayer adherent cultivation to prove the efficacy of this method. To enrich neural SKPs from dermal cell populations, we have found that a monolayer adherent cultivation helps to increase the numbers of neural precursor cells. Indeed, we have cultured dermal cells as monolayer under serum-supplemented (control) and serum-supplemented culture, followed by serum free cultivation (test) and compared. Finally, protein markers of SKPs were assessed and compared in both experimental groups and differentiation potential was evaluated in enriched culture. The cells of enriched culture concurrently expressed fibronectin, vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors as compared to control culture. In addition, they possessed a multipotential capacity to differentiate into neurogenic, glial, adipogenic, osteogenic and skeletal myogenic cell lineages. It was concluded that serum-free adherent culture reinforced by growth factors have been shown to be effective on proliferation of skin-derived neural precursor cells (skin-NPCs) and drive their selective and rapid expansion.

  2. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45(+) and CD45(-) skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvistgaard; Jensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    transcripts associated with endothelial cells, Notch signaling and myogenic precursors. By comparing the mRNA signatures of mSPs with those of adipose tissue-derived SP populations, a common endothelial component seemed to reside in both muscle and fat-derived SPCD45(-) entities. However, each SP subset......The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...... describe the isolation of adult mouse normal skeletal muscle residing SPCD45(+) and SPCD45(-) cells from a parent mononuclear muscle-derived cell (MDC) population. Relative quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) of 64 genes revealed that mSPCD45(-) compared with mSPCD45(+) was enriched for cells expressing...

  3. Pheno2Geno - High-throughput generation of genetic markers and maps from molecular phenotypes for crosses between inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Konrad; Li, Yang; van der Velde, Joeri K; Joosen, Ronny V L; Ligterink, Wilco; Jansen, Ritsert C; Arends, Danny

    2015-02-19

    Genetic markers and maps are instrumental in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in segregating populations. The resolution of QTL localization depends on the number of informative recombinations in the population and how well they are tagged by markers. Larger populations and denser marker maps are better for detecting and locating QTLs. Marker maps that are initially too sparse can be saturated or derived de novo from high-throughput omics data, (e.g. gene expression, protein or metabolite abundance). If these molecular phenotypes are affected by genetic variation due to a major QTL they will show a clear multimodal distribution. Using this information, phenotypes can be converted into genetic markers. The Pheno2Geno tool uses mixture modeling to select phenotypes and transform them into genetic markers suitable for construction and/or saturation of a genetic map. Pheno2Geno excludes candidate genetic markers that show evidence for multiple possibly epistatically interacting QTL and/or interaction with the environment, in order to provide a set of robust markers for follow-up QTL mapping. We demonstrate the use of Pheno2Geno on gene expression data of 370,000 probes in 148 A. thaliana recombinant inbred lines. Pheno2Geno is able to saturate the existing genetic map, decreasing the average distance between markers from 7.1 cM to 0.89 cM, close to the theoretical limit of 0.68 cM (with 148 individuals we expect a recombination every 100/148=0.68 cM); this pinpointed almost all of the informative recombinations in the population. The Pheno2Geno package makes use of genome-wide molecular profiling and provides a tool for high-throughput de novo map construction and saturation of existing genetic maps. Processing of the showcase dataset takes less than 30 minutes on an average desktop PC. Pheno2Geno improves QTL mapping results at no additional laboratory cost and with minimum computational effort. Its results are formatted for direct use in R/qtl, the leading R

  4. Astronaut Bone Medical Standards Derived from Finite Element (FE) Models of QCT Scans from Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Feiveson, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    This work was accomplished in support of the Finite Element [FE] Strength Task Group, NASA Johnson Space Center [JSC], Houston, TX. This group was charged with the task of developing rules for using finite-element [FE] bone-strength measures to construct operating bands for bone health that are relevant to astronauts following exposure to spaceflight. FE modeling is a computational tool used by engineers to estimate the failure loads of complex structures. Recently, some engineers have used this tool to characterize the failure loads of the hip in population studies that also monitored fracture outcomes. A Directed Research Task was authorized in July, 2012 to investigate FE data from these population studies to derive these proposed standards of bone health as a function of age and gender. The proposed standards make use of an FE-based index that integrates multiple contributors to bone strength, an expanded evaluation that is critical after an astronaut is exposed to spaceflight. The current index of bone health used by NASA is the measurement of areal BMD. There was a concern voiced by a research and clinical advisory panel that the sole use of areal BMD would be insufficient to fully evaluate the effects of spaceflight on the hip. Hence, NASA may not have a full understanding of fracture risk, both during and after a mission, and may be poorly estimating in-flight countermeasure efficacy. The FE Strength Task Group - composed of principal investigators of the aforementioned population studies and of FE modelers -donated some of its population QCT data to estimate of hip bone strength by FE modeling for this specific purpose. Consequently, Human Health Countermeasures [HHC] has compiled a dataset of FE hip strengths, generated by a single FE modeling approach, from human subjects (approx.1060) with ages covering the age range of the astronauts. The dataset has been analyzed to generate a set of FE strength cutoffs for the following scenarios: a) Qualify an

  5. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  6. A New Method for Deriving the Stellar Birth Function of Resolved Stellar Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, M.; Tchernyshyov, K.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color-magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. LIF-measurements on a low prassure RF-driven InBr lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, H.C.J.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiment has been carried out on a low pressure, capacitively coupled RF driven. Ar discharge with InBr as an additive. The intention is to find the density of the different states of InBr and the metastable states in particular. We measured the density profile

  8. Genetic Variation among the White-striped Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Comparison with a Trok Nong-derived Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Limohpasmanee, Wanitch; Kongratarpon, Titima; Thannarin, Thodsapol; Sungsinleart; Kwanpisut

    2011-06-01

    Full text: A white-striped strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) had been developed for the fruit fly population control using the radiation-induced sterile insect technique (SIT). This report aimed at elucidating the inheritance of the white-striped phenotype and the genetic differences between the white-striped strain and the strain derived from Trok Nong sub district, Khlung district, Chantaburi. The white-striped phenotype appeared recessive to the wild type. Meanwhile, twelve ISSR primers yielded DNA bands with significantly different frequencies between the two populations. The analysis indicated four DNA bands which were absent from the white-striped population but apparent at frequencies 0.4 to 0.9 among the Trok Nong-derived population. Another four DNA bands were found absent from the Trok Nong-derived population but existed at frequencies 0.3 to 0.5 among the white-striped population. These data may benefit the monitoring of gene flow from the white-striped fruit flies to the natural population when released in a SIT program. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), SIT, genetic

  9. Comparison of RAPD, RFLP, AFLP and SSR markers for diversity studies in tropical maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. Garcia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare their relative efficiencies as markers and to find the most suitable marker for maize diversity studies we evaluated 18 inbred tropical maize lines using a number of different loci as markers. The loci used were: 774 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs; 262 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs; 185 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs; and 68 simple sequence repeats (SSR. For estimating genetic distance the AFLP and RFLP markers gave the most correlated results, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87. Bootstrap analysis were used to evaluate the number of loci for the markers and the coefficients of variation (CV revealed a skewed distribution. The dominant markers (AFLP and RAPD had small CV values indicating a skewed distribution while the codominant markers gave high CV values. The use of maximum values of genetic distance CVs within each sample size was efficient in determining the number of loci needed to obtain a maximum CV of 10%. The number of RFLP and AFLP loci used was enough to give CV values of below 5%, while the SSRs and RAPD loci gave higher CV values. Except for the RAPD markers, all the markers correlated genetic distance with single cross performance and heterosis which showed that they could be useful in predicting single cross performance and heterosis in intrapopulation crosses for broad-based populations. Our results indicate that AFLP seemed to be the best-suited molecular assay for fingerprinting and assessing genetic relationships among tropical maize inbred lines with high accuracy.

  10. Association of OCT derived drusen measurements with AMD associated-genotypic SNPs in Amish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Diniz, Bruno; Huang, Jiayan; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Sadda, SriniVas R; Stambolian, Dwight

    To investigate the association of OCT derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen area, volume and regions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy using a Cirrus High- Definition-OCT. Measurements were obtained in the macula region within a central circle (CC) of 3 mm diameter and a surrounding perifoveal ring (PR) of 3 to 5 mm diameter using the Cirrus OCT RPE analysis software. Other demographic information including age, gender and smoking status were collected. Study subjects were further genotyped to determine their risk for the AMD associated SNPs in SYN3, LIPC, ARMS2, C3, CFB, CETP, CFI and CFH genes using TaqMan genotyping assays. The association of genotypes with OCT measures were assessed using linear trend p-values calculated from univariate and multivariate generalized linear models. 432 eyes were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis (adjusted by age, gender and smoking status) confirmed the known significant association between AMD and macular drusen with the number of CFH risk alleles for drusen area (area increased 0.12 mm 2 for a risk allele increase, pAmish AMD population.

  11. Derivation of keratinocytes from chicken embryonic stem cells: Establishment and characterization of differentiated proliferative cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Couteaudier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge in avian cell biology is the generation of differentiated cell-lines, especially in the keratinocyte lineage. Only a few avian cell-lines are available and very few of them show an interesting differentiation profile. During the last decade, mammalian embryonic stem cell-lines were shown to differentiate into almost all lineages, including keratinocytes. Although chicken embryonic stem cells had been obtained in the 1990s, few differentiation studies toward the ectodermal lineage were reported. Consequently, we explored the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells toward the keratinocyte lineage by using a combination of stromal induction, ascorbic acid, BMP4 and chicken serum. During the induction period, we observed a downregulation of pluripotency markers and an upregulation of epidermal markers. Three homogenous cell populations were derived, which were morphologically similar to chicken primary keratinocytes, displaying intracellular lipid droplets in almost every pavimentous cell. These cells could be serially passaged without alteration of their morphology and showed gene and protein expression profiles of epidermal markers similar to chicken primary keratinocytes. These cells represent an alternative to the isolation of chicken primary keratinocytes, being less cumbersome to handle and reducing the number of experimental animals used for the preparation of primary cells.

  12. Genetic dissection of maize plant architecture with an ultra-high density bin map based on recombinant inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chaoshu; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xing; Di, Hong; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-03-03

    Plant architecture attributes, such as plant height, ear height, and internode number, have played an important role in the historical increases in grain yield, lodging resistance, and biomass in maize (Zea mays L.). Analyzing the genetic basis of variation in plant architecture using high density QTL mapping will be of benefit for the breeding of maize for many traits. However, the low density of molecular markers in existing genetic maps has limited the efficiency and accuracy of QTL mapping. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an improved strategy for addressing a complex genome via next-generation sequencing technology. GBS has been a powerful tool for SNP discovery and high-density genetic map construction. The creation of ultra-high density genetic maps using large populations of advanced recombinant inbred lines (RILs) is an efficient way to identify QTL for complex agronomic traits. A set of 314 RILs derived from inbreds Ye478 and Qi319 were generated and subjected to GBS. A total of 137,699,000 reads with an average of 357,376 reads per individual RIL were generated, which is equivalent to approximately 0.07-fold coverage of the maize B73 RefGen_V3 genome for each individual RIL. A high-density genetic map was constructed using 4183 bin markers (100-Kb intervals with no recombination events). The total genetic distance covered by the linkage map was 1545.65 cM and the average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM with a physical distance of about 0.51 Mb. Our results demonstrated a relatively high degree of collinearity between the genetic map and the B73 reference genome. The quality and accuracy of the bin map for QTL detection was verified by the mapping of a known gene, pericarp color 1 (P1), which controls the color of the cob, with a high LOD value of 80.78 on chromosome 1. Using this high-density bin map, 35 QTL affecting plant architecture, including 14 for plant height, 14 for ear height, and seven for internode number were detected

  13. Causes and consequences of chromatin variation between inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation at regulatory elements, identified through hypersensitivity to digestion by DNase I, is believed to contribute to variation in complex traits, but the extent and consequences of this variation are poorly characterized. Analysis of terminally differentiated erythroblasts in eight inbred strains of mice identified reproducible variation at approximately 6% of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Only 30% of such variable DHS contain a sequence variant predictive of site variation. Nevertheless, sequence variants within variable DHS are more likely to be associated with complex traits than those in non-variant DHS, and variants associated with complex traits preferentially occur in variable DHS. Changes at a small proportion (less than 10% of variable DHS are associated with changes in nearby transcriptional activity. Our results show that whilst DNA sequence variation is not the major determinant of variation in open chromatin, where such variants exist they are likely to be causal for complex traits.

  14. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J. T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,

  15. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J.T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,

  16. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and short insertion and/or deletions (indels to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056, as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88. Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2, with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1. Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance. Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop

  17. Selection of inbred maize (Zea mays L.) progenies by topcrosses conducted in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C S; Pacheco, C A P; Guedes, M L; Pinho, R G V; Castro, C R

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this study was to identify inbred progenies of S 0:1 maize (Zea mays L.) plants that were efficient at a low level of technology and responsive at a high level of technology through the use of topcrosses. Two contrasting environments were created using two levels of base fertilization and topdressing, so that the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were applied four times higher in one environment than in the other. We used S 0:1 progenies derived from commercial hybrids in topcrosses with two testers (an elite line from the flint heterotic group and an elite line from the dent heterotic group). The progenies and three controls were evaluated in an augmented block design in Nossa Senhora das Dores, SE, Brazil in the 2010 crop season. The average grain yield in the high-technological level was 21.44% greater than that in the low-technological level. There were no changes in progeny behavior in the two technological levels for grain yield. The testers did not differ in the average grain yield of the progenies at the two technological levels. Therefore, it is possible to select progenies derived from commercial hybrids that have an efficient response to fertilization.

  18. Effective selection criteria for screening drought tolerant recombinant inbred lines of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Nishtman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seventy two sunflower recombinant inbred lines were tested for their yielding ability under both water-stressed and well-watered states. The inbred lines were evaluated in a rectangular 8´9 lattice design with two replications in both well-watered and water-stressed conditions, separately. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI, mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, harmonic mean (HM, stress susceptibility index (SSI, tolerance index (TOL, yield index (YI and yield stability index (YSI were calculated based on grain yield for every genotype. Results showed the highest values of mean productivity (MP index, geometric mean productivity (GMP, yield index (YI, harmonic mean (HM and stress tolerance index (STI indices for ‘C134a’ inbred line and least values of stress susceptibility index (SSI and tolerance (TOL for C61 inbred line. According to correlation of indices with yield performance under both drought stress and non-stress states and principle component analysis, indices including HM, MP, GMP and STI could properly distinguish drought tolerant sunflower inbred lines with high yield performance under both states. Cluster analysis of inbred lines using Ys, Yp and eight indices, categorized them into four groups including 19, 6, 26 and 19 inbred lines.

  19. Outbred CD1 mice are as suitable as inbred C57BL/6J mice in performing social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lawrence S; Wen, John H; Miyares, Laura; Lombroso, Paul J; Bordey, Angélique

    2017-01-10

    Inbred mouse strains have been used preferentially for behavioral testing over outbred counterparts, even though outbred mice reflect the genetic diversity in the human population better. Here, we compare the sociability of widely available outbred CD1 mice with the commonly used inbred C57BL/6J (C57) mice in the one-chamber social interaction test and the three-chamber sociability test. In the one-chamber task, intra-strain pairs of juvenile, non-littermate, male CD1 or C57 mice display a series of social and aggressive behaviors. While CD1 and C57 pairs spend equal amount of time socializing, CD1 pairs spend significantly more time engaged in aggressive behaviors than C57 mice. In the three-chamber task, sociability of C57 mice was less dependent on acclimation paradigms than CD1 mice. Following acclimation to all three chambers, both groups of age-matched male mice spent more time in the chamber containing a stranger mouse than in the empty chamber, suggesting that CD1 mice are sociable like C57 mice. However, the observed power suggests that it is easier to achieve statistical significance with C57 than CD1 mice. Because the stranger mouse could be considered as a novel object, we assessed for a novelty effect by adding an object. CD1 mice spend more time in the chamber with a stranger mouse than that a novel object, suggesting that their preference is social in nature. Thus, outbred CD1 mice are as appropriate as inbred C57 mice for studying social behavior using either the single or the three-chamber test using a specific acclimation paradigm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic analysis of recombinant inbred lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K; Auckland, Susan A; Goff, Valorie H; Rainville, Lisa K; Burow, Gloria B; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development.

  1. Inbred Rats as a Model to Study Persistent Renal Leptospirosis and Associated Cellular Immune Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath E. Nally

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Rats are regarded as one of the most significant reservoir hosts of infection for human disease, and in the absence of clinical signs of infection, excrete large numbers of organisms in their urine. A unique biological equilibrium exists between pathogenic leptospires and reservoir hosts of infection, but surprisingly, little is known concerning the host's cellular immune response that facilitates persistent renal colonization. To address this deficiency, we established and applied an immunocompetent inbred rat model of persistent renal colonization; leptospires were detected in urine of experimentally infected rats by 3 weeks post-infection and remained positive until 8 weeks post-infection. However, there was little, if any, evidence of inflammation in colonized renal tubules. At 8 weeks post-infection, a robust antibody response was detected against lipopolysaccharide and protein outer membrane (OM components. Purified B and T cells derived from the spleen of infected and non-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with 0.5 μg of OM fractions of Leptospira, including CD4+ T cells, which comprised 40% of proliferating cells, compared to 25% in non-infected controls. However, analysis of gene expression did not determine which immunoregulatory pathways were activated. Lymphocytes purified from the lymph node draining the site of colonization, the renal lymph node, also showed an increase in percentage of proliferating B and T cells. However, in contrast to a phenotype of 40% CD4+ T cells in the spleen, the phenotype of proliferating T cells in the renal lymph node comprised 65% CD4+ T cells. These results confirm that the renal lymph node, the local lymphoid organ, is a dominant site containing Leptospira reactive CD4+ T cells and highlight the need to consider the local, vs

  2. Quantitative gene expression profiling of CD45+ and CD45- skeletal muscle-derived side population cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditte Caroline Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kristiansen, Gitte Qvist; Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we desc...... a satellite cell subpopulation) remain in the mSPCD45(-) fraction, and we show that these cells express high levels of many of the known myogenic precursor/stem cell related markers, including Pax7 and Myf5.......The skeletal muscle-derived side population (mSP) which highly excludes Hoechst 33342 is composed of CD45(+) and CD45(-) subpopulations; yet, rareness of mSP cells in general has complicated extensive quantitative analysis of gene expression profiles in primarily isolated mSP cells. Here, we...... describe the isolation of adult mouse normal skeletal muscle residing SPCD45(+) and SPCD45(-) cells from a parent mononuclear muscle-derived cell (MDC) population. Relative quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) of 64 genes revealed that mSPCD45(-) compared with mSPCD45(+) was enriched for cells expressing...

  3. Genetic analysis of resistance to radiation lymphomagenesis with recombinant inbred strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.

    1990-01-01

    Induction of lymphomas by radiation in mice is controlled by genetic factors. We analyzed the genetic control of radiation lymphomagenesis using the CXS series of recombinant inbred strains derived from two progenitor strains: one highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphoma [BALB/cHeA (C)] and one extremely resistant [STS/A (S)]. The best concordances between strain distribution patterns of genetic markers and resistance (or susceptibility) to radiation lymphomagenesis were observed in a region with the b and Ifa genes on chromosome 4. This indicates that one major locus controls the incidence of radiogenic lymphomas in mice. We designated this locus as the Lyr (lymphoma resistance) locus. Backcrosses of (CXS)F1 to the two progenitor strains showed an intermediate incidence of lymphomas between their parental mice and did not significantly differ from (CXS)F1 mice. This and previous observations that (CXS)F1 mice also showed an intermediate incidence, differing from both progenitor strains, indicate that more genes are involved in the resistance (or susceptibility) to lymphoma induced by irradiation

  4. Derivation of cell population kinetic parameters from clinical statistical data (program RAD3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Cellular lethality models generally require up to 6 parameters to simulate a clinical course of fractionated radiation therapy and to derive an estimate of the cellular surviving fraction for a given treatment scheme. These parameters are the mean cellular lethal dose, the extrapolation number, the ratio of sublethal to irreparable events, the regeneration rate, the repopulation limit (cell cycles), and a field-size or tumor-volume factor. A computer program (RAD3) was designed to derive best-fitting values for these parameters in relation to available clinical data based on the assumption that if a number of different fractionation schemes yield similar reactions, the cellular surviving fractions will be about equal in each instance. Parameters were derived for a variety of human tissues from which realistic iso-effect functions could be generated

  5. Oesophageal-cancer-derived death in the population of Belgrade in a period 1989-2006

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    Janković Janko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of death from all malignant tumors in the world (fifth in men, eighth in women. This cancer was estimated to account for about 529 000 new cases and about 442 000 deaths in the year 2007. In the year 2002 the highest standardized mortality rates (per 100 000 habitants of oesophageal carcinoma were noticed in the East Asia (men/women: 18.8/7.7 and East Africa (18.6/7.8, while the lowest were noticed in the Middle Africa (1.4/0.2 and West Africa (1.3/0.5. The aim of this descriptive epidemiologic study was to analyze epidemiologic situation of oesophageal cancer in Belgrade population during the period 1989-2006, using mortality data. Methods. Mortality data were collected from the City Organization for Statistics. In data analysis we used mortality rates which were standardized directly using those of the world population as the standard, and proportions. A denominator for mortality rates was calculated using the Belgrade population which was an average of the two latest register years (1991 and 2002. In order to analyze trend mortality from oesophageal cancer we used linear trend. Results. In Belgrade deaths from oesophageal cancer accounted for about 5.2% of all malignant tumors of intestinal system in male population, and 2.4% in female population. This cancer is, according to standardized mortality rates (per 100 000 habitants, on the fifth place in Belgrade population behind colorectal, stomach, pancreatic, liver and cholecystic cancer. During the period 1989-2006 in Belgrade 44 persons died from oesophageal carcinoma on the average each year, mainly men (75%, and the rest were women (25%. In male population during the same period we noticed a significant increase in trend mortality (y = 1.61 + 0.06x, p = 0.001, while in female population the increase of mortality was not significant. The male/female oesophageal cancer mortality ratio was 3:1. Mortality rates for oesophageal

  6. Molecular characterisation of stromal populations derived from human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, L.; Twine, N. A.; Abu Dawud, R.

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (BM-hMSC) are being employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration. A limiting factor for their clinical use is the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can provide an un...

  7. [Index screening and comprehensive evaluation of phenotypic traits of low nitrogen tolerance using BILs population derived from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao-lin; Li, Xia; Wan, Yong; Qiu, Zai-hui; Nie, Yuan-yuan; Xie, Jian-kun

    2015-08-01

    To identify the low nitrogen tolerance of Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) and its progenies, ten phenotypic traits including plant height (PH), heading day (HD), panicle length (PL), number of effective tillers per plant (NETP), number of filled grains per panicle (NFGP), number of grains per panicle (NGP), grain density (GD), spikelet fertility (SF), 1000-grain mass (TGM) and grain yield per plant (GYP) were studied under normal and low nitrogen treatments, using backcross inbred lines (BILs) of Xieqingzao B//DXWR/Xieqingzao B in BC1 F12. Comprehensive evaluation on the low nitrogen tolerance of the BILs population was conducted using principal component analysis and the subordinate function. The evaluation results indicated that the low nitrogen tolerance of the line 116, 143 and 157 was the strongest, which could be served as the intermediate materials for genetic studies on the low nitrogen tolerance of DXWR and breeding for the low nitrogen tolerance in rice. The optimal regression equation of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice was established using stepwise regression analysis. The relative values of five traits including PH, NGP, SF, TGM and GYP were screened out and could be used as comprehensive evaluation indices for the low nitrogen tolerance in the whole growth stage. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the relative values of these five traits, especially for NGP and GYP, in the genetic improvement of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice.

  8. Mechanism of derivation of radioresistance in HeLa cell population after repeated x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Kihei; Koiwai, Soichiro; Morita, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    The Radioresistant strain (X-8-5) was obtained from HeLa-SC population X-irradiated repeatedly for five times with 800 rad. The mean lethal dose (D 0 ) was 196 rad for X-8-5 cells, while it was 166 rad for control HeLa-SC cells. The fraction of cells containing an unusually long acrocentric chromosome (LA 2) exclusively increased with increasing number of irradiation of HeLa-SC population. A clonal strain with LA 2 marker was isolated from X-8-5 population and named RC-355. Since the RC-355 cells were more resistant (D 0 = 220 rad)than parental X-8-5 cells (D 0 = 196 rad), it was suggested that the cells with LA 2 were responsible for the radioresistance of X-8-5 population. The RC-355 cells were further subjected to the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes and it was observed that 18 types of specific markers (rm 1-17 and LA 2) were included in RC-355 cells in addition to 12 types of markers observed in most of HeLa-SC cells. Since the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes of RC-355 cells showed that RC-355 specific markers were not produced by radiation-induced rearrangements of HeLa-SC chromosomes, because twelve kinds of HeLa-SC markers were presented in RC-355 cells without any change, it was concluded that a small number of cells with LA 2 marker were originally presented in the control population and the relative fraction of them occupied increased after irradiation. (author)

  9. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  10. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  11. Estimates for Genetic Variance Components in Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Populations Derived from Maize Single-Cross Hybrids

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    Matheus Costa dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain the estimates of genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation in the original populations (C0 and in the third cycle (C3 of reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS which allows breeders to define the best breeding strategy. For that purpose, the half-sib progenies of intrapopulation (P11 and P22 and interpopulation (P12 and P21 from populations 1 and 2 derived from single-cross hybrids in the 0 and 3 cycles of the reciprocal recurrent selection program were used. The intra- and interpopulation progenies were evaluated in a 10×10 triple lattice design in two separate locations. The data for unhusked ear weight (ear weight without husk and plant height were collected. All genetic variance and covariance components were estimated from the expected mean squares. The breakdown of additive variance into intrapopulation and interpopulation additive deviations (στ2 and the covariance between these and their intrapopulation additive effects (CovAτ found predominance of the dominance effect for unhusked ear weight. Plant height for these components shows that the intrapopulation additive effect explains most of the variation. Estimates for intrapopulation and interpopulation additive genetic variances confirm that populations derived from single-cross hybrids have potential for recurrent selection programs.

  12. An Increased Risk of Reversible Dementia May Occur After Zolpidem Derivative Use in the Elderly Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Hsin-I; Lin, Che-Chen; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluate the effects of zolpidem use to develop dementia or Alzheimer disease from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A retrospective population-based nested case–control study. Newly diagnosed dementia patients 65 years and older and controls were sampled. A total of 8406 dementia and 16,812 control subjects were enrolled from Taiwan NHIRD during 2006 to 2010. The relationships between zolpidem use and dementia were measured using odds and adjusted od...

  13. Genetic and environmental determinants of the susceptibility of Amerindian derived populations for having hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Here, we discuss potential explanations for the higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in populations with an Amerindian background. Although environmental factors are the triggers, the search for the ethnic related factors that explains the increased susceptibility of the Amerindians is a promising area for research. The study of the genetics of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanic populations faces several challenges. Ethnicity could be a major confounding variable to prove genetic associations. Despite that, the study of hypertriglyceridemia in Hispanics has resulted in significant contributions. Two GWAS reports have exclusively included Mexican mestizos. Fifty percent of the associations reported in Caucasians could be generalized to the Mexicans, but in many cases the Mexican lead SNP was different than that reported in Europeans. Both reports included new associations with apo B or triglycerides concentrations. The frequency of susceptibility alleles in Mexicans is higher than that found in Europeans for several of the genes with the greatest effect on triglycerides levels. An example is the SNP rs964184 in APOA5. The same trend was observed for ANGPTL3 and TIMD4 variants. In summary, we postulate that the study of the genetic determinants of hypertriglyceridemia in Amerindian populations which have major changes in their lifestyle, may prove to be a great resource to identify new genes and pathways associated with hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24768220

  14. ECG-derived Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing in healthy and hospitalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Adelita; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao; Mortara, David; Cooper, Bruce A; Pelter, Michele M

    2017-11-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) has been investigated primarily in outpatients with heart failure. In this study we compare CSR and periodic breathing (PB) between healthy and cardiac groups. We compared CSR and PB, measured during 24 hr of continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter recording, in a group of 90 hospitalized patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to a group of 100 healthy ambulatory participants. We also examined CSR and PB in the 90 patients presenting with ACS symptoms, divided into a group of 39 (43%) with confirmed ACS, and 51 (57%) with a cardiac diagnosis but non-ACS. SuperECG software was used to derive respiration and then calculate CSR and PB episodes from the ECG Holter data. Regression analyses were used to analyze the data. We hypothesized SuperECG software would differentiate between the groups by detecting less CSR and PB in the healthy group than the group of patients presenting to the emergency department with ACS symptoms. Hospitalized patients with suspected ACS had 7.3 times more CSR episodes and 1.6 times more PB episodes than healthy ambulatory participants. Patients with confirmed ACS had 6.0 times more CSR episodes and 1.3 times more PB episodes than cardiac non-ACS patients. Continuous 12-lead ECG derived CSR and PB appear to differentiate between healthy participants and hospitalized patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The application of protein markers in conversion of maize inbred lines to the cytoplasmic male sterility basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovic Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven maize inbred lines of different origin and maturity group were used in the trial set up according to the split-plot randomized complete block design in five environments. Each inbred was observed in five variants: original inbred (N; cytoplasmic male sterile C-type (CMS-C; restorer for CMS-C (RfC; cytoplasmic male sterile S-type (CMS-S and restorer for CMS-S (RfS. The objective was to compare grain yield of original inbreds and their CMS and Rf variants and to apply Isoelectric focusing (IEF to determine whether the conversion of original inbreds to their CMS and Rf counterparts have been done completely. Protein markers have shown that conversion of almost all inbreds was done good and completely. Only original inbreds ZPL2 and ZPL5 did not concur on banding patterns with their RfC variants. The type of cytoplasm had a very significant impact on grain yield. Namely, CMS-C counterparts significantly out yielded their CMS-S versions, while the inbreds with C and S cytoplasm over yielded inbreds with N cytoplasm, as well as their RfC and RfS versions.

  16. Intergenerational effects of inbreeding in Nicrophorus vespilloides: offspring suffer fitness costs when either they or their parents are inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, S N; Strutt, L; Smiseth, P T

    2013-04-01

    Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness caused by mating between related individuals. Inbreeding is expected to cause a reduction in offspring fitness when the offspring themselves are inbred, but outbred individuals may also suffer a reduction in fitness when they depend on care from inbred parents. At present, little is known about the significance of such intergenerational effects of inbreeding. Here, we report two experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with elaborate parental care, in which we investigated inbreeding depression in offspring when either the offspring themselves or their parents were inbred. We found substantial inbreeding depression when offspring were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of inbred eggs and survival of inbred offspring. We also found substantial inbreeding depression when parents were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of eggs produced by inbred parents and survival of outbred offspring that received care from inbred parents. Our results suggest that intergenerational effects of inbreeding can have substantial fitness costs to offspring, and that future studies need to incorporate such costs to obtain accurate estimates of inbreeding depression. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal beta III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  18. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal β III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders

  19. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-09-06

    Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids and an Admixture Population Derived from Panicum amarum × P. virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heffelfinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass ( L. and its relatives are regarded as top bioenergy crop candidates; however, one critical barrier is the introduction of useful genetic diversity and the development of new cultivars and hybrids. Combining genomes from related cultivars and species provides an opportunity to introduce new traits. In switchgrass, a breeding advantage would be achieved by combining the genomes of intervarietal ecotypes or interspecific hybrids. The recovery of wide crosses, however, is often tedious and may involve complicated embryo rescue and numerous backcrosses. Here, we demonstrate a straightforward approach to wide crosses involving the use of a selectable transgene for recovery of interspecific [ cv. Alamo × Ell var or Atlantic Coastal Panicgrass (ACP] F hybrids followed by backcrossing to generate a nontransgenic admixture population. A nontransgenic herbicide-sensitive (HbS admixture population of 83 FBC progeny was analyzed by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to characterize local ancestry, parental contribution, and patterns of recombination. These results demonstrate a widely applicable breeding strategy that makes use of transgenic selectable resistance to identify and recover true hybrids.

  1. An evaluation of the performance of tag SNPs derived from HapMap in a Caucasian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montpetit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haplotype Map (HapMap project recently generated genotype data for more than 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in four population samples. The main application of the data is in the selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs to use in association studies. The usefulness of this selection process needs to be verified in populations outside those used for the HapMap project. In addition, it is not known how well the data represent the general population, as only 90-120 chromosomes were used for each population and since the genotyped SNPs were selected so as to have high frequencies. In this study, we analyzed more than 1,000 individuals from Estonia. The population of this northern European country has been influenced by many different waves of migrations from Europe and Russia. We genotyped 1,536 randomly selected SNPs from two 500-kbp ENCODE regions on Chromosome 2. We observed that the tSNPs selected from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain from Utah (CEU HapMap samples (derived from US residents with northern and western European ancestry captured most of the variation in the Estonia sample. (Between 90% and 95% of the SNPs with a minor allele frequency of more than 5% have an r2 of at least 0.8 with one of the CEU tSNPs. Using the reverse approach, tags selected from the Estonia sample could almost equally well describe the CEU sample. Finally, we observed that the sample size, the allelic frequency, and the SNP density in the dataset used to select the tags each have important effects on the tagging performance. Overall, our study supports the use of HapMap data in other Caucasian populations, but the SNP density and the bias towards high-frequency SNPs have to be taken into account when designing association studies.

  2. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratore, Massimo, E-mail: M.Muratore@ed.ac.uk [Institute of Integrated Micro and Nano System, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Steve [Institute of Molecular Plant Science, School of Biological Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Waterfall, Martin [Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dielectrophoretic separation/sorting of multipotent cells. •Plasma membrane microvilli structure of C2C12 and fibroblasts by SEM microscopy. •Cell cycle determination by Ki-67 in DEP-sorted cells. •Plasma membrane differences responsible for changes in membrane capacitance. -- Abstract: Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Plasma membrane characterization, by scanning electron microscopy, of multipotent myoblasts-derived populations sorted using dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratore, Massimo; Mitchell, Steve; Waterfall, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Dielectrophoretic separation/sorting of multipotent cells. •Plasma membrane microvilli structure of C2C12 and fibroblasts by SEM microscopy. •Cell cycle determination by Ki-67 in DEP-sorted cells. •Plasma membrane differences responsible for changes in membrane capacitance. -- Abstract: Multipotent progenitor cells have shown promise for use in biomedical applications and regenerative medicine. The implementation of such cells for clinical application requires a synchronized, phenotypically and/or genotypically, homogenous cell population. Here we have demonstrated the implementation of a biological tag-free dielectrophoretic device used for discrimination of multipotent myoblastic C2C12 model. The multipotent capabilities in differentiation, for these cells, diminishes with higher passage number, so for cultures above 70 passages only a small percentage of cells is able to differentiate into terminal myotubes. In this work we demonstrated that we could recover, above 96% purity, specific cell types from a mixed population of cells at high passage number without any biological tag using dielectrophoresis. The purity of the samples was confirmed by cytometric analysis using the cell specific marker embryonic myosin. To further investigate the dielectric properties of the cell plasma membrane we co-culture C2C12 with similar size, when in suspension, GFP-positive fibroblast as feeder layer. The level of separation between the cell types was above 98% purity which was confirmed by flow cytometry. These levels of separation are assumed to account for cell size and for the plasma membrane morphological differences between C2C12 and fibroblast unrelated to the stages of the cell cycle which was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Plasma membrane conformational differences were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy

  4. Correlates of early pregnancy serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Levey, Elizabeth; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations during early pregnancy is lacking. The aim of the study is to examine the correlates of early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. A total of 982 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited in early pregnancy. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relation between BDNF concentrations and continuous covariates. Analysis of variance and generalized linear models were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted BDNF concentrations according to categorical variables. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to determine the factors that influence early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. In bivariate analysis, early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations were positively associated with maternal age (r = 0.16, P BDNF concentrations. Participants with moderate antepartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10) had lower serum BDNF concentrations compared with participants with no/mild antepartum depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score BDNF concentrations in low-income Peruvian women. Biological changes of CRP during pregnancy may affect serum BDNF concentrations.

  5. Analysis of genetic diversity among the maize inbred lines (Zea mays L. under heat stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kandel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High temperature adversely affects the plant physiological processes: limits plant growth and reduction in grain yield. Heat stress is often encountered to spring sowing of maize in spring season. Twenty maize inbred lines were studied for days to 50 % anthesis and silking, anthesis–silking interval, leaf firing, tassel blast, SPAD reading and leaf senescence, plant and ear height, leaf area index, ear per plant, cob length and diameter, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel row, silk receptivity, shelling percentage, thousand kernel weight and grain yield in alpha lattice design at National Maize Research Program at Rampur, Chitwan,Nepal with the objective to identify superior heat stress tolerant lines. Analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits. Result of multivariable analysis revealed that twenty inbred lines formed four clusters. The resistance inbred lines and susceptible inbred lines formed different clusters. The members of cluster 4 were found to be tolerant to heat stress due to they had lowest value of tassel blast, leaf firing, and leaf area index with highest value of cob diameter and length, ear per plant, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row, shelling percentage, silk receptivity and grain yield whereas as members of cluster 1were found most susceptible due to they had longer anthesis silking interval, with maximum tassel blast and leaf firing along with no grain yield under heat stress condition. From this study inbred lines RL-140, RML-76, RML-91 and RML-40 were found most tolerant to heat stress. These inbred lines belonging to superior cluster could be considered very useful in developing heat tolerant variety and other breeding activities.

  6. Enzyme markers in inbred rat strains: genetics of new markers and strain profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Baverstock, P R; Watts, C H; Gutman, G A

    1984-08-01

    Twenty-six inbred strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) were examined for electrophoretic variation at an estimated 97 genetic loci. In addition to previously documented markers, variation was observed for the enzymes aconitase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase. The genetic basis of these markers (Acon-1, Ahd-2, and Akp-1) was confirmed. Linkage analysis between 35 pairwise comparisons revealed that the markers Fh-1 and Pep-3 are linked. The strain profiles of the 25 inbred strains at 11 electrophoretic markers are given.

  7. Mapping genetic variants associated with beta-adrenergic responses in inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Hersch

    Full Text Available β-blockers and β-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective β(1-blocker, Atenolol (ate, and a β-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso. The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA, a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP to perturbations of the β-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10(-8. An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10(-6. Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to β-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD. Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied.

  8. Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

  9. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  10. Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, E; Stronks, K; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A; Snijder, M B; Mocking, R J T; Derks, E M; Schene, A H; Nicolaou, M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands were included. Diet was measured using ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were measured with the nine-item patient health questionnaire. By performing RRR in the whole population and per ethnic group, comparable dietary patterns were identified and therefore the dietary pattern for the whole population was used for subsequent analyses. We identified a dietary pattern that was strongly related to eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid, folate, magnesium and zinc (response variables) and which was characterized by milk products, cheese, whole grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts, potatoes and red meat. After adjustment for confounders, a statistically significant inverse association was observed in the whole population (B: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.00, P=0.046) and among Moroccan (B: -0.09, 95% CI: -0.13, -0.04, P=0.027) and South-Asian Surinamese participants (B: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01, P=dietary pattern and significant depressed mood in any of the ethnic groups. No consistent evidence was found that consumption of a dietary pattern, high in nutrients that are hypothesized to protect against depression, was associated with lower depressive symptoms across different ethnic groups.

  11. The osteo-inductive activity of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells resides within the CD14+ population and is independent of the CD34+ population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, D; Seebach, C; Verboket, R; Schaible, A; Marzi, I; Bonig, H

    2018-03-06

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a critical-size femur defect model. Being BMC a mixed population of predominantly mature haematopoietic cells, which cell type(s) is(are) instrumental for healing remains elusive. Although clinical therapies using BMC are often dubbed as stem cell therapies, whether stem cells are relevant for the therapeutic effects is unclear and, at least in the context of bone repair, seems dubious. Instead, in light of the critical contribution of monocytes and macrophages to tissue development, homeostasis and injury repair, in the current study it was hypothesised that BMC-mediated bone healing derived from the stem cell population. To test this hypothesis, bone remodelling studies were performed in an established athymic rats critical-size femoral defect model, with β-TCP scaffolds augmented with complete BMC or BMC immunomagnetically depleted of stem cells (CD34+) or monocytes/macrophages (CD14+). Bone healing was assessed 8 weeks after transplantation. Compared to BMC-augmented controls, when CD14- BMC, but not CD34- BMC were transplanted into the bone defect, femora possessed dramatically decreased biomechanical stability and new bone formation was markedly reduced, as measured by histology. The degree of vascularisation did not differ between the two groups. It was concluded that the monocyte fraction within the BMC provided critical osteo-inductive cues during fracture healing. Which factors were responsible at the molecular levels remained elusive. However, this study marked a significant progress towards elucidating the mechanisms by which BMC elicit their therapeutic effects, at least in bone regeneration.

  12. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  13. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  14. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    To obtain controlled genetic variation, colon cancer was chemically induced by use of four subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg of body weight/wk) to rats of 3 inbred strains (BDIX/OrlIco, F344/NHsd, WAG/Rij). The selection was based on the availability of established colon cancer cell...

  15. The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and Reaction to Grey ... East African Journal of Sciences ... (GLS) to maize production, the national maize research program of Ethiopia ... The information from this study will be useful for the development of high-yielding and GLS disease-resistant maize varieties.

  16. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD...

  17. TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIOR IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAKINO, J; KATO, K; MAES, FW

    1991-01-01

    Behavior of the inbred mouse strains BALB, C3H, DBA and C57BL in an open field was directly observed for 10 min by a multi-event time sampling method. It was coded into nine behavioral items, the occurrence or absence of which in consecutive 5-s time bins was called a behavioral state. Fourteen

  18. Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Roy; Stenger, Drake C.

    2005-01-01

    Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged ∼5.0 x 10 -4 /nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10 -4 /nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage

  19. Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ∼10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ∼14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

  20. Molecular heterogeneity in a patient-derived glioblastoma xenoline is regulated by different cancer stem cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Meagan Garner

    Full Text Available Malignant glioblastoma (GBM is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Genomic profiling of GBM samples has identified four molecular subtypes (Proneural, Neural, Classical and Mesenchymal, which may arise from different glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSC populations. We previously showed that adherent cultures of GSCs grown on laminin-coated plates (Ad-GSCs and spheroid cultures of GSCs (Sp-GSCs had high expression of stem cell markers (CD133, Sox2 and Nestin, but low expression of differentiation markers (βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein. In the present study, we characterized GBM tumors produced by subcutaneous and intracranial injection of Ad-GSCs and Sp-GSCs isolated from a patient-derived xenoline. Although they formed tumors with identical histological features, gene expression analysis revealed that xenografts of Sp-GSCs had a Classical molecular subtype similar to that of bulk tumor cells. In contrast xenografts of Ad-GSCs expressed a Mesenchymal gene signature. Adherent GSC-derived xenografts had high STAT3 and ANGPTL4 expression, and enrichment for stem cell markers, transcriptional networks and pro-angiogenic markers characteristic of the Mesenchymal subtype. Examination of clinical samples from GBM patients showed that STAT3 expression was directly correlated with ANGPTL4 expression, and that increased expression of these genes correlated with poor patient survival and performance. A pharmacological STAT3 inhibitor abrogated STAT3 binding to the ANGPTL4 promoter and exhibited anticancer activity in vivo. Therefore, Ad-GSCs and Sp-GSCs produced histologically identical tumors with different gene expression patterns, and a STAT3/ANGPTL4 pathway is identified in glioblastoma that may serve as a target for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Pdx1 and Ngn3 overexpression enhances pancreatic differentiation of mouse ES cell-derived endoderm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Stull, Robert; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Bonham, Kristina; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Sho, Masayuki; Iwano, Masayuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Keller, Gordon; Snodgrass, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    In order to define the molecular mechanisms regulating the specification and differentiation of pancreatic β-islet cells, we investigated the effect of upregulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 during the differentiation of the β-islet-like cells from murine embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived activin induced-endoderm. Induced overexpression of Pdx1 resulted in a significant upregulation of insulin (Ins1 and Ins2), and other pancreas-related genes. To enhance the developmental progression from the pancreatic bud to the formation of the endocrine lineages, we induced the overexpression express of Ngn3 together with Pdx1. This combination dramatically increased the level and timing of maximal Ins1 mRNA expression to approximately 100% of that found in the βTC6 insulinoma cell line. Insulin protein and C-peptide expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. These inductive effects were restricted to c-kit(+) endoderm enriched EB-derived populations suggesting that Pdx1/Ngn3 functions after the specification of pancreatic endoderm. Although insulin secretion was stimulated by various insulin secretagogues, these cells had only limited glucose response. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate the expression of a broad spectrum of pancreatic endocrine cell-related genes as well as genes associated with glucose responses. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of manipulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 expression in a stage-specific manner as an important new strategy for the efficient generation of functionally immature insulin-producing β-islet cells from ES cells.

  2. Pdx1 and Ngn3 overexpression enhances pancreatic differentiation of mouse ES cell-derived endoderm population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kubo

    Full Text Available In order to define the molecular mechanisms regulating the specification and differentiation of pancreatic β-islet cells, we investigated the effect of upregulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 during the differentiation of the β-islet-like cells from murine embryonic stem (ES cell-derived activin induced-endoderm. Induced overexpression of Pdx1 resulted in a significant upregulation of insulin (Ins1 and Ins2, and other pancreas-related genes. To enhance the developmental progression from the pancreatic bud to the formation of the endocrine lineages, we induced the overexpression express of Ngn3 together with Pdx1. This combination dramatically increased the level and timing of maximal Ins1 mRNA expression to approximately 100% of that found in the βTC6 insulinoma cell line. Insulin protein and C-peptide expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. These inductive effects were restricted to c-kit(+ endoderm enriched EB-derived populations suggesting that Pdx1/Ngn3 functions after the specification of pancreatic endoderm. Although insulin secretion was stimulated by various insulin secretagogues, these cells had only limited glucose response. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate the expression of a broad spectrum of pancreatic endocrine cell-related genes as well as genes associated with glucose responses. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of manipulating Pdx1 and Ngn3 expression in a stage-specific manner as an important new strategy for the efficient generation of functionally immature insulin-producing β-islet cells from ES cells.

  3. Systematic selection for increased fruit yield in populations derived from hybridization only, F1 irradiation, and hybridization following parental irradiation in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, D.A.; Wynne, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Three hybrid peanut populations involving a single pair of high yielding parents were developed to determine the effects of irradiation prior to and after hybridization on the response to selection for fruit yield. The control-hybrid population was produced by making reciprocal crosses between the two parents. The pre-hybrid-irradiated population was initiated by making reciprocal crosses between the M 1 plants of the two parents irradiated as seeds. The post-hybrid-irradiated population was developed by irradiating the mature F 1 embryos of crosses between the same parents. Each of the three original populations consisted of 55 F 1 plants. Ten F 2 plants were grown from each F 1 and one F 3 plant from each F 2 was used to initiate the yield tests. Selection for increased yield was practiced systematically and uniformly in each population over the F 3 to F 5 generations until the number of lines derived from single F 1 plants was reduced to five and the number of sublines descended from particular F 2 plants to three per line for yield trials in the F 6 generation. The mean yields of the F 1 derived lines of the irradiated populations were considerably below that of the control hybrid population when selection began but they reached 99% of the control mean in the F 6 generation. Selection gains in the irradiated populations appeared to result from the removal of inferior yielding sublines since greatest progress was made by raising the lower extremities of mean F 2 derived subline ranges rather than by extending the upper extremities of the ranges. The three highest yielding lines in the F6 generation occurred in the irradiated populations while the three highest yielding sublines were found in the hybrid-control population. No incidental association between size and yield of fruit was noted and a wide range of fruit sizes was found among the high yielding lines and sublines in all populations. (author)

  4. Occurrence and risk assessment of population exposed to deoxynivalenol in foods derived from wheat flour in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Milena Veronezi; Pante, Giseli Cristina; Romoli, Jéssica Cristina Zoratto; de Souza, Alexandra Perdigão Maia; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Feijó, Adriane Lettnin Roll; Moscardi, Salesia Maria Prodócimo; de Paula, Karina Ruaro; Bando, Erika; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Machinski, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important of the trichothecenes in terms of amounts and occurrence in wheat. This compound was shown to be associated with a glomerulonephropathy involving an increase of immunoglobulin A in humans. This study assessed the occurrence of DON in wheat flour and the exposure of Brazilian teenagers, adults and elderly to this mycotoxin due to intake of wheat flour-based products. DON extraction in wheat flour was carried out by solid phase extraction and the quantification was performed by ultra-high proficiency liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. A total of 77.9% of all samples were positive for DON, with concentrations ranging from 73.50 to 2794.63 µg kg -1 . The intake was calculated for the average and 90th percentile of the contamination levels of DON in foods based-wheat for teenagers, adults and elderly in Brazil, and compared with the provisional maximum tolerable daily intakes (PMTDI). Females of all age groups were exposed to DON at higher levels when compared to males in regard of consumption of breads and pastas. Teenagers were the main consumers of foods derived from wheat flour, with maximum probable daily intakes of 1.28 and 1.20 µg kg -1 b.w. day -1 for females and males, respectively. This population is at an increased risk of exposure to DON due to consumption of wheat flour-based foods in Brazil.

  5. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Frank

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced rank regression (RRR is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668 dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001. The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides.

  6. A Quantitative Genomic Approach for Analysis of Fitness and Stress Related Traits in a Drosophila melanogaster Model Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle Duun Rohde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of natural populations to withstand environmental stresses relies partly on their adaptive ability. In this study, we used a subset of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a population of inbred, genome-sequenced lines derived from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate whether this population harbors genetic variation for a set of stress resistance and life history traits. Using a genomic approach, we found substantial genetic variation for metabolic rate, heat stress resistance, expression of a major heat shock protein, and egg-to-adult viability investigated at a benign and a higher stressful temperature. This suggests that these traits will be able to evolve. In addition, we outline an approach to conduct pathway associations based on genomic linear models, which has potential to identify adaptive genes and pathways, and therefore can be a valuable tool in conservation genomics.

  7. A Quantitative Genomic Approach for Analysis of Fitness and Stress Related Traits in a Drosophila melanogaster Model Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Krag, Kristian; Loeschcke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    , to investigate whether this population harbors genetic variation for a set of stress resistance and life history traits. Using a genomic approach, we found substantial genetic variation for metabolic rate, heat stress resistance, expression of a major heat shock protein, and egg-to-adult viability investigated......The ability of natural populations to withstand environmental stresses relies partly on their adaptive ability. In this study, we used a subset of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a population of inbred, genome-sequenced lines derived from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster...... at a benign and a higher stressful temperature. This suggests that these traits will be able to evolve. In addition, we outline an approach to conduct pathway associations based on genomic linear models, which has potential to identify adaptive genes and pathways, and therefore can be a valuable tool...

  8. Population genetics of indigenous quercus robur L. populations and of derived half-sib families has implications for the reproductive management of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.G.; Dam, van B.C.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands indigenous Quercus robur L. populations are rare and have been maintained as patches in ancient woodland. For adequate conservation of these populations, information about genetic variation and population structure is necessary. in order to assess the genetic variation and

  9. Multiple disease resistance to fungal and oomycete pathogens using a recombinant inbred line population in pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating disease resistance into cultivars is a primary focus of modern breeding programs. Resistance to pathogens is often introgressed from landrace or wild individuals with poor fruit quality into commercial-quality cultivars. Sites of multiple disease resistance (MDR) are regions or “hotspo...

  10. Quantitative trait local analysis of growth-related traits in a new Arabidopsis recombinant inbred population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Ruijs, G.J.; Koornneef, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis natural variation was used to analyze the genetics of plant growth rate. Screening of 22 accessions revealed a large variation for seed weight, plant dry weight and relative growth rate but not for water content. A positive correlation was observed between seed weight and plant area 10 d

  11. Study of the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in inbred populations in Western Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahi, M. D; Benmansour, A.; Aouar, A.; Karam, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study, conducted in western Algeria on a sample of 1561 individuals, 830 with type 2 diabetes and 731 witnesses, has established a profile of high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes. The characters studied related significantly to diabetes for the 2 sexes, consanguinity (OR =2.3, 95% CI = 2.36 - 4.34,p< 0.01), the heredity factor (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.41 - 2.88,p< 0.01), the geographic gradient (p< 0.01), the slice age which is between 40 and 54 years (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.48-4.25,p< 0.01)and in 54 years and over (OR = 6.57, 95% CI = 3.92-11.0,p< 0.01), the overweight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.04-2.36, p = 0.031) and obesity (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.15-2.98, p = 0.011) marital status (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.60-8.45,p < 0.01) and type of housing (individual or collective house, OR = 0.36, 95%, CI = 0.20-0.63, p< 0.01). (author)

  12. Digital phenotyping for quantification of genetic diversity in inbred guava (Psidium guajava) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Viana, A P; Cavalcante, N R; Ambrósio, M; Santos, E A; Vieira, H D

    2017-03-22

    Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images. Different genetic diversity quantification strategies were tested using the Ward-Modified Location Model method. The set of variables related to geometry of the seeds was the largest contributor to divergence among the guava genotypes. The use of seed descriptors obtained by digital image analysis via the SAS system was efficient at quantifying the genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava families associated with the use of the Ward-Modified Location Model method.

  13. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jige Xin

    Full Text Available Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 gene biallelic knockout (KO pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26 among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209 among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209 of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  14. Fibre type composition of soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in normal female inbred Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2002), s. 399-405 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant - others:CZ - SI Czech-Slovenian Intergovernmental S&T Co-operation(XC) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : inbred Lewis rats * skeletal muscles * soleus and EDL muscles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2002

  15. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  16. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  17. Awakened by cellular stress: isolation and characterization of a novel population of pluripotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Heneidi

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell therapy face major clinical limitations, particularly challenged by low rates of post-transplant cell survival. Hostile host factors of the engraftment microenvironment such as hypoxia, nutrition deprivation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species can each contribute to unwanted differentiation or apoptosis. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new population of adipose tissue (AT derived pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress-Enduring (Muse Cells, which are isolated using severe cellular stress conditions, including long-term exposure to the proteolytic enzyme collagenase, serum deprivation, low temperatures and hypoxia. Under these conditions, a highly purified population of Muse-AT cells is isolated without the utilization of cell sorting methods. Muse-AT cells grow in suspension as cell spheres reminiscent of embryonic stem cell clusters. Muse-AT cells are positive for the pluripotency markers SSEA3, TR-1-60, Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2, and can spontaneously differentiate into mesenchymal, endodermal and ectodermal cell lineages with an efficiency of 23%, 20% and 22%, respectively. When using specific differentiation media, differentiation efficiency is greatly enhanced in Muse-AT cells (82% for mesenchymal, 75% for endodermal and 78% for ectodermal. When compared to adipose stem cells (ASCs, microarray data indicate a substantial up-regulation of Sox2, Oct3/4, and Rex1. Muse-ATs also exhibit gene expression patterns associated with the down-regulation of genes involved in cell death and survival, embryonic development, DNA replication and repair, cell cycle and potential factors related to oncogenecity. Gene expression analysis indicates that Muse-ATs and ASCs are mesenchymal in origin; however, Muse-ATs also express numerous lymphocytic and hematopoietic genes, such as CCR1 and CXCL2, encoding chemokine receptors and ligands involved in stem cell

  18. Several classical mouse inbred strains, including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, carry a putative loss-of-function allele of Gpr84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Carlos J; Dumas, Aline; Vallières, Luc; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in the mouse family tree and found that 14 strains are homozygous for the deletion. Some of these strains are DBA/1J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, LG/J, MRL/MpJ, NOD/LtJ, and SJL/J. However, the deletion was not found in any of the wild-derived inbred strains analyzed. Haplotype analysis suggested that the deletion originates from a unique mutation event that occurred more than 100 years ago, preceding the development of the first inbred strain (DBA), from a Mus musculus domesticus source. As GPR84 ostensibly plays a role in the biology of myeloid cells, it could be relevant 1) to consider the existence of this Gpr84 nonsense mutation in several mouse strains when choosing a mouse model to study immune processes and 2) to consider reevaluating data obtained using such strains.

  19. Physiological and photosynthesis response of popcorn inbred seedings to waterlogging stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.; Wang, J.; Li, F.; Shi, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is one of the most severe global problems, which affects crop growth and yield worldwide, especially in the low-lying rainfed areas, and irrigated and heavy rainfall environment. Our objective was to study the physiological and photosynthetic characteristics of two popcorn genotypes under waterlogging conditions. The experiment was carried out in pots with two contrasting inbred lines differing in waterlogging tolerance: Q5 (tolerant) and Q10 (sensitive). Leaf gas exchange, oxidative stress, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6d in the control and waterlogged plants. A decrease in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration was observed in both genotypes. The waterlogging-sensitive plants showed reduced chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content and increased activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Response curves for the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net photosynthetic rate (P /subN/ ) for waterlogged plants were similar in both genotypes. The different physiological and photosynthetic response in the two popcorn inbred lines might be responsible for higher tolerance of Q5 than Q10. These results suggest that Q5 popcorn inbred lines are a source of genetic diversity for important traits such as P /subN/ and WUE. (author)

  20. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  1. Correlation Analysis on Agronomic Characters in F1 population derived from a cross of Pongsu Seribu 2 and MR 264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aishah, H.; Abdul Rahim Harun; Norain, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Agronomic characters play a vital role in grain yield performance. However, the information related to the relationships between agronomic characters and grain yield in Malaysia are particularly very limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the correlation between grain yield performance with nine (n=9) agronomic characters namely plant height, panicle length, total grain number, filled grains per panicle, grain length, number of tillers, flag leaf area, flag leaf width and 1000-grains weight. Twenty (n=20) F 1 population derived from a cross of Pongsu Seribu 2 and MR 264 were used and were grown at Malaysian Nuclear Agency Greenhouse, Bangi. Result of correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant at (p ≤ 0.01) relation between 1000-grains weight with total grains number (r = 0.647), filled grains per panicle (r = 0.603), grain length (r = 0.834), flag leaf area (r = 0.701) and flag leaf width (r = 0.894). However, the negative (inverse) correlation was observed between panicle length with total grain number, number of tiller and filled grain per panicle. Regression analysis revealed that flag leaf width (4.162) has highest direct effect on the yield followed by grain length (2.801), flag leaf area (0.048) and total grain no (0.07) respectively. Whereas, plant height (-0.05), plant length (-0.223), filled grains per panicle (-0.005) and number of tillers (-0.071) has indirect effect on the yield. This study indicated that selection based flag leaf width and grain length will be highly effective for yield improvement can be consider in selection of breeding lines and highly effective for yield improvement in rice breeding program. (author)

  2. Total external dose equivalent and effective dose derived to the Piedmont population in the period 30 Apr 1986 - 22 Sep 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortissone, C.; Giacomelli, R.; Spezzano, P.; Porzio, L.

    1988-01-01

    Some dosimetric evaluations concerning the population of the Piemonte Region, obtained after the measurements made following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The individual effective mean dose equivalent derived from the exposure and intake in the period April 30, 1986 - September 22, 1987, is about 0.50 mSv

  3. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Janet P; Schmitt, Kyle; Folta, Kevin M

    2009-10-31

    The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry), and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. xananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2) was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses. These day-neutral plants have a small genome, a seed to seed

  4. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry, and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2 was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses

  5. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  6. Cyclophosphamide-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cell population is immunosuppressive but not identical to myeloid-derived suppressor cells induced by growing TC-1 tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Polláková, Veronika; Bieblová, Jana; Šímová, Jana; Reiniš, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2012), s. 374-384 ISSN 1524-9557 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/11/P220; GA ČR GA301/09/1024; GA ČR GA301/07/1410 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : myeloid-derived suppressor cells * cyclophosphamide * all-trans-retinoic acid * IL-12 * HPV16 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.463, year: 2012

  7. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Addo-Quaye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation.

  8. Association of OCT-Derived Drusen Measurements with AMD-Associated Genotypic SNPs in the Amish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Murthy Chavali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the association of optical coherence tomography (OCT-derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Methods: Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen area, volume and regions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE atrophy using a Cirrus High-Definition OCT. Measurements were obtained in the macula region within a central circle (CC of 3 mm in diameter and a surrounding perifoveal ring (PR of 3 to 5 mm in diameter using the Cirrus OCT RPE analysis software. Other demographic information, including age, gender and smoking status, were collected. Study subjects were further genotyped to determine their risk for the AMD-associated SNPs in the SYN3, LIPC, ARMS2, C3, CFB, CETP, CFI and CFH genes using TaqMan genotyping assays. The association of genotypes with OCT measures were assessed using linear trend p-values calculated from univariate and multivariate generalized linear models. Results: 432 eyes were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis (adjusted by age, gender and smoking status confirmed the known significant association between AMD and macular drusen with the number of CFH risk alleles for the drusen area (the area increased 0.12 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p < 0.01, drusen volume (the volume increased 0.01 mm3 for a risk allele increase, p ≤ 0.05 and the area of RPE atrophy (the area increased 0.43 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.003. SYN3 risk allele G is significantly associated with larger area PR (the area increased 0.09 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.03 and larger drusen volume in the central circle (the volume increased 0.01 mm3 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.04. Conclusion: Among the genotyped SNPs tested, the CFH risk genotype appears to play a major role in determining the drusen phenotype in the Amish AMD population.

  9. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Fraction Contained in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Populations Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Duttenhoefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bone tissue engineering (TE endothelial cell-osteoblast cocultures are known to induce synergies of cell differentiation and activity. Bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMCs are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs able to develop an osteogenic phenotype. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are also present within BMC. In this study we investigate the effect of EPCs present in the BMC population on MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Human BMCs were isolated and separated into two populations. The MSC population was selected through plastic adhesion capacity. EPCs (CD34+ and CD133+ were removed from the BMC population and the resulting population was named depleted MSCs. Both populations were cultured over 28 days in osteogenic medium (Dex+ or medium containing platelet lysate (PL. MSC population grew faster than depleted MSCs in both media, and PL containing medium accelerated the proliferation for both populations. Cell differentiation was much higher in Dex+ medium in both cases. Real-time RT-PCR revealed upregulation of osteogenic marker genes in depleted MSCs. Higher values of ALP activity and matrix mineralization analyses confirmed these results. Our study advocates that absence of EPCs in the MSC population enables higher osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization and therefore may lead to advanced bone neoformation necessary for TE constructs.

  10. Use of Multicolor Flow Cytometry for Isolation of Specific Cell Populations Deriving from Differentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengarelli, Isabella; Fryga, Andrew; Barberi, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Flow Cytometry-Sorting (FCM-Sorting) is a technique commonly used to identify and isolate specific types of cells from a heterogeneous population of live cells. Here we describe a multicolor flow cytometry technique that uses five distinct cell surface antigens to isolate four live populations with

  11. Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T

    2009-12-01

    We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent.

  12. Hidden Markov model analysis of maternal behavior patterns in inbred and reciprocal hybrid mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Carola

    Full Text Available Individual variation in maternal care in mammals shows a significant heritable component, with the maternal behavior of daughters resembling that of their mothers. In laboratory mice, genetically distinct inbred strains show stable differences in maternal care during the first postnatal week. Moreover, cross fostering and reciprocal breeding studies demonstrate that differences in maternal care between inbred strains persist in the absence of genetic differences, demonstrating a non-genetic or epigenetic contribution to maternal behavior. In this study we applied a mathematical tool, called hidden Markov model (HMM, to analyze the behavior of female mice in the presence of their young. The frequency of several maternal behaviors in mice has been previously described, including nursing/grooming pups and tending to the nest. However, the ordering, clustering, and transitions between these behaviors have not been systematically described and thus a global description of maternal behavior is lacking. Here we used HMM to describe maternal behavior patterns in two genetically distinct mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, and their genetically identical reciprocal hybrid female offspring. HMM analysis is a powerful tool to identify patterns of events that cluster in time and to determine transitions between these clusters, or hidden states. For the HMM analysis we defined seven states: arched-backed nursing, blanket nursing, licking/grooming pups, grooming, activity, eating, and sleeping. By quantifying the frequency, duration, composition, and transition probabilities of these states we were able to describe the pattern of maternal behavior in mouse and identify aspects of these patterns that are under genetic and nongenetic inheritance. Differences in these patterns observed in the experimental groups (inbred and hybrid females were detected only after the application of HMM analysis whereas classical statistical methods and analyses were not able to

  13. Salt-induced root protein profile changes in seedlings of maize inbred lines with differing salt tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the severest growth limited-factors to agriculture production. To gain in-depth knowledge of salt-stress response mechanisms, the proteomics analysis from two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. There were 57 salt-regulated proteins identified, 21 and 36 proteins were differentially regulated in inbred lines 'Nongda 1145' (salt-resistant and 'D340' (salt-sensitive, respectively. The identified proteins were distributed in 11 biological processes and seven molecular functions. Under salt stress, proteins related to antioxidation and lignin synthesis were increased in both inbred lines. The relative abundance of proteins involved in translation initiation, elongation, and protein proteolysis increased in 'Nongda 1145' and decreased in 'D340'. In addition, the abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein refolding, ATP synthase and transcription differed between the two inbred lines. Our results suggest that the enhanced ability of salt-tolerant inbred line 'Nongda 1145' to combat salt stress occurs via regulation of transcription factors promoting increased antioxidation and lignin biosynthesis, enhanced energy production, and acceleration of protein translation and protein proteolysis.

  14. Effect of. gamma. -radiation on chiasma frequency in four inbred strains of Trigonella L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, T; Lakshmi, N

    1983-12-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-rays on chiasma frequency was studied in M/sub 1/ plants of three inbred strains of T. foenum-graecum and T. corniculata. The response of the varieties to different doses of radiation with respect to chaiasma frequency was found to be different on the basis of students 't' test. In all the treated strains a decrease in chiasma frequency was observed compared to controls and the decrease was found to be inversely proportional to the dose. The possible causes for reduction in chiasma frequency are discussed. 16 refs., 3 tables.

  15. Biochemical markers of embryogenesis in tissue cultures of the maize inbred B73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, N.P.; Wach, M.J.; Ashworth, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Stable embryogenic, organogenic and undifferentiated cell lines of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred B73 were used to assess the value of using isozyme analyses and the composition of secreted polysaccharides to identify embryogenic cells. Esterase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase all possessed developmentally regulated isozymes but only esterase and glutamate dehydrogenase could be used to distinguish between embryogenic and shoot-forming cultures. Embryogenic callus and suspension cultures secreted a mucilagenous polysaccharide whose production was stimulated by 2, 4-dichlorophenozyacetic acid (2, 4-D). The polysaccharide was different from root slime and corn hull gum and may be related to the 'cementing layer' in maize kernels (author)

  16. SSR marker analysis on genetic variation of M3 from maize inbred lines 48-2 and R08 after irradiation inducement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Shi Haichun; Ke Yongpei; Yuan Jichao; Yu Xuejie

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the biological effects and the genetic variations of maize mutagenic progenies is important to facilitate effective selections and utilization of the mutants. In this study, the genetic variation of 103 mutagenic progenies of M 3 lines of inbred lines 48-2 and R08 with 60 Co γ-rays inducement were evaluated with SSR molecular markers. The results indicated that, the amplitude of polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 48-2 and R08 M 3 lines ranged 0.307 ∼ 0.948 and 0.108 ∼ 0.955, with an average of 0.762 and 0.701, respectively. The amplitude of genetic diversity indexes (H') ranged 0.552 ∼ 2.830 and 0.254 ∼ 3.309, with an average of 1.830 and 1.777, respectively. The average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the 49 M 3 lines of 48-2 with its check (M673) was 0.8194. However, the average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the M 3 lines of R08 with its check (M487) was 0.8373. Based on the genetic similarity coefficient, inbred lines 48-2, R08 and their 101 M 3 lines were clustered in 7 and 5 populations respectively. This phenomenon indicated that massive genetic variation could appear in progenies due to irradiation. The strengthen of selection and utilization of mutants based on the breeding objectives and in accordance with the feature and regularity on genetic variations of main characteristics of mutant lines in various populations could be enhanced in breeding program, to some extent, which can increase the breeding efficiency of irradiation induced mutation in maize. (authors)

  17. Non-cultured adipose-derived CD45(-) side population cells are enriched for progenitors that give rise to myofibres in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Schrøder, Henrik D; Jensen, Charlotte H

    2008-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells are highly able to exclude the Hoechst 33342 dye through membrane transporters, a feature associated with cell immaturity and therefore proposed as a marker of stem cells. Herein we demonstrate that the adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains...... skeletal muscle repair mainly relies on the satellitecell, several reports have shown that vessel-associated cells may adopt a myogenic phenotype when exposed to a muscle environment. In accordance with these findings, we also observed invitro myogenic specification of SPCD45(-) cells when cocultured...... a novel population of non-haematopoietic "side population" (SPCD45(-)) cells. Simultaneous qRT-PCR of 64 genes revealed that the freshly isolated SPCD45(-) was highly enriched for cells expressing genes related to stem cells, the Notch pathway, and early vascular precursors. Notably, the expression...

  18. PARTIAL REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION OF A RECENTLY DERIVED RESIDENT-FRESHWATER POPULATION OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACK (GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS) FROM ITS PUTATIVE ANADROMOUS ANCESTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furin, Christoff G.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; Bell, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We used no-choice mating trials to test for assortative mating between a newly derived resident-freshwater population (8 – 22 generations since founding) of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Loberg Lake, Alaska and its putative anadromous ancestor as well as a morphologically convergent but distantly related resident-freshwater population. Partial reproductive isolation has evolved between the Loberg Lake population and its ancestor within a remarkably short time period. However, Loberg stickleback readily mate with morphologically similar, but distantly related resident-freshwater stickleback. Partial pre-mating isolation is asymmetrical; anadromous females and smaller, resident-freshwater males from Loberg Lake readily mate, but the anadromous males and smaller Loberg females do not. Our results indicate that pre-mating isolation can begin to evolve in allopatry within a few generations after isolation as a correlated effect of evolution of reduced body size. PMID:23025615

  19. Renal blood flow dynamics in inbred rat strains provides insight into autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mitrou, Nicholas G; Cupples, William A

    2014-01-01

    Renal autoregulation maintains stable renal blood flow in the face of constantly fluctuating blood pressure. Autoregulation is also the only mechanism that protects the delicate glomerular capillaries when blood pressure increases. In order to understand autoregulation, the renal blood flow response to changing blood pressure is studied. The steadystate response of blood flow is informative, but limits investigation of the individual mechanisms of autoregulation. The dynamics of autoregulation can be probed with transfer function analysis. The frequency-domain analysis of autoregulation allows investigators to probe the relative activity of each mechanism of autoregulation. We discuss the methodology and interpretation of transfer function analysis. Autoregulation is routinely studied in the rat, of which there are many inbred strains. There are multiple strains of rat that are either selected or inbred as models of human pathology. We discuss relevant characteristics of Brown Norway, Spontaneously hypertensive, Dahl, and Fawn-Hooded hypertensive rats and explore differences among these strains in blood pressure, dynamic autoregulation, and susceptibility to hypertensive renal injury. Finally we show that the use of transfer function analysis in these rat strains has contributed to our understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of autoregulation and hypertensive renal disease.Interestingly all these strains demonstrate effective tubuloglomerular feedback suggesting that this mechanism is not sufficient for effective autoregulation. In contrast, obligatory or conditional failure of the myogenic mechanism suggests that this component is both necessary and sufficient for autoregulation.

  20. Agrobacterium- and Biolistic-Mediated Transformation of Maize B104 Inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Jennifer A; Frame, Bronwyn; Little, Daniel; Santoso, Tri Joko; Wang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Genetic transformation of maize inbred genotypes remains non-routine for many laboratories due to variations in cell competency to induce embryogenic callus, as well as the cell's ability to receive and incorporate transgenes into the genome. This chapter describes two transformation protocols using Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods for gene delivery. Immature zygotic embryos of maize inbred B104, excised from ears harvested 10-14 days post pollination, are used as starting explant material. Disarmed Agrobacterium strains harboring standard binary vectors and the biolistic gun system Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He are used as gene delivery systems. The herbicide resistant bar gene and selection agent bialaphos are used for identifying putative transgenic type I callus events. Using the step-by-step protocols described here, average transformation frequencies (number of bialaphos resistant T 0 callus events per 100 explants infected or bombarded) of 4% and 8% can be achieved using the Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods, respectively. An estimated duration of 16-21 weeks is needed using either protocol from the start of transformation experiments to obtaining putative transgenic plantlets with established roots. In addition to laboratory in vitro procedures, detailed greenhouse protocols for producing immature ears as transformation starting material and caring for transgenic plants for seed production are also described.

  1. A Maize Inbred Exhibits Resistance Against Western Corn Rootwoorm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano-Duque, Lina; Loades, Kenneth W; Tooker, John F; Brown, Kathleen M; Paul Williams, W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2017-12-01

    Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene. In contrast, Tx601 is susceptible to WCR. These findings will facilitate the use of Mp708 as a model to explore the wide variety of mechanisms and traits involved in plant defense responses and resistance to herbivory by insects with several different feeding habits.

  2. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cJ (BALB), C3H/HeJ (C3H), DBA/2J (D2), FVB/NJ (FVB) and 129S1/SvImJ (129) mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine. PMID:21806802

  3. Divergence and inheritance of neocortical heterotopia in inbred and genetically-engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Alyssa R; Cuoco, Joshua A; Esposito, Anthony W; Ahsan, Jawad; Joshi, Alok; Herron, Bruce J; Torres, German; Bolivar, Valerie J; Ramos, Raddy L

    2017-01-18

    Cortical function emerges from the intrinsic properties of neocortical neurons and their synaptic connections within and across lamina. Neurodevelopmental disorders affecting migration and lamination of the neocortex result in cognitive delay/disability and epilepsy. Molecular layer heterotopia (MLH), a dysplasia characterized by over-migration of neurons into layer I, are associated with cognitive deficits and neuronal hyperexcitability in humans and mice. The breadth of different inbred mouse strains that exhibit MLH and inheritance patterns of heterotopia remain unknown. A neuroanatomical survey of numerous different inbred mouse strains, 2 first filial generation (F1) hybrids, and one consomic strain (C57BL/6J-Chr 1 A/J /NaJ) revealed MLH only in C57BL/6 mice and the consomic strain. Heterotopia were observed in numerous genetically-engineered mouse lines on a congenic C57BL/6 background. These data indicate that heterotopia formation is a weakly penetrant trait requiring homozygosity of one or more C57BL/6 alleles outside of chromosome 1. These data are relevant toward understanding neocortical development and disorders affecting neocortical lamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory and wild-derived mice with multiple loci for production of xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; Hartley, J W; Morse, H C

    1984-07-01

    Mendelian segregation analysis was used to define genetic loci for the induction of infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus in several laboratory and wild-derived mice. MA/My mice contain two loci for xenotropic virus inducibility, one of which, Bxv -1, is the only induction locus carried by five other inbred strains. The second, novel MA/My locus, designated Mxv -1, is unlinked to Bxv -1 and shows a lower efficiency of virus induction. The NZB mouse carries two induction loci; both are distinct from Bxv -1 since neither is linked to the Pep-3 locus on chromosome 1. Finally, one partially inbred strain derived from the wild Japanese mouse, Mus musculus molossinus, carries multiple (at least three) unlinked loci for induction of xenotropic virus. Although it is probable that inbred strains inherited xenotropic virus inducibility from Japanese mice, our data suggest that none of the induction loci carried by this particular M. m. molossinus strain are allelic with Bxv -1.

  5. Association of OCT-Derived Drusen Measurements with AMD-Associated Genotypic SNPs in the Amish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Diniz, Bruno; Huang, Jiayan; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Stambolian, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Methods: Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen area, volume and regions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy using a Cirrus High-Definition OCT. Measurements were obtained in the macula region within a central circle (CC) of 3...

  6. Who were the male founders of rural Brazilian Afro-derived communities? A proposal based on three populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme Galvarros Bueno Lobo; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Barcelos, Rejane da Silva Sena; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Junior, Wilson Araujo da Silva; Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana de

    2011-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombos are Afro-derived communities founded mainly by fugitive slaves between the 16(th) and 19(th) centuries; they can be recognized today by ancestral and cultural characteristics. Each of these remnant communities, however, has its own particular history, which includes the migration of non-African derived people. The present work presents a proposal for the origin of the male founder in Brazilian quilombos based on Y-haplogroup distribution. Y haplogroups, based on 16 binary markers (92R7, SRY2627, SRY4064, SRY10831.1 and .2, M2, M3, M09, M34, M60, M89, M213, M216, P2, P3 and YAP), were analysed for 98 DNA samples from genetically unrelated men from three rural Brazilian Afro-derived communities-Mocambo, Rio das Rãs and Kalunga-in order to estimate male geographic origin. Data indicated significant differences among these communities. A high frequency of non-African haplogroups was observed in all communities. This observation suggested an admixture process that has occurred over generations and directional mating between European males and African female slaves that must have occurred on farms before the slaves escaped. This means that the admixture occurred before the slaves escaped and the foundation of the quilombo.

  7. A phantom based method for deriving typical patient doses from measurements of dose-area product on populations of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapple, C.-L.; Broadhead, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the chief sources of uncertainty in the comparison of patient dosimetry data is the influence of patient size on dose. Dose has been shown to relate closely to the equivalent diameter of the patient. This concept has been used to derive a prospective, phantom based method for determining size correction factors for measurements of dose-area product. The derivation of the size correction factor has been demonstrated mathematically, and the appropriate factor determined for a number of different X-ray sets. The use of phantom measurements enables the effect of patient size to be isolated from other factors influencing patient dose. The derived factors agree well with those determined retrospectively from patient dose survey data. Size correction factors have been applied to the results of a large scale patient dose survey, and this approach has been compared with the method of selecting patients according to their weight. For large samples of data, mean dose-area product values are independent of the analysis method used. The chief advantage of using size correction factors is that it allows all patient data to be included in a survey, whereas patient selection has been shown to exclude approximately half of all patients. (author)

  8. Disappointing performance of literature-derived selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an inner-city population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I G; Boeke, A J; Morré, S A; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Devillé, W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an inner-city population with a low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, selective screening may be indicated to increase the efficiency of screening. GOAL: To evaluate the performance of sets of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection

  9. Fracture risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) compared with fracture risk derived from population fracture rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Swedish version of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)) without bone mass density (BMD) in a Danish population to examine the possibility of applying this version to Danish women. METHODS: From the Danish National Register of social security numbers, we...

  10. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an

  11. Characterization of field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry1F δ-endotoxin in Spodoptera frugiperda populations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, Desmi I; Signorini, Ana M; Abratti, Gustavo; Storer, Nicholas P; Olaciregui, Magdalena L; Alves, Analiza P; Pilcher, Clinton D

    2018-03-01

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) event TC1507 (Herculex ® I insect protection), expressing Cry1F δ-endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, was commercialized in 2003 in the Americas. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) susceptibility to Cry1F was monitored annually across several regions in Argentina using diagnostic concentration bioassays. Reduced performance of TC1507 maize against S. frugiperda was reported in 2013. A resistant population was established in the laboratory and the dominance of Cry1F resistance was characterized. During 2012-2015, high-survivorship of several populations was observed in the resistance monitoring program. Reciprocal crosses of a Cry1F-resistant population with a Cry1F-susceptible population were evaluated to calculate effective dominance (D ML ) based on mortality levels observed at 100 µg/ml Cry1F. Two additional dominance levels (D LC and D EC ) were calculated using lethal (LC 50 ) or effective concentration (EC 50 ) derived from concentration-response bioassays. Estimates indicated that Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda in Argentina was either highly recessive (D ML = 0.005) or incompletely recessive (D LC frugiperda Cry1F field-evolved resistance in Argentina. The resistance to Cry1F in S. frugiperda populations collected in Argentina, is autosomal and incompletely recessive similar to the resistance reported in Brazil. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley © Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley © Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its animal partner and the nutritional environment throughout a fly population's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Gillet, Benjamin; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Leulier, François

    2018-04-01

    In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process. Adult flies constantly ingest and excrete microbes from and onto their feeding substrate, which are then transmitted to the next generation developing within this shared habitat. We wanted to analyze the potential changes in the bacterial community during its reciprocal transfer between the two compartments of the niche (i.e. the fly and the diet). To address this question, we used a diverse, wild-derived microbial community and analyzed its relationship with the fly population and the nutritive substrate in a given habitat. Here we show that the community was overall well maintained upon transmission to a new niche, to a new fly population and to their progeny, illustrating the stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its fly partner and the nutritional environment. These results highlight the preponderant role of the nutritional substrate in the dynamics of Drosophila/microbiota interactions, and the need to fully integrate this variable when performing such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. X-ray and NQR studies of bromoindate(III) complexes. [C2H5NH3]4InBr7, [C(NH2)3]3InBr6, and [H3NCH2C(CH3)2CH2NH3]InBr5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Takeharu; Ishihara, Hideta; Terao, Hiromitsu; Lork, Enno; Gesing, Thorsten M.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structures of [C 2 H 5 NH 3 ] 4 InBr 7 (1), [C(NH 2 ) 3 ] 3 InBr 6 (2), and [H 3 NCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 NH 3 ]InBr 5 (3) were determined at 100(2) K: monoclinic, P2 1 /n, a=1061.94(3), b=1186.40(4), c=2007.88(7) pm, β= 104.575(1) , Z=4 for 1; monoclinic, C2/c, a=3128.81(12), b=878.42(3), c=2816.50(10) pm, β=92.1320(10) , Z=16 for 2; orthorhombic, P2 1 2 1 2 1 , a=1250.33(5), b=1391.46(6), c=2503.22(9) pm, Z=4 for 3. The structure of 1 contains an isolated octahedral [InBr 6 ] 3- ion and a Br - ion. The structure of 2 contains three different isolated octahedral [InBr 6 ] 3- ions. The structure of 3 has a corner-shared double-octahedral [In 2 Br 11 ] 5- ion and an isolated tetrahedral [InBr 4 ] - ion. The 81 Br nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines of the terminal Br atoms of the compounds are widely spread in frequency, and some of them show unusual positive temperature dependence. These observations manifest the N-H..Br-In hydrogen bond networks developed between the cations and anions to stabilize the crystal structures. The 81 Br NQR and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have revealed the occurrence of unique phase transitions in 1 and 3. When the bond angles were estimated from the electric field gradient (EFG) directions calculated by the molecular orbital (MO) methods, accurate values were obtained for [InBr 6 ] 3- of 1 and for [In 2 Br 11 ] 5- and [InBr 4 ] - of 3, except for several exceptions in those for the latter two ions. On the other hand, the calculations of 81 Br NQR frequencies have produced up to 1.4 times higher values than the observed ones.

  14. Neurons derived from patients with bipolar disorder divide into intrinsically different sub-populations of neurons, predicting the patients' responsiveness to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S; Santos, R; Marchetto, M C; Mendes, A P D; Rouleau, G A; Biesmans, S; Wang, Q-W; Yao, J; Charnay, P; Bang, A G; Alda, M; Gage, F H

    2017-02-28

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder with more than 3% prevalence worldwide. Affected individuals experience recurrent episodes of depression and mania, disrupting normal life and increasing the risk of suicide greatly. The complexity and genetic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders have challenged the development of animal and cellular models. We recently reported that hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts of BD patients are electrophysiologically hyperexcitable. Here we used iPSCs derived from Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B-lymphocytes to verify that the hyperexcitability of DG-like neurons is reproduced in this different cohort of patients and cells. Lymphocytes are readily available for research with a large number of banked lines with associated patient clinical description. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of over 460 neurons to characterize neurons derived from control individuals and BD patients. Extensive functional analysis showed that intrinsic cell parameters are very different between the two groups of BD neurons, those derived from lithium (Li)-responsive (LR) patients and those derived from Li-non-responsive (NR) patients, which led us to partition our BD neurons into two sub-populations of cells and suggested two different subdisorders. Training a Naïve Bayes classifier with the electrophysiological features of patients whose responses to Li are known allows for accurate classification with more than 92% success rate for a new patient whose response to Li is unknown. Despite their very different functional profiles, both populations of neurons share a large, fast after-hyperpolarization (AHP). We therefore suggest that the large, fast AHP is a key feature of BD and a main contributor to the fast, sustained spiking abilities of BD neurons. Confirming our previous report with fibroblast-derived DG neurons, chronic Li treatment reduced

  15. A population-based case-control teratologic study of furazidine, a nitrofuran-derivative treatment during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A E; Rockenbauer, M; Sørensen, H T; Olsen, J

    2000-04-01

    To study human teratogenic potential of furazidine treatment during pregnancy. Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. 38,151 pregnant women who had newborn infants without any defects (population control group) and 22,865 pregnant women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. In the case group, 157 (0.7%) and in the control group, 254 (0.7%) pregnant women were treated with furazidine. The case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of furazidine use during the second to third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Treatment with furazidine during pregnancy did not show teratogenic risk to the fetus.

  16. Population norms for the AQoL derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Korn, Sam; Richardson, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    To provide Australian health-related quality of life (HRQoL) population norms, based on utility scores from the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) measure, a participant-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument. The data were from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. AQoL scores were analysed by age cohorts, gender, other demographic characteristics, and mental and physical health variables. The AQoL utility score mean was 0.81 (95%CI 0.81-0.82), and 47% obtained scores indicating a very high HRQoL (>0.90). HRQoL gently declined by age group, with older adults' scores indicating lower HRQoL. Based on effect sizes (ESs), there were small losses in HRQoL associated with other demographic variables (e.g. by lack of labour force participation, ES(median) : 0.27). Those with current mental health syndromes reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.64), while those with physical health conditions generally also reported moderate losses in HRQoL (ES(median) : 0.41). This study has provided contemporary Australian population norms for HRQoL that may be used by researchers as indicators allowing interpretation and estimation of population health (e.g. estimation of the burden of disease), cross comparison between studies, the identification of health inequalities, and to provide benchmarks for health care interventions. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Evaluation of the capacity for direct regeneration of maize inbreds of the Lancaster selection group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Derkach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the necessity of bringing elite maize inbreds of the Lancaster germplasm group, which have potential for cultivation in Ukraine, into the system of genetic tranformation, the aim of this investigation is to identify the ability of maize inbreds of this group to regenerate by direct organogenesis and to determine the optimal mineral basis for their nutritional environment using segments of the node area of shoots. As explantats we used sterile 4-day old seedlings of 4 maize inbreds of Lancaster germplasm and model inbred Chi31 exotic germplasm. The seedlings were obtained by germination of sterile seeds in Petri dishes between two layers of moist sterile filter paper at a temperature of 27 ºC in dark conditions. A single 1 cmlong segment was cut from each from each seedling, running from 0.5 cmbefore the node to 0.5 cmafter the node. A cut was made in each segment of the node in order to create a wounded surface. Explantats were planted in a nutrient environment with mineral bases of MS or N6, modified by the addition of 10 mg/l silver nitrate, 100 mg/l casein hydrolyzate, 690 mg/l L-proline, 30 g/l sucrose, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dychlorphenoksiacetic acid and 0,1 mg/l abscisic acid. Cultivation was carried out at 25–27 ºC in the light. Direct hemogenesis in this environment on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro reached 100% for each line. This meant that all researched lines of Lancaster germplasm and the model line showed a high capacity for direct regeneration through direct hemogenesis, which does not depend on the composition of the mineral content of their nutritional environment. Callus formation was observed in all genotypes on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro and the extent of its formation increased during the following month of cultivation. The callus formation was observed only at the site of the wounded surface. The calluses were transparent. Although green areas appeared in these calluses, they were

  18. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F14 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00–14.17% of phenotype variation (PV and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13–34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  19. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Shang, Lianguang; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F 14 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC) population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00-14.17% of phenotype variation (PV) and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13-34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits.

  20. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta BALCONI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L. grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and animal feed. Hence, the development of maize genotypes with reduced mycotoxin accumulation in grain is of major importance. In order to find maize germplasm sources of resistance to Fusarium ear rot, 34 Italian and six public inbred lines were evaluated by means of artificial inoculation in field experiments during 2009 and 2010. Relationships between ear rot and fumonisin concentration in the ears were investigated. Primary ears were challenged with a mixture of two Fusarium verticillioides isolates from Northern Italy, through kernel inoculation, and ear rot severity was assessed.The average number of visibly infected kernels per ear, after inoculation, ranged from 2 to 68 in 2009 and from 0 to 120 in 2010. Fumonisin concentrations in the inoculated ears were greater than in the experimental controls for both years. Variability was found between the inbred lines: fumonisin accumulation ranged from 0.56 to 240.83 mg kg-1 in 2009 and from 1.09 to 190.60 mg kg-1 in 2010. In both years, six inbred lines showed high fumonisin content (≥100 mg kg-1, while the other genotypes were almost equally split into two groups, low (≤10 mg kg-1 and medium (from 11 to 100 mg kg-1 fumonisin content. The number of infected kernels after artificial inoculation correlated with fumonisin concentration both in 2009 (r = 0.94; P≤0.01 and 2010 (r = 0.67; P≤0.01. Additionally, the percentage of internally infected kernels correlated positively with fumonisin concentration (r = 0.37; P≤0.01 and with the number of infected kernels (r = 0.29; P≤0.05. This research has demonstrated that Italian maize germplasm is a valid source of resistance to Fusarium ear rot. Furthermore, there is a strong association of visible Fusarium symptoms with fumonisin concentration, suggesting that selection in maize for reduced visible moulds should reduce the risk of

  1. Consistent individual differences and population plasticity in network-derived sociality: An experimental manipulation of density in a gregarious ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Paul P.; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In many taxa, individual social traits appear to be consistent across time and context, thus meeting the criteria for animal personality. How these differences are maintained in response to changes in population density is unknown, particularly in large mammals, such as ungulates. Using a behavioral reaction norm (BRN) framework, we examined how among- and within-individual variation in social connectedness, measured using social network analyses, change as a function of population density. We studied a captive herd of elk (Cervus canadensis) separated into a group of male elk and a group of female elk. Males and females were exposed to three different density treatments and we recorded social associations between individuals with proximity-detecting radio-collars fitted to elk. We constructed social networks using dyadic association data and calculated three social network metrics reflective of social connectedness: eigenvector centrality, graph strength, and degree. Elk exhibited consistent individual differences in social connectedness across densities; however, they showed little individual variation in their response to changes in density, i.e., individuals oftentimes responded plastically, but in the same manner to changes in density. Female elk had highest connectedness at an intermediate density. In contrast, male elk increased connectedness with increasing density. Whereas this may suggest that the benefits of social connectedness outweigh the costs of increased competition at higher density for males, females appear to exhibit a threshold in social benefits (e.g. predator detection and forage information). Our study illustrates the importance of viewing social connectedness as a density-dependent trait, particularly in the context of plasticity. Moreover, we highlight the need to revisit our understanding of density dependence as a population-level phenomenon by accounting for consistent individual differences not only in social connectedness, but likely

  2. Seleção de linhagens com tolerância ao calor em germoplasma de tomateiro coletado na região Norte do Brasil Selection of heat tolerant tomato inbred lines from landraces adapted for cultivation in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de B. Giordano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As altas temperaturas nas regiões tropicais e equatoriais induzem uma série de distúrbios morfológicos e/ou fisiológicos em estruturas florais do tomateiro, resultando em menor produtividade devido a maiores taxas de abortamento e má formação de frutos. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas linhagens de tomateiro oriundas de duas populações que vêm sendo cultivadas em Roraima, região Norte do Brasil. Doze linhagens foram obtidas após um ciclo prévio de seleção (em Brasília-DF em condições de temperatura elevada. A avaliação destas doze linhagens e duas cultivares testemunhas ('Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' foi conduzida em casa de vegetação com temperaturas média das mínimas de 15ºC e média das máximas de 46,2ºC. Foram observadas diferenças significativas para número de frutos abortados, número de frutos maduros, peso de frutos maduros, teores de sólidos solúveis, firmeza e coloração de frutos. As linhagens (como um grupo apresentaram melhor desempenho do que as testemunhas 'Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' para os parâmetros número de frutos abortados, peso, número e coloração de frutos maduros. A metodologia adotada no presente trabalho, permite a identificação de genótipos superiores adaptados ao cultivo em regiões tropicais e equatoriais com elevadas temperaturas.Heat tolerance is a major trait for tomato breeding programs targeted for lowland wet climates in equatorial and tropical areas of the world. High temperatures might cause several disturbances to morphological and physiological characteristics of the tomato flowers leading to yield constraints due to reduction in fruit setting. In the present work, an experiment was conducted to evaluate tomato breeding lines, derived from two tomato landrace populations cultivated by farmers in Roraima State (North Region of Brazil. Twelve inbred lines were obtained from these populations after one cycle of selection in a plastic house with high temperatures. These 12

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  4. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  5. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the local immune response in azoxymethane-induced colon tumours in the BDIX inbred rat strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Agger, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    by four weekly subcutaneous azoxymethane injections in inbred rats of the BDIX/OrlIco strain in two separate studies. Azoxymethane-induced tumours show many similarities to spontaneously occurring human colon carcinomas with respect to histopathological appearance. In our studies, the overall inflammatory...

  6. Derivation of travel demand forecasting models for low population areas: the case of Port Said Governorate, North East Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Semeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, there has been substantial development in modeling techniques of travel demand estimation. For low population areas the external trip estimation is important but usually neglected in travel demand modeling process. In Egypt, the researches in this field are scarce due to lack of data. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify and estimate the main variables that affect the travel demand in low population areas, and to develop models to predict them. The study focused on the Port Said Governorate in North East Egypt. A special questionnaire had been prepared in 2010 depending on interviews of passengers at basic taxi terminals in Port Said. And 2211 filled questionnaires were offering for research. To analyze the data, two modeling procedures were used. One is the multiple linear regression and the other is the generalized linear modeling (GLM applying normal distributions. It is found that GLM procedure offers more suitable and accurate approach than the linear regression for developing number of trips. The final demand models have statistics within the acceptable regions and, also, they are conceptually reasonable. These results are so important for Egyptian highway authorities to improve the efficiency of highway transportation system in Egypt.

  7. Genetic basis for body size variation between an anadromous and two derived lacustrine populations of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in southwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ella; Johnston, Rebecca A; Vanderzwan, Stevi L; Rogers, Sean M

    2016-02-01

    Body size is a highly variable trait among geographically separated populations. Size-assortative reproductive isolation has been linked to recent adaptive radiations of threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) into freshwater, but the genetic basis of the commonly found size difference between anadromous and derived lacustrine sticklebacks has not been tested. We studied the genetic basis of size differences between recently diverging stickleback lineages in southwest Alaska using a common environment experiment. We crossed stickleback within one anadromous (Naknek River) and one lake (Pringle Lake) population and between the anadromous and two lake populations (Pringle and JoJo Lakes), and raised them in a salinity of 4-6 ppt. The F1 anadromous and freshwater forms differed significantly in size, whereas hybrids were intermediate or exhibited dominance toward the anadromous form. Additionally, the size of freshwater F1s differed from their wild counterparts, with within-population F1s from Pringle Lake growing larger than their wild counterparts, while there was no size difference between lab-raised and wild anadromous fish. Sexual dimorphism was always present in anadromous fish, but not in freshwater, and not always in the hybrid crosses. These results, along with parallel changes among anadromous and freshwater forms in other regions, suggest that this heritable trait is both plastic and may be under divergent and/or sexual selection.

  8. Bone marrow chimeric mice reveal a role for CX₃CR1 in maintenance of the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jana; Blomster, Linda V; Chinnery, Holly R; Weninger, Wolfgang; Jung, Steffen; McMenamin, Paul G; Ruitenberg, Marc J

    2010-10-01

    Macrophages in the olfactory neuroepithelium are thought to play major roles in tissue homeostasis and repair. However, little information is available at present about possible heterogeneity of these monocyte-derived cells, their turnover rates, and the role of chemokine receptors in this process. To start addressing these issues, this study used Cx₃cr1(gfp) mice, in which the gene sequence for eGFP was knocked into the CX₃CR1 gene locus in the mutant allele. Using neuroepithelial whole-mounts from Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) mice, we show that eGFP(+) cells of monocytic origin are distributed in a loose network throughout this tissue and can be subdivided further into two immunophenotypically distinct subsets based on MHC-II glycoprotein expression. BM chimeric mice were created using Cx₃cr1(gfp/+) donors to investigate turnover of macrophages (and other monocyte-derived cells) in the olfactory neuroepithelium. Our data indicate that the monocyte-derived cell population in the olfactory neuroepithelium is actively replenished by circulating monocytes and under the experimental conditions, completely turned over within 6 months. Transplantation of Cx₃cr1(gfp/gfp) (i.e., CX₃CR1-deficient) BM partially impaired the replenishment process and resulted in an overall decline of the total monocyte-derived cell number in the olfactory epithelium. Interestingly, replenishment of the CD68(low)MHC-II(+) subset appeared minimally affected by CX₃CR1 deficiency. Taken together, the established baseline data about heterogeneity of monocyte-derived cells, their replenishment rates, and the role of CX₃CR1 provide a solid basis to further examine the importance of different monocyte subsets for neuroregeneration at this unique frontier with the external environment.

  9. Comparative Cytotoxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine to Four Inbred Maize Lines (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, Afaf I; AlGhethar, Haila A; AlHomaidan, Ali A; Arif, Ibrahim A

    2008-01-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Recent reports have indicated that it has adverse impacts on the endocrine systems and on the early developments of wild animals and it has been banned in many European countries including Switzerland, the home of the manufacturing company. The genotoxic effects of Atrazine on four inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated. The herbicide showed mitoinhibition and clastogenic effects on the mitotic index of maize lines and they were proportional to the concentrations and time. The frequency of abnormality, chromosomal breakage, stickiness, lagging, C-metaphase and C-anaphase were observed at different stages of mitosis in treated cells. The harmful effect of this environmental pollutant proved that it may act as a strong mutagen. (author)

  10. Preliminary study on mutagenic effects of heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lixia; Li Wenjian; Xie Hongmei; Chen Xuejun; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    In order to study mutagenic effects of different heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines,corn seeds of Zheng58, Lu9801, Jinxiang4C-1, CSR24001, 308 and 478 were irradiated with 12 C 6+ and 36 Ar 18+ ions. The experimental results showed that the germination rate and planting percent were different after irradiation. The wettish seeds had higher sensibility to heavy ion irradiation. The leaf type of the plant appeared visible changes in M 1 generation. In M 2 generation, great changes had taken place in economic traits, many of which are beneficial mutation. Some beneficia1 mutation could be stably inherited in M 3 generation. From the above, it can be predicted that heavy ions irradiation is an effective means of genetic improvement of maize. (authors)

  11. Correlation between DNA repair of embryonic fibroblasts and different life span of 3 inbred mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenholz, V.

    1978-02-01

    Primary mouse fibroblast cultures were established from 10 day old embryos of 3 inbred strains with a genetically determined different life expectancy. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis following uv irradiation was studied in these cells at various passage levels of the in vitro ageing process. The mouse fibroblasts show considerable repair synthesis corresponding to the duration of exposure time. The capacity for induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was different in the cells of each strain and correlated to the natural life span of the animal. In each case, however, the ability to perform repair synthesis was subjected to an age-associated decline, although semiconservative DNA synthesis and proliferative potential of the cell was not changed until the cultures entered phase III passages.

  12. Genetic basis of resistance to trauma in inbred strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radojicic, C.; Andric, B.; Simovic, M.; Dujic, A.; Marinkovic, D.

    1990-01-01

    In this study the resistance to mechanical, thermal, and radiation trauma in four inbred strains of mice (AKR, BALB/c, CBA, and C57Bl/6) was compared with the degree of genetic resemblance, by analyzing the allozyme variabilities of these strains. It was shown that the highest degree of genetic resemblance was among CBA and AKR strains, which correlated with a similar degree of resistance to trauma. On the other hand, BALB/c and C57Bl/6 strains expressed significant differences, both genetically and with respect to the responses to trauma. The hypothesis is introduced that the genetic determination of the resistance to trauma is based on: (a) a polygenic control of general physiological homeostasis, with the possibility that (b) some specific genes or single loci may contribute more than others to such adaptations of the strains tested

  13. Electrophoretic variation in low molecular weight lens crystallins from inbred strains of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, M E; Skow, L C; Kunz, H W; Gill, T J

    1985-10-01

    Analysis of rat lens soluble proteins by analytical isoelectric focusing detected two inherited electrophoretic differences in low molecular weight (LM) crystallins from inbred strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus). The polymorphic lens crystallins were shown to be similar to a genetically variant LM crystallin, LEN-1, previously described in mice (Mus musculus) and encoded on chromosome 1, at a locus linked to Pep-3 (dipeptidase). Linkage analysis demonstrated that the rat crystallin locus was loosely linked to Pep-3 at a recombination distance of 38 +/- 4.5 U. These data suggest the conservation of a large chromosomal region during the evolution of Rodentia and support the hypothesis that the gamma-crystallins are evolving more rapidly than alpha- or beta-crystallins.

  14. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Temme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 have been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  15. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  16. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz L. Mróz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs. MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  17. Empirical Selection of Informative Microsatellite Markers within Co-ancestry Pig Populations Is Required for Improving the Individual Assignment Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lanyu is a miniature pig breed indigenous to Lanyu Island, Taiwan. It is distantly related to Asian and European pig breeds. It has been inbred to generate two breeds and crossed with Landrace and Duroc to produce two hybrids for laboratory use. Selecting sets of informative genetic markers to track the genetic qualities of laboratory animals and stud stock is an important function of genetic databases. For more than two decades, Lanyu derived breeds of common ancestry and crossbreeds have been used to examine the effectiveness of genetic marker selection and optimal approaches for individual assignment. In this paper, these pigs and the following breeds: Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire, Meishan and Taoyuan, TLRI Black Pig No. 1, and Kaohsiung Animal Propagation Station Black pig are studied to build a genetic reference database. Nineteen microsatellite markers (loci provide information on genetic variation and differentiation among studied breeds. High differentiation index (FST and Cavalli-Sforza chord distances give genetic differentiation among breeds, including Lanyu’s inbred populations. Inbreeding values (FIS show that Lanyu and its derived inbred breeds have significant loss of heterozygosity. Individual assignment testing of 352 animals was done with different numbers of microsatellite markers in this study. The testing assigned 99% of the animals successfully into their correct reference populations based on 9 to 14 markers ranking D-scores, allelic number, expected heterozygosity (HE or FST, respectively. All miss-assigned individuals came from close lineage Lanyu breeds. To improve individual assignment among close lineage breeds, microsatellite markers selected from Lanyu populations with high polymorphic, heterozygosity, FST and D-scores were used. Only 6 to 8 markers ranking HE, FST or allelic number were required to obtain 99% assignment accuracy. This result suggests empirical examination of assignment-error rates

  18. Genetic Gains in Grain Yield of a Maize Population Improved through Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection under Stress and Non-stress Conditions in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekiya O. Abdulmalik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS is a breeding method used to accumulate favorable alleles that for example confer tolerance to drought in inbred lines from several genomic regions within a single population. A bi-parental cross formed from two parents that combine resistance to Striga hermonthica with drought tolerance, which was improved through MARS, was used to assess changes in the frequency of favorable alleles and its impact on inbred line improvement. A total of 200 testcrosses of randomly selected S1 lines derived from the original (C0 and advanced selection cycles of this bi-parental population, were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well-watered (WW conditions at Ikenne and under artificial Striga infestation at Abuja and Mokwa in Nigeria in 2014 and 2015. Also, 60 randomly selected S1 lines each derived from the four cycles (C0, C1, C2, C3 were genotyped with 233 SNP markers using KASP assay. The results showed that the frequency of favorable alleles increased with MARS in the bi-parental population with none of the markers showing fixation. The gain in grain yield was not significant under DS condition due to the combined effect of DS and armyworm infestation in 2015. Because the parents used for developing the bi-parental cross combined tolerance to drought with resistance to Striga, improvement in grain yield under DS did not result in undesirable changes in resistance to the parasite in the bi-parental maize population improved through MARS. MARS increased the mean number of combinations of favorable alleles in S1 lines from 114 in C0 to 124 in C3. The level of heterozygosity decreased by 15%, while homozygosity increased by 13% due to the loss of some genotypes in the population. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MARS in increasing the frequency of favorable alleles for tolerance to drought without disrupting the level of resistance to Striga in a bi-parental population targeted as a source of improved

  19. Genetic Gains in Grain Yield of a Maize Population Improved through Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection under Stress and Non-stress Conditions in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, Rekiya O; Menkir, Abebe; Meseka, Silvestro K; Unachukwu, Nnanna; Ado, Shehu G; Olarewaju, Joseph D; Aba, Daniel A; Hearne, Sarah; Crossa, Jose; Gedil, Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) is a breeding method used to accumulate favorable alleles that for example confer tolerance to drought in inbred lines from several genomic regions within a single population. A bi-parental cross formed from two parents that combine resistance to Striga hermonthica with drought tolerance, which was improved through MARS, was used to assess changes in the frequency of favorable alleles and its impact on inbred line improvement. A total of 200 testcrosses of randomly selected S 1 lines derived from the original (C 0 ) and advanced selection cycles of this bi-parental population, were evaluated under drought stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions at Ikenne and under artificial Striga infestation at Abuja and Mokwa in Nigeria in 2014 and 2015. Also, 60 randomly selected S 1 lines each derived from the four cycles (C 0 , C 1 , C 2 , C 3 ) were genotyped with 233 SNP markers using KASP assay. The results showed that the frequency of favorable alleles increased with MARS in the bi-parental population with none of the markers showing fixation. The gain in grain yield was not significant under DS condition due to the combined effect of DS and armyworm infestation in 2015. Because the parents used for developing the bi-parental cross combined tolerance to drought with resistance to Striga , improvement in grain yield under DS did not result in undesirable changes in resistance to the parasite in the bi-parental maize population improved through MARS. MARS increased the mean number of combinations of favorable alleles in S 1 lines from 114 in C 0 to 124 in C 3 . The level of heterozygosity decreased by 15%, while homozygosity increased by 13% due to the loss of some genotypes in the population. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MARS in increasing the frequency of favorable alleles for tolerance to drought without disrupting the level of resistance to Striga in a bi-parental population targeted as a source of improved

  20. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K L; Drake, D J; Taylor, J F; Garrick, D J; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Schnabel, R D; Snelling, W M; Pollak, E J; Van Eenennaam, A L

    2012-12-01

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using Bovine SNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. Molecular breeding values for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboration between researchers from Iowa State University and the University of Missouri-Columbia (ISU/UMC). The U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC; Clay Center, NE) has also developed MBV for 16 cattle breeds using 2 multibreed populations, the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) Program and the 2,000 Bull Project (2K(ALL)), and 2 single breed subpopulations of the 2,000 Bull Project, Angus (2K(AN)) and Hereford (2K(HH)). In this study, these MBV were assessed relative to commercial ranch EBV estimated from the progeny phenotypes of Angus bulls naturally mated in multisire breeding pastures to commercial cows: 121 for USMARC MBV, 99 for ISU/UMC MBV, and 29 for IGENITY and Pfizer MBV (selected based on number of progeny carcass records). Five traits were analyzed: weaning weight (WW), HCW, marbling score (MS), rib-eye muscle area (RE), and, for IGENITY and Pfizer only, feedlot ADG. The average accuracies of MBV across traits were 0.38 ± 0.05 for IGENITY, 0.61 ± 0.12 for Pfizer, 0.46 ± 0.12 for ISU/UMC, 0.16 ± 0.04 for GPE, 0.26 ± 0.05 for 2K(ALL), 0.24 ± 0.04 for 2K(AN), and 0.02 ± 0.12 for 2K(HH). Angus-based MBV (IGENITY, Pfizer, ISU/UMC, and 2K(AN)) explained larger proportions of genetic variance in this population than GPE, 2K(ALL), or 2K(HH) MBV for the same traits. In this data set, IGENITY, Pfizer, and ISU/UMC MBV were predictive of realized performance of progeny, and incorporation of that information into national genetic evaluations would be expected to improve EPD accuracy, particularly for young animals.

  1. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Pistacia terebinthus essential oils derived from wild populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulaj, Bledar; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nelson, Kate; Quave, Cassandra L; Hajdari, Avni

    2016-05-26

    Plant material from different organs of Pistacia terebinthus L., (Anacardiaceae) were collected in Kosovo with aim to analyze the chemical variability of the essential oils among native populations and to test them for potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Essential oils obtained from leaves, pedicels, fruits and galls were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against three clinically relevant strains of S. aureus (NRS385, LAC and UAMS-1) were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils. In total, 33 different compounds were identified. The main constituents were α-pinene (12.58-66.29 %), D-limonene (13.95-46.29 %), β-ocimene (0.03-40.49 %), β-pinene (2.63-20.47 %), sabinene (0.00-5.61 %) and (Z)-β-ocimene (0.00-44.85 %). Antibacterial testing of the essential oils against three clinical isolates of S. aureus revealed that seven of the eight samples had some activity at the concentration range tested (0.04-0.512 % v/v). The gall tissues from both sites produced the highest yield of essential oil (3.24 and 6 %), and both exhibited growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus. The most bioactive essential oils, which exhibited MIC90 values ranging from 0.032-0.128 % v/v, obtained from the fruits of the Ura e Shejtë collection site. Likewise, the leaf and pedicel essential oil from the same site was highly active with MIC90 values of 0.064-0.128 and 0.032-0.256 % v/v, respectively. Principle Component Analyses demonstrated that there is a variation in the chemical composition of essential oil depending on the plant organs from which essential oil are obtained and the geographical origin of the plant populations. The highest variability regarding the chemical composition of essential oil was found between oils obtained from different organs originating from the Prizren site. The MIC90 activity of Pistacia terebinthus was on par or superior compared with Tea Tree Oil control (0

  2. Infection of inbred rat strains with Rift Valley fever virus: development of a congenic resistant strain and observations on age-dependence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G W; Rosebrock, J A; Johnson, A J; Jennings, G B; Peters, C J

    1991-05-01

    A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene.

  3. No postnatal maternal effect on male aggressiveness in wild-derived strains of house mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďureje, Ľudovít; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2011), s. 48-55 ISSN 0096-140X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : aggression * cross-fostering * wild-derived inbred strains * house mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2011

  4. The osteogenic differentiation of SSEA-4 sub-population of human adipose derived stem cells using silicate nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Silvia M; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Reis, Rui L; Khademhosseini, Ali; Marques, Alexandra P; Gomes, Manuela E

    2014-11-01

    How to surpass in vitro stem cell differentiation, reducing cell manipulation, and lead the in situ regeneration process after transplantation, remains to be unraveled in bone tissue engineering (bTE). Recently, we showed that the combination of human bone marrow stromal cells with bioactive silicate nanoplatelets (sNPs) promotes the osteogenic differentiation without the use of standard osteogenic inductors. Even more, using SSEA-4(+) cell-subpopulations (SSEA-4(+)hASCs) residing within the adipose tissue, as a single-cellular source to obtain relevant cell types for bone regeneration, was also proposed. Herein, sNPs were used to promote the osteogenic differentiation of SSEA-4(+)hASCs. The interactions between SSEA-4(+)hASCs and sNPs, namely the internalization pathway and effect on cells osteogenic differentiation, were evaluated. SNPs below 100 μg/mL showed high cytocompatibility and fast internalization via clathrin-mediated pathway. SNPs triggered an overexpression of osteogenic-related markers (RUNX2, osteopontin, osteocalcin) accompanied by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a predominantly collagen-type I matrix. Consequently, a robust matrix mineralization was achieved, covering >90% of the culturing surface area. Overall, we demonstrated the high osteogenic differentiation potential of SSEA-4(+)hASCs, further enhanced by the addition of sNPs in a dose dependent manner. This strategy endorses the combination of an adipose-derived cell-subpopulation with inorganic compounds to achieve bone matrix-analogs with clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...

  6. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  7. Investigation of the international comparability of population-based routine hospital data set derived comorbidity scores for patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Morris, Eva J A; Tataru, Daniela; Coupland, Victoria H; Smith, Andrew; Milne, Roger L; Te Marvelde, Luc; Baker, Deborah; Young, Jane; Turner, Donna; Nishri, Diane; Earle, Craig; Shack, Lorraine; Gavin, Anna; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Lin, Yulan; Møller, Bjørn; Brewster, David H; Deas, Andrew; Huws, Dyfed W; White, Ceri; Warlow, Janet; Rashbass, Jem; Peake, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) identified significant international differences in lung cancer survival. Differing levels of comorbid disease across ICBP countries has been suggested as a potential explanation of this variation but, to date, no studies have quantified its impact. This study investigated whether comparable, robust comorbidity scores can be derived from the different routine population-based cancer data sets available in the ICBP jurisdictions and, if so, use them to quantify international variation in comorbidity and determine its influence on outcome. Linked population-based lung cancer registry and hospital discharge data sets were acquired from nine ICBP jurisdictions in Australia, Canada, Norway and the UK providing a study population of 233 981 individuals. For each person in this cohort Charlson, Elixhauser and inpatient bed day Comorbidity Scores were derived relating to the 4-36 months prior to their lung cancer diagnosis. The scores were then compared to assess their validity and feasibility of use in international survival comparisons. It was feasible to generate the three comorbidity scores for each jurisdiction, which were found to have good content, face and concurrent validity. Predictive validity was limited and there was evidence that the reliability was questionable. The results presented here indicate that interjurisdictional comparability of recorded comorbidity was limited due to probable differences in coding and hospital admission practices in each area. Before the contribution of comorbidity on international differences in cancer survival can be investigated an internationally harmonised comorbidity index is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F; Zhang, Ruli; Koshiya, Naohiro; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property.

  9. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property. PMID:27275007

  10. Adult Plant Leaf Rust Resistance Derived from Toropi Wheat is Conditioned by Lr78 and Three Minor QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Bernardo, A; Bai, G; Hayden, M J; Chao, S

    2018-02-01

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is an important disease of wheat in many regions worldwide. Durable or long-lasting leaf rust resistance has been difficult to achieve because populations of P. triticina are highly variable for virulence to race-specific resistance genes, and respond to selection by resistance genes in released wheat cultivars. The wheat cultivar Toropi, developed and grown in Brazil, was noted to have long-lasting leaf rust resistance that was effective only in adult plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the chromosome location of the leaf rust resistance genes derived from Toropi in two populations of recombinant inbred lines in a partial Thatcher wheat background. In the first population, a single gene with major effects on chromosome 5DS that mapped 2.2 centimorgans distal to IWA6289, strongly reduced leaf rust severity in all 3 years of field plot tests. This gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance was designated as Lr78. In the second population, quantitative trait loci (QTL) with small effects on chromosomes 1BL, 3BS, and 4BS were found. These QTL expressed inconsistently over 4 years of field plot tests. The adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Toropi involved a complex combination of QTL with large and small effects.

  11. Behavioural characterisation of wild derived male mice (Mus musculus musculus) of the PWD/Ph inbred strain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandes, C.; Liu, L.; Paya-Cano, J. L.; Gregorová, Soňa; Forejt, Jiří; Schalkwyk, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 6 (2004), s. 621-630 ISSN 0001-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GA204/02/1373 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLRI-2000-00233; HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse * behavior Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004

  12. Variation in MHC genotypes in two populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) with different population histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Asa Alexandra; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Jensen, Henrik; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    Small populations are likely to have a low genetic ability for disease resistance due to loss of genetic variation through inbreeding and genetic drift. In vertebrates, the highest genetic diversity of the immune system is located at genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Interestingly, parasite-mediated selection is thought to potentially maintain variation at MHC loci even in populations that are monomorphic at other loci. Therefore, general loss of genetic variation in the genome may not necessarily be associated with low variation at MHC loci. We evaluated inter- and intrapopulation variation in MHC genotypes between an inbred (Aldra) and a relatively outbred population (Hestmannøy) of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a metapopulation at Helgeland, Norway. Genomic (gDNA) and transcribed (cDNA) alleles of functional MHC class I and IIB loci, along with neutral noncoding microsatellite markers, were analyzed to obtain relevant estimates of genetic variation. We found lower allelic richness in microsatellites in the inbred population, but high genetic variation in MHC class I and IIB loci in both populations. This suggests that also the inbred population could be under balancing selection to maintain genetic variation for pathogen resistance.

  13. Comparison of global brain gene expression profiles between inbred long-sleep and inbred short-sleep mice by high-density gene array hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Ehringer, M; Yang, F; Sikela, J M

    2001-06-01

    Inbred long-sleep (ILS) and short-sleep (ISS) mice show significant central nervous system-mediated differences in sleep time for sedative dose of ethanol and are frequently used as a rodent model for ethanol sensitivity. In this study, we have used complementary DNA (cDNA) array hybridization methodology to identify genes that are differentially expressed between the brains of ILS and ISS mice. To carry out this analysis, we used both the gene discovery array (GDA) and the Mouse GEM 1 Microarray. GDA consists of 18,378 nonredundant mouse cDNA clones on a single nylon filter. Complex probes were prepared from total brain mRNA of ILS or ISS mice by using reverse transcription and 33P labeling. The labeled probes were hybridized in parallel to the gene array filters. Data from GDA experiments were analyzed with SQL-Plus and Oracle 8. The GEM microarray includes 8,730 sequence-verified clones on a glass chip. Two fluorescently labeled probes were used to hybridize a microarray simultaneously. Data from GEM experiments were analyzed by using the GEMTools software package (Incyte). Differentially expressed genes identified from each method were confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 41 genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) display significant expression level differences between brains of ILS and ISS mice after GDA, GEM1 hybridization, and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation. Among them, 18 clones were expressed higher in ILS mice, and 23 clones were expressed higher in ISS mice. The individual gene or EST's function and mapping information have been analyzed. This study identified 41 genes that are differentially expressed between brains of ILS and ISS mice. Some of them may have biological relevance in mediation of phenotypic variation between ILS and ISS mice for ethanol sensitivity. This study also demonstrates that parallel gene expression comparison with high-density cDNA arrays is a rapid and

  14. A New Advanced Backcross Tomato Population Enables High Resolution Leaf QTL Mapping and Gene Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fulop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii. This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping.

  15. Effects of Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and its genetically modified phenazine producing derivative on the Fusarium population in a field experiment, as determined by 18S rDNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.; Smit, E.; Glandorf, D.C.M.; Van Hannen, E.J.; Wernars, K.

    2002-01-01

    We measured effects of Pseudomonas putida WCS358r and its genetically modified phenazine producing derivative on the Fusarium population in the soil of a wheat field in the Netherlands. We used 18S rDNA analysis to study the Fusarium population through a strategy based on screening clone libraries

  16. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lederle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ. We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach

  17. Temporal factors in the extinction of fear in inbred mouse strains differing in extinction efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Kathryn; Whittle, Nigel; Camp, Marguerite; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2013-07-05

    Various neuropsychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by deficient fear extinction, but individuals differ greatly in risk for these. While there is growing evidence that fear extinction is influenced by certain procedural variables, it is unclear how these influences might vary across individuals and subpopulations. To model individual differences in fear extinction, prior studies identified a strain of inbred mouse, 129S1/SvImJ (S1), which exhibits a profound deficit in fear extinction, as compared to other inbred strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6). Here, we assessed the effects of procedural variables on the impaired extinction phenotype of the S1 strain and, by comparison, the extinction-intact B6 strain. The variables studied were 1) the interval between conditioning and extinction, 2) the interval between cues during extinction training, 3) single-cue exposure before extinction training, and 4) extinction of a second-order conditioned cue. Conducting extinction training soon after ('immediately') conditioning attenuated fear retrieval in S1 mice and impaired extinction in B6 mice. Spacing cue presentations with long inter-trial intervals during extinction training augmented fear in S1 and B6 mice. The effect of spacing was lost with one-trial fear conditioning in B6, but not S1 mice. A single exposure to a conditioned cue before extinction training did not alter extinction retrieval, either in B6 or S1 mice. Both the S1 and B6 strains exhibited robust second-order fear conditioning, in which a cue associated with footshock was sufficient to serve as a conditioned exciter to condition a fear association to a second cue. B6 mice extinguished the fear response to the second-order conditioned cue, but S1 mice failed to do so. These data provide further evidence that fear extinction is strongly influenced by multiple procedural variables and is so in a highly strain-dependent manner. This suggests that the efficacy of

  18. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederle, Lauren; Weber, Susanna; Wright, Tara; Feyder, Michael; Brigman, Jonathan L; Crombag, Hans S; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Holmes, Andrew

    2011-01-10

    The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ). We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press) response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs) associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press) response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior) by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded) reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach behavior (food

  19. Effects of dietary protein levels and 2-methylbutyrate on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, bacterial populations and urinary purine derivatives in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Yang, W Z

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in Simmental steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers, averaging 18 months of age and 465 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW), were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (98.5 g CP/kg dry matter [LP] or high protein (128.7 g CP/kg dry matter [HP]) diets were fed with MB supplementation (0 g [MB-] or 16.8 g steer -1  day -1 [MB+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration with dietary corn straw to concentrate ratio of 50:50 (dry matter [DM] basis). The CP × MB interaction was observed for ruminal total VFA, molar proportions of acetate and propionate, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N, effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and CP, microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and total PD excretion (p Ruminal pH decreased (p ruminal total VFA concentration increased (p Ruminal ammonia-N content increased (p = .034) with increasing dietary CP level, but decreased (p = .012) with MB supplementation. The effective degradability of NDF and CP increased (p ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, microbial enzyme activity, ruminal bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis improved with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation in steers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The CNS in inbred transgenic models of 4-repeat Tauopathy develops consistent tau seeding capacity yet focal and diverse patterns of protein deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari-Sedighi, Ghazaleh; Daude, Nathalie; Gapeshina, Hristina; Sanders, David W; Kamali-Jamil, Razieh; Yang, Jing; Shi, Beipei; Wille, Holger; Ghetti, Bernardino; Diamond, Marc I; Janus, Christopher; Westaway, David

    2017-10-04

    MAPT mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal dementia but, strikingly, patients with the same mutation may have different clinical phenotypes. Given heterogeneities observed in a transgenic (Tg) mouse line expressing low levels of human (2 N, 4R) P301L Tau, we backcrossed founder stocks of mice to C57BL/6Tac, 129/SvEvTac and FVB/NJ inbred backgrounds to discern the role of genetic versus environmental effects on disease-related phenotypes. Three inbred derivatives of a TgTau P301L founder line had similar quality and steady-state quantity of Tau production, accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated 64-68 kDa Tau species from 90 days of age onwards and neuronal loss in aged Tg mice. Variegation was not seen in the pattern of transgene expression and seeding properties in a fluorescence-based cellular assay indicated a single "strain" of misfolded Tau. However, in other regards, the aged Tg mice were heterogeneous; there was incomplete penetrance for Tau deposition despite maintained transgene expression in aged animals and, for animals with Tau deposits, distinctions were noted even within each subline. Three classes of rostral deposition in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum accounted for 75% of pathology-positive mice yet the mean ages of mice scored as class I, II or III were not significantly different and, hence, did not fit with a predictable progression from one class to another defined by chronological age. Two other patterns of Tau deposition designated as classes IV and V, occurred in caudal structures. Other pathology-positive Tg mice of similar age not falling within classes I-V presented with focal accumulations in additional caudal neuroanatomical areas including the locus coeruleus. Electron microscopy revealed that brains of Classes I, II and IV animals all exhibit straight filaments, but with coiled filaments and occasional twisted filaments apparent in Class I. Most strikingly, Class I, II and IV animals presented

  1. Photosynthetic properties of erect leaf maize inbred lines as the efficient photo-model in breeding and seed production

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    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial idea of this study was a hypothesis that erect leaf maize inbred lines were characterized by properties of an efficient photo-model and that as such were very desirable in increasing the number of plants per area unit (plant density in the process of contemporary selection and seed production. The application of a non-invasive bioluminescence-photosynthetic method, suitable for the efficiency estimation of the photo-model, verified the hypothesis. Obtained photosynthetic properties of observed erect leaf maize inbred lines were based on the effects and characteristics of thermal processes of delayed chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. The temperature dependence of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence intensity phase transitions (critical temperatures in the thylakoid membranes and activation energy are the principal parameters of the thermal processes. Based on obtained photosynthetic properties it is possible to select erect leaf maize inbred lines that are resistant and tolerant to high and very high temperatures, as well as, to drought. They could be good and efficient photo-models wherewith.

  2. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

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    Yueying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n=16 and DBA/2J (n=15 and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1. Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P<0.05 in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone. It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD. While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property.

  4. Variation in DNA Methylation Patterns is More Common among Maize Inbreds than among Tissues

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    Steven R. Eichten

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications, such as DNA methylation, can provide heritable, epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the absence of genetic changes. A role for DNA methylation in meiotically stable marking of repetitive elements and other sequences has been demonstrated in plants. Methylation of DNA is also proposed to play a role in development through providing a mitotic memory of gene expression states established during cellular differentiation. We sought to clarify the relative levels of DNA methylation variation among different genotypes and tissues in maize ( L.. We have assessed genomewide DNA methylation patterns in leaf, immature tassel, embryo, and endosperm tissues of two inbred maize lines: B73 and Mo17. There are hundreds of regions of differential methylation present between the two genotypes. In general, the same regions exhibit differential methylation between B73 and Mo17 in each of the tissues that were surveyed. In contrast, there are few examples of tissue-specific DNA methylation variation. Only a subset of regions with tissue-specific variation in DNA methylation show similar patterns in both genotypes of maize and even fewer are associated with altered gene expression levels among the tissues. Our data indicates a limited impact of DNA methylation on developmental gene regulation within maize.

  5. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

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    Pedram Kashiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei, Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703, while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10.

  6. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice: automated home cage observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-08-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129S2/Sv, on locomotor activity. Strains differed in circadian rhythmicity, novelty-induced activity and the time-course of specific behavioural elements. For instance, C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice showed a much faster decrease in activity over time than C3H and 129S2/Sv mice. Principal component analysis revealed two major factors within locomotor activity, which were defined as 'level of activity' and 'velocity/stops'. These factors were able to distinguish strains. Interestingly, mice that displayed high levels of activity in the initial phase of the home cage test were also highly active during an open-field test. Velocity and the number of stops during movement correlated positively with anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus maze. The use of an automated home cage observation system yields temporal changes in elements of locomotor activity with an advanced level of spatial resolution. Moreover, it avoids the confounding influence of human intervention and saves time-consuming human observations.

  7. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

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    Pengyuan Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  8. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  9. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

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    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total

  10. Genetic Diversity and Phenotypic Variation in an Introgression Line Population Derived from an Interspecific Cross between Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa.

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    Caijin Chen

    Full Text Available The introduction of closely related species genomic fragments is an effective way to enrich genetic diversity and creates new germplasms in crops. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of an introgression line (IL population composed of 106 ILs derived from an interspecific tetra cross between O. glaberrima and O. sativa (RAM3/Jin23B//Jin23B///YuetaiB. The proportion of O. glaberrima genome (PGG in the ILs ranged from 0.3% to 36.7%, with an average value of 12.32% which is close to the theoretically expected proportion. A total of 250 polymorphic alleles were amplified by 21 AFLP primer combinations with an average of 12 alleles per primer. Population structure analysis revealed that the IL population can be divided into four genetically distinct subpopulations. Both principal component analysis and neighbor-joining tree analysis showed that ILs with a higher PGG displayed greater genetic diversity. Canonical discriminant analysis identified six phenotypic traits (plant height, yield per plant, filled grain percentage, panicle length, panicle number and days to flowering as the main discriminatory traits among the ILs and between the subpopulations and showed significant phenotypic distances between subpopulations. The effects of PGG on phenotypic traits in the ILs were estimated using a linear admixed model, which showed a significant positive effect on grain yield per plant (0.286±0.117, plant height (0.418 ± 0.132, panicle length (0.663 ± 0.107, and spikelet number per panicle (0.339 ± 0.128, and a significant negative effect on filled grain percentage (-0.267 ± 0.123 and days to flowering (-0.324 ± 0.075. We found that an intermediate range (10% - 20% of PGG was more effective for producing ILs with favorable integrated agronomic traits. Our results confirm that construction of IL population carrying O. glaberrima genomic fragments could be an effective approach to increase the genetic diversity of O. sativa genome and an appropriate

  11. Estimates of Combining Ability and Heterosis for Yield and Its Related Traits in Pearl Millet Inbred Lines under Downy Mildew Prevalent Areas of Senegal

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    Ghislain Kanfany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is an important cereal crop for smallholder farmers’ food security in West and Central Africa. However, its production has stagnated due to several factors such as the continuous use of local populations. A set of 17 inbred lines was crossed with Sosat C 88 and Souna 3 following a line × tester mating design. The F1 hybrids, their parents, and a check were evaluated in Bambey and Nioro research stations during the rainy season of 2017. Data on downy mildew incidence, plant height, flowering time, panicle length and diameter, productive tillers, thousand-grain weight, panicle, and grain yield were recorded. GCA and SCA mean squares were significant for most of the traits indicating that both additive and nonadditive gene effects were involved in the control of the inheritance of these traits. However, the contribution of GCA to total mean squares was higher than that of SCA for all the traits, providing that additive gene action was more important in their inheritance. The top-cross hybrid IBL155-2-1 × Sosat C 88 exhibited negative and significant SCA effects for downy mildew incidence, flowering time, and plant height. Lines IBL003-B-1, IBL091-1-1, IBL095-4-1, IBL110-B-1, and IBL 206-1-1 had positive GCA effects for grain yield and negative GCA effects for downy mildew, flowering time, and plant height. These lines can be used as parents to create synthetic varieties or hybrids.

  12. Association between obesity and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism Val66Met in individuals with bipolar disorder in Mexican population

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    Morales-Marín ME

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Edith Morales-Marín,1 Alma Delia Genis-Mendoza,1,2 Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate,3 Nuria Lanzagorta,4 Michael Escamilla,5 Humberto Nicolini1,4 1Genomics of Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN, CDMX, Mexico; 2Psychiatric Care Services, Child Psychiatric Hospital Dr Juan N Navarro, CDMX, Mexico; 3Genomics Research Center, Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Comalcalco, Mexico; 4Carracci Medical Group, CDMX, Mexico; 5Department of Psychiatry, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso TX, USA Background: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been considered as an important candidate gene in bipolar disorder (BD; this association has been derived from several genetic and genome-wide studies. A polymorphic variant of the BDNF (Val66Met confers some differences in the clinical presentation of affective disorders. In this study, we evaluated a sample population from Mexico City to determine whether the BDNF (rs6265 Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the body mass index (BMI of patients with BD.Methods: This association study included a sample population of 357 individuals recruited in Mexico City. A total of 139 participants were diagnosed with BD and 137 were classified as psychiatrically healthy controls (all individuals were interviewed and evaluated by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay was performed in 96-well plates using the TaqMan Universal Thermal Cycling Protocol. After the PCR end point was reached, fluorescence intensity was measured in a 7,500 real-time PCR system and evaluated using the SDS v2.1 software, results were analyzed with Finetti and SPSS software. Concerning BMI stratification, random groups were defined as follows: normal <25 kg/m2, overweight (Ow =25.1–29.9 kg/m2

  13. Development of a Murine Model for Aerosolized Ebolavirus Infection Using a Panel of Recombinant Inbred Mice

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    Malak Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research.  Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported.  A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies.  In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT or mouse-adapted (MA Ebola virus (EBOV.  Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6, and DBA/2 (D2 mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1 knock-out (KO mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe.  Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered.  In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN-γ KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2 recombinant inbred (RI and advanced RI (ARI mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains.  Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains.  Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in

  14. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

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    Maarten eLoos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field, and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1 and progressive ratio (PR2 schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.

  15. Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J; Fodor, Anthony A; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (approximately 8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity.

  16. Gene Expression in Accumbens GABA Neurons from Inbred Rats with Different Drug-Taking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, B.M.; Chen, H.; Gong, S.; Wu, X.; Liu, Z.; Hiler, K.; Taylor, W.L.; Matta, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Inbred Lewis and Fisher 344 rat strains differ greatly in drug self-administration; Lewis rats operantly self-administer drugs of abuse including nicotine, whereas Fisher self-administer poorly. As shown herein, operant food self-administration is similar. Based on their pivotal role in drug reward, we hypothesized that differences in basal gene expression in GABAergic neurons projecting from nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to ventral pallidum (VP) play a role in vulnerability to drug taking behavior. The transcriptomes of NAcc shell-VP GABAergic neurons from these two strains were analyzed in adolescents, using a multidisciplinary approach that combined stereotaxic ionotophoretic brain microinjections, laser-capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray measurement of transcripts. LCM enriched the gene transcripts detected in GABA neurons compared to the residual NAcc tissue: a ratio of neuron/residual > 1 and false discovery rate (FDR) 3 yielded 3,514. Strain-dependent differences in gene expression within GABA neurons were identified; 322 vs. 60 transcripts showed 1.5-fold vs. 2-fold differences in expression (FDR<5%). Classification by gene ontology showed these 322 transcripts were widely distributed, without categorical enrichment. This is most consistent with a global change in GABA neuron function. Literature-mining by Chilibot found 38 genes related to synaptic plasticity, signaling and gene transcription, all of which determine drug-abuse; 33 genes have no known association with addiction or nicotine. In Lewis rats, upregulation of Mint-1, Cask, CamkIIδ, Ncam1, Vsnl1, Hpcal1 and Car8 indicates these transcripts likely contribute to altered signaling and synaptic function in NAcc GABA projection neurons to VP. PMID:21745336

  17. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  18. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  19. Inheritance of height and maturity in crosses between pearl millet landraces and inbred Tift 85DB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J P; Burton, G W; Bondari, K

    1990-11-01

    Over 300 landraces of pearl millet were collected in Burkina Faso and grown at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton/GA. At Tifton, these landraces are predominantly tall and late-maturing. The photoperiod requirements of these landraces hinder evaluation of their performance in the field and their use in breeding programs. A conversion program has been initiated to transfer genes for dwarf stature and early flowering into the tall, late-maturing landraces. The inbred Tift 85DB is being used as a donor of genes for the dwarf and early characteristics, and was crossed to nine randomly selected landraces from Burkina Faso. The parents, F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent were grown in the field and evaluated for plant height at anthesis and time in days from planting to anthesis. In general, plant height of F1s was taller than the tallest parent, and in all crosses the maturity of F1s was intermediate between the parents. Numbers of loci conferring height varied among crosses, ranging from 0 to 9.6, and averaged 1.6. Estimated numbers of loci conferring maturity ranged from 0 to 12.8 and averaged 3.4. Broad-sense heritability estimates for height and maturity averaged 60.2 and 65.7%, respectively. Corresponding narrow-sense estimates averaged 23.8 and 48.2%. Joint scaling tests revealed that additive-genetic effects were highly significant for both traits, but dominance and epistatic-genetic effects contributed to the inheritance of each trait in some crosses. The low gene numbers, high heritability estimates, and preponderance of additive-genetic effects suggest that selection for these traits should be effective.

  20. Oxidative stress gene expression profile in inbred mouse after ischemia/reperfusion small bowel injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Somaio Neto, Frederico; Chaves, José Carlos; Teruya, Roberto; Bertoletto, Eduardo Rodrigues; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José

    2012-11-01

    To determine the profile of gene expressions associated with oxidative stress and thereby contribute to establish parameters about the role of enzyme clusters related to the ischemia/reperfusion intestinal injury. Twelve male inbred mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned: Control Group (CG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy and observed by 120 min; Ischemia/reperfusion Group (IRG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy, 60 min of small bowel ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. A pool of six samples was submitted to the qPCR-RT protocol (six clusters) for mouse oxidative stress and antioxidant defense pathways. On the 84 genes investigated, 64 (76.2%) had statistic significant expression and 20 (23.8%) showed no statistical difference to the control group. From these 64 significantly expressed genes, 60 (93.7%) were up-regulated and 04 (6.3%) were down-regulated. From the group with no statistical significantly expression, 12 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated. Surprisingly, 37 (44.04%) showed a higher than threefold up-regulation and then arbitrarily the values was considered as a very significant. Thus, 37 genes (44.04%) were expressed very significantly up-regulated. The remained 47 (55.9%) genes were up-regulated less than three folds (35 genes - 41.6%) or down-regulated less than three folds (12 genes - 14.3%). The intestinal ischemia and reperfusion promote a global hyper-expression profile of six different clusters genes related to antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.

  1. Climate change and pollution speed declines in zebrafish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A Ross; Owen, Stewart F; Peters, James; Zhang, Yong; Soffker, Marta; Paull, Gregory C; Hosken, David J; Wahab, M Abdul; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-03-17

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are potent environmental contaminants, and their effects on wildlife populations could be exacerbated by climate change, especially in species with environmental sex determination. Endangered species may be particularly at risk because inbreeding depression and stochastic fluctuations in male and female numbers are often observed in the small populations that typify these taxa. Here, we assessed the interactive effects of water temperature and EDC exposure on sexual development and population viability of inbred and outbred zebrafish (Danio rerio). Water temperatures adopted were 28 °C (current ambient mean spawning temperature) and 33 °C (projected for the year 2100). The EDC selected was clotrimazole (at 2 μg/L and 10 μg/L), a widely used antifungal chemical that inhibits a key steroidogenic enzyme [cytochrome P450(CYP19) aromatase] required for estrogen synthesis in vertebrates. Elevated water temperature and clotrimazole exposure independently induced male-skewed sex ratios, and the effects of clotrimazole were greater at the higher temperature. Male sex ratio skews also occurred for the lower clotrimazole exposure concentration at the higher water temperature in inbred fish but not in outbred fish. Population viability analysis showed that population growth rates declined sharply in response to male skews and declines for inbred populations occurred at lower male skews than for outbred populations. These results indicate that elevated temperature associated with climate change can amplify the effects of EDCs and these effects are likely to be most acute in small, inbred populations exhibiting environmental sex determination and/or differentiation.

  2. Sub-populations within the major European and African derived haplogroups R1b3 and E3a are differentiated by previously phylogenetically undefined Y-SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Lynn M; Garvey, Dennis; Ballantyne, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) have been widely used in the study of human migration patterns and evolution. Potential forensic applications of Y-SNPs include their use in predicting the ethnogeographic origin of the donor of a crime scene sample, or exclusion of suspects of sexual assaults (the evidence of which often comprises male/female mixtures and may involve multiple perpetrators), paternity testing, and identification of non- and half-siblings. In this study, we used a population of 118 African- and 125 European-Americans to evaluate 12 previously phylogenetically undefined Y-SNPs for their ability to further differentiate individuals who belong to the major African (E3a)- and European (R1b3, I)-derived haplogroups. Ten of these markers define seven new sub-clades (equivalent to E3a7a, E3a8, E3a8a, E3a8a1, R1b3h, R1b3i, and R1b3i1 using the Y Chromosome Consortium nomenclature) within haplogroups E and R. Interestingly, during the course of this study we evaluated M222, a sub-R1b3 marker rarely used, and found that this sub-haplogroup in effect defines the Y-STR Irish Modal Haplotype (IMH). The new bi-allelic markers described here are expected to find application in human evolutionary studies and forensic genetics. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Induction of influenza-specific local CD8 T-cells in the respiratory tract after aerosol delivery of vaccine antigen or virus in the Babraham inbred pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sophie B.; Attaf, Meriem; Szomolay, Barbara; Miles, John J.; Townsend, Alain; Bailey, Mick; Charleston, Bryan; Tchilian, Elma

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume. It may also be an important vector in the birds to human infection cycle. A major drawback of the current pig model is the inability to analyze antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, which are critical to respiratory immunity. Here we address this knowledge gap using an established in-bred pig model with a high degree of genetic identity between individuals, including the MHC (Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)) locus. We developed a toolset that included long-term in vitro pig T-cell culture and cloning and identification of novel immunodominant influenza-derived T-cell epitopes. We also generated structures of the two SLA class I molecules found in these animals presenting the immunodominant epitopes. These structures allowed definition of the primary anchor points for epitopes in the SLA binding groove and established SLA binding motifs that were used to successfully predict other influenza-derived peptide sequences capable of stimulating T-cells. Peptide-SLA tetramers were constructed and used to track influenza-specific T-cells ex vivo in blood, the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Aerosol immunization with attenuated single cycle influenza viruses (S-FLU) induced large numbers of CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved NP peptides in the respiratory tract. Collectively, these data substantially increase the utility of pigs as an effective model for studying protective local cellular immunity against respiratory

  4. Deriving the reference value from the circadian motor active patterns in the "non-dementia" population, compared to the "dementia" population: What is the amount of physical activity conducive to the good circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ayuto; Kume, Yu; Tsugaruya, Megumi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The circadian rhythm in older adults is commonly known to change with a decrease in physical activity. However, the association between circadian rhythm metrics and physical activity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine circadian activity patterns in older people with and without dementia and to determine the amount of physical activity conducive to a good circadian measurement. Circadian parameters were collected from 117 older community-dwelling people (66 subjects without dementia and 52 subjects with dementia); the parameters were measured continuously using actigraphy for 7 days. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine reference values for the circadian rhythm parameters, consisting of interdaily stability (IS), intradaily variability (IV), and relative amplitude (RA), in older subjects. The ROC curve revealed reference values of 0.55 for IS, 1.10 for IV, and 0.82 for RA. In addition, as a result of the ROC curve in the moderate-to-vigorous physical Activity (MVPA) conducive to the reference value of the Non-parametric Circadian Rhythm Analysis per day, the optimal reference values were 51 minutes for IV and 55 minutes for RA. However, the IS had no classification accuracy. Our results demonstrated the reference values derived from the circadian parameters of older Japanese population with or without dementia. Also, we determined the MVPA conducive to a good circadian rest-active pattern. This reference value for physical activity conducive to a good circadian rhythm might be useful for developing a new index for health promotion in the older community-dwelling population.

  5. The Genetic Basis of Natural Variation in Kernel Size and Related Traits Using a Four-Way Cross Population in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafa; Zhang, Luyan; Liu, Songtao; Li, Zhimin; Huang, Rongrong; Li, Yongming; Cheng, Hongliang; Li, Xiantang; Zhou, Bo; Wu, Suowei; Chen, Wei; Wu, Jianyu; Ding, Junqiang

    2016-01-01

    Kernel size is an important component of grain yield in maize breeding programs. To extend the understanding on the genetic basis of kernel size traits (i.e., kernel length, kernel width and kernel thickness), we developed a set of four-way cross mapping population derived from four maize inbred lines with varied kernel sizes. In the present study, we investigated the genetic basis of natural variation in seed size and other components of maize yield (e.g., hundred kernel weight, number of rows per ear, number of kernels per row). In total, ten QTL affecting kernel size were identified, three of which (two for kernel length and one for kernel width) had stable expression in other components of maize yield. The possible genetic mechanism behind the trade-off of kernel size and yield components was discussed.

  6. Norepinephrine transporter: a candidate gene for initial ethanol sensitivity in inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Heather M; Kaiser, Alan L; Johnson, Thomas E; Bennett, Beth; Sikela, James M; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2005-10-01

    Altered noradrenergic neurotransmission is associated with depression and may contribute to drug abuse and alcoholism. Differential initial sensitivity to ethanol is an important predictor of risk for future alcoholism, making the inbred long-sleep (ILS) and inbred short-sleep (ISS) mice a useful model for identifying genes that may contribute to alcoholism. In this study, molecular biological, neurochemical, and behavioral approaches were used to test the hypothesis that the norepinephrine transporter (NET) contributes to the differences in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) in ILS and ISS mice. We used these mice to investigate the NET as a candidate gene contributing to this phenotype. The ILS and ISS mice carry different DNA haplotypes for NET, showing eight silent differences between allelic coding regions. Only the ILS haplotype is found in other mouse strains thus far sequenced. Brain regional analyses revealed that ILS mice have 30 to 50% lower [3H]NE uptake, NET binding, and NET mRNA levels than ISS mice. Maximal [3H]NE uptake and NET number were reduced, with no change in affinity, in the ILS mice. These neurobiological changes were associated with significant influences on the behavioral phenotype of these mice, as demonstrated by (1) a differential response in the duration of ethanol-induced LORR in ILS and ISS mice pretreated with a NET inhibitor and (2) increased ethanol-induced LORR in LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains, homozygous for ILS in the NET chromosomal region (44-47 cM), compared with ISS homozygous strains. This is the first report to suggest that the NET gene is one of many possible genetic factors influencing ethanol sensitivity in ILS, ISS, and LXS RI mouse strains.

  7. Genetic relationship between placental and fetal weights and markers of the metabolic syndrome in rat recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, M.; Zídek, Václav; Musilová, Alena; Šimáková, Miroslava; Fučíková, A.; Bílá, V.; Křen, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Di Nicolantonio, R.; Pravenec, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2006), s. 226-231 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390; GA MZd(CZ) NR8495 Grant - others:Sixth Framework Programme(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : genetic analysis * thrifty phenotype * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.789, year: 2006

  8. Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwegler Herbert

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper we review a series of experiments showing that heritable variations in the size of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields correlate with performance in spatial, but not non-spatial radial-maze tasks. Experimental manipulation of the size of this projection by means of early postnatal hyperthyroidism produces the effects predicted from the correlations obtained with inbred mouse strains. Although the physiological mechanisms behind these correlations are unknown as yet, several lines of evidence indicate that these correlations are causal.

  9. The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Tom R; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing variation in the rate of recombination across the genome is important for understanding several evolutionary processes. Previous analysis of the recombination landscape in laboratory mice has revealed that the different subspecies have different suites of recombination hotspots. It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus We performed simulations to assess the accuracy of recombination rate inference in the presence of phase errors, and we used a novel approach to quantify phase error. The spatial distribution of recombination events is strongly positively correlated between our castaneus map, and a map constructed using inbred lines derived predominantly from M. m. domesticus Recombination hotspots in wild castaneus show little overlap, however, with the locations of double-strand breaks in wild-derived house mouse strains. Finally, we also find that genetic diversity in M. m. castaneus is positively correlated with the rate of recombination, consistent with pervasive natural selection operating in the genome. Our study suggests that recombination rate variation is conserved at broad scales between house mouse subspecies, but it is not strongly conserved at fine scales. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Major Co-localized QTL for Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height, Stem Diameter, and Flowering Time in an Alien Introgression Derived Brassica napus DH Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusen Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, and stem diameter (SD are three stem-related traits that play crucial roles in plant architecture and lodging resistance. Herein, we show one doubled haploid (DH population obtained from a cross between Y689 (one Capsella bursa-pastoris derived Brassica napus intertribal introgression and Westar (B. napus cultivar that these traits were significantly positively correlated with one another and with flowering time (FT. Based on a high-density SNP map, a total of 102 additive quantitative trait loci (QTL were identified across six environments. Seventy-two consensus QTL and 49 unique QTL were identified using a two-round strategy of QTL meta-analysis. Notably, a total of 19 major QTL, including 11 novel ones, were detected for these traits, which comprised two QTL clusters on chromosomes A02 and A07. Conditional QTL mapping was performed to preliminarily evaluate the genetic basis (pleiotropy or tight linkage of the co-localized QTL. In addition, QTL by environment interactions (QEI mapping was performed to verify the additive QTL and estimate the QEI effect. In the genomic regions of all major QTL, orthologs of the genes involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling, flower development, and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis were proposed as candidate genes. Of these, BnaA02g02560, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GASA4, was suggested as a candidate gene for PH, SD, and FT; and BnaA02g08490, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GNL, was associated with PH, BIH and FT. These results provide useful information for further genetic studies on stem-related traits and plant growth adaptation.

  11. Estimating the inbreeding depression on cognitive behavior: a population based study of child cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available Cognitive ability tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ scores and later mental health problems. Very few epidemiologic studies have been done to demonstrate the relationship between familial inbreeding and modest cognitive impairments in children.We aimed to estimate the effect of inbreeding on children's cognitive behavior in comparison with non-inbred children.A cohort of 408 children (6 to 15 years of age was selected from inbred and non-inbred families of five Muslim populations of Jammu region. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC was used to measure the verbal IQ (VIQ, performance IQ (PIQ and full scale IQ (FSIQ. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and children's inbred status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F.We found significant decline in child cognitive abilities due to inbreeding and high frequency of mental retardation among offspring from inbred families. The mean differences (95% C.I. were reported for the VIQ, being -22.00 (-24.82, -19.17, PIQ -26.92 (-29.96, -23.87 and FSIQ -24.47 (-27.35,-21.59 for inbred as compared to non-inbred children (p<0.001 [corrected].The higher risk of being mentally retarded was found to be more obvious among inbred categories corresponding to the degree of inbreeding and the same accounts least for non-inbred children (p<0.0001. We observed an increase in the difference in mean values for VIQ, PIQ and FSIQ with the increase of inbreeding coefficient and these were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. The regression analysis showed a fitness decline (depression for VIQ (R2 = 0.436, PIQ (R2 = 0.468 and FSIQ (R2 = 0.464 with increasing inbreeding coefficients (p<0.01.Our comprehensive assessment provides the evidence for inbreeding depression on cognitive abilities among children.

  12. Study of Yield and Effective Traits in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines (Triticum aestivum L. under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad zadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects some traits on seed yield of recombinant inbred lines of wheat under water deficit stress was studied. This research was done at the Agricultural Research Stations, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2010- 2011. 28 recombinant inbred lines of wheat bread with two parents (Norstar and Zagros in split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at two irrigation levels (70 and 140 mm evaporation from pan class A were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant genetic differences in all traits under study among the lines. Lines No. 32, 163 and 182 produced highest yield under both irrigation levels. Number of spikes, grains per spike and harvest index had the highest positive correlation with grain yield. Path analysis based on stepwise regression showed that under the normal irrigation conditions, number spike (0.556, number of grains per spike (0.278, weight of 1000 grain (0.259 and the drought stress number spike (0.430, straw yield (0.276 and peduncle length (0.323 had the most direct and positive effect on yield respectively.

  13. Variable Suppression of Serum Thyroxine in Female Mice of Different Inbred Strains by Triiodothyronine Administered in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant-inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Because one genetic component contributing to this susceptibility is altered thyroid sensitivity to TSH receptor agonist stimulation, we wished to quantify thyroid responsiveness to TSH. For such studies, it is necessary to suppress endogenous TSH by administering L-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (L-T3), with the subsequent decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) reflecting endogenous TSH suppression. Our two objectives were to assess in different inbred strains of mice (i) the extent of serum T4 suppression after L-T3 administration and (ii) the magnitude of serum T4 increase induced by TSH. Methods Mice were tail-bled to establish baseline-serum T4 before L-T3 administration. We initially employed a protocol of L-T3-supplemented drinking water for 7 days. In subsequent experiments, we injected L-T3 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 3 days. Mice were then injected i.p. with bovine TSH (10 mU) and euthanized 5 hours later. Serum T4 was assayed before L-T3 administration, and before and after TSH injection. In some experiments, serum T3 and estradiol were measured in pooled sera. Results Oral L-T3 (3 or 5 μg/mL) suppressed serum T4 levels by 26%–64% in female BALB/c mice but >95% in males. T4 suppression in female B6 mice ranged from 0% to 90%. In C3H mice, L-T3 at 3 μg/mL was ineffective but 5 μg/mL achieved >80% serum T4 reduction. Unlike inbred mice, in outbred CF1 mice the same protocol was more effective: 83% in females and 100% suppression in males. The degree of T4 suppression was unrelated to baseline T4, T3, or estradiol, but was related to mouse weight and postmortem T3, with greater suppression in larger mice (outbred CF1 animals and inbred males). Among females with serum T4 suppression >80%, the increase in serum T4 after TSH injection was greater for BALB

  14. Synovial CD4+ T-cell-derived GM-CSF supports the differentiation of an inflammatory dendritic cell population in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G; Gibbon, J R; Pratt, A G; Wood, M J; Coady, D; Raftery, G; Lorenzi, A R; Gray, A; Filer, A; Buckley, C D; Haniffa, M A; Isaacs, J D; Hilkens, C M U

    2016-01-01

    Objective A population of synovial inflammatory dendritic cells (infDCs) has recently been identified in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is thought to be monocyte-derived. Here, we investigated the role and source of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the differentiation of synovial infDC in RA. Methods Production of GM-CSF by peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) CD4+ T cells was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro CD4+ T-cell polarisation experiments were performed with T-cell activating CD2/CD3/CD28-coated beads in the absence or presence of pro-Th1 or pro-Th17 cytokines. CD1c+ DC and CD16+ macrophage subsets were flow-sorted and analysed morphologically and functionally (T-cell stimulatory/polarising capacity). Results RA-SF CD4+ T cells produced abundant GM-CSF upon stimulation and significantly more than RA-SF mononuclear cells depleted of CD4+ T cells. GM-CSF-producing T cells were significantly increased in RA-SF compared with non-RA inflammatory arthritis SF, active RA PB and healthy donor PB. GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells were expanded by Th1-promoting but not Th17-promoting conditions. Following coculture with RA-SF CD4+ T cells, but not healthy donor PB CD4+ T cells, a subpopulation of monocytes differentiated into CD1c+ infDC; a process dependent on GM-CSF. These infDC displayed potent alloproliferative capacity and enhanced GM-CSF, interleukin-17 and interferon-γ production by CD4+ T cells. InfDC with an identical phenotype to in vitro generated cells were significantly enriched in RA-SF compared with non-RA-SF/tissue/PB. Conclusions We demonstrate a therapeutically tractable feedback loop of GM-CSF secreted by RA synovial CD4+ T cells promoting the differentiation of infDC with potent capacity to induce GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells. PMID:25923217

  15. Private selective sweeps identified from next-generation pool-sequencing reveal convergent pathways under selection in two inbred Schistosoma mansoni strains.

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    Julie A J Clément

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and copy number variations (CNV. In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (π = 2 × 10(-4 within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst = 0.73 between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions. Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection.

  16. A role for ultrasonic vocalisation in social communication and divergence of natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus.

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    Sophie von Merten

    Full Text Available It has long been known that rodents emit signals in the ultrasonic range, but their role in social communication and mating is still under active exploration. While inbred strains of house mice have emerged as a favourite model to study ultrasonic vocalisation (USV patterns, studies in wild animals and natural situations are still rare. We focus here on two wild derived mouse populations. We recorded them in dyadic encounters for extended periods of time to assess possible roles of USVs and their divergence between allopatric populations. We have analysed song frequency and duration, as well as spectral features of songs and syllables. We show that the populations have indeed diverged in several of these aspects and that USV patterns emitted in a mating context differ from those emitted in same sex encounters. We find that females vocalize not less, in encounters with another female even more than males. This implies that the current focus of USVs being emitted mainly by males within the mating context needs to be reconsidered. Using a statistical syntax analysis we find complex temporal sequencing patterns that could suggest that the syntax conveys meaningful information to the receivers. We conclude that wild mice use USV for complex social interactions and that USV patterns can diverge fast between populations.

  17. [Effect of selenium deficiency on the F344 inbred line offspring rats' neuro-behavior, ability of learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang-Li; Tian, Dong-Ping; Su, Min; Shen, Xiu-Na; Gao, Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To establish the selenium (Se) deficient animal model on F344 inbred line rats and observe the effects of a long-term Se-deficiency on the offspring's neuro-behavior, abilities of learning and memory. Feeding F344 inbred line rats on Se-deficient diet to establish Se-deficient animal model. For the offspring, the body weight, physiological indexes nervous reflections for growth and development were monitored during the early postnatal period. The Se-deficient diet contained less than 0.01 mg/kg and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood of the Se-deficient group rats is lower than the Se-normal group after feeding on Se-deficient diet for 4 weeks. For the offspring, the birth weight and the body weight of Se-deficient group were obviously lower than the Se-normal group before weaning. Se-deficient offspring rats differed from Se-normal controls in lower scores in surface righting reflex (RR) test at postnatal 4th day after delivery, cliff avoidance test at postnatal 7th day and auditory acuity trial at postnatal 10th day respectively. But these differences disappear after a few days in the same tests. In addition, no significant differences between two groups in suspending test and walking ability test at postnatal 12th and 14th day. In open field test, Se-deficient male offspring stayed less time in the middle grid and moved less. In Morris water maze test, the Se-deficient offspring spent more time to find the hidden platform at the 6th and 9th training tests in the place navigation trial. Furthermore, the Se-deficient group spent less time in target quadrant when giving the spatial probe trial. A Se-deficient animal model have been established on F344 inbred line rats successfully. A long-term Se deficiency could retard the development of the offspring in uterus and after delivery. Se deficiency also decreased the offspring's abilities of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test and resulted in the male offspring's nervousness to new

  18. Effects of the time of application and the form of nitrogen on two maize inbred lines seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental filed of the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, on calcareous chernozem in the period 2001-2003. The traits of two maize inbred lines (L1-FAO 400 and L2-FAO 600 were observed in dependence on the time of the nitrogen application (No-control without fertilizing; Nautumn - 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 60 kg K2O ha-1 applied in autumn (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in autumn; Nspring - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in spring; N1/2 - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (half of which was applied in autumn and the other half in spring; N1/2-PK (const 100 kg N ha-1 (1/3 of which was applied in autumn, 1/3 in spring and 1/3 through soil dressing; Nmin - PK (const + fertilizing in spring on the basis of the Nmin method, and forms of applied nitrogen: Urea (amide form KAN (ammonium-nitrate form and (NH42SO4 (ammonium form. The highest average yield was obtained by the use of Nmin method (3,486 kg ha-1, as well as, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in sprig (Nspring (3,337 kg ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn and spring (N1/2 (3,020 kgha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn, spring and soil dressing (N1/3 (3,005 kg ha-1 in the ammonium-nitrate form (KAN. The highest average seed yield of observed maize inbred lines (3,264 kg ha-1 was obtained by the application of ammonium-sulphate in the primary tillage (Nautumn. The use of the Nmin method (N ranging from 17 to 35 kg ha-1, in dependence on the soil mineral nitrogen content, especially in years with lower precipitation sums resulted in the highest increase in seed yield (39.2% of observed maize inbred lines in relation to the control.

  19. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  20. Quantitative studies of lymphoid organs, blood and lymph in inbred athymic and euthymic LEW rats under germfree and specified-pathogen-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1987-01-01

    Four groups of inbred male LEW rats were examined: A, germfree athymic; B, specified pathogen free (SPF) athymic; C, germfree euthymic; D, SPF euthymic. All animals were killed at 18 weeks and compared with respect to body weight, histological appearance and cell density of the lymphoid organs, h...

  1. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  2. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains

  3. Genetic Gains in Yield and Yield Related Traits under Drought Stress and Favorable Environments in a Maize Population Improved Using Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folusho Bankole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS is to increase the frequency of favorable marker alleles in a population before inbred line extraction. This approach was used to improve drought tolerance and grain yield (GY in a biparental cross of two elite drought tolerant lines. The testcrosses of randomly selected 50 S1 lines from each of the three selection cycles (C0, C1, C2 of the MARS population, parental testcrosses and the cross between the two parents (F1 were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well watered (WW well as under rainfed conditions to determine genetic gains in GY and other agronomic traits. Also, the S1 lines derived from each selection types were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Testcrosses derived from C2 produced significantly higher grain field under DS than those derived from C0 with a relative genetic gain of 7% per cycle. Also, the testcrosses of S1 lines from C2 showed an average genetic gain of 1% per cycle under WW condition and 3% per cycle under rainfed condition. Molecular analysis revealed that the frequency of favorable marker alleles increased from 0.510 at C0 to 0.515 at C2, while the effective number of alleles (Ne per locus decreased from C0 (1.93 to C2 (1.87. Our results underscore the effectiveness of MARS for improvement of GY under DS condition.

  4. Genotyping-by-Sequencing derived High-Density Linkage Map and its Application to QTL Mapping of Flag Leaf Traits in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard red winter wheat parents ‘Harry’ (drought tolerant) and ‘Wesley’ (drought susceptible) was used to develop a recombinant inbred population to identify genomic regions associated with drought and adaptation. To precisely map genomic regions high-density linkage maps are a prerequisite. In this s...

  5. Development of genetic and molecular indices for drought tolerance in some inbred and hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    From eighteen zea mays inbred lines, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G621W and G603W, respectively). They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield traits. The physiological markers cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and their ratios (K/Na, Ca/K and Ca/Mg) showed differential association with drought tolerance was observed.SDS-protein profiles indicated the presence of two bands in the tolerant group associated with drought tolerance. Western blotting analysis didn't give polymorphism patterns such as esterase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase showed differential responses with respect to drought tolerance

  6. Genetic determination of the biological radiation response in inbred mice lines; Genetische Determination der biologischen Strahlenantwort in Mausinzuchtstaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomolka, M.; Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz Oberschleissheim (Germany). Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene

    2000-07-01

    Variation in radiation sensitivity and radiation resistance is influenced by the genetic constitution of an individual. Loss of function of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle or controlled cell death can have serious consequences on individual radiation sensitivity. For example, individuals suffering on the clinical syndrome of Ataxia telangiectasia exhibit radiation sensitivity in the order of 2-3 magnitudes higher than other cancer patients. For radiation protection it is important to clarify the role of genetic predisposition for radiation sensitivity in clinical healthy people. Therefore, data were collected from the literature describing the genetic variation (heritability) of radiation sensitivity in the mouse model. A heritability of 30-50% was calculated for 27 inbred mice lines by Roderick (1963) based on days of survival after a daily dose of 1 Gy {gamma}-irradiation. The following inbred lines were described in the literature as radiation sensitive (phenotypical markers were e.g., time of survival, mortality, reduction in fertility post exposure): SWR, RIII, NC, K, HLG, DBA, CBA, BALB/c, A, AKR. Radiation resistance was demonstrated in SJL, SEC, RF, MA, C58, C57BR, BDP and 129. Parameter of longevity, some physiological, biochemical and immunological parameters as given in the data bank of the Jackson Laboratory, U.S.A., were compared between radiation sensitive and radiation resistant inbred strains. No correlation was seen for the most of the parameters except for the development of breast cancer. In 6 out of 10 radiosensitive inbred strains breast cancer is described while only 1 of 8 strains exhibits breast cancer. The higher heritability of 30-50% in spite of a very complex phenotype like survival and the correlation between radiosensitivity and tumour incidence show that individual genetic susceptibility is important on the biological radiation reaction. (orig.) [German] Die phaenotypische Variation der Strahlensensitivitaet und

  7. [Expression and distribution of xenoantigen alpha-Gal in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Jian-guo; Mi, Jian-hong; Ying, Da-jun

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of xenoantigen in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line, and to study the availability of xenograft transplantation of intervertebral disk. Samples of intervertebral disk were collected from six Banna pigs of 8 to 11-month-old. The fixation, embedment and slice were performed. alpha-Gal specific binding lection (BSI-B4) were used as affinity reagents and affinity-immunohistochemistry assays (SABC methods and DAB stain) were conducted to detect the expression and distribution of xenoantigen (alpha-Gal). alpha-Gal was found in chondrocyte cell and chondrocyte-like cell in intervertebral disk which have the positive yellow-stained particulate aggradation. There was no stain in the matrix, elastic fiber and collagen fiber. The distribution of xenoantigen is locally in the tissue of intervertebral disk and its expression is weak. This suggests that the intervertebral disk of Banna pig may be alternative donor for xenotransplantation.

  8. The distribution of erythropoiesis over the various anatomical regions of the erythropoietic system in some inbred strains of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, J.; Hola, J.; Dungel, J.; Znojil, V.

    1982-10-01

    The extraction of /sup 59/Fe bound to the heme in the erythropoietic organs by means of acid ethylacetate was used to establish the proportion of erythropoiesis for which individual bones and the spleens of some inbred mouse strains are responsible. The proportion of splenic erythropoiesis differs from strain to strain, being in the range 9-42% of total erythropoiesis. In the strain BALB/c erythropoiesis is shifted in comparison with C57B1/10 strain towards the spine and away from the bones of the skull, the long bones of the limbs and the pelvis. Calculations of the erythroid cellularity and/or the intensity of erythropoiesis of the total bone marrow on the basis of a single bone should take into account both these interstrain differences in the participation of different regions and the possibility of various proportions of red and white blood cells and cells containing non-heme iron existing in different regions (bones).

  9. Identification of QTLs for shoot and root growth under ionic-osmotic stress in Lotus, using a RIL population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quero, Gastón; Gutíerrez, Lucía; Lascano, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The genus Lotus includes a group of forage legume species including genotypes of agronomic interest and model species. In this work, an experimental hydroponic growth system allowed the discrimination of growth responses to ionic-osmotic stress in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs...

  10. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Gerlach, Nina; Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

  11. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis. Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and

  12. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Micaelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Lewis (LEW show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2 as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Kidney Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, inter-species and -individual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. We hypothesized that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, we observed inter-strain differences in TCE metabolite levels in the kidney. In addition, we found that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In sub-chronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and kidney toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ, but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, we show that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain-dependent. PMID:25424545

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Liver Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of inter-individual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. We tested a hypothesis that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with liver-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various liver toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, inter-strain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and liver levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In sub-chronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Liver protein levels of Cyp2e1, Adh and Aldh2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE. PMID:25424544

  15. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  16. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays and affecting crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and fumonisin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, is a goal in breeding programs that screen for these important traits with the aim of developing resistant commercial hybrids. We conducted two years of field evaluations on 87 inbred lines originating primarily in China and Mexico and not previously screened for resistance. The objectives of our study were to identify resistant germplasm for breeding purposes and to examine possible relationships between resistances to the two mycotoxins. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were present in samples harvested from all lines in both years. Concentrations of total aflatoxin ranged from 52.00 ± 20.00 to 1524.00 ± 396.00 μg kg−1, while those of fumonisin ranged from 0.60 ± 0.06 to 124.00 ± 19.50 mg kg−1. The inbred lines TUN15, TUN61, TUN37, CY2, and TUN49 showed the lowest aflatoxin accumulation and CN1, GT601, TUN09, TUN61, and MP717 the lowest fumonisin accumulation. TUN61 showed the lowest accumulation of both mycotoxins. This study confirmed previous observations that high levels of aflatoxin can coexist with fumonisin, with 55 maize lines showing a positive correlation coefficient between the concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin and 32 lines showing a negative correlation coefficient. These selected lines, particularly TUN61, may provide sources of resistance to mycotoxin contamination in breeding programs. However, the mechanism of resistance in this germplasm remains to be identified. Future research should also address factors that influence the fungus–plant interaction, such as herbivory and environmental stress.

  17. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  18. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel inferred from RAD-seq derived SNP markers: effects of sequence clustering parameters and hierarchical SNP selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Bradbury, Ian R.; Mendibil, Iñ aki; Á lvarez, Paula; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    : the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides

  19. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Rector, Brian G; Guo, Baozhu; Snook, Maurice E

    2008-08-01

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)], and common smut [Ustilago maydis DC (Corda)] infection on these inbred lines were evaluated in 2005 and 2006 under subtropical conditions at Tifton, GA. Ten inbred lines possessing good agronomic traits were also resistant to the corn earworm. The correlation between ear-feeding insect damage or smut infection and three phenotypic traits (silk maysin level, husk extension, and husk tightness of corn ears) was also examined. Corn earworm and stink bug damage was negatively correlated to husk extension, but not to either silk maysin levels or husk tightness. In combination with the best agronomic trait ratings that show the least corn earworm and stink bug damage, lowest smut infection rate, and good insect-resistant phenotypic traits (i.e., high maysin and good husk coverage and husk tightness), 10 best inbred lines (CML90, CML92, CML94, CML99, CML104, CML108, CML114, CML128, CML137, and CML373) were identified from the 94 lines examined. These selected inbred lines will be used for further examination of their resistance mechanisms and development of new corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-colonizing pest resistance.

  20. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  1. Eficiências relativas de métodos de seleção de famílias endogâmicas em milho-pipoca = Relative efficiencies of selection methods of inbred families in popcorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Arnhold

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência relativa da seleção massal, entre e dentro e de um novo índice de seleção combinada proposto. O índice, baseado na genealogia, foi obtido por: IC = b1 PSn-1 + b2PFSn , em que PSn-1 é o valor fenotípico da planta Sn – 1; PFSn é o valor fenotípico da família Sn descendente da planta Sn – 1; b1 é o peso do valor fenotípico individual; e b2 é o peso do valor fenotípico de família Sn. Os pesos foram obtidos por derivação, pressupondo que os mesmos minimizam a variância da diferença entre o índice eo valor genético aditivo da planta Sn – 1. Para comparar os métodos, utilizaram-se famílias e plantas endogâmicas, obtidas da população Viçosa. Fez-se seleção em capacidade de expansão, utilizando os três métodos nas gerações S1, S2, S3 e S4, e avaliou-se a eficiência dosmétodos comparando médias em capacidade de expansão de famílias descendentes de selecionadas por cada método em S2, S3, S4 e S5. Para comparação de médias, utilizou-se o teste t ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Concluiu-se que a seleção combinada proposta foisuperior à seleção massal e foi, em geral, superior à seleção entre e dentro. A seleção entre e dentro foi, geralmente, superior à seleção massal.The study aimed to evaluate the relative efficiency of mass selection, among, within and of proposed new index of combined selection. The index, based on genealogy, was obtained by: IC = b1 PSn-1 + b2PFSn , wherePSn-1 is the phenotypic value of the plantSn-1; PFSn is the phenotypic value of the Sn family, descendant of the Sn-1 plant; b1 is the weight of the individual phenotypic value, and b2 it is the weight of the phenotypic value of Sn family. The weights were obtained by derivation, assuming that they minimize thevariance of the difference between the index and the value of the plant genetic additive Sn-1. To compare the methods, families and inbred plants were used, obtained from the

  2. An expandable embryonic stem cell-derived Purkinje neuron progenitor population that exhibits in vivo maturation in the adult mouse cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higuera, Gustavo A; Iaffaldano, Grazia; Bedar, Meiwand; Shpak, Guy; Broersen, Robin; Munshi, Shashini T; Dupont, Catherine; Gribnau, Joost; de Vrij, Femke M S; Kushner, Steven A; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    The directed differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into cell-type specific neurons has inspired the development of therapeutic discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Many forms of ataxia result from degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but thus far it has not

  3. An expandable embryonic stem cell-derived Purkinje neuron progenitor population that exhibits in vivo maturation in the adult mouse cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Higuera (Gustavo A.); Iaffaldano, G. (Grazia); Bedar, M. (Meiwand); G. Shpak (Guy); R. Broersen (Robin); S.T. Munshi (Shashini T.); Dupont, C. (Catherine); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); F.M.S. Vrij (Femke); S.A. Kushner (Steven); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe directed differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into cell-type specific neurons has inspired the development of therapeutic discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Many forms of ataxia result from degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but thus far it

  4. Developing a synthetic national population to investigate the impact of different cardiovascular disease risk management strategies: A derivation and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Josh; Wells, Susan; Marshall, Roger; Exeter, Daniel; Jackson, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Many national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor management guidelines now recommend that drug treatment decisions should be informed primarily by patients' multi-variable predicted risk of CVD, rather than on the basis of single risk factor thresholds. To investigate the potential impact of treatment guidelines based on CVD risk thresholds at a national level requires individual level data representing the multi-variable CVD risk factor profiles for a country's total adult population. As these data are seldom, if ever, available, we aimed to create a synthetic population, representing the joint CVD risk factor distributions of the adult New Zealand population. A synthetic population of 2,451,278 individuals, representing the actual age, gender, ethnicity and social deprivation composition of people aged 30-84 years who completed the 2013 New Zealand census was generated using Monte Carlo sampling. Each 'synthetic' person was then probabilistically assigned values of the remaining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors required for predicting their CVD risk, based on data from the national census national hospitalisation and drug dispensing databases and a large regional cohort study, using Monte Carlo sampling and multiple imputation. Where possible, the synthetic population CVD risk distributions for each non-demographic risk factor were validated against independent New Zealand data sources. We were able to develop a synthetic national population with realistic multi-variable CVD risk characteristics. The construction of this population is the first step in the development of a micro-simulation model intended to investigate the likely impact of a range of national CVD risk management strategies that will inform CVD risk management guideline updates in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  5. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  6. Characterizing the population structure and genetic diversity of maize breeding germplasm in Southwest China using genome-wide SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Hua; Li, Lujiang; Lan, Hai; Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Wu, Ling; Liu, Hailan; Jaqueth, Jennifer; Li, Bailin; Pan, Guangtang; Gao, Shibin

    2016-08-31

    Maize breeding germplasm used in Southwest China has high complexity because of the diverse ecological features of this area. In this study, the population structure, genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium decay distance of 362 important inbred lines collected from the breeding program of Southwest China were characterized using the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). With respect to population structure, two (Tropical and Temperate), three (Tropical, Stiff Stalk and non-Stiff Stalk), four [Tropical, group A germplasm derived from modern U.S. hybrids (PA), group B germplasm derived from modern U.S. hybrids (PB) and Reid] and six (Tropical, PB, Reid, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic, PA and North) subgroups were identified. With increasing K value, the Temperate group showed pronounced hierarchical structure with division into further subgroups. The Genetic Diversity of each group was also estimated, and the Tropical group was more diverse than the Temperate group. Seven low-genetic-diversity and one high-genetic-diversity regions were collectively identified in the Temperate, Tropical groups, and the entire panel. SNPs with significant variation in allele frequency between the Tropical and Temperate groups were also evaluated. Among them, a region located at 130 Mb on Chromosome 2 showed the highest genetic diversity, including both number of SNPs with significant variation and the ratio of significant SNPs to total SNPs. Linkage disequilibrium decay distance in the Temperate group was greater (2.5-3 Mb) than that in the entire panel (0.5-0.75 Mb) and the Tropical group (0.25-0.5 Mb). A large region at 30-120 Mb of Chromosome 7 was concluded to be a region conserved during the breeding process by comparison between S37, which was considered a representative tropical line in Southwest China, and its 30 most similar derived lines. For the panel covered most of widely used inbred lines in Southwest China, this work

  7. Investigation of the Influence of Leaf Thickness on Canopy Reflectance and Physiological Traits in Upland and Pima Cotton Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Pauli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many systems for field-based, high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP quantify and characterize the reflected radiation from the crop canopy to derive phenotypes, as well as infer plant function and health status. However, given the technology's nascent status, it remains unknown how biophysical and physiological properties of the plant canopy impact downstream interpretation and application of canopy reflectance data. In that light, we assessed relationships between leaf thickness and several canopy-associated traits, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, which was collected via active reflectance sensors carried on a mobile FB-HTP system, carbon isotope discrimination (CID, and chlorophyll content. To investigate the relationships among traits, two distinct cotton populations, an upland (Gossypium hirsutum L. recombinant inbred line (RIL population of 95 lines and a Pima (G. barbadense L. population composed of 25 diverse cultivars, were evaluated under contrasting irrigation regimes, water-limited (WL and well-watered (WW conditions, across 3 years. We detected four quantitative trait loci (QTL and significant variation in both populations for leaf thickness among genotypes as well as high estimates of broad-sense heritability (on average, above 0.7 for both populations, indicating a strong genetic basis for leaf thickness. Strong phenotypic correlations (maximum r = −0.73 were observed between leaf thickness and NDVI in the Pima population, but not the RIL population. Additionally, estimated genotypic correlations within the RIL population for leaf thickness with CID, chlorophyll content, and nitrogen discrimination (r^gij = −0.32, 0.48, and 0.40, respectively were all significant under WW but not WL conditions. Economically important fiber quality traits did not exhibit significant phenotypic or genotypic correlations with canopy traits. Overall, our results support considering variation in leaf thickness as a potential

  8. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockamp, Thomas; Maegele, Marc; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J. Carel; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Lefering, Rolf; Joosse, Pieter; Naess, Paal A.; Skaga, Nils O.; Groat, Tahnee; Eaglestone, Simon; Borgman, Matthew A.; Spinella, Philip C.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population,

  9. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel inferred from RAD-seq derived SNP markers: effects of sequence clustering parameters and hierarchical SNP selection

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-03-03

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and related methods are revolutionizing the field of population genomics in non-model organisms as they allow generating an unprecedented number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) even when no genomic information is available. Yet, RAD-seq data analyses rely on assumptions on nature and number of nucleotide variants present in a single locus, the choice of which may lead to an under- or overestimated number of SNPs and/or to incorrectly called genotypes. Using the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) and a close relative, the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias), as case study, here we explore the sensitivity of population structure inferences to two crucial aspects in RAD-seq data analysis: the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides insights into the effects of alternative RAD-seq data analysis strategies on population structure inferences that are directly applicable to other species.

  10. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockamp, Thomas; Maegele, Marc; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J Carel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Lefering, Rolf; Joosse, Pieter; Naess, Paal A; Skaga, Nils O; Groat, Tahnee; Eaglestone, Simon; Borgman, Matthew A; Spinella, Philip C; Schreiber, Martin A; Brohi, Karim

    2013-07-11

    The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population, and to compare it with the existing Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and probability of survival (PS09) score. A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2005 and 2010 from seven trauma centers and registries in Europe and the United States of America was performed. We compared the BIG score with TRISS and PS09 scores in a population of blunt and penetrating trauma patients. We then assessed the discrimination ability of all scores via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared the expected mortality rate (precision) of all scores with the observed mortality rate. In total, 12,206 datasets were retrieved to validate the BIG score. The mean ISS was 15 ± 11, and the mean 30-day mortality rate was 4.8%. With an AUROC of 0.892 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.879 to 0.906), the BIG score performed well in an adult population. TRISS had an area under ROC (AUROC) of 0.922 (0.913 to 0.932) and the PS09 score of 0.825 (0.915 to 0.934). On a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score had an AUROC result of 0.920 (0.898 to 0.942) compared with the PS09 score (AUROC of 0.921; 0.902 to 0.939) and TRISS (0.929; 0.912 to 0.947). The BIG score is a good predictor of mortality in the adult trauma population. It performed well compared with TRISS and the PS09 score, although it has significantly less discriminative ability. In a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score performed better than in a population with blunt trauma. The BIG score has the advantage of being available shortly after admission and may be used to predict clinical prognosis or as a research tool to risk stratify trauma patients into clinical trials.

  11. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... mays L.) ear-related traits were concentrated on yield per ... but the studies on using different N environments to map. QTL for .... ANOVA of the RIL population on EAW under two N regimes. ... (2007), but our study was different from theirs in many ... Mapping QTLs for grain yield and yield components under.

  12. Mapping and characterization of the new adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr77 derived from Santa Fe winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James A; Su, Zhenqi; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Chao, Shiaoman

    2018-04-25

    A new gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance in wheat was mapped to chromosome 3BL. This gene was designated as Lr77. 'Santa Fe' is a hard red winter cultivar that has had long-lasting resistance to the leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosome location of the adult plant leaf rust resistance in Santa Fe wheat. A partial backcross line of 'Thatcher' (Tc) wheat with adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Santa Fe was crossed with Thatcher to develop a Thatcher//Tc*2/Santa Fe F 6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The RIL population and parental lines were evaluated for segregation of leaf rust resistance in three field plot tests and in an adult plant greenhouse test. A genetic map of the RIL population was constructed using 90,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with the Illumina Infinium iSelect 90K wheat bead array. A significant quantitative trait locus for reduction of leaf rust severity in all four tests was found on chromosome 3BL that segregated as a single adult plant resistance gene. The RILs with the allele from the resistant parent for SNP marker IWB10344 had lower leaf rust severity and a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response compared to the susceptible RILs and Thatcher. The gene derived from Santa Fe on chromosome 3BL was designated as Lr77. Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay markers linked to Lr77 on 3BL should be useful for selection of wheat germplasm with this gene.

  13. Demonstration of the presence of independent pre-osteoblastic and pre-adipocytic cell populations in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, S; Abdallah, B M; Bentzon, J F

    2008-01-01

    differentiation into one particular lineage. However, this inverse relationship between bone and fat is not consistent and under certain in vivo conditions, bone and fat can change independently suggesting separate precursor cell populations. In order to test for this hypothesis, we extensively characterized two...... of mature adipocytes visualized by Oil Red O staining. On the other hand, mMSC2 and not mMSC1 differentiated to osteoblast lineage as demonstrated by up-regulation of osteoblastic makers (CBFA1/RUNX2, Osterix, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin) and formation of alizarin red stained...... that are committed to either osteoblast or adipocyte lineage. These cell populations may undergo independent changes during aging and in bone diseases and thus represent important targets for therapy....

  14. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation FST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies. PMID:26550601

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2015-12-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation F ST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies.

  17. Impacts of irrigation and genotype on yield, protein, starch and oil contents in grain of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipovic Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four inbred lines of maize (Os 438-95 = C1, Os 30-8 = C2, Os 6 = C3 and Os 1-44 =C4 were grown for 4-year period (2006-2009 in the stationary field experiment on Osijek eutric cambisol. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotype were tested. Soil moisture was maintained by two irrigation rates from 60-100% and 80-100% of the field water capacity. Two steps of N (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 were applied, while P and K fertilization was equal (500 kg/ha NPK 0:30:20. Eight maize genotypes (four inbred lines and four hybrids were grown on each basic plot of fertilization. The experiment was duplicated for maize - soybean rotation. The experiment was set by split-split plot method according to randomized block design in three replicates. The basic plot areas were 617.2 m2 (irrigation, 313.6 m2 (fertilization and 39.2 m2 (genotype. Selection of N non-fertilized treatment and four inbred lines were made for this study with aim of testing year (A irrigation (B and genotype (C effects under natural N-soil conditions. Average grain yield in level 1809 kg ha-1without N fertilization is indication of very high fertility of the soil. Differences of yield among the years were from 823 (2007 to 2450 (2006 kg ha-1. Excessive drought and high air-temperature stress is responsible for the low maize yield in 2007. Irrigation considerable affected on maize yields (4-year averages: 1500, 1809 and 2118 kg ha-1, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of the 4-year average yields among the genotypes were from 1259 (C3 to 2765 (C1 kg ha-1. Differences of yield among the genotypes in the different years were also considerable because the lowest yield was for 71% (A1, 23% (A2, 63% (A3 and 40% (A4 lower in comparison to the highest yield. The genotype effects under different water supplies were less influencing factor because the high-yielding C1 had for 128%, 129% and 106% the higher yield compared to the low-yielding C3, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively

  18. Spleen-dependent immune protection elicited by CpG adjuvanted reticulocyte-derived exosomes from malaria infection is associated with T cells population changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martin-Jaular

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy, had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced PD1- memory T cell expansion with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are able to induce splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to expansion of T-cells.

  19. Novel characterization of monocyte-derived cell populations in the meninges and choroid plexus and their rates of replenishment in bone marrow chimeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2010-09-01

    The mouse dura mater, pia mater, and choroid plexus contain resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These cells participate in immune surveillance, phagocytosis of cellular debris, uptake of antigens from the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid and immune regulation in many pathologic processes. We used Cx3cr1 knock-in, CD11c-eYFP transgenic and bone marrow chimeric mice to characterize the phenotype, density and replenishment rate of monocyte-derived cells in the meninges and choroid plexus and to assess the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on their number and tissue distribution. Iba-1 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II CD169 CD68 macrophages and CD11c putative DCs were identified in meningeal and choroid plexus whole mounts. Comparison of homozygous and heterozygous Cx3cr1 mice did not reveal CX3CR1-dependancy on density, distribution or phenotype of monocyte-derived cells. In turnover studies, wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with Cx3cr1/-positive bone marrow and were analyzed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. There was a rapid replenishment of CX3CR1-positive cells in the dura mater (at 4 weeks) and the choroid plexus was fully reconstituted by 8 weeks. These data provide the foundation for future studies on the role of resident macrophages and DCs in conditions such as meningitis, autoimmune inflammatory disease and in therapies involving irradiation and hematopoietic or stem cell transplantation.

  20. Coalescence of DNA Double Strand Breaks Induced by Galactic Cosmic Radiation is Modulated by Genetics in 15 Inbred Strains of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Sebastien; Ray, Shayoni; Staatz, Kevin; Degorre, Charlotte; Guiet, Elodie; Viger, Louise; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Karpen, Gary; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript we address the challenges associated with the ability to predict radiation sensitivity associated with exposure to either cosmic radiation or X-rays in a population study, by monitoring DNA damage sensing protein 53BP1 forming small nuclear radiation-induced foci (RIF) as a surrogate biomarker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). 76 primary skin fibroblasts were isolated from 10 collaborative cross strains and five reference inbred mice (C57Bl/6, BALB/CByJ, B6C3, C3H and CBA/CaJ) and exposed to three different charged nuclei of increasing LET (350 MeV/n Si, 350 MeV/n Ar and 600 MeV/n Fe) and X-ray. Our data brings strong evidence against the classic "contact-first" model where DSBs are assumed to be immobile and repaired at the lesion site. In contrast, our model suggests nearby DSBs move into single repair unit characterized by large RIF before the repair machinery kicks in. Such model has the advantage of being much more efficient molecularly but is poorly suited to deal with cosmic radiation, where energy is concentrated along the particle trajectory, inducing a large density of DSBs along each particle track. In accordance with this model, RIF quantification after X-ray exposition showed a saturated dose response for early time points post-irradiation for all strains. Similarly, the high-LET response showed that RIF number matched the number of track per cell, not the number of expected DSB per cell (1). At the temporal level, we noted that the percentage of unrepaired high-LET tracks over a 48 hour time-course increased with LET, confirming that the DNA repair process becomes more difficult as more DSB coalesce into single RIF. There was also good agreement between persistent RIF levels measured in-vitro in the primary skin cultures and survival levels of T-cells and B-cells collected in blood samples from 10 CC strains 24 hours after 0.1 Gy whole-body dose of X-ray. This suggests that persistent RIF 24 hour post-IR is a good surrogate in

  1. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

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    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings.The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The study provides insights into the accuracy of

  2. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  3. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia, E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); Sakuma, Alice Momoyo [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); De Capitani, Eduardo Mello [Universidade Estadual de Campinas — UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Controle de Intoxicações (Brazil); Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde/SP, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças (Brazil); Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia (Brazil); Gouveia, Nelson [Universidade de São Paulo — USP, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  4. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

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    Ratnayake Walisundera MN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

  5. Genetics of the α 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoostelaere, L.; Potter, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice

  6. Effect of x-ray irradiation on maize inbred line B73 tissue cultures and regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.S.; Cheng, D.S.K.; Milcic, J.B.; Yang, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    In order to enhance variation induced by the tissue culture process and to obtain agronomically desirable mutants, friable embryogenic tissue cultures of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line B73 were x-ray irradiated with 11 doses [0-8.4 kilorads (kR)]. Reductions in callus growth rate and embryogenic callus formation occurred with increasing x-ray doses 20 d and 3 months after irradiation. Callus irradiated with 0.8 kR showed a significant increase in growth rate and a 20% increase in embryogenic callus 9 months after irradiation. A total of 230 R 0 plants were regenerated for evaluation. Pollen fertility and seed set of R 0 plants decreased with increasing x-ray dosage. Days to anthesis and plant height of R 0 plants varied among x-ray treatments but were generally reduced with higher dosages. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with x-ray dosage. The R 1 seeds taken from R 0 plants were also grown and tested for mutant segregation. Plants regenerated from irradiated calli had a two- to 10-fold increase in mutations over plants regenerated from unirradiated control callus. Germination frequency of seeds from R 0 plants decreased with increasing x-ray dosage. Although chlorophyll mutants were most frequently observed, a number of vigorous plants with earlier anthesis date were also recovered

  7. Differential response of inbred and F1 hybrid embryos of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. to x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shome, A.; Hazra, S.

    1988-01-01

    Radio-response of HS 4288, HS 7910 and two F 1 hybrid embryos of H. sabdariffa to X-ray doses (2-8 kR) was assessed. Reduction in shoot and root length and incidence of root injuries increased always with the increase of X-ray doses. LD 50 values of HS 4288, HS 7910, F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 428 were in between 5 and 6 kR, 2 and 4 kR, 6 and 8 kR, and 5 and 6 kR respectively. Judging by LD 50 values and 100 per cent seedling abnormality, relatively HS 4288 and F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 were resistant and HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 4288 were susceptible. Induction of macro-mutations was different in two inbreds and also in two F 1 hybrids. Role of cytoplasmic factors for the differential response are discussed. (author). 14 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Genetic Regulation of Hypothalamic Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) in BxD Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Brian W.; Li, Wei; Garlow, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptides are implicated in a wide range of behaviors including in the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants, feeding and energy balance and stress and anxiety responses. We conducted a complex trait analysis to examine natural variation in the regulation of CART transcript abundance (CARTta) in the hypothalamus. CART transcript abundance was measured in total hypothalamic RNA from 26 BxD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains and in the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains. The strain distribution pattern for CARTta was continuous across the RI panel, which is consistent with this being a quantitative trait. Marker regression and interval mapping revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on mouse chromosome 4 (around 58.2cM) and chromosome 11 (between 20–36cM) that influence CARTta and account for 31% of the between strain variance in this phenotype. There are numerous candidate genes and QTL in these chromosomal regions that may indicate shared genetic regulation between CART expression and other neurobiological processes referable to known actions of this neuropeptide. PMID:18199428

  9. Immunological aspects of Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris infections in inbred and outbred strains of laboratory mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, S J; Cox, F E

    1982-08-01

    The intestinal flagellates, Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris, cause similar infections in CBA mice as determined by trophozoite and cyst counts. Both parasites occur all along the small intestine with G. muris, being mainly present in the anterior part and S. muris towards the posterior. The early stages of infection are similar in all strains of mice examined and peak levels of both trophozoites and cysts occur 1-2 weeks after infection. All strains of mice overcome the infection but the rate of recovery varies considerably between strains, being most rapid in BALB/c and slowest in A and C57BL.B10. Outbred mice are more variable in their recovery than inbred mice. After recovery, mice are partially resistant to reinfection with the homologous but not the heterologous parasite. Resistance to reinfection with S. muris is greatest in those strains that eliminate the primary infection most rapidly. Giardia muris and S. muris cause similar changes in the mucosa of the small intestine of BALB/c mice with increased intra-epithelial lymphocyte counts from 3 weeks onwards corresponding with the start of the elimination of the parasites from the gut. A reduction in villus height and increase in crypt depth is also characteristic of these infections.

  10. Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

  11. Replication study for the association of 9 East Asian GWAS-derived loci with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

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    Kensuke Sakai

    Full Text Available AIMS: East Asian genome-wide association studies (GWAS for type 2 diabetes identified 8 loci with genome-wide significance, and 2 loci with a borderline association. However, the associations of these loci except MAEA locus with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated in independent East Asian cohorts. We performed a replication study to investigate the association of these susceptibility loci with type 2 diabetes in an independent Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped 7,379 Japanese participants (5,315 type 2 diabetes and 2,064 controls for each of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7041847 in GLIS3, rs6017317 in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, rs6467136 near GCCI-PAX4, rs831571 near PSMD6, rs9470794 in ZFAND3, rs3786897 in PEPD, rs1535500 in KCNK16, rs16955379 in CMIP, and rs17797882 near WWOX. Because the sample size in this study was not sufficient to replicate single SNP associations, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS by summing a number of risk alleles of the 9 SNPs, and examined the association of the GRS with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1535500 in KCNK16, all SNPs had the same direction of effect (odds ratio [OR]>1.0 as in the original reports. The GRS constructed from the 9 SNPs was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population (p = 4.0 × 10(-4, OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09. In quantitative trait analyses, rs16955379 in CMIP was nominally associated with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and with increased fasting plasma glucose, but neither the individual SNPs nor the GRS showed a significant association with the glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 9 loci that were identified in the East Asian GWAS meta-analysis have a significant effect on the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.

  12. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

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    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively.These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers from easily obtainable risk factors and may

  13. A self-assessment predictive model for type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia derived from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Khairollah; Asadollahi, Parisa; Azizi, Monire; Abangah, Ghobad

    2017-09-01

    There is no cure for diabetes and its prevention is interesting for both people and health policy makers. The aim of this study was to construct a simple scoring system to predict diabetes and suggest a self assessment predictive model for type 2 diabetes in Iran. This study was a part of a comprehensive population based survey performed in Ilam province during 2011-2012, including 2158 cases≥25years. All demographic and laboratory results were entered into the prepared sheets and were analysed using SPSS 16. By identification of relative risks of diabetes and IFG, a predictive model was constructed and proposed for these abnormalities. Totally, 2158 people comprising 72% female, 60% from urban regions, mean age of 45.5±14years were investigated and the average height, weight, FBS and waist of participants were as follows respectively: 164±8.9cm, 68.4±12.3kg, 5.7±2.8mmol/l (102.6±49.9mg/dl) and 82.3±14.3cm. The prevalence of IFG, diabetes and hyperglycaemia among all participants were 7.8%, 11.8% and 19.6% respectively. Regression analysis revealed familial history of diabetes, place of life, age, hypertension, daily exercise, marital status, gender, waist size, smoking, and BMI as the most relevant risk factors for diabetes and hyperglycemia. A self-assessment predictive model was constructed for general population living in the west of Iran. This is the first self-assessment predictive model for diabetes in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An outbreak of type π vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan province, China: emergence and circulation in an under-immunized population.

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    Hai-Bo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During August 2011-February 2012, an outbreak of type Π circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPVs occurred in Sichuan Province, China. METHODS: A field investigation of the outbreak was conducted to characterize outbreak isolates and to guide emergency response. Sequence analysis of poliovirus capsid protein VP1 was performed to determine the viral propagation, and a coverage survey was carried out for risk assessment. RESULTS: One clinical compatible polio case and three VDPV cases were determined in Ngawa County, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. Case patients were unimmunized children, 0.8-1 years old. Genetic sequencing showed that the isolates diverged from the VP1 region of the type Π Sabin strain by 5-12 nucleotides (nt and shared the same 5 nt VP1 substitutions, which indicate single lineage of cVDPVs. Of the 7 acute flaccid paralysis cases (all>6 months reported in Ngawa Prefecture in 2011, 4 (57.1% cases (including 2 polio cases did not receive oral attenuated poliovirus vaccine. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs were conducted in February-May, 2012, and the strain has not been isolated since. CONCLUSION: High coverage of routine immunization should be maintained among children until WPV transmission is globally eradicated. Risk assessments should be conducted regularly to pinpoint high risk areas or subpopulations, with SIAs developed if necessary.

  15. Aging induced loss of stemness with concomitant gain of myogenic properties of a pure population of CD34(+)/CD45(-) muscle derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bipasha; Shenoy, P Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by the functional decline of cells, tissues, and organs, as well as, a striking increase in susceptibility to a wide range of diseases. Within a tissue, both differentiated cells and adult stem cells are susceptible to intrinsic and extrinsic changes while aging. Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) are tissue specific stem cells which have been studied well for their multipotential nature. Although there are reports relating to diminished function and regenerative capacity of aged MDSCs as compared to their young counterparts, not much has been reported relating to the concomitant gain in unipotent nature of aged MDSCs. In this study, we report an inverse correlation between aging and expression of adult/mesenchymal stem cell markers and a direct correlation between aging and myogenecity in MDSCs. Aged MDSCs were able to generate a greater number of dystrophin positive myofibres, as compared to, the young MDSCs when transplanted in muscle of dystrophic mice. Our data, therefore, suggests that aging stress adds to the decline in stem cell characteristics with a concomitant increase in unipotency, in terms of, myogenecity of MDSCs. This study, hence, also opens the possibilities of using unipotent aged MDSCs as potential candidates for transplantation in patients with muscular dystrophies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Identification of QTLs for Arsenic Accumulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using a RIL Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Song, Guiliang; Qi, Hongyuan; Liu, Jingbao; Tang, Jihua

    2011-01-01

    The Arsenic (As) concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels. PMID:22028786

  17. Identification of QTLs for arsenic accumulation in maize (Zea mays L. using a RIL population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    Full Text Available The Arsenic (As concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels.

  18. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds per silique (SS, seed weight (SW, and silique length (SL are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses (B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus × B. napus. In present study, a doubled haploid (DH population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0–34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs (cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09, and cqSL.C09 were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique

  19. Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but do not predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Page, Kathryn E; Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alex; Valore, Erika; Hui, Simon T; Jung, Grace; Zhou, Jie; Lusis, Aldons J; Fuqua, Brie; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Vulpe, Chris D

    2017-11-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex- and strain-dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin and reported conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin ( Hamp1 ) mRNA levels and iron status. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex, and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron, and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in 14 inbred strains on a control diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes and iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen in males were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron-sufficient or high-iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). However, liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice fed iron-sufficient or high-iron diets, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males. We also measured plasma erythroferrone, performed RNA-sequencing analysis of liver samples from six inbred strains fed the iron-sufficient, low-iron, or high-iron diets, and explored differences in gene expression between the strains with the highest and lowest hepcidin levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). Liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy: an objective definition based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived regional fat ratios in a South Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Hesarghatta Shyamasunder; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Rupali, Priscilla; Thomas, Nihal

    2012-01-01

    To develop an objective definition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy by using regional fat mass ratios and to assess the utility of anthropometric and skinfold measurements in the initial screening for lipodystrophy. Male patients between 25 and 50 years old with proven HIV infection (highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]-naïve subjects and those receiving successful HAART) were studied and compared with body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative control subjects. Anthropometric variables, body composition, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry findings, and metabolic variables were compared among the 3 study groups and between those patients with and those without lipodystrophy. Trunk fat/lower limb fat mass ratio >2.28 identified 54.3% of patients with HIV receiving HAART as having lipodystrophy and had the highest odds ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome. The "clinical diagnosis of lipodystrophy" and the "clinical scoring system" had too many false-positive and false-negative results. Triceps skinfold thickness (SFT)/BMI ratio ≤0.49 and abdominal SFT/triceps SFT ratio >1.385 have good sensitivity but poor specificity in identifying lipodystrophy. In comparison with HAART-naïve patients with HIV, those receiving HAART had significantly higher insulin resistance, and a significantly greater proportion had impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Among patients receiving HAART, those with lipodystrophy had a greater degree of insulin resistance, higher triglyceride levels, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The trunk fat/lower limb fat mass ratio in BMI-matched normal subjects can be used to derive cutoff values to define lipodystrophy objectively in HIV-infected patients. Defining lipodystrophy in this way is better than other methods of identifying those patients with increased cardiovascular risk. Triceps SFT/BMI and abdominal SFT/triceps SFT ratios may be useful as screening tools in resource

  1. Preferential magnetic nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages sub-populations: effect of surface coating on polarization, toxicity, and in vivo MRI detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Faraj, Achraf, E-mail: aalfaraj@ksu.edu.sa [College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Molecular and Cellular Imaging Lab, Department of Radiological Sciences (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-15

    Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of different diseases, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents or drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their further surface modification with carboxylic groups on bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages phenotype, labeling efficiency, uptake mechanism, biocompatibility, and their in vivo MR detection was assessed. An enhanced labeling efficiency was observed for carboxylic surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) compared to PEGylated SPIO and to a higher extent to plain SPIO along with a higher uptake by M2 subsets. Magnetic nanoparticles were found located in the periphery of the vesicles dispersed in the cytoplasm in TEM. Investigation of the labeling mechanism by inhibiting different uptake pathways revealed that endocytosis via scavenger receptor A, a process known to be clathrin mediated, plays a central role in the cellular uptake kinetics of both macrophages subpopulations. Biocompatibility evaluation showed no variation in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with a low release of ROS. Flow cytometry and measurement of iNOS and Arginase 1 activity as marker of M1 and M2 macrophages polarization confirmed that magnetic labeling of macrophages subsets did not affect their polarization. In addition, no variation was observed in the biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide-labeled M1 and M2 macrophages subsets when monitored using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a better detection for the enhanced SPIO-PEG-COOH-labeled cells.

  2. Preferential magnetic nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages sub-populations: effect of surface coating on polarization, toxicity, and in vivo MRI detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Faraj, Achraf

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of different diseases, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents or drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their further surface modification with carboxylic groups on bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages phenotype, labeling efficiency, uptake mechanism, biocompatibility, and their in vivo MR detection was assessed. An enhanced labeling efficiency was observed for carboxylic surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) compared to PEGylated SPIO and to a higher extent to plain SPIO along with a higher uptake by M2 subsets. Magnetic nanoparticles were found located in the periphery of the vesicles dispersed in the cytoplasm in TEM. Investigation of the labeling mechanism by inhibiting different uptake pathways revealed that endocytosis via scavenger receptor A, a process known to be clathrin mediated, plays a central role in the cellular uptake kinetics of both macrophages subpopulations. Biocompatibility evaluation showed no variation in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with a low release of ROS. Flow cytometry and measurement of iNOS and Arginase 1 activity as marker of M1 and M2 macrophages polarization confirmed that magnetic labeling of macrophages subsets did not affect their polarization. In addition, no variation was observed in the biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide-labeled M1 and M2 macrophages subsets when monitored using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a better detection for the enhanced SPIO–PEG–COOH-labeled cells

  3. Population pharmacokinetic analysis for 10-monohydroxy derivative of oxcarbazepine in pediatric epileptic patients shows no difference between Japanese and other ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ikuo; Bouillon, Thomas; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hikoe; Hirota, Takashi; Fink, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an anti-epileptic drug, which is almost completely metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to the active 10-monohyroxy metabolite (MHD) following oral administration. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MHD were evaluated in pediatric epileptic patients and a possible ethnic difference in PK of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese pediatric patients was assessed. A non-linear mixed effect modeling approach was used to determine the PK of MHD. A one-compartment population model with first-order absorption appropriately described the PK of MHD. No clinically relevant differences were found for using body surface area or weight to explain between-patient variability, therefore the final model included the effects of body weight on apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of MHD, and in addition, the effect of 3 concomitant anti-epileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) on CL/F of MHD. Inclusion of ethnicity as a covariate in the final model, concluded no ethnic difference with respect to CL/F of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Hence, oxcarbazepine can be generally applied using the same dosage and administration for the treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients, regardless of ethnicity. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The currently used commercial DNA-extraction methods give different results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations derived from human fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukonen, Johanna; Simões, Catarina; Saarela, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Recently several human health-related microbiota studies have had partly contradictory results. As some differences may be explained by methodologies applied, we evaluated how different storage conditions and commonly used DNA-extraction kits affect bacterial composition, diversity, and numbers of human fecal microbiota. According to our results, the DNA-extraction did not affect the diversity, composition, or quantity of Bacteroides spp., whereas after a week's storage at -20 °C, the numbers of Bacteroides spp. were 1.6-2.5 log units lower (P Eubacterium rectale (Erec)-group, Clostridium leptum group, bifidobacteria, and Atopobium group were 0.5-4 log units higher (P < 0.05) after mechanical DNA-extraction as detected with qPCR, regardless of storage. Furthermore, the bacterial composition of Erec-group differed significantly after different DNA-extractions; after enzymatic DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera detected were Roseburia (39% of clones) and Coprococcus (10%), whereas after mechanical DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera were Blautia (30%), Coprococcus (13%), and Dorea (10%). According to our results, rigorous mechanical lysis enables detection of higher bacterial numbers and diversity from human fecal samples. As it was shown that the results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations are highly dependent on the DNA-extraction methods applied, the use of different DNA-extraction protocols may explain the contradictory results previously obtained. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combining ability estimates for earliness in cotton leaf curl virus resistant inbred parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Baloch, Q.B.

    2005-01-01

    Four female cotton leaf curl virus-resistant resistant (cclv) parents consisting of advance strains and commercial varieties (VH-137, FH-901, CRIS-467 and Cyto-51) and four male parents, all clcv resistant Punjab varieties (FH-945, CIM-707, CIM-473 and FH-1000) were mated in a cross classification Design-II fashion. The results show that genetic variances due to additive genes were higher than the dominant variances, yet both types of variances were substantial, implying that significant improvement could reliably be made from segregating populations. The general combining ability (gca) estimates by and large suggested that for improvement in the appearance of first white flower and 1st sympodial branch node number, parents FH-945 and VH-137 whereas for 1st effective boll setting, parents FH-1000 and FH-901 and for percent of open bolls at 120 days after planting, parents CIM-707 and CRIS-467 may be given preference. However, for hybrid cotton development regarding earliness, hybrids CRIS-467 x CIM-707, VH-137 x FH-945 and Cyto-51 x FH-1000 may be chosen. (author)

  6. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  7. Whole-body adipose tissue and lean muscle volumes and their distribution across gender and age: MR-derived normative values in a normal-weight Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Erika J; Nanz, Daniel; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Marcon, Magda; Fischer, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    To determine age- and gender-dependent whole-body adipose tissue and muscle volumes in healthy Swiss volunteers in Dixon MRI in comparison with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) measurements. Fat-water-separated whole-body 3 Tesla MRI of 80 healthy volunteers (ages 20 to 62 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 to 26.2 kg/m 2 (10 men, 10 women per decade). Age and gender-dependent volumes of total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), and the total lean muscle tissue (TLMT) normalized for body height were determined by semi-automatic segmentation, and correlated with anthropometric and BIA measurements as well as lifestyle parameters. The TAT, ASAT, VAT, and TLMT indexes (TATi, ASATi, VATi, and TLMTi, respectively) (L/m 2  ± standard deviation) for women/men were 6.4 ± 1.8/5.3 ± 1.7, 1.6 ± 0.7/1.2 ± 0.5, 0.4 ± 0.2/0.8 ± 0.5, and 5.6 ± 0.6/7.1 ± 0.7, respectively. The TATi correlated strongly with ASATi (r > 0.93), VATi, BMI and BIA (r > 0.70), and TAATi (r > 0.96), and weak with TLMTi for both genders (r > -0.34). The VAT was the only parameter showing an age dependency (r > 0.32). The BMI and BIA showed strong correlation with all MR-derived adipose tissue volumes. The TAT mass was estimated significantly lower from BIA than from MRI (both genders P muscle volumes might serve as normative values. The estimation of adipose tissue volumes was significantly lower from anthropometric and BIA measurements than from MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:449-458, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Individual behavioral and neurochemical markers of unadapted decision-making processes in healthy inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaras, Elsa; Callebert, Jacques; Chennaoui, Mounir; Rabat, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of decision-making processes is the inter-individual variability between healthy subjects. These behavioral patterns could constitute risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, finding predictive markers of safe or risky decision-making is an important challenge for psychiatry research. We set up a mouse gambling task (MGT)-adapted from the human Iowa gambling task with uncertain contingencies between response and outcome that furthermore enables the emergence of inter-individual differences. Mice (n = 54) were further individually characterized for locomotive, emotional and cognitive behavior. Individual basal rates of monoamines and brain activation after the MGT were assessed in brain regions related to reward, emotion or cognition. In a large healthy mice population, 44 % showed a balanced strategy with limited risk-taking and flexible choices, 29 % showed a safe but rigid strategy, while 27 % adopted risky behavior. Risky mice took also more risks in other apparatus behavioral devices and were less sensitive to reward. No difference existed between groups regarding anxiety, working memory, locomotion and impulsivity. Safe/rigid mice exhibited a hypoactivation of prefrontal subareas, a high level of serotonin in the orbitofrontal cortex combined with a low level of dopamine in the putamen that predicted the emergence of rigid behavior. By contrast, high levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenalin in the hippocampus predicted the emergence of more exploratory and risky behaviors. The coping of C57bl/6J mice in MGT enables the determination of extreme patterns of choices either safe/rigid or risky/flexible, related to specific neurochemical and behavioral markers.

  9. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika [Kumamoto University, Faculty of Education, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Biochemistry Section, Kumamoto (Japan); Waalkes, Michael P. [National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Imamura, Yorishige [Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl{sub 2}, sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of central and peripheral components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the inbred Roman rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Javier; Márquez, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Tobeña, Adolfo; Fernández-Teruel, Albert; Armario, Antonio

    2008-05-01

    Several studies performed in outbred Roman high- and low-avoidance lines (RHA and RLA, respectively) have demonstrated that the more anxious line (RLA) is characterized by a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to certain stressors than the less anxious one (RHA). However, inconsistent results have also been reported. Taking advantage of the generation of an inbred colony of RLA and RHA rats (RHA-I and RLA-I, respectively), we have characterized in the two strains not only resting and stress levels of peripheral HPA hormones but also central components of the HPA axis, including CRF gene expression in extra-hypothalamic areas. Whereas resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone did not differ between the strains, a greater response to a novel environment was found in RLA-I as compared to RHA-I rats. RLA-I rats showed enhanced CRF gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, with normal arginin-vasopressin gene expression in both parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the PVN. This enhanced CRF gene expression is not apparently related to altered negative corticosteroid feedback as similar levels of expression of brain glucorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were found in the two rat strains. CRF gene expression tended to be higher in the central amygdala and it was significantly higher in the dorsal region of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) of RLA-I rats, while no differences appeared in the ventral region of BNST. Considering the involvement of CRF and the BNST in anxiety and stress-related behavioral alterations, the present data suggest that the CRF system may be a critical neurobiological substrate underlying differences between the two rat strains.

  11. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  12. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  13. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  14. Joint genome-wide prediction in several populations accounting for randomness of genotypes: A hierarchical Bayes approach. I: Multivariate Gaussian priors for marker effects and derivation of the joint probability mass function of genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Khare, Kshitij; Banerjee, Arunava; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2017-03-21

    It is important to consider heterogeneity of marker effects and allelic frequencies in across population genome-wide prediction studies. Moreover, all regression models used in genome-wide prediction overlook randomness of genotypes. In this study, a family of hierarchical Bayesian models to perform across population genome-wide prediction modeling genotypes as random variables and allowing population-specific effects for each marker was developed. Models shared a common structure and differed in the priors used and the assumption about residual variances (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Randomness of genotypes was accounted for by deriving the joint probability mass function of marker genotypes conditional on allelic frequencies and pedigree information. As a consequence, these models incorporated kinship and genotypic information that not only permitted to account for heterogeneity of allelic frequencies, but also to include individuals with missing genotypes at some or all loci without the need for previous imputation. This was possible because the non-observed fraction of the design matrix was treated as an unknown model parameter. For each model, a simpler version ignoring population structure, but still accounting for randomness of genotypes was proposed. Implementation of these models and computation of some criteria for model comparison were illustrated using two simulated datasets. Theoretical and computational issues along with possible applications, extensions and refinements were discussed. Some features of the models developed in this study make them promising for genome-wide prediction, the use of information contained in the probability distribution of genotypes is perhaps the most appealing. Further studies to assess the performance of the models proposed here and also to compare them with conventional models used in genome-wide prediction are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomic Dissection of Leaf Angle in Maize (Zea mays L. Using a Four-Way Cross Mapping Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Ding

    Full Text Available Increasing grain yield by the selection for optimal plant architecture has been the key focus in modern maize breeding. As a result, leaf angle, an important determinant of plant architecture, has been significantly improved to adapt to the ever-increasing plant density in maize production over the past several decades. To extend our understanding on the genetic mechanisms of leaf angle in maize, we developed the first four-way cross mapping population, consisting of 277 lines derived from four maize inbred lines with varied leaf angles. The four-way cross mapping population together with the four parental lines were evaluated for leaf angle in two environments. In this study, we reported linkage maps built in the population and quantitative trait loci (QTL on leaf angle detected by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM. ICIM applies a two-step strategy to effectively separate the cofactor selection from the interval mapping, which controls the background additive and dominant effects at the same time. A total of 14 leaf angle QTL were identified, four of which were further validated in near-isogenic lines (NILs. Seven of the 14 leaf angle QTL were found to overlap with the published leaf angle QTL or genes, and the remaining QTL were unique to the four-way population. This study represents the first example of QTL mapping using a four-way cross population in maize, and demonstrates that the use of specially designed four-way cross is effective in uncovering the basis of complex and polygenetic trait like leaf angle in maize.

  16. Avaliação de linhagens de melão Evaluation of melon inbred lines for plant and fruit characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir híbridos de melão adaptados à região Nordeste do Brasil, foi avaliado, em Pacajús-CE o comportamento de 29 linhagens, sendo 23 do grupo cantalupensis, cinco do inodorus e uma do grupo momordica. Para efeito de comparação, foram utilizadas cultivares comerciais: o híbrido Hy-mark e a cultivar Eldorado-300. Na avaliação da precocidade a maturação das linhagens do grupo cantalupensis levaram em média 35,1 dias, as do grupo inodorus 30,6 dias e as do grupo momordica 24,4 dias. A concentração da produção, estimada aos 70 dias, foi mais elevada (75,8% numa linhagem que não produz frutos comerciais. A produção das linhagens variou de 16,2 t/ha a 65,1 t/ha, enquanto a média das testemunhas comerciais foi de 28,4 t/ha. Três linhagens do grupo cantalupensis e todas do grupo inodorus mostraram-se mais produtivas que as testemunhas. O teor de sólidos solúveis entre linhagens e testemunhas foi semelhante (8,6%, sendo que uma das linhagens, M46-00 se destacou pelos altos teores (Brix=12,2%. Em geral, os frutos das linhagens tardias mostraram elevado teor de sólidos solúveis.In order to obtain melon hybrids adapted for growing in the Northeast of Brazil, 29 inbred lines (23 belonging to the cantaloupensis group, 5 to the inodorus and 1 to the momordica group were evaluated in Pacajus, in the state of Ceará. Two commercial varieties, the hybrid Hy-mark and the cultivar Eldorado-300, were used as checks. It was observed that the average period for fruit ripening was 35.1 days for the cantalupensis group, 30.6 days for the inodorus group and 24.4 days for the momordica group. The highest yield concentration (75.8%, evaluated 70 days after sowing, was attained in a inbred line that does not produce commercial fruits. The yield of the lines ranged from 16.2 t/ha up to 65.1 t/ha, whereas the two commercial varieties produced 28.0 t/ha. Three of the cantalupensis group and all inbred lines of the inodorus group

  17. Determining phenological patterns associated with the onset of senescence in a wheat MAGIC mapping population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyela Valentina Camargo Rodriguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate timing of developmental transitions is critical for adapting many crops to their local climatic conditions. Therefore, understanding the genetic basis of different aspects of phenology could be useful in highlighting mechanisms underpinning adaptation, with implications in breeding for climate change. For bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, the start and rate of leaf senescence and the relative timing of different stages of flowering and grain filling all contribute to plant performance. In this study we screened under Smart house conditions a large, multi-founder ‘NIAB elite MAGIC’ wheat population, to evaluate the genetic elements that influence the timing of developmental stages in European elite varieties. This panel of recombinant inbred lines was derived from eight parents that are or recently have been grown commercially in the UK and Northern Europe. We undertook a detailed temporal phenotypic analysis under Smart house conditions of the population and its parents, to try to identify known or novel Quantitative Trait Loci associated with variation in the timing of key phenological stages in senescence. This analysis resulted in the detection of QTL interactions with novel traits such the time between ‘half of ear emergence above flag leaf ligule’ and the onset of senescence at the flag leaf as well as traits associated with plant morphology such as stem height. In addition, strong correlations between several traits and the onset of senescence of the flag leaf were identified. This work establishes the value of systematically phenotyping genetically unstructured populations to reveal the genetic architecture underlying morphological variation in commercial wheat.

  18. Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Vuong, Tri D; Kale, Sandip; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Xiaolei; Bai, Yonghe; Yungbluth, Dennis; Lu, Fang; Kumpatla, Siva; Grover Shannon, J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Nguyen, Henry T

    2018-04-04

    The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil and high sucrose. In this study, an inter-specific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3x depth. Based on 91,342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4,070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, QTL analysis for protein, oil and sucrose was performed using 3,343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 Kb to 50 Kb). A total of 5, 9 and 4 QTLs were identified for protein, oil and sucrose content, respectively and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil was mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL was identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbors putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association (GWAS) using 91,342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL based haplotype using whole genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Bursal transcriptome profiling of different inbred chicken lines reveals key differentially expressed genes at 3 days post-infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah, Mohd Isa; Yasmin, Abd Rahaman; Mat Isa, Nurulfiza; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Ideris, Aini; Powers, Claire; Oladapo, Omobolanle; Nair, Venugopal; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease in the poultry industry and causes immunosuppression in chickens. Genome-wide regulations of immune response genes of inbred chickens with different genetic backgrounds, following very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection are poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the bursal tissue transcriptome of six inbred chicken lines 6, 7, 15, N, O and P following infection with vvIBDV strain UK661 using strand-specific next-generation sequencing, by highlighting important genes and pathways involved in the infected chicken during peak infection at 3 days post-infection. All infected chickens succumbed to the infection without major variations among the different lines. However, based on the viral loads and bursal lesion scoring, lines P and 6 can be considered as the most susceptible lines, while lines 15 and N were regarded as the least affected lines. Transcriptome profiling of the bursa identified 4588 genes to be differentially expressed, with 2985 upregulated and 1642 downregulated genes, in which these genes were commonly or uniquely detected in all or several infected lines. Genes that were upregulated are primarily pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and IFN-related. Various genes that are associated with B-cell functions and genes related to apoptosis were downregulated, together with the genes involved in p53 signalling. In conclusion, bursal transcriptome profiles of different inbred lines showed differential expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Th1 cytokines, JAK-STAT signalling genes, MAPK signalling genes, and their related pathways following vvIBDV infection.

  20. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Andrew L; Novais, Joana; Grift, Tony E; Bohn, Martin O

    2015-01-01

    The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

  1. Physical activity derived from questionnaires and wrist-worn accelerometers: comparability and the role of demographic, lifestyle, and health factors among a population-based sample of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koolhaas CM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chantal M Koolhaas,1 Frank JA van Rooij,1 Magda Cepeda,1 Henning Tiemeier,1–3 Oscar H Franco,1 Josje D Schoufour1 1Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Background: Agreement between questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity (PA differs between studies and might be related to demographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics, including disability and depressive symptoms.Methods: We included 1,410 individuals aged 51–94 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Participants completed the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore a wrist-worn accelerometer on the nondominant wrist for 1 week thereafter. We compared the Spearman correlation and disagreement (level and direction for total PA across levels of demographic, lifestyle, and health variables. The level of disagreement was defined as the absolute difference between questionnaire- and accelerometer-derived PA, whereas the direction of disagreement was defined as questionnaire PA minus accelerometer PA. We used linear regression analyses with the level and direction of disagreement as outcome, including all demographic, lifestyle, and health variables in the model.Results: We observed a Spearman correlation of 0.30 between questionnaire- and accelerometer-derived PA in the total population. The level of disagreement (ie, absolute difference was 941.9 (standard deviation [SD] 747.0 minutes/week, and the PA reported by questionnaire was on average 529.4 (SD 1,079.5 minutes/week lower than PA obtained by the accelerometer. The level of disagreement decreased with higher educational levels. Additionally, participants with obesity, higher disability scores, and more depressive symptoms underestimated their self-reported PA more than their

  2. Interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding on reproductive traits in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, A B; Arcese, P; Hochachka, W M; Reid, J M; Keller, L F

    2006-11-01

    1. Conservation biologists are concerned about the interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding because such interactions could affect the dynamics and extinction risk of small and isolated populations, but few studies have tested for these interactions in nature. 2. We used data from the long-term population study of song sparrows Melospiza melodia on Mandarte Island to examine the joint effects of inbreeding and environmental stress on four fitness traits that are known to be affected by the inbreeding level of adult birds: hatching success, laying date, male mating success and fledgling survival. 3. We found that inbreeding depression interacted with environmental stress to reduce hatching success in the nests of inbred females during periods of rain. 4. For laying date, we found equivocal support for an interaction between parental inbreeding and environmental stress. In this case, however, inbred females experienced less inbreeding depression in more stressful, cooler years. 5. For two other traits, we found no evidence that the strength of inbreeding depression varied with environmental stress. First, mated males fathered fewer nests per season if inbred or if the ratio of males to females in the population was high, but inbreeding depression did not depend on sex ratio. Second, fledglings survived poorly during rainy periods and if their father was inbred, but the effects of paternal inbreeding and rain did not interact. 6. Thus, even for a single species, interactions between the inbreeding level and environmental stress may not occur in all traits affected by inbreeding depression, and interactions that do occur will not always act synergistically to further decrease fitness.

  3. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  4. Evaluation of the Morpho-physiology characteristics of maize inbred lines introduced from CIMMYT to identify the best candidates for planting in acidic soil in Jasinga, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Sutjahjo, S. H.; Syukur, M.; Trikoesoemaningtyas

    2016-08-01

    Technological developments and climate change have affected crop planting strategies. For example, maize production has expanded to sub-optimal lands, including acidic soil common in areas like Indonesia. Breeding programs have created inbred lines of maize introduced from CIMMYT; they were tested locally in acidic soils to determine their adaptability and tolerance mechanisms. Breeds CLA 46 and NEI 9008 were found to be excellent candidates for acidic soil due to their ASI, high number of grains per year, and suitable dry seed weight.

  5. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Jon; Oakley, Christopher G; Lundemo, Sverre; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic trade-offs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL). There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden. Eleven distinct flowering time QTL were detected, and for each the Italian genotype caused earlier flowering. Twenty-seven candidate genes were identified, two of which (FLC and VIN3) appear under major flowering time QTL in Italy. Seven of eight QTL in Italy with narrow credible intervals colocalized with previously reported fitness QTL, in comparison to three of four in Sweden. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of selection on flowering time differs strikingly between our study populations, that the genetic basis of flowering time variation is multigenic with some QTL of large effect, and suggest that divergence in flowering time between ecotypes is due mainly to conditional neutrality. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. BXD recombinant inbred strains participate in social preference, anxiety and depression behaviors along sex-differences in cytokines and tactile allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Antunes Dos Santos, Alessandra; Ferrer, Beatriz; Culbreth, Megan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Barrasa, Angel; Gulinello, Maria; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a major public health concern. Dysregulation of oxidative and inflammatory systems may be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Due to the need to find appropriate animal models to the understanding of such disorders, we queried whether 2 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice strains (BXD21/TyJ RI and BXD84/RwwJ RI mice) and C57BL/6 wild-type mice show differential performance in depression and anxiety related behaviors and biomarkers. Specifically, we assessed social preference, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and Von Frey tests at 3-4 months-of-age, as well as activation of cytokines and antioxidant mRNA levels in the cortex at 7 months-of-age. We report that (1) the BXD84/RwwJ RI strain exhibits anxiety disorder and social avoidance-like behavior (2) BXD21/TyJ RI strain shows a resistance to depression illness, and (3) sex-dependent cytokine profiles and allodynia with elevated inflammatory activity were inherent to male BXD21/TyJ RI mice. In conclusion, we provide novel data in favor of the use of BXD recombinant inbred mice to further understand anxiety and depression disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac after a long-term period of stable social hierarchy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Gutorova, N V; Kleshchev, M A

    2014-04-01

    Social dominance can alter testicular testosterone production, although there is pronounced variability in the relationship between social status and pattern of the testosterone response. The study designed to investigate how a long-term period of stable social hierarchy effects on testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac. Paired males of different genotypes were housed together for 32 days beginning 38 day of age. Dyadic interactions of males generated dominance-subordination relationships during the first day after a social group has been produced and the social rank of each opponent was assessed by asymmetry in agonistic behaviour. Serum level of testosterone and its testicular content were evaluated in male mice of both inbred strains at 70 day of age after pair housing. Control animals were age- and genotype-matched single males that were housed in conventional cages. After a long-term period of pair housing, the serum testosterone level and its testicular content in males of both PT and CBA/Lac strains were not significantly different from the control. There were no significant differences in androgenic parameters between social ranks in male mice of both strains. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of testicular testosterone response to social hierarchy determined by a social situation, for example, a stability of social interactions, when the importance of aggressive competition for rank is minimal.

  11. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability in CXS series of recombinant inbred mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Mori, N.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.; Takamori, Y.; Yagasaki, O.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas differs remarkably among various mouse strains. BALB/cHeA (C) mice are highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphomas, while STS/A (S) mice are resistant. Thus, the induction of the disease is controlled by some genetic factors. To examine an involvement of radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells in lymphomagenesis, we have compared genetic control of the radiosensitivity for antibody-forming ability with that of lymphoma development in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, (CXS)F 1 hybrids and CXS series of recombinant inbred strains. Decrease of number of splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) in Jerne's method by 3 Gy of X-irradiation for BALB/cHeA mice was larger than that for STS/A mice by more than one order of magnitude. (CXS)F 1 hybrid mice showed small number of decrease of PFC similar to STS/A mice suggesting that phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The best concordance between genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody-forming ability in recombinant inbred strains was observed in a region containing Igh locus on chromosome 12. The results show that one locus controlling the radioresistance of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability might exist in the region containing Igh locus, and that this region clearly differ from a region with Ifa locus on chromosome 4 which regulate the susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. (author)

  12. Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

  13. Genotype Modulates Age-Related Alterations in Sensitivity to the Aversive Effects of Ethanol: An 8 Inbred Strain Analysis of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen M.; Forrest, Robert D.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Thus far there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in 8 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25, 3g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72h intervals for a total of 5 CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

  14. Genotype modulates age-related alterations in sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol: an eight inbred strain analysis of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E M; Forrest, R D; Boehm, S L

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Currently there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in eight inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T(+) tf/J, C3H/HeJ and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1 h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72 h intervals for a total of five CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  16. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  17. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in genetically isolated populations: gender-specific association with anxiety disorder subtypes but not with anxiety levels or Val66Met polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carlino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (ADs are disabling chronic disorders with exaggerated behavioral response to threats. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that ADs may be associated with reduced neurotrophic activity, particularly of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and determining possible effects of genetics on serum BDNF concentrations. In 672 adult subjects from six isolated villages in North-Eastern Italy with high inbreeding, we determined serum BDNF levels and identified subjects with different ADs subtypes such as Social and Specific Phobias (PHSOC, PHSP, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, and Panic Disorder (PAD. Analysis of the population as a whole or individual village showed no significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and Val66Met polymorphism and no association with anxiety levels. Stratification of subjects highlighted a significant decrease in serum BDNF in females with GAD and males with PHSP. This study indicates low heritability and absence of any impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating concentrations of BDNF. Our results show that BDNF is not a general biomarker of anxiety but serum BDNF levels correlate in a gender-specific manner with ADs subtypes.

  19. Crop characteristics and weed Interactions of diverse Rrecurrent Inbred Lines (RILs) from a weed-suppressive x non-suppressive rice mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ndica rice genotypes with enhanced weed suppression traits have been previously identified as potentially useful in supplementing weed control efforts in drill-seeded systems in the southern USA. A particularly weed-suppressive indica genotype (PI 312777) that was also high tillering and high yield...

  20. Analysis of natural allelic variation of Arabidopsis seed germination and seed longevity traits between the accessions Landberg erecta and Shakdara, using a new recombinant inbred line population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerkx, E.J.M.; El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Vierling, E.; Ruijs, G.J.; Vries, de M.H.C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Koornneef, M.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling various aspects of seed longevity during storage and germination. Similar locations for QTLs controlling different traits might be an indication for a common genetic control of such traits. For this analysis we used a new

  1. Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmi, R.H.; Khan, N.; Willems, L.A.J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Ligterink, J.W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and

  2. Capacidade de combinação entre linhagens de milho visando à produção de milho verde Combining ability of inbred lines of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    specific combining ability (SCA in vegetable corn production. Eight inbred lines and 28 hybrids derived from them were evaluated in 2004/2005 season in two environments, in Lavras and Ijaci, State of Minas Gerais. A randomized complete block design with two replications per environment were used, and seven traits of agronomic and commercial interest for vegetable corn production were studied. The quadratic component of specific of combining ability (SCA was greater than the general combining ability (GCA for all the traits assessed. Non-additive genetic effects were more important than additive effects for genotypes variation, indicating that heterosis is important for hybrid selection for vegetable corn production. The inbred line L55 showed higher concentration of favorable alleles to the increase of traits PEC, PEE, MASSA, COR e COMP, being more suitable for the formation of new hybrid and the hybrids HS27, HS48 and HS24 accumulated a larger number of traits with SCA positive effect, significant and of high magnitude, indicating that those combinations presented better performance for all the traits, simultaneously, and can be recommended to the market for vegetable corn.

  3. Shelf life determinants and enzyme activities of pearl millet: a comparison of changes in stored flour of hybrids, CMS lines, inbreds and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Preeti; Chugh, L K

    2017-09-01

    Shelf life of pearl millet flour is very short because of rapid development of rancidity. This investigation was carried out in view of generating breeding material for development of low rancid pearl millet hybrids/varieties. Flour of twenty-one genotypes; seven hybrids, seven CMS lines, five inbreds and two composites stored in covered aluminium boxes at 37 °C for 30 days along with respective fresh flour was analysed for shelf life indicators/determinants. Crude fat content and fat acidity (FA) of fresh flour of the genotypes varied from 3.8 to 7.2% and 11 to 75 mg KOH/100 g d.m., respectively. FA in stored flour ranged between 180 and 330 mg KOH/100 g d.m. After storage, magnitude of decrease in pH of water extract of flour of the genotypes varied from 0.15 to 0.44. Activity of peroxidase (POX) varied from 378 to 588 units in control flour and irrespective of the genotypes decreased upon storage. Increase in FA (difference between FA of fresh and stored flour) rather total build up of FA was positively associated with crude fat content (r = 0.440*) indicated comparatively more prominent role of lipolytic enzymes. Chemical changes taking place in water soluble fraction of flour were independent of fat content as no correlation was discerned between fat content and decrease in pH. Among the hybrids, HHB 197 had lowest crude fat content (4.7%), lowest total build up FA (212 mg KOH/100 g d.m.), slowest increase in FA (191 mg KOH/100 g d.m.), least decrease in pH (0.31) of water soluble fraction flour during storage and lowest activity of POX in fresh flour (377 units/g d.m). Among all the tested CMS lines, inbreds and composites, HBL 11 showed pattern of quantitative changes in FA, pH and POX activity similar to the hybrid HHB 197 and was identified a promising inbred for developing low-rancid pearl millet variety or hybrid.

  4. Late biological effects in the lung of C3H inbred mice following exposure to fast neutrons and 60Co-γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdon, E.

    1980-01-01

    Histological changes in the lung tissue following local irradiation of the thorax of C 3 H inbred mice were analyzed. The investigation was continued up to 500 d following irradiation with 2 - 8 Gy neutrons and 4 - 30 Gy 60 Co γ-rays, respectively. The study revealed a clear dose dependence and higher effectivity of fast neutrons as to the late effects of the lungs. An increase of the portion of affected connective tissue in the lung was demonstrable already after a dose of 2.5 Gy neutrons and 5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays, respectively. The RBE of fast neutrons for late biological effects on the lung is discussed in connection with previous findings for the RBE of acute effects on tumor and normal tissue. (author)

  5. SEE locomotor behavior test discriminates C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse inbred strains across laboratories and protocol conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Lipkind, Dina; Benjamini, Yoav; Mayo, Cheryl L; Elmer, Gregory I; Golani, Ilan

    2003-06-01

    Conventional tests of behavioral phenotyping frequently have difficulties differentiating certain genotypes and replicating these differences across laboratories and protocol conditions. This study explores the hypothesis that automated tests can be designed to quantify ethologically relevant behavior patterns that more readily characterize heritable and replicable phenotypes. It used SEE (Strategy for the Exploration of Exploration) to phenotype the locomotor behavior of the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse inbred strains across 3 laboratories. The 2 genotypes differed in 15 different measures of behavior, none of which had a significant genotype-laboratory interaction. Within the same laboratory, most of these differences were replicated in additional experiments despite the test photoperiod phase being changed and saline being injected. Results suggest that well-designed tests may considerably enhance replicability across laboratories.

  6. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  7. Construction of a high-density DArTseq SNP-based genetic map and identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in a genetic population derived from a cross between feral and cultivated-type watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Runsheng; Ray, Rumiana; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Man; Liu, Guang; Yao, Xiefeng; Kilian, Andrzej; Yang, Xingping

    2015-08-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important vegetable crop grown extensively worldwide. To facilitate the identification of agronomically important traits and provide new information for genetic and genomic research on this species, a high-density genetic linkage map of watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between elite watermelon cultivar K3 and wild watermelon germplasm PI 189225. Based on a sliding window approach, a total of 1,161 bin markers representing 3,465 SNP markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosome pair number of watermelon. The total length of the genetic map is 1,099.2 cM, with an average distance between bins of 1.0 cM. The number of markers in each chromosome varies from 62 in chromosome 07 to 160 in chromosome 05. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 61.8 cM for chromosome 07 and 140.2 cM for chromosome 05. A total of 616 SNP bin markers showed significant (P watermelon cultivar K3 allele and 103 were skewed toward PI 189225. The number of SNPs and InDels per Mb varied considerably across the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) on each chromosome, and a mixture of dense and sparse SNPs and InDel SDRs coexisted on some chromosomes suggesting that SDRs were randomly distributed throughout the genome. Recombination rates varied greatly among each chromosome, from 2.0 to 4.2 centimorgans per megabase (cM/Mb). An inconsistency was found between the genetic and physical positions on the map for a segment on chromosome 11. The high-density genetic map described in the present study will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes, map-based cloning, as well as marker-assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon breeding programs.

  8. Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Theodore M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally measured consumption, which can be confounded by post-ingestive effects. Here, we used a taste-salient brief-access procedure to measure taste sensitivity to eight stimuli characterized as bitter or aversive in C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 mice. Results B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP, and MgCl2. D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA. These strains did not differ in sensitivity to cycloheximide (CYX, denatonium benzoate (DB, KCl or HCl. Conclusion B6-D2 taste sensitivity differences indicate that differences in consumption of QHCl, PROP, MgCl2 and RUA are based on immediate orosensory cues, not post-ingestive effects. The absence of a strain difference for CYX suggests that polymorphisms in a T2R-type taste receptor shown to be differentially sensitive to CYX in vitro are unlikely to differentially contribute to the CYX behavioral response in vivo. The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for investigation into the genetic mechanisms of taste.

  9. Trait specific consequences of fast and slow inbreeding: lessonsfrom captive populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Karina Aarup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    or 2 generations. These inbred lines were contrasted to non-inbred control lines. We investigated the effect of inbreeding and inbreeding rate in traits associated with fitness including heat, cold and desiccation stress resistance, egg-to-adult viability, development time, productivity, metabolic rate......The increased homozygosity due to inbreeding leads to expression of deleterious recessive alleles, which may cause inbreeding depression in small populations. The severity of inbreeding depression has been suggested to depend on the rate of inbreeding, with slower inbreeding being more effective...... and heat stress conditions. Reduced viability and increased developmental time were observed at stressful temperatures and inbreeding depression was on average more severe at stressful compared to benign temperatures...

  10. Farm Population of the United States: 1972. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    Based on data derived from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and comparisons of the farm and nonfarm populations. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) U.S. Population, Total and Farm: April 1960 to 1972; (2) Persons…

  11. Farm Population of the United States: 1974. Current Population Reports, Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vera J.; And Others

    Based on data derived primarily from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and a comparison of selected characteristics of the farm and nonfarm population. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) Population of the U.S.,…

  12. Farm Population of the United States: 1971. Current Population Reports: Farm Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    Based on data derived from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, this statistical report presents demographic and labor force characteristics of the U.S. farm population and comparisons of the farm and nonfarm populations. Tabular data are presented as follows: (1) U.S. Population, Total and Farm: April 1960 and 1971; (2)…

  13. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  14. Mapping QTLs controlling kernel dimensions in a wheat inter-varietal RIL mapping population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruiru; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Liwei; Xie, Quan; Jia, Haiyan; Yu, Dong; Huang, Yulong; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2017-07-01

    Seven kernel dimension QTLs were identified in wheat, and kernel thickness was found to be the most important dimension for grain weight improvement. Kernel morphology and weight of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affect both yield and quality; however, the genetic basis of these traits and their interactions has not been fully understood. In this study, to investigate the genetic factors affecting kernel morphology and the association of kernel morphology traits with kernel weight, kernel length (KL), width (KW) and thickness (KT) were evaluated, together with hundred-grain weight (HGW), in a recombinant inbred line population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai, with data from five trials (two different locations over 3 years). The results showed that HGW was more closely correlated with KT and KW than with KL. A whole genome scan revealed four QTLs for KL, one for KW and two for KT, distributed on five different chromosomes. Of them, QKl.nau-2D for KL, and QKt.nau-4B and QKt.nau-5A for KT were newly identified major QTLs for the respective traits, explaining up to 32.6 and 41.5% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Increase of KW and KT and reduction of KL/KT and KW/KT ratios always resulted in significant higher grain weight. Lines combining the Nanda 2419 alleles of the 4B and 5A intervals had wider, thicker, rounder kernels and a 14% higher grain weight in the genotype-based analysis. A strong, negative linear relationship of the KW/KT ratio with grain weight was observed. It thus appears that kernel thickness is the most important kernel dimension factor in wheat improvement for higher yield. Mapping and marker identification of the kernel dimension-related QTLs definitely help realize the breeding goals.

  15. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  16. Comparison of whole-genome prediction models for traits with contrasting genetic architecture in a diversity panel of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedelsheimer Christian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing empirical evidence that whole-genome prediction (WGP is a powerful tool for predicting line and hybrid performance in maize. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of WGP models towards the genetic architecture of the trait. Whereas previous studies exclusively focused on highly polygenic traits, important agronomic traits such as disease resistances, nutrifunctional or climate adaptational traits have a genetic architecture which is either much less complex or unknown. For such cases, information about model robustness and guidelines for model selection are lacking. Here, we compared five WGP models with different assumptions about the distribution of the underlying genetic effects. As contrasting model traits, we chose three highly polygenic agronomic traits and three metabolites each with a major QTL explaining 22 to 30% of the genetic variance in a panel of 289 diverse maize inbred lines genotyped with 56,110 SNPs. Results We found the five WGP models to be remarkable robust towards trait architecture with the largest differences in prediction accuracies ranging between 0.05 and 0.14 for the same trait, most likely as the result of the high level of linkage disequilibrium prevailing in elite maize germplasm. Whereas RR-BLUP performed best for the agronomic traits, it was inferior to LASSO or elastic net for the three metabolites. We found the approach of genome partitioning of genetic variance, first applied in human genetics, as useful in guiding the breeder which model to choose, if prior knowledge of the trait architecture is lacking. Conclusions Our results suggest that in diverse germplasm of elite maize inbred lines with a high level of LD, WGP models differ only slightly in their accuracies, irrespective of the number and effects of QTL found in previous linkage or association mapping studies. However, small gains in prediction accuracies can be achieved if the WGP model is

  17. Population differences in self-fertility in the "self-incompatible" milkweed Asclepias exaltata (Asclepiadaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, S R; Broyles, S B; Wyatt, R

    1999-08-01

    Individual plants of Asclepias exaltata (Asclepiadaceae) typically express an unusual self-incompatibility system under single-gene control. Hand-pollinations performed in six natural populations detected occasional self-fertile plants. The frequency of self-fertile individuals ranged from 0 to 34.0% and differed significantly among populations. Self-fertility appears to be under genetic control, as the ability of most plants (80.0 %) to set fruit following self-pollinations was identical under natural and greenhouse conditions. Seed- and fruit-set, however, were significantly lower from self- vs. cross-pollinations. Allozyme analysis of the population with the highest frequency of self-fertility revealed that adult plants were not significantly inbred. Finally, fruit-set following within-population cross-pollinations did not differ from that following wide, between-population cross-pollinations.

  18. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  19. A missense mutation in ALDH1A3 causes isolated microphthalmia/anophthalmia in nine individuals from an inbred Muslim kindred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mory, Adi; Ruiz, Francesc X; Dagan, Efrat; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A; Kurolap, Alina; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Nine affected individuals with isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia from a large Muslim-inbred kindred were investigated. Assuming autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance, whole-genome linkage analysis, on DNA samples from four affected individuals, was undertaken. Homozygosity mapping techniques were employed and a 1.5-Mbp region, homozygous in all affected individuals, was delineated. The region contained nine genes, one of which, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3), was a clear candidate. This gene seems to encode a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic-acid gradient along the dorsoventral axis during an early eye development and the development of the olfactory system. Sanger sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation, causing a substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) at position 71. Analyzing the p.Val71Met missense mutation using standard open access software (MutationTaster online, PolyPhen, SIFT/PROVEAN) predicts this variant to be damaging. Enzymatic activity, studied in vitro, showed no changes between the mutated and the wild-type ALDH1A3 protein.

  20. A comparison of the survival (LD/sub 50/30/) of a number of inbred mouse strains after X and 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacha, J.; Znojil, V.; Hola, J.; Sikulova, J.

    1984-01-01

    The value of LD/sub 50/30/ for X and 60 Co gamma radiation was ascertained for several inbred mouse strains and the significance of interstrain differences in these parameters determined. The rank order of strains according to LD/sub 50/30/ differs as between the two types of radiation with the exception of the strains BALB/c and B10.LP/Ph, which are the least resistant to radiation-induced lethality with both types of radiation. The strain C57BL/10ScSnPh is highly resistant to X irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness of 60 Co gamma radiation as compared with X-radiation from the point of view of lethality fluctuates between 0.748 and 0.952 in individual strains, with a mean value of 0.866 +- 0.033. The RBE values do not correlate with the radiosensitivity of the strain, but they do correlate with the relative contribution to erythropoiesis of the spleen. (author)

  1. The effect of partial reinforcement on instrumental successive negative contrast in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low- (RLA-I) Avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C

    2012-03-20

    Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Mixed Bartter-Gitelman syndrome: an inbred family with a heterogeneous phenotype expression of a novel variant in the CLCNKB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shibli, Amar; Yusuf, Madinah; Abounajab, Issam; Willems, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with renal diseases associated with salt-losing tubulopathies categorized as Gitelman and classic form of Bartter syndrome have undergone genetic screening for possible mutation capture in two different genes: SLC12A3 and CLCNKB. Clinical symptoms of these two diseases may overlap. Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome are autosomal recessive salt-losing tubulopathies with hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, hyperaldosteronism, and, in some patients, hypomagnesemia. Here we describe four patients from an inbred family with a novel missense variant in the CLCNKB gene. All of patients are asymptomatic; yet they have the typical metabolic abnormality of salt losing tubulopathies. One of those patients had hypomagnesaemia while others not. Clinical and laboratory data of all patients was described. All 4 patients have a homozygous c.490G > T missense variant in exon 5 of the CLCNKB gene. This variant alters a glycine into a cysteine on amino acid position 164 of the resulting protein (p.Gly164Cys). The c.490G > T variant is a novel variant not previously described in other patients nor controls. Polyphen analysis predicts the variation to be possibly damaging. Analysis of SLC12A3 was normal. Here in we are describing a novel homozygous c.490G > T missense variation was identified in exon 5 of the CLCNKB gene was identified in an Emirati patients with a mild manifestation of Bartter - Gitelman syndrome.

  3. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda; Lodahl, Marianne; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Cesur, Yasar; Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Akgun, Cihangir; Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome, also named "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is an inherited association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as key diagnostic criteria. Renal tract abnormalities and neurodegenerative disorder may occur in the third and fourth decade. The wolframin gene, WFS1, associated with this syndrome, is located on chromosome 4p16.1. Many mutations have been described since the identification of WFS1 as the cause of Wolfram syndrome. We identified a new homozygous WFS1 mutation (c.1532T>C; p.Leu511Pro) causing Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels of protein expression compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly supporting that this mutation is disease-causing. The mutation showed perfect segregation with disease in the family, characterized by early and severe clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the survival (LD/sub 50/30/) of a number of inbred mouse strains after X and /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, J.; Znojil, V.; Hola, J.; Sikulova, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav)

    1984-01-01

    The value of LD/sub 50/30/ for X and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was ascertained for several inbred mouse strains and the significance of interstrain differences in these parameters determined. The rank order of strains according to LD/sub 50/30/ differs as between the two types of radiation with the exception of the strains BALB/c and B10.LP/Ph, which are the least resistant to radiation-induced lethality with both types of radiation. The strain C57BL/10ScSnPh is highly resistant to X irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation as compared with X-radiation from the point of view of lethality fluctuates between 0.748 and 0.952 in individual strains, with a mean value of 0.866 +- 0.033. The RBE values do not correlate with the radiosensitivity of the strain, but they do correlate with the relative contribution to erythropoiesis of the spleen.

  5. Negative Drift in Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms......, to be derived from simple conditions on the one-step behaviour of their variation operators and selection mechanisms....

  6. QTL mapping of combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits in rice backcross recombinant inbred lines and hybrid crosses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining ability effects are very effective genetic parameters in deciding the next phase of breeding programs. Although some breeding strategies on the basis of evaluating combining ability have been utilized extensively in hybrid breeding, little is known about the genetic basis of combining ability. Combining ability is a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes. With the advent and development of molecular markers, it is feasible to evaluate the genetic bases of combining ability and heterosis of elite rice hybrids through QTL analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we first developed a QTL-mapping method for dissecting combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits. With three testcross populations and a BCRIL population in rice, biometric and QTL analyses were conducted for ten agronomic traits. The significance of general combining ability and special combining ability for most of the traits indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive effects on expression levels. A large number of additive effect QTLs associated with performance per se of BCRIL and general combining ability, and dominant effect QTLs associated with special combining ability and heterosis were identified for the ten traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combining ability of agronomic traits could be analyzed by the QTL mapping method. The characteristics revealed by the QTLs for combining ability of agronomic traits were similar with those by multitudinous QTLs for agronomic traits with performance per se of BCRIL. Several QTLs (1-6 in this study were identified for each trait for combining ability. It demonstrated that some of the QTLs were pleiotropic or linked tightly with each other. The identification of QTLs responsible for combining ability and heterosis in the present study provides valuable information for dissecting genetic basis of combining ability.

  7. Genetic analysis of vitreous endosperms derived from homozygotic plants for opaque-2 gene in maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prioli, A.J.; Barbosa, H.M.; Sant'Anna, R.

    1980-01-01

    From experiments in which opaque-2 maize seeds were treated with gamma rays and ethil methanesulfonate, and their respective untreated controls, seeds with hard, vitreous endosperms were obtained. Some of these were completely vitreous, with no evidence of opaque endosperm tissue. Others had very small and few (one to three) areas of opaque tissue. Plants derived from completely vitreous endosperm seeds were self pollinated and crossed to an opaque-2 inbred. The segregation of vitreous to opaque seeds indicated that the normal allele at the opaque-2 locus was responsible for the vitreousity of the endosperm. Lysine content of the vitreous endosperm was comparable to that of normal endosperms. Plants derived from vitreous seeds with few and tiny spots of opaque tissue produced, upon selfing or crossing to the opaque-2 inbred, only opaque-2 seeds. It is concluded that: (a) induced mutation may not be an effective tool to obtain vitreous opaque-2 endosperm with high lysine content; and, (b) there are unknown genetic systems which severely modify the expression of the opaque-2 gene. (Author) [pt

  8. Detection of expression quantitative trait Loci in complex mouse crosses: impact and alleviation of data quality and complex population substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Ovidiu D; Darakjian, Priscila; Kawane, Sunita; Bottomly, Daniel; Hitzemann, Robert; McWeeney, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Complex Mus musculus crosses, e.g., heterogeneous stock (HS), provide increased resolution for quantitative trait loci detection. However, increased genetic complexity challenges detection methods, with discordant results due to low data quality or complex genetic architecture. We quantified the impact of theses factors across three mouse crosses and two different detection methods, identifying procedures that greatly improve detection quality. Importantly, HS populations have complex genetic architectures not fully captured by the whole genome kinship matrix, calling for incorporating chromosome specific relatedness information. We analyze three increasingly complex crosses, using gene expression levels as quantitative traits. The three crosses were an F(2) intercross, a HS formed by crossing four inbred strains (HS4), and a HS (HS-CC) derived from the eight lines found in the collaborative cross. Brain (striatum) gene expression and genotype data were obtained using the Illumina platform. We found large disparities between methods, with concordance varying as genetic complexity increased; this problem was more acute for probes with distant regulatory elements (trans). A suite of data filtering steps resulted in substantial increases in reproducibility. Genetic relatedness between samples generated overabundance of detected eQTLs; an adjustment procedure that includes the kinship matrix attenuates this problem. However, we find that relatedness between individuals is not evenly distributed across the genome; information from distinct chromosomes results in relatedness structure different from the whole genome kinship matrix. Shared polymorphisms from distinct chromosomes collectively affect expression levels, confounding eQTL detection. We suggest that considering chromosome specific relatedness can result in improved eQTL detection.

  9. Identification of QTLs for seed germination capability after various storage periods using two RIL populations in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Yong-Mei; Qiao, Yongli; Piao, Rihua; Jang, Sun Mi; Woo, Mi-Ok; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Liu, Xianhu; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2011-04-01

    Seed germination capability of rice is one of the important traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive × additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.

  10. Genetic Dissection of Nutrition-Induced Plasticity in Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling and Median Life Span in a Drosophila Multiparent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patrick D; Ng'oma, Enoch; O'Day, Siri; King, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    The nutritional environments that organisms experience are inherently variable, requiring tight coordination of how resources are allocated to different functions relative to the total amount of resources available. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that key endocrine pathways play a fundamental role in this coordination. In particular, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways have been implicated in nutrition-dependent changes in metabolism and nutrient allocation. However, little is known about the genetic basis of standing variation in IIS/TOR or how diet-dependent changes in expression in this pathway influence phenotypes related to resource allocation. To characterize natural genetic variation in the IIS/TOR pathway, we used >250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a multiparental mapping population, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, to map transcript-level QTL of genes encoding 52 core IIS/TOR components in three different nutritional environments [dietary restriction (DR), control (C), and high sugar (HS)]. Nearly all genes, 87%, were significantly differentially expressed between diets, though not always in ways predicted by loss-of-function mutants. We identified cis ( i.e. , local) expression QTL (eQTL) for six genes, all of which are significant in multiple nutrient environments. Further, we identified trans ( i.e. , distant) eQTL for two genes, specific to a single nutrient environment. Our results are consistent with many small changes in the IIS/TOR pathways. A discriminant function analysis for the C and DR treatments identified a pattern of gene expression associated with the diet treatment. Mapping the composite discriminant function scores revealed a significant global eQTL within the DR diet. A correlation between the discriminant function scores and the median life span ( r = 0.46) provides evidence that gene expression changes in response to diet are

  11. Codominant expression of genes coding for different sets of inducible salivary polypeptides associated with parotid hypertrophy in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Solís, Remigio O; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2005-05-01

    Experimental mouse parotid hypertrophy has been associated with the expression of a number of isoproterenol-induced salivary proline-rich polypeptides (IISPs). Mouse salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) have been mapped both to chromosomes 6 and 8. Recently, mice of two inbred strains (A/Snell and A. Swiss) have been found to differ drastically in the IISPs. In this study, mice of both strains were used for cross-breeding experiments addressed to define the pattern of inheritance of the IISP phenotype and to establish whether the IISPs are coded on a single or on several chromosomes. The IISP phenotype of individual mice was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole saliva collected after three daily stimulations by isoproterenol. Parental A/Snell and A. Swiss mice were homogeneous for distinctive strain-associated IISP-patterns. First filial generation (F1) mice obtained from the cross of A/Snell with A. Swiss mice expressed with no exception both the A/Snell and A. Swiss IISPs (coexpression). In the second filial generation (F2) both parental IISP phenotypes reappeared together with a majority of mice expressing the F1-hybrid phenotype (1:2:1 ratio). Backcrosses of F1 x A/Snell and F1 x A. Swiss produced offsprings displaying the F1 and the corresponding parental phenotypes with a 1:1 ratio. No recombinants were observed among F2 mice or among mice resulting from backcrosses. Thus, genes coding for the IISPs that are expressed differentially in both mouse strains are located on the same chromosome, probably at the same locus (alleles) or at quite closely linked loci (nonalleles). 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  12. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  13. Incentive loss and hippocampal gene expression in inbred Roman high- (RHA-I) and Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Marta; Morón, Ignacio; Gómez, M José; Donaire, Rocío; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Martínez-Conejero, José A; Esteban, Francisco J; Torres, Carmen

    2013-11-15

    Two recent microarray and qRT-PCR studies showed that inbred Roman high- (RHA-I, low anxiety and frustration vulnerability) and low-avoidance (RLA-I, high anxiety and frustration vulnerability) rats, psychogenetically selected on the basis of their divergence in two-way avoidance performance, differed in basal whole-brain and hippocampal expression of genes related to neurotransmission, emotion, stress, aversive learning, and drug seeking behavior. We have extended these studies by analyzing strain differences in hippocampal gene expression following a frustrative experience involving reward downshift, i.e. instrumental successive negative contrast (iSNC), a phenomenon in which the sudden reduction of an expected reward induces frustration/anxiety. Food-deprived male Roman rats were exposed to a reduction in the amount of solid food presented in the goal of a straight alley (from 12 pellets in "training" trials - i.e. preshift trials- to 2 pellets in "frustration testing" trials - i.e. postshift trials-). The iSNC effect, as measured by response latencies in the "postshift" trials, appeared only in RLA-I rats (i.e. higher response latencies in the 12-2 RLA-I group as compared to the 2-2 RLA-I control group in postshift trials). Two and a half hours after the "postshift" behavioral test, hippocampi were removed and stored (-80°C) until analysis. Microarray analysis of these hippocampi showed that four differentially-expressed, and qRT-PCR-validated genes (TAAR2, THAP1, PKD2L1, NANOS), have relevance for brain function and behavior, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and drug addiction, thus showing the usefulness of Roman strains as a genetic model for research on the neurogenetic basis of frustration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future.

  15. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in a father and daughter from a large highly inbred family: a 16-year follow-up of 59 living members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shyamal Kumar; Kaul, Kanwar K; Hussein, Akhtar; Wilroy, Robert S; Agarwal, Kisan; Sohel, Saira

    2013-08-01

    To report the autosomal dominant inheritance of the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in a highly inbred family, the initiation of Torsades de Pointes, and the natural history of the syndrome based on a 16-year follow-up of the kindred. A family tree was constructed that included 66 blood relatives from three successive generations. Electrocardiograms were obtained from 59 living members including the proband, four members from a nuclear family, and 54 from the extended family. Evoked response audiometry was recorded for the proband and the nuclear family. All 59 family members were followed up regularly for 16 years. A total of 24 living members were affected--QTc: 480-680 ms. The proband had long QTc, bilateral high-tone sensorineural deafness, recurrent syncope, and Torsades de Pointes. The asymptomatic father had long QTc and unilateral high-tone sensorineural deafness that involved specifically the left ear. One asymptomatic sibling of the proband had long QTc and normal hearing. The mother and another sibling were asymptomatic; QTc and hearing were normal in both. A total of 21 affected members from the extended family had only long QTc, and all were asymptomatic. There were three congenitally deaf first cousins who had recurrent syncope and adrenergic-triggered sudden death. In all, seven of 10 parents had consanguineous marriage to a first cousin. Each affected offspring had at least one affected parent. The severely symptomatic proband who received only β-blocker therapy and the 23 affected members without antiadrenergic therapy, all remained asymptomatic throughout the 16-year follow-up period. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome was inherited as autosomal dominant in this kindred. The majority of the affected members had a mild phenotype. The severity of auditory and cardiac phenotypes corresponded.

  16. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Beauchemin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.

  17. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, Kyle J; Wells, Julie M; Kho, Alvin T; Philip, Vivek M; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H; Bult, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS). Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular) defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) archive (GSE74243). Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org).

  18. Thermodynamics and Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses a Fermi-problem exercise through which I take students in several of my college courses. Students work in teams, determining the average daily Caloric needs per person. Then they use insolation values to determine the size of a collection area needed to absorb the previously determined daily energy requirements. Adjustments to the size of the collection area are made based on energy absorption per biological trophic level, as well as the consideration that most diets are a mixture of plant- and animal-derived elements. Finally, using the total amount of farmland available on the planet, students calculate a maximum population value. Although the maximum population values derived herewith should not be considered authoritative, the exercise has three beneficial purposes: 1) a chance to talk about the modeling process and extrapolations, 2) an unexpected application of physics to social contexts, and 3) raising student awareness of population and energy issues.

  19. A diet enriched with mackerel (Scomber scombrus)-derived products improves the endothelial function in a senior population (Prevención de las Enfermedades Cardiovasculares: Estudio Santoña--PECES project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berrazueta, J R; Gómez de Berrazueta, J M; Amado Señarís, J A; Peña Sarabia, N; Fernández Viadero, C; García-Unzueta, M T; Sáez de Adana, M; Sanchez Ovejero, C J; Llorca, J

    2009-03-01

    Regular consumption of fish reduces cardiovascular risks. Here, we investigate if the consumption of products with mackerel (Scomber scombrus) with 8.82 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content per 100 g of product improves parameters of endothelial function in a controlled population. Subjects maintained a 12-week diet with products with mackerel. The population consisted of 58 senior subjects (12 withdrawals, 25 women), aged 82.08 +/- 8.13 years (Group A). Twenty-three senior subjects (13 women) on a regular diet were used as the control group (Group B). Subjects of Group A received 57 portions throughout 12 weeks (four to five portions a week of products with a mean EPA + DHA content of 2.5 g a day). A continuous follow-up and a final evaluation were performed to determine the level of consumption. Plasma samples were stored at -70 degrees C for a biochemical study. Endothelial function was analysed by reactive hyperemia with a mercury strain gauge plethysmography with measurement of blood flow in the forearm, both baseline and at the end of the 12-week diet. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation significantly increased in Group A subjects (P cardiovascular disease (P < 0.001). Nitrites/nitrates and von Willebrand factor plasma concentrations were higher in participants after the 12-week diet. The consumption of mackerel meat products improves endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilatation in a senior population. This finding might explain some of the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

  20. DNA repair ability of cultured cells derived from mouse embryos in comparison with human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    DNA repair in mouse cells derived from embryos of 3 inbred strains were investigated in comparison with that in human cells. The levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV irradiation appeared to change at different passages, but capacities of host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus were always reduced to the same levels as those in xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This implied that mouse cells are reduced in excision-repair capacities and that the apparently high levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis at certain passages are not quantitatively related to high levels of cell survival. Essentially no differences in DNA repair were noted among 3 strains - BALB/c, C3H/He and C57BL/10. (orig.)

  1. Absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação em linhagens de tomateiro Nutrient uptake and response to fertilization of tomato inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Régis de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove linhagens de tomateiro rasteiro foram avaliadas quanto à eficiência de absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação, em dois ensaios, no ano de 2006, na Embrapa Hortaliças. No primeiro ensaio aplicou-se 1/3 da dosagem de fertilizante utilizada no segundo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As linhagens foram classificadas quanto à eficiência na absorção de nutrientes e reposta à adubação baseando-se nos incrementos de índice DRIS e nos incrementos de produtividade. Os valores críticos para eficiência na absorção e resposta à adubação foram as médias de incremento de índice DRIS e produtividade, respectivamente. As linhagens diferenciaram-se quanto à eficiência na absorção dos nutrientes e quanto à resposta à adubação. Foram consideradas responsivas à adubação e eficientes na absorção de nutrientes as linhagens 03, 04, 05, 09 e 22, para o N; 03, 04, 09, 13, 15 e 29, para o P; 03, 05, 10, 21, 22, 25 e 27, para o K; 05, 10, 21, 22, 25, 27 e 29, para o Ca; 04, 13, 15, 27 e 29, para o S e B; e 03, 05, 09, 10 e 27, para o Cu. As linhagens com os melhores desempenhos foram a 27, na absorção dos nutrientes, e 03, 04, 05 e 29, na responsividade à adubação.Twenty nine processing tomato inbred lines were evaluated for their efficiency in nutrient uptake and in their response to fertilization. Two field assays were carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brazil, with distinct fertilization dosages in 2006. In the first assay 1/3 of the total fertilization was applied when compared with the second assay. The experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design with three replications. The criteria to rank the inbred lines in both assays were the DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System index value and fruit yield. The critical values in order to distinguish efficient versus non-efficient as well as responsive versus non-responsive inbred

  2. Population Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  3. Understanding Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  4. Several Classical Mouse Inbred Strains, Including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, Carry a Putative Loss-of-Function Allele of Gpr84

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Carlos J.; Dumas, Aline; Vallières, Luc; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in th...

  5. Populations in clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tammisola

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Population phenomena in higher plants are reviewed critically, particularly in relation to clonality. An array of concepts used in the field are discussed. In contrast to animals, higher plants are modular in structure. Plant populations show hierarchy at two levels: ramets and genets. In addition, their demography is far more complicated, since even the direction of development of a ramet may change by rejuvenation. Therefore, formulae concerning animal populations often require modification for plants. Furthermore, at the zygotic stage, higher plants are generally less mobile than animals. Accordingly, their population processes tend to be more local. Most populations of plants have a genetic structure: alleles and genotypes are spatially aggregated. Due to the short-ranged foraging behaviour of pollinators, genetically non-random pollination prevails. A generalized formula for parent-offspring dispersal variance is derived. It is used to analyze the effect of clonality on genetic patchiness in populations. In self-compatible species, an increase in clonality will tend to increase the degree of patchiness, while in self-incompatible species a decrease may result. Examples of population structure studies in different species are presented. A considerable degree of genetic variation appears to be found also in the populations of species with a strong allocation of resources to clonal growth or apomictic seed production. Some consequences of clonality are considered from the point of view of genetic conservation and plant breeding.

  6. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  7. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  8. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Cristina Brusamarello-Santos

    Full Text Available Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs. However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2, already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+. The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts

  9. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  10. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias; Herzog, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners.

  11. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners. PMID:29200436

  12. Optimization of the p-xylene oxidation process by a multi-objective differential evolution algorithm with adaptive parameters co-derived with the population-based incremental learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhan; Yan, Xuefeng

    2018-04-01

    Different operating conditions of p-xylene oxidation have different influences on the product, purified terephthalic acid. It is necessary to obtain the optimal combination of reaction conditions to ensure the quality of the products, cut down on consumption and increase revenues. A multi-objective differential evolution (MODE) algorithm co-evolved with the population-based incremental learning (PBIL) algorithm, called PBMODE, is proposed. The PBMODE algorithm was designed as a co-evolutionary system. Each individual has its own parameter individual, which is co-evolved by PBIL. PBIL uses statistical analysis to build a model based on the corresponding symbiotic individuals of the superior original individuals during the main evolutionary process. The results of simulations and statistical analysis indicate that the overall performance of the PBMODE algorithm is better than that of the compared algorithms and it can be used to optimize the operating conditions of the p-xylene oxidation process effectively and efficiently.

  13. Genome-wide linkage mapping of yield-related traits in three Chinese bread wheat populations using high-density SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Faji; Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Cao, Shuanghe; Geng, Hongwei; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Pingzhi; Wan, Yingxiu; Xia, Xianchun

    2018-06-01

    We identified 21 new and stable QTL, and 11 QTL clusters for yield-related traits in three bread wheat populations using the wheat 90 K SNP assay. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield-related traits and closely linked molecular markers is important in order to identify gene/QTL for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. The objectives of the present study were to identify QTL for yield-related traits and dissect the relationships among different traits in three wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses Doumai × Shi 4185 (D × S), Gaocheng 8901 × Zhoumai 16 (G × Z) and Linmai 2 × Zhong 892 (L × Z). Using the available high-density linkage maps previously constructed with the wheat 90 K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, 65, 46 and 53 QTL for 12 traits were identified in the three RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 34, 23 and 27 were likely to be new QTL. Eighteen common QTL were detected across two or three populations. Eleven QTL clusters harboring multiple QTL were detected in different populations, and the interval 15.5-32.3 cM around the Rht-B1 locus on chromosome 4BS harboring 20 QTL is an important region determining grain yield (GY). Thousand-kernel weight (TKW) is significantly affected by kernel width and plant height (PH), whereas flag leaf width can be used to select lines with large kernel number per spike. Eleven candidate genes were identified, including eight cloned genes for kernel, heading date (HD) and PH-related traits as well as predicted genes for TKW, spike length and HD. The closest SNP markers of stable QTL or QTL clusters can be used for MAS in wheat breeding using kompetitive allele-specific PCR or semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR assays for improvement of GY.

  14. Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Pippa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC, eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken.

  15. Hematological effects: comparative studies on the radiation survival characteristics in vivo and in vitro of bone marrow-derived clonogenic populations (CFU-C and PFU-C) and some observations on bone marrow cellularity in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; O'Grady, L.; Momeni, M.; Wheeling, J.A.; Klein, K.; Graham, R.; Jow, N.; Di Bartola, S.

    1975-01-01

    Data accumulated for the hematological effects program are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on hematopoietic progenitor populations (CFU-C, colony-forming units in culture) and ''candidate'' mesenchymal progenitors (PFU-C, plaque-forming units in culture) using methylcellulose bone marrow culture systems and both in vivo and in vitro radiation exposure protocols. Preliminary results of studies on the temporal effects of acute x-irradiation on the capacity of PFU-C to generate colony stimulating activity (CSA) are also presented. The results of such experiments are providing the basis upon which future RBE studies on a variety of nuclides will be structured. Data (including age related changes) is also presented on in vivo bone marrow cellularity determinations, as well as for marrow stem cell quantitative studies using nondestructive techniques for normal Beagles. In these studies, two techniques for correction of variable effects of hemodilution are compared. Such studies are also providing baseline data for the 60 Co hematological effects program

  16. Imaginary populations

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002) wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002), that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologis...

  17. Evaluation of consumption of milk and its informal derivatives and the knowledge of the population about the public health problems in a municipal district in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Centola Vidal-Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a food of high nutritional value and is considered one of the main animal products consumed today. At the same time, Brazil stands out as one of the leading milk producers in the world and, since 2006 has been showing growing increase in its production. On the other hand, it is observed from the beginning of the 1990s, the growth of so-called informal milk and milk products (foods marketed without any kind of inspection, representing a challenge to be overcome related to food security. There are many diseases that can be transmitted by such foods, as tuberculosis and brucellosis, and there are few consumers who are aware of such information. The fact worsens the thought that milk and dairy products make up the diet of many children, elderly and weakened persons, which may make it more severe. Thus, this study aims to evaluate, through the use of questionnaires in 23 districts of São José do Rio Preto, the profile of 805 consumers or not, of milk and dairy products, the knowledge that they have about the diseases transmitted by milk and dairy products and the significance of the seals from Inspection Services. As a result, it was found that 97.76% (787/805 respondents consume milk or its derivatives, and about 30% are obtained by informal means of commerce. The form of consumption of this product is quite variable, but the work shows that 3.93% (31/787 of the consumers still ingest raw milk without boiling or pasteurization and 65.96% (531/805 of consumers are unaware of the possible transmission of disease by the ingestion of milk. Furthermore 80.24% (646/805 of consumers do not seek the packaging if the product has gone through some kind of supervision before reaching the trade - identification through stamps organs of sanitary inspection. Obtaining such data aims to collaborate in future for the development of prevent programs in the city, and the information gathered will be available to assist inspections services to reduce the

  18. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2015-11-01

    Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. We used data from a large population-based case-control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case-control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case-control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom) with 784 cases and 523 controls

  19. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  20. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  1. A pancreaticoduodenectomy risk model derived from 8575 cases from a national single-race population (Japanese) using a web-based data entry system: the 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates for pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Wataru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Hirai, Ichiro; Kenjo, Akira; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Baba, Hideo; Tomita, Naohiro; Nakagoe, Tohru; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2014-04-01

    using a nationwide surgical database. PD outcomes in the national population were satisfactory, and the risk model could help improve surgical practice quality.

  2. Genetic Variation and Phenotypic Response of 15 Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Hybrids to Population Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Tracy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Planting sweet corn at higher densities may increase the canopy cover, reducing light transmission to the understory and suppressing weed growth. High planting densities can also negatively impact the crop, however, by decreasing ear size and overall yield. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for increased density tolerance of 15 sweet corn hybrids by estimating the general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for traits of interest. In 2010 and 2011, a half-diallel of six historic sweet corn inbreds was evaluated in a split-block randomized complete block design in four Wisconsin environments, with four replicates in each environment. Hybrids were planted at a low density of 29,936 plants ha−1, a medium density of 63,615 plants ha−1, and a high density of 97,293 plants ha−1. Significant differences between hybrids were found for phenomorphological traits and ear characteristics. Inbreds C68, C40 and Ia5125 produced the progeny most tolerant of the highest population density. Among these genotypes, tolerance to high density is a heritable trait, indicating the feasibility of breeding sweet corn for density tolerance and potential weed competitiveness.

  3. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution