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Sample records for inbred lines ril

  1. Haldane, Waddington and recombinant inbred lines: extension of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the early 1930s, J. B. S. Haldane and C. H. Waddington collaborated on the consequences of genetic linkage and inbreeding. One elegant mathematical genetics problem solved by them concerns recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced via repeated self or brother–sister mating. In this classic contribution, Haldane ...

  2. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  3. Analysis of natural allelic variation in Arabidopsis using a multiparent recombinant inbred line population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Boer, M.P.; Effgen, S.; Keizer, P.; Koornneef, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2011-01-01

    To exploit the diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana, eight founder accessions were crossed to produce six recombinant inbred line (RIL) subpopulations, together called an Arabidopsis multiparent RIL (AMPRIL) population. Founders were crossed pairwise to produce four F1 hybrids. These F1s were crossed

  4. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  6. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; El-Soda, M.; Oorschot, van I.; Hanhart, C.J.; Bonnema, A.B.; Jansen-van den Bosch, T.; Mank, R.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Meng, L.; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms

  7. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  8. Something old and something new: wedding recombinant inbred lines with traditional line cross analysis increases power to describe gene interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaccash, Tarek W; Tonsor, Stephen J

    2010-04-16

    In this paper we present a novel approach to quantifying genetic architecture that combines recombinant inbred lines (RIL) with line cross analysis (LCA). LCA is a method of quantifying directional genetic effects (i.e. summed effects of all loci) that differentiate two parental lines. Directional genetic effects are thought to be critical components of genetic architecture for the long term response to selection and as a cause of inbreeding depression. LCA typically begins with two inbred parental lines that are crossed to produce several generations such as F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. When a RIL population (founded from the same P1 and P2 as was used to found the line cross population) is added to the LCA, the sampling variance of several nonadditive genetic effect estimates is greatly reduced. Specifically, estimates of directional dominance, additive x additive, and dominance x dominance epistatic effects are reduced by 92%, 94%, and 56% respectively. The RIL population can be simultaneously used for QTL identification, thus uncovering the effects of specific loci or genomic regions as elements of genetic architecture. LCA and QTL mapping with RIL provide two qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture with the potential to overcome weaknesses of each approach alone. This approach provides cross-validation of the estimates of additive and additive x additive effects, much smaller confidence intervals on dominance, additive x additive and dominance x dominance estimates, qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture, and the potential when used together to balance the weaknesses of LCA or RIL QTL analyses when used alone.

  9. ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A ‘JAMAPA × CALIMA’ POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar ‘Calima’ and the Middle A...

  10. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. (Gossypium hirsutum L. race latifolium H.) cultivars and inbred lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... (L) Inbred line. Numbers from 10 to 21 refer to the four cultivars and eight inbred lines from US introduced in Mozambique in 2006. Table 2. Decamer arbritary primers used for DNA amplification. Primer. Nucleotide sequence (5' – 3'). Primer. Nucleotide sequence (5' – 3'). OPA-11. CAA TCG CCG T. OPF-16.

  12. QTL mapping for controlling anthesis-silking interval based on RIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen (N) deficiency will severely affect many metabolic pathways and physiological progresses during maize (Zea mays L.) growth and change of anthesis-silking interval (ASI) is one of the most serious consequences. To realize the genetic basis of ASI, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 239 RILs, ...

  13. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boćanski Jan; Nastasić Aleksandra; Stanisavljević Dušan; Srećkov Zorana; Mitrović Bojan; Treskić Sanja; Vukosavljev Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Bocanski J., A. Nastasic, D. Stanisavljevic, Z. Sreckov, B. Mitrovic, S. Treskic and M. Vukosavljev (2011): Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines- Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 277 - 284. Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequisite for the successful commercial maize production. It does not appear in any cross of two inbred lines, and therefore, the determination of combining abilities of parental lines is essential. Th...

  14. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boćanski Jan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequisite for the successful commercial maize production. It does not appear in any cross of two inbred lines, and therefore, the determination of combining abilities of parental lines is essential. The most commonly used method for determining combining abilities is diallel analysis. Besides conventional methods for diallel analysis, a new biplot approach has been sugested. In this paper, we studied the combining ability for grain yield in a set of genotypes obtained by diallel crossing system of six inbred lines. Both, the Griffing’s conventional method and the biplot approach have been used for diallel analysis. Comparing the GCA values from biplot analysis and Griffing’s method, similar results can be observed, with the exception of NS L 1051 and NS L 1000 whose ranks are interchanged. Biplot analysis enables the SCA estimation of parent inbred, and the highest SCA has inbred B73D. Biplot analysis also allows the estimation of the best crosses. Inbred B73D shows the best results when crossed with testers Mo17Ht, NS L 1051 and N152, inbred N152 combines best with testers NS L 1001 and NS L 1000, whereas the cross of inbred NS L 1051 with tester B73D results with the highest grain yield per plant in comparison with other testers.

  15. Development of a near-isogenic line population of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparison of mapping power with a recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keurentjes, Joost J B; Bentsink, Leónie; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Hanhart, Corrie J; Blankestijn-De Vries, Hetty; Effgen, Sigi; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Koornneef, Maarten

    2007-02-01

    In Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations are widely used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, mapping analyses with this type of population can be limited because of the masking effects of major QTL and epistatic interactions of multiple QTL. An alternative type of immortal experimental population commonly used in plant species are sets of introgression lines. Here we introduce the development of a genomewide coverage near-isogenic line (NIL) population of Arabidopsis thaliana, by introgressing genomic regions from the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) accession into the Landsberg erecta (Ler) genetic background. We have empirically compared the QTL mapping power of this new population with an already existing RIL population derived from the same parents. For that, we analyzed and mapped QTL affecting six developmental traits with different heritability. Overall, in the NIL population smaller-effect QTL than in the RIL population could be detected although the localization resolution was lower. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of population size and of the number of replicates on the detection power of QTL affecting the developmental traits. In general, population size is more important than the number of replicates to increase the mapping power of RILs, whereas for NILs several replicates are absolutely required. These analyses are expected to facilitate experimental design for QTL mapping using these two common types of segregating populations.

  16. Genetic analysis of resistance to six virus diseases in a multiple virus-resistant maize inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Jose Luis; Jones, Mark W; Brenner, Eric; Francis, David M; Tomas, Adriana; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2014-04-01

    Novel and previously known resistance loci for six phylogenetically diverse viruses were tightly clustered on chromosomes 2, 3, 6 and 10 in the multiply virus-resistant maize inbred line, Oh1VI. Virus diseases in maize can cause severe yield reductions that threaten crop production and food supplies in some regions of the world. Genetic resistance to different viruses has been characterized in maize populations in diverse environments using different screening techniques, and resistance loci have been mapped to all maize chromosomes. The maize inbred line, Oh1VI, is resistant to at least ten viruses, including viruses in five different families. To determine the genes and inheritance mechanisms responsible for the multiple virus resistance in this line, F1 hybrids, F2 progeny and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross of Oh1VI and the virus-susceptible inbred line Oh28 were evaluated. Progeny were screened for their responses to Maize dwarf mosaic virus, Sugarcane mosaic virus, Wheat streak mosaic virus, Maize chlorotic dwarf virus, Maize fine streak virus, and Maize mosaic virus. Depending on the virus, dominant, recessive, or additive gene effects were responsible for the resistance observed in F1 plants. One to three gene models explained the observed segregation of resistance in the F2 generation for all six viruses. Composite interval mapping in the RIL population identified 17 resistance QTLs associated with the six viruses. Of these, 15 were clustered in specific regions of chr. 2, 3, 6, and 10. It is unknown whether these QTL clusters contain single or multiple virus resistance genes, but the coupling phase linkage of genes conferring resistance to multiple virus diseases in this population could facilitate breeding efforts to develop multi-virus resistant crops.

  17. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

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    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  18. Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and characterization of major fragrance gene by microsatellite markers. ... At some SSR loci, new/recombinant alleles were observed, which indicate the active recombination between genomes of two rice varieties and can be used for linkage mapping once ...

  19. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight maize inbred lines and three open pollinated varieties from Sudan were evaluated for their response to tissue culture. Immature embryos obtained 16 days after pollination were used as explants for callus induction. Calli were induced on LS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

  20. determination of the heterotic groups of maize inbred lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  1. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Nastasic, A.; Stanisavljevic, D.; Sreckov, Z.; Mitrovic, B.; Treskic, S.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bocanski J., A. Nastasic, D. Stanisavljevic, Z. Sreckov, B. Mitrovic, S. Treskic and M. Vukosavljev (2011): Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines- Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 277 - 284. Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a

  2. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Eight maize inbred lines and three open pollinated varieties from Sudan were evaluated for their response to tissue ... Keywords: Sudanese maize genotypes, embryogenic callus, regeneration, and tissue culture. INTRODUCTION .... genes have been implicated in the inheritance of callus induction and ...

  3. Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their hybrids under normal and drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for most of the characters under study which indicates the presence of sufficient amount of variability offering ample scope for ...

  4. The power of QTL mapping with RILs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Takuno

    Full Text Available QTL (quantitative trait loci mapping is commonly used to identify genetic regions responsible to important phenotype variation. A common strategy of QTL mapping is to use recombinant inbred lines (RILs, which are usually established by several generations of inbreeding of an F1 population (usually up to F6 or F7 populations. As this inbreeding process involves a large amount of labor, we are particularly interested in the effect of the number of inbreeding generations on the power of QTL mapping; a part of the labor could be saved if a smaller number of inbreeding provides sufficient power. By using simulations, we investigated the performance of QTL mapping with recombinant inbred lines (RILs. As expected, we found that the power of F4 population could be almost comparable to that of F6 and F7 populations. A potential problem in using F4 population is that a large proportion of RILs are heterozygotes. We here introduced a new method to partly relax this problem. The performance of this method was verified by simulations with a wide range of parameters including the size of the segregation population, recombination rate, genome size and the density of markers. We found our method works better than the commonly used standard method especially when there are a number of heterozygous markers. Our results imply that in most cases, QTL mapping does not necessarily require RILs at F6 or F7 generations; rather, F4 (or even F3 populations would be almost as useful as F6 or F7 populations. Because the cost to establish a number of RILs for many generations is enormous, this finding will cause a reduction in the cost of QTL mapping, thereby accelerating gene mapping in many species.

  5. Joint Analysis of Near-Isogenic and Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Yields Precise Positional Estimates for Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Kump

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Data generated for initial quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL populations are usually ignored during subsequent fine-mapping using near-isogenic lines (NILs. Combining both datasets would increase the number of recombination events sampled and generate better position and effect estimates. Previously, several QTL for resistance to southern leaf blight of maize were mapped in two RIL populations, each independently derived from a cross between the lines B73 and Mo17. In each case the largest QTL was in bin 3.04. Here, two NIL pairs differing for this QTL were derived and used to create two distinct F family populations that were assessed for southern leaf blight (SLB resistance. By accounting for segregation of the other QTL in the original RIL data, we were able to combine these data with the new genotypic and phenotypic data from the F families. Joint analysis yielded a narrower QTL support interval compared to that derived from analysis of any one of the data sets alone, resulting in the localization of the QTL to a less than 0.5 cM interval. Candidate genes identified within this interval are discussed. This methodology allows combined QTL analysis in which data from RIL populations is combined with data derived from NIL populations segregating for the same pair of alleles. It improves mapping resolution over the conventional approach with virtually no additional resources. Because data sets of this type are commonly produced, this approach is likely to prove widely applicable.

  6. Chemical heterogeneity of tomato inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Compositional characteristics of seven lines of tomatoes have been determined. The following parameters were evaluated: dry matter, acidity (citric acid equivalent, Ca-pectate, ash, cellulose, sugars (total, reducing sugars, sucrose, mineral substances (N, P, K, Ca, Na, surface color and carotenoid content. From a compositional viewpoint, there were no significant differences between lines, but in cellulose, sucrose, mineral substances, carotenoid content, and surface colour parameters, a*, b*, L and h°. .

  7. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

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    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  8. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of the sweet corn inbred lines is of great importance for its breeding. In this paper we analyzed genetic similarity of six sweet corn inbreds based on SSR markers. 40 SSR primers were used in DNA amplification. Results were compared and correlated with the data on specific combining ability, obtained by the diallel analysis. The results of SCA were in concurrence with genetic similarity. Values of rank correlation coefficient were negative, indicating that more similar inbred lines had smaller estimates of SCA, and lines that were less similar had higher estimates of SCA. Rank correlation coefficient between SCA and GS according to Dice coefficient was between -0,16 and -0,57*.

  9. Genetic variation between Spanish and American versions of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Abuín, María del Carmen; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Ordás López, Bernardo; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of maize inbred lines in different stations causes variability among strains. The objective of this research was to determine agronomic and molecular differences in American sweet corn inbreds maintained in Spain. American and Spanish strains of five sweet corn inbred lines were characterized by using 34 RAPD primers that produced 168 consistent bands. Strains of four of these inbreds were crossed in a diallel design, and hybrids were evaluated in four environments in northwester...

  10. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.

    2005-01-01

    , difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between...... a Hordeum vulgare cultivar (`Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including...... neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were...

  11. Dynamics of phosphorus accumulation in maize inbred lines grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovinčić Anika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements deficiency in food can cause serious health problems. Being one of the three most importatnt macroelements for plant nutrition, phosphorus is involved in several key processes: photosynthesis, respiration, synthesis of starch, transport of carbohydrates and products of photosynthesis, cell division and increased water utilization. The objective of this study was to estimate the dynamics of inorganic phosphorus (Pi, as a precursor in the synthesis of phytic acid, and phytic phosphorus (Pphy accumulation during the grain filling of two maize inbred lines differing in FAO maturity groups - L217 and L773. In addition, possible linkage between phosphorus content in grain and agro-morphological performances was observed. For the analysis of the dynamics in Pi and Pphy contents, seed samples were taken at 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th day after the polination. The obtained results showed a continuous decline of Pi content in both genotypes, with the most intensive decline observed at the first interval (e.i. 15-30 days after the polination. The trend observed was much more pronounced in L217. Moreover, this inbred acheaved higher grain yield for 61.8 % at first sowing and for 63.1 % at 10-day delayed sowing, respectively, compared to inbred L773. In all three intervals observed, the decrease of Pi content was highly correlated with Pphy content increase for both genotypes. Based on lower accumulation rate, followed by lower Pphy content (2.635 mg g-1 during the stage of physiological maturuty, it could be concluded that inbred L217 could be considered as potentialy suitable genotype for low-phytic hybride selection.

  12. Evaluation of Lentil Recombinant Inbred Lines using Drought Tolerance Indices

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    Mohammad Hassan Rahimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify drought tolerant lines among 168 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Hindi variety of L3685 (high yielding, erect type and early growth as female parent and Iranian variety of Qazvin (with prostrate growth and late growth as male parent, two experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications under non-stress and drought stress conditions at the experimental Field of Shahrekord University in 2013. Results of combined analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among lines under study in both experimental conditions in terms of grain yield (P≤0.01. Significant interaction of line×conditions revealed that lines responded differently to drought stress based on grain yield. Results also indicates that lines 160, 125 and 129 were promising lines under both conditions in terms of grain yield. Positive and significant correlation between tolerance indices and grain yield under stress and non-stress conditions indicated that the STI, MP, HARM and GMP indices may identify promising from non promising lines. Based on the above criteria, lines 160, 125, 48, 103 and 129 were recognized as drought tolerant lines. According to the results of principal components analysis, the first and second components determined 97.8% of the total variations among genotypes under study for drought resistance indices. The distribution of lines in the biplot showed genetic variations to the drought stress and thus lines 160, 125, 48, 129 and 103 were identified as high yielders under drought stress condition.

  13. QTL mapping for controlling anthesis-silking interval based on RIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... Nitrogen (N) deficiency will severely affect many metabolic pathways and physiological progresses during maize (Zea mays L.) growth and change of anthesis-silking interval (ASI) is one of the most serious consequences. To realize the genetic basis of ASI, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population.

  14. Selection of popcorn inbred lines based on performance and genealogy of S5 progenies and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids is the most important objective in a corn breeding program. The objectives of thisstudy were to select and assess inbred lines, and to discuss the efficiency of four cycles of among and within inbred familyselection. Two experiments were evaluated, one with 144 S5 progenies of the popcorn population Beija-Flor and another withseven inbred lines. Based on expected gains in expansion volume, the best selective procedure was mass selection. The 14selected inbred lines should be divergent, because only two pairs were derived from the same S3 or S4 family. The analysis ofselection efficiency demonstrated that it is important to select superior plants in families with poorer performance to minimizethe loss of superior genotypes. The quality of the evaluated inbred lines was comparable to commercial populations and theyield satisfactory. The information about genealogy did not increase the inbred line selection efficiency.

  15. Testing Sunflower Inbred Lines for Tolerance to Phoma Black Stem

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    Boško Dedić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem is caused by a widespread pathogen Phoma macdonaldii Boerema.The disease occurs regularly, causing damage by early defoliation and premature ripening.Complete resistance of sunflower to this disease has never been found, but there arereports of differences in response by different genotypes. Fifty-four new inbred lines weretested in our trials conducted at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field. Plants in one trialwere non-irrigated, and irrigated in another. Sunflower plants were artificially inoculatedwith mycelial plugs in the bud stage. The length of stem lesions was measured and comparedusing an analysis of variance. Disease intensity was generally more severe in the nonirrigatedfield. There were significant differences in tolerance to Phoma black stem amongthe tested lines in both trials. The percentage of tolerant genotypes was 1.8%.

  16. RNA-Seq using bulked recombinant inbred line populations uncovers the importance of brassinosteroid for seed longevity after priming treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Kim, June-Sik; Onda, Yoshihiko; Nomura, Takahito; Mochida, Keiichi; Okamoto, Masanori; Seo, Mitsunori

    2017-08-14

    Seed priming is a commercially used technique for improving seed performance including germination. However, the treatment sometimes reduces seed longevity as a side effect, limiting the storable period or longevity of the seeds. To overcome this problem, molecular mechanisms involved in the loss of seed longevity during priming were analyzed using natural variations of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the Est-1 accession retained longevity for longer after priming compared to the reference accession Col-0. QTL analysis using 279 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the Est-1 × Col-0 detected three QTL regions associated with the loss of seed longevity during priming. Bulked transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq with bulked RIL populations) revealed that genes related to brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis/signaling and cell wall modification were highly expressed in primed seeds with shorter longevity. After priming, BR-deficient mutants cyp85a1/a2 and det2 showed significantly longer longevity than the wild type (WT). Moreover, tetrazolium staining indicated that mutant seed coats were less permeable after priming than those of WT. We suggest that the loss of seed longevity in primed seed is due to increased seed coat permeability, which is positively regulated, at least partly, via BR signaling.

  17. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  18. The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was, therefore, conducted to investigate the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability of selected maize inbred lines for grain yield and GLS disease resistance. Eight maize inbred lines with contrasting reactions to GLS were crossed in diallel mating to generate 28 hybrids. The parents and ...

  19. Haldane, Waddington and recombinant inbred lines: extension of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Areejit Samal

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... probabilities of RIL genotypes with 'any' number of loci, using two concepts borrowed from theoretical physics: Glauber's formula (Glauber 1963) and Schwinger–Dyson equations (Dyson 1949; Schwinger 1951) that are self- consistent relations between moments of multivariate distributions. Our framework ...

  20. Genetic dissection of maize plant architecture with an ultra-high density bin map based on recombinant inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chaoshu; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xing; Di, Hong; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-03-03

    Plant architecture attributes, such as plant height, ear height, and internode number, have played an important role in the historical increases in grain yield, lodging resistance, and biomass in maize (Zea mays L.). Analyzing the genetic basis of variation in plant architecture using high density QTL mapping will be of benefit for the breeding of maize for many traits. However, the low density of molecular markers in existing genetic maps has limited the efficiency and accuracy of QTL mapping. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an improved strategy for addressing a complex genome via next-generation sequencing technology. GBS has been a powerful tool for SNP discovery and high-density genetic map construction. The creation of ultra-high density genetic maps using large populations of advanced recombinant inbred lines (RILs) is an efficient way to identify QTL for complex agronomic traits. A set of 314 RILs derived from inbreds Ye478 and Qi319 were generated and subjected to GBS. A total of 137,699,000 reads with an average of 357,376 reads per individual RIL were generated, which is equivalent to approximately 0.07-fold coverage of the maize B73 RefGen_V3 genome for each individual RIL. A high-density genetic map was constructed using 4183 bin markers (100-Kb intervals with no recombination events). The total genetic distance covered by the linkage map was 1545.65 cM and the average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM with a physical distance of about 0.51 Mb. Our results demonstrated a relatively high degree of collinearity between the genetic map and the B73 reference genome. The quality and accuracy of the bin map for QTL detection was verified by the mapping of a known gene, pericarp color 1 (P1), which controls the color of the cob, with a high LOD value of 80.78 on chromosome 1. Using this high-density bin map, 35 QTL affecting plant architecture, including 14 for plant height, 14 for ear height, and seven for internode number were detected

  1. Identification of QTLs for shoot and root growth under ionic-osmotic stress in Lotus, using a RIL population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quero, Gastón; Gutíerrez, Lucía; Lascano, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The genus Lotus includes a group of forage legume species including genotypes of agronomic interest and model species. In this work, an experimental hydroponic growth system allowed the discrimination of growth responses to ionic-osmotic stress in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs...

  2. Effective selection criteria for screening drought tolerant recombinant inbred lines of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Nishtman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seventy two sunflower recombinant inbred lines were tested for their yielding ability under both water-stressed and well-watered states. The inbred lines were evaluated in a rectangular 8´9 lattice design with two replications in both well-watered and water-stressed conditions, separately. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI, mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, harmonic mean (HM, stress susceptibility index (SSI, tolerance index (TOL, yield index (YI and yield stability index (YSI were calculated based on grain yield for every genotype. Results showed the highest values of mean productivity (MP index, geometric mean productivity (GMP, yield index (YI, harmonic mean (HM and stress tolerance index (STI indices for ‘C134a’ inbred line and least values of stress susceptibility index (SSI and tolerance (TOL for C61 inbred line. According to correlation of indices with yield performance under both drought stress and non-stress states and principle component analysis, indices including HM, MP, GMP and STI could properly distinguish drought tolerant sunflower inbred lines with high yield performance under both states. Cluster analysis of inbred lines using Ys, Yp and eight indices, categorized them into four groups including 19, 6, 26 and 19 inbred lines.

  3. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ear axis weight (EAW) is one of the important agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L.), related to yield. To understand its genetic basis, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from the cross Mo17 × Huangzao4, was used for quantitative trait locus mapping (QTL) for EAW under high and low nitrogen (N) regimes.

  4. Inbreeding depression in maize populations and its effects on the obtention of promising inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclecio Domingos Garbuglio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding can potentially be used for the development of inbred lines containing alleles of interest, but the genetic causes that control inbreeding depression are not completely known, and there are few studies found in the literature. The present study aimed to obtain estimates of inbreeding depression for eight traits in seven tropical maize populations, analyze the effects of inbreeding over generations and environments, and predict the behavior of inbred lines in future generation S? through linear regression methods. It was found that regardless of the base population used, prediction values could vary when the model was based on only 2 generations of inbreeding due to the environmental component. The influence of the environment in this type of study could be reduced when considering 3 generations of inbreeding, allowing greater precision in predicting the phenotypes of inbred lines. The use of linear regression was effective for inbred line prediction for the different agronomic traits evaluated. The use of 3 levels of inbreeding minimizes the effects of the environmental component in inbred line prediction for grain yield. GO-S was the most promising population for inbred line extraction.

  5. Histocompatible chicken inbred lines: homogeneities in the major histocompatibility complex antigens of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C inbred lines assessed by hemagglutination, mixed lymphocyte reaction and skin transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Yamagata, Takahiro; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao

    2007-10-01

    Chicken inbred lines of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C have been established by selection of a specific allele at the B blood group locus (MHC B-G region) and other polymorphic loci through pedigree mating. To extend the potential of these inbred lines as experimental animals in Aves, we assessed the antigenic homogeneities of the MHC antigens by three immunological methods. Antigenic variations of red blood cells (RBCs) were surveyed in the inbred lines and a random-bred line (NG) derived from the Nagoya breed by using ten kinds of intact antisera produced in the inbred line of chickens against RBCs of a red junglefowl and hybrids. In the hemagglutination test, no individual variations were found within the inbred line at all, while all the ten antisera detected highly heterogeneous reactions in individuals of the NG. The reciprocal one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions gave constantly higher stimulation responses (PGSP and GSN/1 inbred lines both having the B(21) allele. In reciprocal skin transplantation, the transplanted skingrafts within the inbred line and between individuals from the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines survived more than 100 days, while all the skingrafts showed signs of rejection within 7 days among the inbred lines having different B alleles. The results obtained by the three practical methods coincidentally indicated that the individuals in the respective four inbred lines were histocompatible, and further, that the GSP and GSN/1 individuals were histocompatible.

  6. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  7. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-09-08

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  8. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  9. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  10. Combining abilities of inbred lines for dry matter yield of maize (Zea mays L. Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study encompass the investigation on combining abilities of six maize inbred lines and their diallel hybrids of F1 generation for dry matter yield of both, the whole plant and the ear. The analysis of combining abilities was performed following Griffing (1956 method 2, model I, without reciprocal crosses, while the analysis the genetic components of variance and the regression analysis were done after the model proposed by Hayman and Jinks (1954 and Mather and Jink (1971. Dominant gene effects in inheritance of dry matter yield of the whole plant and the ear were determined by the analysis of combining abilities. The role of these effects are also observable from the analysis of genetic components of variations and results of the Vr/Wr regression analysis. The inbred line ZPLB 406 was the inbred with the highest GCA effects. .

  11. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  12. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  13. Selection of maize inbred lines and gene expression for resistance to ear rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G S; Pinho, R G V; Pinho, E V R V; Pires, L P M; Bernardo Junior, L A Y; Pereira, J L A; Melo, M P

    2017-07-06

    In recent years, there has been a large incidence of fungi causing "ear rot" in maize in Brazil, the main fungus being Fusarium verticillioides. The most efficient and competitive alternative for control of this disease consists of using maize hybrids resistant to this pathogen. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyze the genetic variability of maize inbred lines in regard to resistance to ear rot to observe if there is a maternal effect to resistance to ear rot, to study genetic control of the traits evaluated in hybrids originating from inbred lines of the maize breeding program at the Agriculture Department of Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brazil), and characterize the gene expression pattern related to the plant defense mechanism against F. verticillioides. High genetic availability was observed for resistance to this disease among the inbred lines evaluated. Considering combined diallel analysis, it was observed that the mean square of general combining ability (GCA) was not significant for the characteristic under study. However, specific combining ability (SCA) was significant, which indicates the predominance of non-additive effects involved in control of the characteristic for the population evaluated. A maternal effect was not observed for the characteristic of ear rot resistance in this study. Inbred lines 22, 58, and 91 showed potential for use in breeding programs aiming at resistance to F. verticillioides. Only two genes, LOX8 and Hsp82, had a satisfactory result that was able to be related to a plant defense mechanism when there is ear rot infection, though expression of these genes was observed in only one susceptible genotype. Thus, the genes LOX8 and Hsp82 are potential molecular markers for selection of maize inbred lines resistant to F. verticillioides.

  14. Genome-wide QTL mapping for wheat processing quality parameters in a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dough rheological and starch pasting properties play an important role in determining processing quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 cross grown in three environments was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for dough rheological and starch pasting properties evaluated by Mixograph, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA and Mixolab parameters using 90K and 660K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip assays. A high-density linkage map constructed with 46,961 polymorphic SNP markers from the wheat 90K and 660K SNP assays spanned a total length of 4,121 cM, with an average chromosome length of 196.2 cM and marker density of 0.09 cM/marker; 6,596 new SNP markers were anchored to the bread wheat linkage map, with 1,046 and 5,550 markers from the 90K and 660K SNP assays, respectively. Composite interval mapping identified 119 additive QTLs on 20 chromosomes except 4D; among them, 15 accounted for more than 10% of the phenotypic variation across two or three environments. Twelve QTLs for Mixograph parameters, 17 for RVA parameters and 55 for Mixolab parameters were new. Eleven QTL clusters were identified. The closely linked SNP markers can be used in marker-assisted wheat breeding in combination with the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP technique for improvement of processing quality in bread wheat.

  15. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Addo-Quaye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation.

  16. Combining Ability of Transitional Highland Maize Inbred Lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, the magnitude of mean squares due to GCA of lines was higher than that of the SCA in most of the cases, indicating that additive gene actions were more important than non-additive with regard to inheritance of the traits studied. Keywords: Combining Ability; Gene Action; Heterotic Pattern; Zea mays. East African ...

  17. Shoot and Root Traits Contribute to Drought Resistance in Recombinant Inbred Lines of MD 23-24 × SEA 5 of Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose; Rao, Idupulapati M; Cajiao, Cesar; Grajales, Miguel; Rivera, Mariela; Velasquez, Federico; Raatz, Bodo; Beebe, Stephen E

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the major abiotic stress factor limiting yield of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in smallholder systems in Latin America and eastern and southern Africa; where it is a main source of protein in the daily diet. Identification of shoot and root traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of designing bean genotypes adapted to drought. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia to determine the relationship between grain yield and different shoot and root traits using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (MD23-24 × SEA 5) of common bean. The main objectives of this study were to identify: (i) specific shoot and root morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding beans for drought resistance; and (ii) superior genotypes with desirable shoot and root traits that could serve as parents in breeding programs that are aimed at improving drought resistance. A set of 121 bean genotypes (111 RILs, 2 parents, 8 checks) belonging to the Mesoamerican gene pool and one cowpea variety were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and rainfed) over three seasons. To complement field studies, a greenhouse study was conducted using plastic cylinders with soil inserted into PVC pipes, to determine the relationship between grain yield obtained under field conditions with different root traits measured under greenhouse conditions. Resistance to drought stress was positively associated with a deeper and vigorous root system, better shoot growth, and superior mobilization of photosynthates to pod and seed production. The drought resistant lines differed in their root characteristics, some of them with a vigorous and deeper root system while others with a moderate to shallow root system. Among the shoot traits measured, pod

  18. Comparative QTL analysis of maize seed artificial aging between an immortalized F2 population and its corresponding RILs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed aging decreases the quality and vigor of crop seeds, thereby causing substantial agricultural and economic losses in crops. To identify genetic differences in seed aging between homozygotes and heterozygotes in maize, the seeds of a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs and an immortalized F2 (IF2 population were subjected to artificial aging treatments for 0, 2, 3, and 4 days under 45 ºC and 85% relative humidity and seed vigor was then evaluated in a field experiment. Seed vigor of all entries tested decreased sharply with longer aging treatment and seed vigor decreased more slowly in heterozygotes than in homozygotes. Forty-nine QTL were detected for four measured seed vigor traits in the RIL (28 QTL and IF2 (21 QTL populations. Only one QTL, qGP5, was detected in both populations, indicating that the genes involved in anti-aging mechanisms differed between inbred lines and hybrids. Several QTL were identified to be responsible for multiple seed vigor traits simultaneously in the RIL and IF2 populations under artificial aging conditions. These QTL may include major genes for seed vigor or seed aging. QTL qVI4b and qGE3a detected in the RIL population coincided with genes ZmLOX1 and ZmPLD1 in the same respective chromosomal regions. These QTL would be useful for screening for anti-aging genes in maize breeding.

  19. Seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines affected by seed treatment with pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Tamindžić, Gordana D.; Nikolić, Zorica T.; Savić, Jasna Ž.; Milošević, Dragana N.; Petrović, Gordana R.; Ivanović, Dragana D.; Ignjatov, Maja V.

    2016-01-01

    Seed treatment is a common way of fungicide and insecticide use nowadays, since this way of pesticide application can provide the best protection in the vicinity of the future plant. The aim of research was to evaluate the effects of different seed treatments on germination and seedling growth in three maize inbred lines. The research included the seed treatment with several combinations of a fungicide Maxim XL 035-FS (a.i. metalaxil-M + fludioxonil) and ne...

  20. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines selected for body weight. MAURICIO RENNY1, NORMA B. JULIO1, SANDRA F. BERNARDI2, CRISTINA N. GARDENAL1 and MARÍA INÉS OYARZABAL3∗. 1Cátedra de Genética de Poblaciones y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales ...

  1. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić Luka; Kovačević Vlado; Kadar Imre; Jambrović Antun; Plavšić Hrvoje; Šimić Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008) and 2) to determine response and relation...

  2. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  3. Genetic determination of the biological radiation response in inbred mice lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomolka, M.; Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.

    2000-01-01

    Variation in radiation sensitivity and radiation resistance is influenced by the genetic constitution of an individual. Loss of function of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle or controlled cell death can have serious consequences on individual radiation sensitivity. For example, individuals suffering on the clinical syndrome of Ataxia telangiectasia exhibit radiation sensitivity in the order of 2-3 magnitudes higher than other cancer patients. For radiation protection it is important to clarify the role of genetic predisposition for radiation sensitivity in clinical healthy people. Therefore, data were collected from the literature describing the genetic variation (heritability) of radiation sensitivity in the mouse model. A heritability of 30-50% was calculated for 27 inbred mice lines by Roderick (1963) based on days of survival after a daily dose of 1 Gy γ-irradiation. The following inbred lines were described in the literature as radiation sensitive (phenotypical markers were e.g., time of survival, mortality, reduction in fertility post exposure): SWR, RIII, NC, K, HLG, DBA, CBA, BALB/c, A, AKR. Radiation resistance was demonstrated in SJL, SEC, RF, MA, C58, C57BR, BDP and 129. Parameter of longevity, some physiological, biochemical and immunological parameters as given in the data bank of the Jackson Laboratory, U.S.A., were compared between radiation sensitive and radiation resistant inbred strains. No correlation was seen for the most of the parameters except for the development of breast cancer. In 6 out of 10 radiosensitive inbred strains breast cancer is described while only 1 of 8 strains exhibits breast cancer. The higher heritability of 30-50% in spite of a very complex phenotype like survival and the correlation between radiosensitivity and tumour incidence show that individual genetic susceptibility is important on the biological radiation reaction. (orig.) [de

  4. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  5. Popping volume and grain yield in diallel set of popcorn inbred lines

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    Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.

  6. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

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    Andrić Luka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008 and 2 to determine response and relations among the traits when four of the female inbred lines are treated by foliar boron fertilization - three times in 10-days interval with 0.5% Solubor solution (17.5% B during one growing season (2008. The investigations were performed on Experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek, (soil type: eutrical cambisol. Highly significant differences among the nine female inbred lines were detected for B concentration in ear-leaf (from 14.7 to 46.7 mg B kg-1 and grain (from 1.20 to 2.06 mg B kg-1 as well as for grain yield (from 3.33 to 4.83 t ha-1 and grain moisture (from 14.7% to 26.6%. However, there were also significant effects of growing season and the genotype by environment interaction for all four traits. Positive and moderate correlations were found between the boron status in plant and grain yield. Although B concentrations were considerably increased by foliar boron fertilization (averages 41.7 and 125.3 mg B kg-1 in leaves, 1.79 and 2.80 mg B kg-1 in grain, for control and fertilization, respectively, in general grain yield differences among treatments were non-significant. (averages 5.21 and 5.15 t ha-1, respectively.

  7. QTL delineation for five fiber quality traits based on an intra-specific Gossypium hirsutum L. recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hantao; Pang, Chaoyou; Ma, Qifeng; Su, Junji; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-02-08

    Gossypium hirsutum L. is the most important fiber crop worldwide and contributes to more than 95% of global cotton production. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is an effective approach for improving fiber quality, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of fiber quality traits is important for cotton breeding. In this study, a permanent intra-specific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population containing 137 families was used for fiber quality testing. Based on a previously reported high-density genetic map with an average marker distance of 0.63 cM, 186 additive QTLs were obtained for five fiber quality traits over five consecutive years, including 39 for fiber length (FL), 36 for fiber strength (FS), 50 for fiber uniformity (FU), 33 for micronaire (MC) and 28 for fiber elongation (FE). Three stable QTLs, qMC-A4-1, qMC-D2-3 and qFS-D9-1, were detected in four datasets, and another eight stable QTLs, qMC-A4-2, qMC-D11-2, qFU-A9-1, qFU-A10-4, qFS-D11-1, qFL-D9-2, qFL-D11-1 and qFE-A3-2, were detected in three datasets. The annotated genes in these 11 stable QTLs were collected, and these genes included many transcription factors with functions during fiber development. 33 QTL coincidence regions were found, and these involved nearly half of the total QTLs. Four chromosome regions containing at least 6 QTLs were promising for fine mapping. In addition, 41 pairs of epistatic QTLs (e-QTLs) were screened, including 6 for FL, 30 for FS, 2 for FU and 3 for MC. The identification of stable QTLs adds valuable information for further QTL fine mapping and gene positional cloning for fiber quality genetic detection and provides useful markers for further molecular breeding in enhancing fiber quality.

  8. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

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    Jambrović Antun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  9. Sunflower inbred lines screening for tolerance to white rot on stalk

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    Dedić Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy sunflower (Helianthus annuus L inbred lines were screened for tolerance to white rot on stalk. Plants were inoculated at the budding stage with 4-day old Sclerotinia mycelium grown on PDA medium. Mycelium was placed on the leaf top and covered with tin foil, and the leaf was put into transparent nylon bag in order to maintain high humidity. Spot length on leaf was measured and plant tolerance was determined at the full flowering stage. Obtained results were analyzed by analysis of variance. Tested lines showed significant variability in response to disease. Eleven lines had lesion length less than 50% compared to susceptible control, so they could be considered tolerant and potentially interesting for breeding program.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

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    Zhihui Ma

    Full Text Available A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L., especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3 and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3 were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine and energy (ATP supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages.

  11. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield components

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    Živanović Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diallel mating design experiment with reciprocal crosses was used to determine combining abilities of five maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row in 2005. and 2006. year. GCA and SCA significant values were observed for all traits under study in both years. GCA/SCA relation showed that dominant gene effect had prevalent influence in the inheritance of grain yield, ear length and ear diameter. Additive gene effect had larger importance in the inheritance of number of kernel rows per ear. NS-1445 inbred line showed best GCA effect for grain yield, ear length and number of kernels per row, but worst GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear. Best GCA effect for ear diameter achieved inbred line F-7R. Line BL-47 showed best GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear in both years, but also the worst GCA effect for grain yield and number of kernels per row. Hybrid combination NS-1445 x BL-47 showed largest SCA effect for grain yield in both years and also showed, like hybrid combination F-7R x NS-1445, significant SCA effects for all other traits, except ear diameter. This cross also proved that hybrid combinations that include one parent with good GCA effect and the other parent with bad GCA effect can have very successful performance. It will be useful during selection material testing, to keep also genotypes which show bad GCA effect, but have phenotypic favorable trait values. Reciprocity effect was significant for SCA effects of all traits but ear diameter. It is the conformation of involvement of plasmagenes in maize quantitative traits inheritance. The largest reciprocity effect for grain yield achieved F-7R x BL-47 in both years. Significantly higher grain yield in this hybrid combination was achieved when line F-7R was used as a female parent and significantly higher number of kernel rows per ear was achieved when line BL-47 was

  13. Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng; Yang, Xiaohong

    2014-06-03

    Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4-18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for

  14. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantipa Na Chiangmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC, Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA and inorganic phosphorous (InP. These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew infection were statistically different among these inbred lines in both seasons. However, there were no correlations between the contents of either PA or InP and downy mildew infection.

  15. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content

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    Amir José Klein Werle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY, oil content (OC and crude protein (CP in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influenc

  16. Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality traits across multiple environments in Gossypium hirsutum recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Muhammad; Jia, Fei; Gong, Juwu; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Shi, Yuzhen; Li, Junwen; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Zhen; Cai, Juan; Ge, Qun; Liu, Zhi; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Or Rashid, Harun; Sarfraz, Zareen; Hassan, Murtaza; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu

    2016-03-08

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are stable and consistent across multiple environments and populations plays an essential role in marker-assisted selection (MAS). In the present study, we used 28,861 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which included 12,560 Gossypium raimondii (D genome) sequence-based SSR markers to identify polymorphism between two upland cotton strains 0-153 and sGK9708. A total of 851 polymorphic primers were finally selected and used to genotype 196 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between 0 and 153 and sGK9708 and used to construct a linkage map. The RIL population was evaluated for fiber quality traits in six locations in China for five years. Stable QTLs identified in this intraspecific cross could be used in future cotton breeding program and with fewer obstacles. The map covered a distance of 4,110 cM, which represents about 93.2 % of the upland cotton genome, and with an average distance of 5.2 cM between adjacent markers. We identified 165 QTLs for fiber quality traits, of which 47 QTLs were determined to be stable across multiple environments. Most of these QTLs aggregated into clusters with two or more traits. A total of 30 QTL clusters were identified which consisted of 103 QTLs. Sixteen clusters in the At sub-genome comprised 44 QTLs, whereas 14 clusters in the Dt sub-genome that included 59 QTLs for fiber quality were identified. Four chromosomes, including chromosome 4 (c4), c7, c14, and c25 were rich in clusters harboring 5, 4, 5, and 6 clusters respectively. A meta-analysis was performed using Biomercator V4.2 to integrate QTLs from 11 environmental datasets on the RIL populations of the above mentioned parents and previous QTL reports. Among the 165 identified QTLs, 90 were identified as common QTLs, whereas the remaining 75 QTLs were determined to be novel QTLs. The broad sense heritability estimates of fiber quality traits were high for fiber length (0.93), fiber strength (0

  17. Shoot and Root Traits Contribute to Drought Resistance in Recombinant Inbred Lines of MD 23–24 × SEA 5 of Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Cajiao, Cesar; Grajales, Miguel; Rivera, Mariela; Velasquez, Federico; Raatz, Bodo; Beebe, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the major abiotic stress factor limiting yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in smallholder systems in Latin America and eastern and southern Africa; where it is a main source of protein in the daily diet. Identification of shoot and root traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of designing bean genotypes adapted to drought. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia to determine the relationship between grain yield and different shoot and root traits using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (MD23–24 × SEA 5) of common bean. The main objectives of this study were to identify: (i) specific shoot and root morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding beans for drought resistance; and (ii) superior genotypes with desirable shoot and root traits that could serve as parents in breeding programs that are aimed at improving drought resistance. A set of 121 bean genotypes (111 RILs, 2 parents, 8 checks) belonging to the Mesoamerican gene pool and one cowpea variety were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and rainfed) over three seasons. To complement field studies, a greenhouse study was conducted using plastic cylinders with soil inserted into PVC pipes, to determine the relationship between grain yield obtained under field conditions with different root traits measured under greenhouse conditions. Resistance to drought stress was positively associated with a deeper and vigorous root system, better shoot growth, and superior mobilization of photosynthates to pod and seed production. The drought resistant lines differed in their root characteristics, some of them with a vigorous and deeper root system while others with a moderate to shallow root system. Among the shoot traits measured, pod

  18. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta BALCONI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L. grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and animal feed. Hence, the development of maize genotypes with reduced mycotoxin accumulation in grain is of major importance. In order to find maize germplasm sources of resistance to Fusarium ear rot, 34 Italian and six public inbred lines were evaluated by means of artificial inoculation in field experiments during 2009 and 2010. Relationships between ear rot and fumonisin concentration in the ears were investigated. Primary ears were challenged with a mixture of two Fusarium verticillioides isolates from Northern Italy, through kernel inoculation, and ear rot severity was assessed.The average number of visibly infected kernels per ear, after inoculation, ranged from 2 to 68 in 2009 and from 0 to 120 in 2010. Fumonisin concentrations in the inoculated ears were greater than in the experimental controls for both years. Variability was found between the inbred lines: fumonisin accumulation ranged from 0.56 to 240.83 mg kg-1 in 2009 and from 1.09 to 190.60 mg kg-1 in 2010. In both years, six inbred lines showed high fumonisin content (≥100 mg kg-1, while the other genotypes were almost equally split into two groups, low (≤10 mg kg-1 and medium (from 11 to 100 mg kg-1 fumonisin content. The number of infected kernels after artificial inoculation correlated with fumonisin concentration both in 2009 (r = 0.94; P≤0.01 and 2010 (r = 0.67; P≤0.01. Additionally, the percentage of internally infected kernels correlated positively with fumonisin concentration (r = 0.37; P≤0.01 and with the number of infected kernels (r = 0.29; P≤0.05. This research has demonstrated that Italian maize germplasm is a valid source of resistance to Fusarium ear rot. Furthermore, there is a strong association of visible Fusarium symptoms with fumonisin concentration, suggesting that selection in maize for reduced visible moulds should reduce the risk of

  19. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

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    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  20. The Genetic Basis of Plant Architecture in 10 Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingchun; Xu, Yuancheng; Li, Kun; Peng, Yong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Lin; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-10-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor affecting planting density and grain yield in maize ( Zea mays ). However, the genetic mechanisms underlying plant architecture in diverse genetic backgrounds have not been fully addressed. Here, we performed a large-scale phenotyping of 10 plant architecture-related traits and dissected the genetic loci controlling these traits in 10 recombinant inbred line populations derived from 14 diverse genetic backgrounds. Nearly 800 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with major and minor effects were identified as contributing to the phenotypic variation of plant architecture-related traits. Ninety-two percent of these QTLs were detected in only one population, confirming the diverse genetic backgrounds of the mapping populations and the prevalence of rare alleles in maize. The numbers and effects of QTLs are positively associated with the phenotypic variation in the population, which, in turn, correlates positively with parental phenotypic and genetic variations. A large proportion (38.5%) of QTLs was associated with at least two traits, suggestive of the frequent occurrence of pleiotropic loci or closely linked loci. Key developmental genes, which previously were shown to affect plant architecture in mutant studies, were found to colocalize with many QTLs. Five QTLs were further validated using the segregating populations developed from residual heterozygous lines present in the recombinant inbred line populations. Additionally, one new plant height QTL, qPH3 , has been fine-mapped to a 600-kb genomic region where three candidate genes are located. These results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling plant architecture and will benefit the selection of ideal plant architecture in maize breeding. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  2. [Anatomy of heart in banna mini-pig inbred-lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ying, Da-jun; Sun, Jian-sen

    2003-01-01

    To observe the heart anatomic and histological structure of the Banna mini-pig inbred-lined and to provide the morphological data for heart xenotransplantation and breeding transgens pig. Ten Banna mini-pigs (12-18 months old) were affused and fixed by common coratid artery. The heart were observed and measured by gross anatomy and histology. There were many similarities between the Banna pig heart and the human heart in anatomy and histology. However, the following differences were observed in the Banna pig heart: 1. Azygos vein directly drew into right atrium cordis. 2. The intercalated disk of cardiac muscle was less than that of human. 3. The Purkinje's fibre was bigger than that of human. On the morphology and histology, the structure of Banna pig heart is similar to the heart of human being. It is possible that Banna minipig heart becomes organ donors for xenotransplantation.

  3. Comparison of RAPD, RFLP, AFLP and SSR markers for diversity studies in tropical maize inbred lines

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    Antonio A. F. Garcia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare their relative efficiencies as markers and to find the most suitable marker for maize diversity studies we evaluated 18 inbred tropical maize lines using a number of different loci as markers. The loci used were: 774 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs; 262 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs; 185 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs; and 68 simple sequence repeats (SSR. For estimating genetic distance the AFLP and RFLP markers gave the most correlated results, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87. Bootstrap analysis were used to evaluate the number of loci for the markers and the coefficients of variation (CV revealed a skewed distribution. The dominant markers (AFLP and RAPD had small CV values indicating a skewed distribution while the codominant markers gave high CV values. The use of maximum values of genetic distance CVs within each sample size was efficient in determining the number of loci needed to obtain a maximum CV of 10%. The number of RFLP and AFLP loci used was enough to give CV values of below 5%, while the SSRs and RAPD loci gave higher CV values. Except for the RAPD markers, all the markers correlated genetic distance with single cross performance and heterosis which showed that they could be useful in predicting single cross performance and heterosis in intrapopulation crosses for broad-based populations. Our results indicate that AFLP seemed to be the best-suited molecular assay for fingerprinting and assessing genetic relationships among tropical maize inbred lines with high accuracy.

  4. The ear-leaf percentage of calcium and magnesium in maize inbred lines and their diallel progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, V

    1984-10-01

    Eight maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their single cross hybrids were grown for one year under field conditions near Osijek. The ear-leaf was taken in the tasseling stage and analysed for Ca and Mg percentage. Parental effects on ear-leaf content of Ca and Mg were very high. The hybrids of line C103 had low mean percentages of ear-leaf Ca and Mg while the hybrids of line Os64 had high mean percentages.

  5. Draft assembly of elite inbred line PH207 provides insights into genomic and transcriptome diversity in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intense artificial selection over the last 100 years has produced elite maize (Zea mays) inbred lines that combine to produce high-yielding hybrids. To further our understanding of how genome and transcriptome variation contribute to the production of high-yielding hybrids, we generated a draft geno...

  6. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Kashiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei, Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703, while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10.

  7. Determination of some quality traits and relationships among traits in popcorn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÖZTÜRK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Popcorn is different from other maize types with its popping ability. Popcorn has a special place in human nutrition of nutrient content, vitamins and minerals it contains. It is also a good diet product with the stomach acid absorption, reducing the feeling of hunger, giving the feeling of satiety and being low in calories as a whole grain. This study was carried out in Batı Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute’s (BATEM Field Crops Department in 2014. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Some quality traits of thirty five popcorn inbred lines were examined. In the research, kernel moisture value 14.97-17.63%, popping volume 8.3-29.3 cm3 g-1, rate of unpopped kernels 1.8-35.4%, kernel size 58.3-102.3 number 10 g -1, flavor test 1.4-3.6, gumminess 1.5-4.0 were found. As a result of the research 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 16, 17, 24 and 26 lines came into prominence from the point of quality. When the relationships between quality traits were investigated, significant and positive correlations were determined between gumminess and flavor, popping volume and kernel size as well as flavor and grain moisture. Also, significant and negative correlations were determined between rate of unpopped kernels and popping volume, rate of unpopped kernels and kernel size, as well as popping volume and flavor.

  8. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  9. Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana M D; Airey, David C; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, Chong-Bin; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith M; Blakely, Randy D

    2009-02-10

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we use naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify multiple phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by 2 nonsynonymous coding variants [Gly-39 and Lys-152 (GK)]. At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode, respectively, Glu-39 and Arg-152 (ER haplotype), amino acids found also in hSERT. Ex vivo synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant, a finding confirmed by in vitro heterologous expression studies. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57BL/6J x DBA/2J = BXD) identify multiple anatomical, biochemical, and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are several traits associated with alcohol consumption and multiple traits associated with dopamine signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates iron-regulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide an example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo, and in silico approaches using mouse RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  10. Evaluation of Hbr (MITE) markers for assessment of genetic relationships among maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, A M; Mitchell, S E; Smith, O S; Register, J C; Wessler, S R; Kresovich, S

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a new type of molecular marker has been developed that is based on the presence or absence of the miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE) family Heartbreaker ( Hbr) in the maize genome. These so-called Hbr markers have been shown to be stable, highly polymorphic, easily mapped, and evenly distributed throughout the maize genome. In this work, we used Hbr-derived markers for genetic characterization of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to Stiff Stalk (SS) and Non-Stiff Stalk (NSS) heterotic groups. In total, 111 markers were evaluated across 62 SS and NSS lines. Seventy six markers (68%) were shared between the two groups, and 25 of the common markers occurred at fairly low frequency (Hbr data were congruent with those derived from pedigree information). Distance matrices generated from Hbr markers were significantly correlated ( pHbr markers could be used in conjunction with other molecular markers for genotyping and relationship studies of related maize inbred lines.

  11. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total

  12. Rapid creation of Arabidopsis doubled haploid lines for quantitative trait locus mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, Danelle K.; Filiault, Daniele L.; Henry, Isabelle M.; Monson-Miller, Jennifer; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Pang, Andy; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W. L.; Maloof, Julin N.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a powerful tool for investigating the genetic basis of natural variation. QTL can be mapped using a number of different population designs, but recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are among the most effective. Unfortunately, homozygous RIL populations are time consuming to construct, typically requiring at least six generations of selfing starting from a heterozygous F1. Haploid plants produced from an F1 combine the two parental genomes and have only one ...

  13. The use of SSRs for predicting the hybrid yield and yield heterosis in 15 key inbred lines of Chinese maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su-Xia; Liu, Jie; Liu, Gong-She

    2004-01-01

    A challenge to maize breeders is to predict and identify inbred lines that can produce highly heterotic hybrids precisely. In the present study we surveyed the genetic diversity among 15 elite inbred lines of maize in China with SSR markers and assessed the relationship between SSR marker and hybrid yield/yield heterosis in a diallel set of 105 crosses. Forty-three SSR primers selected from all sixty-three primers gave stable profiles amplified in the sample of 15 inbred lines, which could clearly resolve on 4% metaphor agarose gel. The average number of alleles per SSR locus was 4.44 with a range from 2 to 9. The polymorphism information content (PIC) for the SSR loci varied from 0.28 to 0.81 with a mean of 0.6281. Genetic similarity (GS) among 15 lines was estimated with 191 alleles identified as raw data, the Nei's coefficient of GS ranged from 0.492 for 478 vs HZ4 up to 0.745 for E28 to ZH64 with a mean of 0.619. The cluster diagram based upon the SSR data grouped the 15 lines into families consistent with the yield heterotic response of these. Genetic distance (GD) based on SSR data was significantly correlated with hybrid yield/yield heterosis, the correlation coefficient (r) being 0.5432 and 0.4271 in 1999 and 0.4305 and 0.3614 in 1998 field test, respectively, whereas the determination coefficient (r2) was lower. The correlation between GD based on SSR data and hybrid yield/yield heterosis changed alone with the difference of number and pedigree relationship among parents that were used in this study. SSR makers showed high polymorphism and could be used to assess the relationship between inbred lines of maize, but it was difficult to predict the yield heterosis of maize.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF A MAJOR QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS CONFERRING RICE BLAST RESISTANCE USING RECOMBINANT INBRED LINES

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    Sobrizal Sobrizal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae is one of the limiting factors for rice production world wide. The use of resistant varieties for managing blast disease is considered as the most eco-friendly approaches. However, their resistances may be broken down within a few years due to the appearance of new virulent blast races in the field. The objective of the present study was to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL conferring resistance to blast disease using 126 recombinant inbred (RI lines originated from a crossing of a durably resistant upland rice genotype (Laka and a highly susceptible rice accession cultivar (Kencana Bali. The RI population was developed through a single seed descent method from 1997 to 2004. Resistance of the RI lines was evaluated for blast in an endemic area of Sukabumi, West Java, in 2005. Disease intensity of the blast was examined following the standard evaluation system developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI. At the same year the RI lines were analyzed with 134 DNA markers. Results of the study showed that one major QTL was found to be associated with blast resistance, and this QTL was located near RM2136 marker on the long arm of chromosome 11. This QTL explained 87% of the phenotypic variation with 37% additive effect. The map position of this QTL differed from that of a partial resistant gene, Pi34, identified previously on chromosome 11 in the Japanese durably resistant variety, Chubu 32. The QTL, however, was almost at the same position as that of the multiple allele-resistant gene, Pik. Therefore, an allelic test should be conducted to clarify the allelic relationship between QTL identified in this study and the Pik. The RI lines are the permanent segregating population that could be very useful for analysing phenotypic variations of important agronomic traits possibly owned by the RI lines. The major QTL identified in this study could be used as a genetic resource in

  15. Photosynthetic properties of erect leaf maize inbred lines as the efficient photo-model in breeding and seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial idea of this study was a hypothesis that erect leaf maize inbred lines were characterized by properties of an efficient photo-model and that as such were very desirable in increasing the number of plants per area unit (plant density in the process of contemporary selection and seed production. The application of a non-invasive bioluminescence-photosynthetic method, suitable for the efficiency estimation of the photo-model, verified the hypothesis. Obtained photosynthetic properties of observed erect leaf maize inbred lines were based on the effects and characteristics of thermal processes of delayed chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. The temperature dependence of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence intensity phase transitions (critical temperatures in the thylakoid membranes and activation energy are the principal parameters of the thermal processes. Based on obtained photosynthetic properties it is possible to select erect leaf maize inbred lines that are resistant and tolerant to high and very high temperatures, as well as, to drought. They could be good and efficient photo-models wherewith.

  16. Crop characteristics and weed Interactions of diverse Rrecurrent Inbred Lines (RILs) from a weed-suppressive x non-suppressive rice mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ndica rice genotypes with enhanced weed suppression traits have been previously identified as potentially useful in supplementing weed control efforts in drill-seeded systems in the southern USA. A particularly weed-suppressive indica genotype (PI 312777) that was also high tillering and high yield...

  17. QTL mapping of slow-rusting, adult plant resistance to race Ug99 of stem rust fungus in PBW343/Muu RIL population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Singh, Ravi P; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Eugenio, Lopez-Vera Eric

    2013-05-01

    Races of stem rust fungus pose a major threat to wheat production worldwide. We mapped adult plant resistance (APR) to Ug99 in 141 lines of a PBW343/Muu recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population by phenotyping them for three seasons at Njoro, Kenya in field trials and genotyping them with Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. Moderately susceptible parent PBW343 and APR parent Muu displayed mean stem rust severities of 66.6 and 5 %, respectively. The mean disease severity of RILs ranged from 1 to 100 %, with an average of 23.3 %. Variance components for stem rust severity were highly significant (p stem rust where Sr2 and other minor slow rusting resistance genes can confer a higher level of resistance when present together.

  18. Combining ability of maize inbred lines evaluated in three environments in Brazil

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    Nass Luciano Lourenço

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For tropical areas like Brazil, genotype x environment interaction is an important source of variation. Our objectives were to examine the combining abilities and their interaction with environments in ten selected maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines in diallel crosses and to identify candidates for promising hybrid combinations. Crosses and checks were evaluated through a 7 x 7 triple lattice design at three locations during the 1984/85 season. Several agronomic traits were evaluated, but here only data on ear yield are discussed. Yield data were adjusted for stand variation (correction to 50 plants per plot and grain moisture (15.5%. Data for ear yield were analysed using an adaptation of Griffing?s method IV for complete diallel crosses, and experiments were repeated in several environments. The means of the crosses over all environments ranged from 6.6 t/ha to 10.3 t/ha. The combining ability analysis of diallel data across environments showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects for environment, general combining ability (GCA, specific combining ability (SCA, and GCA x environment interaction. The SCA x environment interaction was not significant. Results showed that both GCA and SCA were important for this diallel cross. Considering the 13 hybrids that showed higher yields than the commercial hybrid controls, contributions by GCA and SCA effects were 56% and 44%, respectively. On the other hand, selecting only the best five hybrids, SCA effects were always more important than GCA effects for each environment and over all environments.

  19. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Cátedra de Producción de Bovinos para carne, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, CIC, Universidad Nacional de Rosario,. Argentina, Ov. Lagos y Ruta 33 (2170) Casilda, Argentina. [Renny M., Julio N. B., Bernardi S. F., Gardenal C. N. and Oyarzabal M. I. 2014 Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse.

  20. Combining ability of maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines resistant to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten inbred parents with varying resistance levels to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca were crossed in a half diallel mating scheme to generate 45 F1 hybrids. The hybrids and five commercial checks were evaluated across four locations in Kenya under artificial and natural infestation in 2009. Genotype (G) by environment ...

  1. Genetic, sex, and diet effects on body weight and obesity in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Asja; Schmitt, Armin O; Aksu, Soner; Schlote, Werner; Neuschl, Christina; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2006-11-27

    Mouse lines long-term selected for high fatness offer the possibility to identify individual genes involved in the development of obesity. The Berlin Fat Mouse (BFM) line has been selected for low protein content and afterward for high fatness. Three Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) lines, which are derivates of the selection line BFM and an unselected control line (C57BL/6; B6) were systematically phenotyped between 3 and 20 wk. The body weights and body compositions were measured on a weekly basis. We demonstrated that the BFMI lines dispose of more body weight, body fat mass, and body lean mass than the control line B6 because of a better feed efficiency in these lines. In contrast to other growth-selected mouse lines, the BFMI lines exhibited a general increase in body fat mass but only a marginal increase in body lean mass. The three BFMI lines also showed line- and sex-specific patterns and varied in their response to high-fat diet. The phenotypic differences between the BFMI lines can be traced back to different sets of fixed alleles contributing to fat accumulation and diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the genetically related BFMI lines are novel models to study the genetic as well as the nutritional aspects of obesity.

  2. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and short insertion and/or deletions (indels to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056, as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88. Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2, with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1. Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance. Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop

  3. Study of Yield and Effective Traits in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines (Triticum aestivum L. under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad zadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects some traits on seed yield of recombinant inbred lines of wheat under water deficit stress was studied. This research was done at the Agricultural Research Stations, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2010- 2011. 28 recombinant inbred lines of wheat bread with two parents (Norstar and Zagros in split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at two irrigation levels (70 and 140 mm evaporation from pan class A were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant genetic differences in all traits under study among the lines. Lines No. 32, 163 and 182 produced highest yield under both irrigation levels. Number of spikes, grains per spike and harvest index had the highest positive correlation with grain yield. Path analysis based on stepwise regression showed that under the normal irrigation conditions, number spike (0.556, number of grains per spike (0.278, weight of 1000 grain (0.259 and the drought stress number spike (0.430, straw yield (0.276 and peduncle length (0.323 had the most direct and positive effect on yield respectively.

  4. Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Liu

    Full Text Available Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17. Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.

  5. Marker-assisted breeding for introgression of opaque-2 allele into elite maize inbred line BML-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M S R; Sokka Reddy, S; Satyanarayana, Sadam D V

    2017-07-01

    Improvement of quality protein maize (QPM) along with high content of lysine and tryptophan had foremost importance in maize breeding program. The efficient and easiest way of developing QPM hybrids was by backcross breeding in marker aided selection. Hence, the present investigation aimed at conversion of elite maize inbred line BML-7 into QPM line. CML-186 was identified to be a donor variety as it revealed high-quality polymorphism with BML-7 for opaque-2 gene specific marker umc1066. Non-QPM inbred line BML-7 was crossed with QPM donor CML-186 and produced F 1 followed by the development of BC 1 F 1 and BC 2 F 1 population. Foreground selection was carried out with umc1066 in F 1 , and selected plants were used for BC 1 F 1 and BC 2 F 1 populations. Two hundred plants were screened in both BC 1 F 1 and BC 2 F 1 population with umc1066 for foreground selection amino acid modifiers. Foreground selected plants for both opaque-2 and amino acid modifiers were screened for background selection for BML-7 genome. Recurrent parent genome (RPG) was calculated for BC 2 F 1 population plants. Two plants have shown with RPG 90-93% in two generation with back cross population. Two BC 2 F 2 populations resulted from marker recognized BC 2 F 1 individuals subjected toward foreground selection followed by tryptophan estimation. The tryptophan and lysine concentration was improved in all the plants. BC 2 F 2 lines developed from hard endosperm kernels were selfed for BC 2 F 2 lines and finest line was selected to illustrate the QPM version of BML-7, with 0.97% of tryptophan and 4.04% of lysine concentration in protein. Therefore, the QPM version of BML-7 line can be used for the development of single cross hybrid QPM maize version.

  6. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  7. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Gerlach, Nina; Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

  8. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

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    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis. Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and

  9. Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

  10. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semagn, Kassa; Magorokosho, Cosmos; Vivek, Bindiganavile S; Makumbi, Dan; Beyene, Yoseph; Mugo, Stephen; Prasanna, B M; Warburton, Marilyn L

    2012-03-25

    Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i) investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii) assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii) identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ≤ 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping population development

  11. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers

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    Semagn Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Results Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ≤ 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. Conclusions There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations

  12. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

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    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  13. Comparison of statistical methods for genetic similarity evaluation of maize inbred lines

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    Nikolić Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional breeding methods have been aided by molecular genetic techniques giving the chance for efficient improvement in creation of maize hybrids. Proper choice of statistical methods for data analysis is very important because it ensures greater reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable statistical approach for molecular marker data analysis. SSR markers were used for the analysis of 10 maize inbreds. Genetic similarity/distance was calculated using three types of data: binary, allele frequency based on densitometry and allele frequency according to band size data applying Simple matching, Jaccard's and Rogers' coefficient. Cluster analysis was performed in NTSYS, 2.11a software. The highest value for Spearman's rank of correlation (0.95 was detected between distance matrices based on binary data. The results showed that binary data Jaccard's coefficient and allele frequency data based on fragment sizes (Rogers' coefficient gave identical clusters by visual inspection and according to CIc index.

  14. Effects of the time of application and the form of nitrogen on two maize inbred lines seed yield

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    Hojka Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental filed of the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, on calcareous chernozem in the period 2001-2003. The traits of two maize inbred lines (L1-FAO 400 and L2-FAO 600 were observed in dependence on the time of the nitrogen application (No-control without fertilizing; Nautumn - 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 60 kg K2O ha-1 applied in autumn (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in autumn; Nspring - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in spring; N1/2 - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (half of which was applied in autumn and the other half in spring; N1/2-PK (const 100 kg N ha-1 (1/3 of which was applied in autumn, 1/3 in spring and 1/3 through soil dressing; Nmin - PK (const + fertilizing in spring on the basis of the Nmin method, and forms of applied nitrogen: Urea (amide form KAN (ammonium-nitrate form and (NH42SO4 (ammonium form. The highest average yield was obtained by the use of Nmin method (3,486 kg ha-1, as well as, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in sprig (Nspring (3,337 kg ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn and spring (N1/2 (3,020 kgha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn, spring and soil dressing (N1/3 (3,005 kg ha-1 in the ammonium-nitrate form (KAN. The highest average seed yield of observed maize inbred lines (3,264 kg ha-1 was obtained by the application of ammonium-sulphate in the primary tillage (Nautumn. The use of the Nmin method (N ranging from 17 to 35 kg ha-1, in dependence on the soil mineral nitrogen content, especially in years with lower precipitation sums resulted in the highest increase in seed yield (39.2% of observed maize inbred lines in relation to the control.

  15. Genetic determination of the biological radiation response in inbred mice lines; Genetische Determination der biologischen Strahlenantwort in Mausinzuchtstaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomolka, M.; Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz Oberschleissheim (Germany). Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene

    2000-07-01

    Variation in radiation sensitivity and radiation resistance is influenced by the genetic constitution of an individual. Loss of function of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle or controlled cell death can have serious consequences on individual radiation sensitivity. For example, individuals suffering on the clinical syndrome of Ataxia telangiectasia exhibit radiation sensitivity in the order of 2-3 magnitudes higher than other cancer patients. For radiation protection it is important to clarify the role of genetic predisposition for radiation sensitivity in clinical healthy people. Therefore, data were collected from the literature describing the genetic variation (heritability) of radiation sensitivity in the mouse model. A heritability of 30-50% was calculated for 27 inbred mice lines by Roderick (1963) based on days of survival after a daily dose of 1 Gy {gamma}-irradiation. The following inbred lines were described in the literature as radiation sensitive (phenotypical markers were e.g., time of survival, mortality, reduction in fertility post exposure): SWR, RIII, NC, K, HLG, DBA, CBA, BALB/c, A, AKR. Radiation resistance was demonstrated in SJL, SEC, RF, MA, C58, C57BR, BDP and 129. Parameter of longevity, some physiological, biochemical and immunological parameters as given in the data bank of the Jackson Laboratory, U.S.A., were compared between radiation sensitive and radiation resistant inbred strains. No correlation was seen for the most of the parameters except for the development of breast cancer. In 6 out of 10 radiosensitive inbred strains breast cancer is described while only 1 of 8 strains exhibits breast cancer. The higher heritability of 30-50% in spite of a very complex phenotype like survival and the correlation between radiosensitivity and tumour incidence show that individual genetic susceptibility is important on the biological radiation reaction. (orig.) [German] Die phaenotypische Variation der Strahlensensitivitaet und

  16. Construction and characterization of a cDNA library from liver tissue of Chinese Banna minipig inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W; Chen, Y; Zhang, L; Lu, Y; Li, S; Zeng, R; Zeng, Y; Li, Y; Cheng, J

    2006-09-01

    A xenograft that performs efficient functions is an essential premise for successful xenotransplantation. Our early study indicated that Chinese Banna minipig inbred line (BMI) was an ideal xenograft donor. However, the activities of some proteins synthesized by the BMI liver are different from the human, which could lead to functional disorders in coagulation, fibrinolysis, and anticoagulation after liver xenotransplantation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the genetic background of protein incompatibility and to provide new strategies for gene manipulation. In this study we constructed a cDNA expression library using BMI liver tissue to obtain an understanding of nucleic acid and protein differences between the two species. We extracted total RNA and purified mRNA of the liver tissue from one of the sixteenth inbred generation of BMI/JS 151 substrain. After double-strand cDNA synthesis, we fractionated it on a CHROMA APIN-400 column; ligated the longer than 500bp cDNA into a ZAP Express Vector; and performed a lambda: phage packaging reaction, library amplification, and titer. We randomly picked 12 plaques and tested the length of inserts. The titers of the primary and amplified libraries were 1.0 x 10(6) pfu/mL and 5.0 x 10(9) pfu/mL, respectively. The percentages of recombinants were 97.0% in the primary library and 98.0% in the amplified library. The lengths of most inserts were between 750 bp and 2.0 kb. Thus, we successfully constructed a cDNA expression library from BMI liver tissue. Using the library, we hope to get a full-length cDNA of some important genes and conduct further studies on porcine liver function in xenotransplantation.

  17. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  18. QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathi, Balram; Guleria, Smriti; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Parsad, Rajender; Mariappan, Nagarajan; Kurungara, Vinod Kunnummal; Atwal, Salwandir Singh; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2012-08-09

    Rice is staple food for more than half of the world's population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2 = 25%, LOD = 14.3), panicles per plant (R2 = 19%, LOD = 9.74), flag leaf length (R2 = 22%, LOD = 3.05), flag leaf width (R2 = 53%, LOD = 46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2 = 16%, LOD = 13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2 = 22%, LOD = 15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2 = 18%, LOD = 14.24), thousand grain weight (R2 = 25%, LOD = 12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2 = 23%, LOD = 15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were

  19. Localization of Reversion-Induced LIM Protein (RIL) in the Rat Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yuko; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Morishima, Tetsuro; Sasano, Hiroshi; Asai, Kiyofumi; Sobue, Kazuya; Takata, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    Reversion-induced LIM protein (RIL) is a member of the ALP (actinin-associated LIM protein) subfamily of the PDZ/LIM protein family. RIL serves as an adaptor protein and seems to regulate cytoskeletons. Immunoblotting suggested that RIL is concentrated in the astrocytes in the central nervous system. We then examined the expression and localization of RIL in the rat central nervous system and compared it with that of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). RIL was concentrated in the cells of ependyma lining the ventricles in the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord. In most parts of the central nervous system, RIL was expressed in the astrocytes that expressed AQP4. Double-labeling studies showed that RIL was concentrated in the cytoplasm of astrocytes where glial fibrillary acidic protein was enriched as well as in the AQP4-enriched regions such as the endfeet or glia limitans. RIL was also present in some neurons such as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and some neurons in the brain stem. Differential expression of RIL suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of the central nervous system

  20. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  1. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line “Chiifu”

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    Soon-Wook Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu, total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein.

  2. Marek's disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Apratim; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Huanming; Cui, Kairong; Zhao, Keji; Song, Jiuzhou

    2012-10-16

    Marek's disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV). Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigenetic factors are believed to be one of the major determinants of disease response. Here, we carried out comprehensive analyses of the epigenetic landscape induced by MDV, utilizing genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation maps from chicken lines with varying resistance to MD. Differential chromatin marks were observed on genes previously implicated in the disease such as MX1 and CTLA-4 and also on genes reported in other cancers including IGF2BP1 and GAL. We detected bivalent domains on immune-related transcriptional regulators BCL6, CITED2 and EGR1, which underwent dynamic changes in both lines as a result of MDV infection. In addition, putative roles for GAL in the mechanism of MD progression were revealed. Our results confirm the presence of widespread epigenetic differences induced by MD in chicken lines with different levels of genetic resistance. A majority of observed epigenetic changes were indicative of increased levels of viral infection in the susceptible line symptomatic of lowered immunocompetence in these birds caused by early cytolytic infection. The GAL system that has known anti-proliferative effects in other cancers is also revealed to be potentially involved in MD progression. Our study provides further insight into the mechanisms of MD progression while revealing a complex landscape of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that varies depending on host factors.

  3. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

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    Mitra Apratim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek’s disease (MD is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV. Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigenetic factors are believed to be one of the major determinants of disease response. Results Here, we carried out comprehensive analyses of the epigenetic landscape induced by MDV, utilizing genome-wide histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation maps from chicken lines with varying resistance to MD. Differential chromatin marks were observed on genes previously implicated in the disease such as MX1 and CTLA-4 and also on genes reported in other cancers including IGF2BP1 and GAL. We detected bivalent domains on immune-related transcriptional regulators BCL6, CITED2 and EGR1, which underwent dynamic changes in both lines as a result of MDV infection. In addition, putative roles for GAL in the mechanism of MD progression were revealed. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of widespread epigenetic differences induced by MD in chicken lines with different levels of genetic resistance. A majority of observed epigenetic changes were indicative of increased levels of viral infection in the susceptible line symptomatic of lowered immunocompetence in these birds caused by early cytolytic infection. The GAL system that has known anti-proliferative effects in other cancers is also revealed to be potentially involved in MD progression. Our study provides further insight into the mechanisms of MD progression while revealing a complex landscape of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that varies depending on host factors.

  4. Romanian maize (Zea mays inbred lines as a source of genetic diversity in SE Europe, and their potential in future breeding efforts.

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    Dana Şuteu

    Full Text Available Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm.

  5. Construction of a genetic linkage map in Lilium using a RIL mapping population based on SRAP marker

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    Chen Li-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A genetic linkage map of lily was constructed using RILs (recombinant inbred lines population of 180 individuals. This mapping population was developed by crossing Raizan No.1 (Formolongo and Gelria (Longiflomm cultivars through single-seed descent (SSD. SRAPs were generated by using restriction enzymes EcoRI in combination with either MseI. The resulting products were separated by electrophoresis on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The segregation of each marker and linkage analysis was done using the program Mapmaker3.0. With 50 primer pairs, a total of 189 parental polymorphic bands were detected and 78 were used for mapping. The total map length was 2,135.5 cM consisted of 16 linkage groups. The number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 1 to 12. The length of linkage groups was range from 11.2 cM to 425.9 cM and mean marker interval distance range from 9.4 cM to 345.4 cM individually. The mean marker interval distance between markers was 27.4 cM. The map developed in the present study was the first sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers map of lily constructed with recombinant inbred lines, it could be used for genetic mapping and molecular marker assisted breeding and quantitative trait locus mapping of Lilium.

  6. Protein quality traits and their relationships with yield and yield components of opaque-2 and analogous normal maize hybrids and inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Kovács, I; Gáspár, L

    1974-01-01

    Diallel cross hybrids obtained by crossing six opaque-2 (o 2) converted inbred lines were compared with a similar series of crosses made between the analogous normal inbred lines together with the parents, for a number of protein quality and oil traits. The results obtained show that there is only a minor decrease in percent protein or yield of protein per hectare caused by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition, compared with its normal counterpart. On the other hand, percent lysine in the whole kernel, lysine yield per hectare and percent lysine in protein are increased by 53, 45 and 55 percent, respectively, in the o 2 inbred lines and hybrids compared with their normal analogues. Percent oil and oil yield remain almost unaltered by the presence or absence of the o 2 gene. As well as lysine, the content of other amino acids, such as aspartic acid, arginine, glycine, threonine, valine and histidine are also, in general, increased by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition.The results obtained have shown that a number of correlation coefficients between the protein quality traits and yield components related to kernel characteristics are negative and significant, especially in the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition. Only two correlation coefficients have been found that could be used with advantage by opaque-2 maize breeders. They are a stronger positive correlation of percent protein with percent lysine, and lysine yield per hectare with 1000 grain weight, in o 2 maize than in normal maize.The results presented here also show that there is more heterotic dilution in the o 2 hybrids than in the normal analogues for traits like percent protein, percent lysine (whole kernel basis) and percent lysine in protein. It has been observed that the inbred lines with the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition and a superior protein quality tend to produce hybrids of superior quality.

  7. Bursal transcriptome profiling of different inbred chicken lines reveals key differentially expressed genes at 3 days post-infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah, Mohd Isa; Yasmin, Abd Rahaman; Mat Isa, Nurulfiza; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Ideris, Aini; Powers, Claire; Oladapo, Omobolanle; Nair, Venugopal; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease in the poultry industry and causes immunosuppression in chickens. Genome-wide regulations of immune response genes of inbred chickens with different genetic backgrounds, following very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection are poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the bursal tissue transcriptome of six inbred chicken lines 6, 7, 15, N, O and P following infection with vvIBDV strain UK661 using strand-specific next-generation sequencing, by highlighting important genes and pathways involved in the infected chicken during peak infection at 3 days post-infection. All infected chickens succumbed to the infection without major variations among the different lines. However, based on the viral loads and bursal lesion scoring, lines P and 6 can be considered as the most susceptible lines, while lines 15 and N were regarded as the least affected lines. Transcriptome profiling of the bursa identified 4588 genes to be differentially expressed, with 2985 upregulated and 1642 downregulated genes, in which these genes were commonly or uniquely detected in all or several infected lines. Genes that were upregulated are primarily pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and IFN-related. Various genes that are associated with B-cell functions and genes related to apoptosis were downregulated, together with the genes involved in p53 signalling. In conclusion, bursal transcriptome profiles of different inbred lines showed differential expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Th1 cytokines, JAK-STAT signalling genes, MAPK signalling genes, and their related pathways following vvIBDV infection.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  9. Avaliação de linhagens de melão Evaluation of melon inbred lines for plant and fruit characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir híbridos de melão adaptados à região Nordeste do Brasil, foi avaliado, em Pacajús-CE o comportamento de 29 linhagens, sendo 23 do grupo cantalupensis, cinco do inodorus e uma do grupo momordica. Para efeito de comparação, foram utilizadas cultivares comerciais: o híbrido Hy-mark e a cultivar Eldorado-300. Na avaliação da precocidade a maturação das linhagens do grupo cantalupensis levaram em média 35,1 dias, as do grupo inodorus 30,6 dias e as do grupo momordica 24,4 dias. A concentração da produção, estimada aos 70 dias, foi mais elevada (75,8% numa linhagem que não produz frutos comerciais. A produção das linhagens variou de 16,2 t/ha a 65,1 t/ha, enquanto a média das testemunhas comerciais foi de 28,4 t/ha. Três linhagens do grupo cantalupensis e todas do grupo inodorus mostraram-se mais produtivas que as testemunhas. O teor de sólidos solúveis entre linhagens e testemunhas foi semelhante (8,6%, sendo que uma das linhagens, M46-00 se destacou pelos altos teores (Brix=12,2%. Em geral, os frutos das linhagens tardias mostraram elevado teor de sólidos solúveis.In order to obtain melon hybrids adapted for growing in the Northeast of Brazil, 29 inbred lines (23 belonging to the cantaloupensis group, 5 to the inodorus and 1 to the momordica group were evaluated in Pacajus, in the state of Ceará. Two commercial varieties, the hybrid Hy-mark and the cultivar Eldorado-300, were used as checks. It was observed that the average period for fruit ripening was 35.1 days for the cantalupensis group, 30.6 days for the inodorus group and 24.4 days for the momordica group. The highest yield concentration (75.8%, evaluated 70 days after sowing, was attained in a inbred line that does not produce commercial fruits. The yield of the lines ranged from 16.2 t/ha up to 65.1 t/ha, whereas the two commercial varieties produced 28.0 t/ha. Three of the cantalupensis group and all inbred lines of the inodorus group

  10. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain yield, yield .... mass selection followed by self-pollination for generating inbred lines. The inbred lines ... for the experiment was an alpha (0, 1) lattice (Patterson and Williams, 1996) with two replications at each ...

  11. SSR marker analysis on genetic variation of M3 from maize inbred lines 48-2 and R08 after irradiation inducement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Shi Haichun; Ke Yongpei; Yuan Jichao; Yu Xuejie

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the biological effects and the genetic variations of maize mutagenic progenies is important to facilitate effective selections and utilization of the mutants. In this study, the genetic variation of 103 mutagenic progenies of M 3 lines of inbred lines 48-2 and R08 with 60 Co γ-rays inducement were evaluated with SSR molecular markers. The results indicated that, the amplitude of polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 48-2 and R08 M 3 lines ranged 0.307 ∼ 0.948 and 0.108 ∼ 0.955, with an average of 0.762 and 0.701, respectively. The amplitude of genetic diversity indexes (H') ranged 0.552 ∼ 2.830 and 0.254 ∼ 3.309, with an average of 1.830 and 1.777, respectively. The average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the 49 M 3 lines of 48-2 with its check (M673) was 0.8194. However, the average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the M 3 lines of R08 with its check (M487) was 0.8373. Based on the genetic similarity coefficient, inbred lines 48-2, R08 and their 101 M 3 lines were clustered in 7 and 5 populations respectively. This phenomenon indicated that massive genetic variation could appear in progenies due to irradiation. The strengthen of selection and utilization of mutants based on the breeding objectives and in accordance with the feature and regularity on genetic variations of main characteristics of mutant lines in various populations could be enhanced in breeding program, to some extent, which can increase the breeding efficiency of irradiation induced mutation in maize. (authors)

  12. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC EFFECTS ON PLANT HEIGHT IN TWO SPECIFIC PAIRS OF INBRED LINES AND ITS SIX BASIC GENERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Zdunić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of genetic effects on economically important traits is a common procedure in the most breeding programmes at Agricultural Institute Osijek. This paper deals with estimation of adequacy over additive/dominance model of inheritance as well as estimation and comparison of genetic effects on plant height for two specific pairs of inbreds (A672×Va99; A672×Os6-2, and its six basic generations (P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2. Two year investigation was carried out at two locations in eastern Croatia. The trails consisted of 121 entries of different inbreeding level derived by partial diallel mating design followed by selfing and back crossing. Simple lattice experimental design was used in both investigated years. Goodness of fit test results indicated the additive/dominance model failed to explain all differences among generation means. Digenic epistatic model appeared to be adequate in both investigated pairs of inbreds at least in one of the investigated years. Estimations and comparisons of genetic effects for selected pairs of inbreds and basic generations revealed prevailing dominance effects when compared to additive.

  13. Comparison of miRNAs and Their Targets in Seed Development between Two Maize Inbred Lines by High-Throughput Sequencing and Degradome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yao Wu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in plant growth, development, and response to environment. For identifying and comparing miRNAs and their targets in seed development between two maize inbred lines (i.e. PH6WC and PH4CV, two sRNAs and two degradome libraries were constructed. Through high-throughput sequencing and miRNA identification, 55 conserved and 24 novel unique miRNA sequences were identified in two sRNA libraries; moreover, through degradome sequencing and analysis, 137 target transcripts corresponding to 38 unique miRNA sequences were identified in two degradome libraries. Subsequently, 16 significantly differentially expressed miRNA sequences were verified by qRT-PCR, in which 9 verified sequences obviously target 30 transcripts mainly involved with regulation in flowering and development in embryo. Therefore, the results suggested that some miRNAs (e.g. miR156, miR171, miR396 and miR444 related reproductive development might differentially express in seed development between the PH6WC and PH4CV maize inbred lines in this present study.

  14. Combining QTL mapping and transcriptome profiling of bulked RILs for identification of functional polymorphism for salt tolerance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Awadhesh; Rai, Vandna; Bal, Subhashis; Sinha, Shikha; Kumar, Vinod; Chauhan, Mahesh; Gautam, Raj K; Singh, Rakesh; Sharma, Prakash C; Singh, Ashok K; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Singh, Nagendra K

    2010-08-01

    Identification of genes for quantitative traits is difficult using any single approach due to complex inheritance of the traits and limited resolving power of the individual techniques. Here a combination of genetic mapping and bulked transcriptome profiling was used to narrow down the number of differentially expressed salt-responsive genes in rice in order to identify functional polymorphism of genes underlying the quantitative trait loci (QTL). A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross between salt-tolerant variety CSR 27 and salt-sensitive variety MI 48 was used to map QTL for salt ion concentrations in different tissues and salt stress susceptibility index (SSI) for spikelet fertility, grain weight, and grain yield. Eight significant QTL intervals were mapped on chromosomes 1, 8, and 12 for the salt ion concentrations and a QTL controlling SSI for spikelet fertility was co-located in one of these intervals on chromosome 8. However, there were total 2,681 genes in these QTL intervals, making it difficult to pinpoint the genes responsible for the functional differences for the traits. Similarly, transcriptome profiling of the seedlings of tolerant and sensitive parents grown under control and salt-stress conditions showed 798 and 2,407 differentially expressed gene probes, respectively. By analyzing pools of RNA extracted from ten each of extremely tolerant and extremely sensitive RILs to normalize the background noise, the number of differentially expressed genes under salt stress was drastically reduced to 30 only. Two of these genes, an integral transmembrane protein DUF6 and a cation chloride cotransporter, were not only co-located in the QTL intervals but also showed the expected distortion of allele frequencies in the extreme tolerant and sensitive RILs, and therefore are suitable for future validation studies and development of functional markers for salt tolerance in rice to facilitate marker-assisted breeding.

  15. Differential development of sex-related characters of chickens from the GSP and PNP/DO inbred lines after left ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Kinoshita, Keiji; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao; Yamagata, Takahiro

    2010-02-01

    To elucidate strain differences in the sex reversal of genetic females to phenotypic males, GSP and PNP/DO females were left ovariectomized (ovx) between one to three days after hatching, and the degree of masculinization based on sex-related characters, histological analysis of the right gonad and hormone assay were assessed at one year of age. The GSP and PNP/DO inbred lines were both derived from the Fayoumi breed and are only differentiated based on the red blood cell antigen type carried by each inbred line. Combs and wattles were found to be significantly bigger (PGSP ovx compared with the PNP/DO ovx chickens, although male plumage patterns were more pronounced in the PNP/DO ovx. Spurs were observed both in the GSP and PNP/DO ovx chickens with no significant difference (P>0.05) in length compared with the respective male controls, and body weight was not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the female controls. The weight of the right gonad was significantly heavier (PGSP ovx than in the PNP/DO ovx. Positive correlations were found in the sex-related characters as well as the plasma testosterone level and right gonad weight in both the GSP and PNP/DO ovx chickens, but not in the spur length, which showed a negative correlation in the PNP/DO ovx chickens. Histological analysis revealed that the right gonads of the PNP/DO ovx chickens were morphologically developed compared with the GSP ovx chickens, which showed more advance stages of spermatogenesis. It could be inferred that PNP/DO females that exhibit a hereditary persistent right oviduct are more responsive to the masculinizing effect of ovariectomy compared with GSP females, suggesting that genetic background may have a possible contribution to the degree of masculinization and subsequent development of sex related characters.

  16. Sequence analysis of European maize inbred line F2 provides new insights into molecular and chromosomal characteristics of presence/absence variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, Aude; Vitte, Clémentine; Nicolas, Stéphane; Duarte, Jorge; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Chevalier, Céline; Bérard, Aurélie; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Rogowsky, Peter; Charcosset, Alain; Joets, Johann

    2018-02-05

    Maize is well known for its exceptional structural diversity, including copy number variants (CNVs) and presence/absence variants (PAVs), and there is growing evidence for the role of structural variation in maize adaptation. While PAVs have been described in this important crop species, they have been only scarcely characterized at the sequence level and the extent of presence/absence variation and relative chromosomal landscape of inbred-specific regions remain to be elucidated. De novo genome sequencing of the French F2 maize inbred line revealed 10,044 novel genomic regions larger than 1 kb, making up 88 Mb of DNA, that are present in F2 but not in B73 (PAV). This set of maize PAV sequences allowed us to annotate PAV content and to analyze sequence breakpoints. Using PAV genotyping on a collection of 25 temperate lines, we also analyzed Linkage Disequilibrium in PAVs and flanking regions, and PAV frequencies within maize genetic groups. We highlight the possible role of MMEJ-type double strand break repair in maize PAV formation and discover 395 new genes with transcriptional support. Pattern of linkage disequilibrium within PAVs strikingly differs from this of flanking regions and is in accordance with the intuition that PAVs may recombine less than other genomic regions. We show that most PAVs are ancient, while some are found only in European Flint material, thus pinpointing structural features that may be at the origin of adaptive traits involved in the success of this material. Characterization of such PAVs will provide useful material for further association genetic studies in European and temperate maize.

  17. Genetic and diet effects on Ppar-α and Ppar-γ signaling pathways in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line with genetic predisposition for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener Asja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI line is a new mouse model for obesity, which was long-term selected for high fatness. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are involved in the control of energy homeostasis, nutrient metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we studied the expression patterns of the different Ppar genes and the genes in the PPAR pathway in the BFMI line in comparison to physiological changes. Results At the age of 10 weeks, the BFMI mice exhibited marked obesity with enlarged adipocytes and high serum triglycerides concentrations in comparison to the often used mouse line C57BL/6 (B6. Between these two lines, gene expression analyses revealed differentially expressed genes belonging to the PPAR pathway, in particular genes of the lipogenesis and the fatty acid transport. Conclusion Surprisingly, the Ppar-α gene expression was up-regulated in liver and Ppar-γ gene expression was down-regulated in the white adipose tissue, indicating the activation of a mechanism that counteracts the rise of obesity.

  18. Cyclic electron flow around PSI monitored by afterglow luminescence in leaves of maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.): correlation with chilling tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, Jean-Marc; Roman, Miruna; Havaux, Michel; Janda, Tibor; Gallais, André

    2005-06-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines of contrasting chilling sensitivity (three tolerant, three sensitive lines) were acclimated to 280 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1) white light at a 17 degrees C sub-optimal temperature. They showed no symptoms of photoinhibition, despite slight changes in photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties in two tolerant lines. A luminescence "afterglow" emission [Bertsch and Azzi (1965) Biochim Biophys Acta 94:15-26], inducible by a far-red (FR) illumination of unfrozen leaf discs, was detected either as a bounce in decay kinetics at constant temperatures or as a sharp thermoluminescence afterglow band at about 45 degrees C, in dark-adapted leaves. This band reflects the induction by warming of an electron pathway from stromal reductants to plastoquinones and to the Q(B) secondary acceptor of PSII, resulting in a luminescence-emitting charge recombination in the fraction of centres that were initially in the S(2/3)Q(B) non-luminescent state. A 5-h exposure of plants to growth chamber light shifted this luminescence emission towards shorter times and lower temperatures for several hours in the three chilling-tolerant lines. This downshift was not observed, or only transiently, in the three sensitive lines. In darkness, the downshifted afterglow band relaxed within hours to resume its dark-adapted location, similar for all maize lines. A faster dark re-reduction of P700(+) oxidized by FR light (monitored by 820-nm absorbance) and an increase of photochemical energy storage under FR excitation (determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy) confirmed that a cyclic pathway induced by white actinic light remained activated for several hours in the tolerant maize lines.

  19. Quantitative trait loci underlying resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) in MD96-5722 by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line population of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Akond, M; Kassem, M A; Meksem, K; Kantartzi, S K

    2015-04-01

    The best way to protect yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] due to sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki, O'Donnel, Homma & Lattanzi), is the development and use of resistant lines. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to SDS help developing resistant soybean germplasm through molecular marker-assisted selection strategy. QTL for SDS presented herein are from a high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map of MD 96-5722 (a.k.a 'Monocacy') by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line using SoySNP6K Illumina Infinium BeadChip genotyping array. Ninety-four F 5:7 lines were evaluated for 2 years (2010 and 2011) at two locations (Carbondale and Valmeyer) in southern Illinois, USA to identify QTL controlling SDS resistance using disease index (DX). Composite interval mapping identified 19 SDS controlling QTL which were mapped on 11 separate linkage group (LG) or chromosomes (Chr) out of 20 LG or Chr of soybean genome. Many of these significant QTL identified in one environment/year were confirmed in another year or environment, which suggests a common genetic effects and modes of the pathogen. These new QTL are useful sources for SDS resistance studies in soybean breeding, complementing previously reported loci.

  20. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuke, Rahul M.; Anuradha, Kotla; Radhika, Kommineni; Jabeen, Farzana; Anuradha, Ghanta; Ramesh, Thatikunta; Hariprasanna, K.; Mehtre, Shivaji P.; Deshpande, Santosh P.; Anil, Gaddameedi; Das, Roma R.; Rathore, Abhishek; Hash, Tom; Reddy, Belum V. S.; Kumar, Are Ashok

    2017-01-01

    The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments) and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc) was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p 0.60, in individual environments) for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc. PMID:28529518

  1. Potencial de híbridos simples de milho para extração de linhagens Potential of maize single hybrids to generate inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos simples comerciais de milho é uma das opções de populações para a extração de linhagens, porque são adaptados e provavelmente concentram alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis já fixados. Mesmo nos locos que estão segregando, a freqüência de alelos favoráveis é 0,5. Assim, a identificação de populações promissoras, derivadas de híbridos simples superiores, é uma boa estratégia para aumentar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. As populações derivadas dos híbridos simples comerciais AG9012 e C333 foram avaliadas com o objetivo de verificar o potencial dessas para extração de linhagens superiores, por meio das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, da estimativa de m+a e a metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976. Foram avaliadas 169 famílias S1 de cada população, durante a safra agrícola de 1999/2000, na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da UFLA, em Lavras - MG, em látice simples 13x13, sendo as parcelas constituídas por uma linha de 3 m. As características analisadas foram incidência de Phaeosphaeria maydis em duas épocas, altura de plantas, altura de espigas e produtividade de espigas despalhadas. Foi constatado que há possibilidade de se obterem linhagens com bom desempenho per se, sendo a população derivada do C333 a mais promissora, por associar resistência a Phaeosphaeria maydis e possuir média mais alta e maior probabilidade de obtenção de linhagens superiores. A metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976 mostrou-se mais informativa do que a estimativa de m+a para a escolha de populações, mas, quando possível, as duas podem ser utilizadas simultaneamente para auxiliar na decisão dos melhoristas.Populations derived from commercial single hybrids are one of the breeder options for inbred line extraction because of their adaptation and probable high frequency of loci with fixed favorable alleles. Even the segregating loci carry

  2. Identification of candidate genes associated with cell wall digestibility and eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci analysis in a Flint × Flint maize recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-wall digestibility is the major target for improving the feeding value of forage maize. An understanding of the molecular basis for cell-wall digestibility is crucial towards breeding of highly digestible maize. Results 865 candidate ESTs for cell-wall digestibility were selected according to the analysis of expression profiles in 1 three sets of brown-midrib isogenic lines in the genetic background of inbreds 1332 (1332 and 1332 bm3, 5361 (5361 and 5361 bm3, and F2 (F2, F2 bm1, F2 bm2, and F2 bm3, 2 the contrasting extreme lines of FD (Flint × Dent, AS08 × AS 06, DD1 (Dent × Dent, AS11 × AS09, and DD2 (Dent × Dent, AS29 × AS30 mapping populations, and 3 two contrasting isogenic inbreds, AS20 and AS21. Out of those, 439 ESTs were assembled on our "Forage Quality Array", a small microarray specific for cell wall digestibility related experiments. Transcript profiles of 40 lines of a Flint × Flint population were monitored using the Forage Quality Array, which were contrasting for cell wall digestibility. Using t-tests (p Conclusion 102 candidate genes for cell-wall digestibility were validated by genetical genomics approach. Although the cDNA array highlights gene types (the tested gene and any close family members, trans-acting factors or metabolic bottlenecks seem to play the major role in controlling heritable variation of gene expression related to cell-wall digestibility, since no in silico mapped ESTs were in the same location as their own eQTL. Transcriptional variation was generally found to be oligogenic rather than monogenic inherited due to only 26% ESTs detected a single eQTL in the present study. One eQTL hotspot was co-localized with cell wall digestibility related QTL cluster on bins 3.05, implying that in this case the gene(s underlying QTL and eQTL are identical. As the field of genetical genomics develops, it is expected to significantly improve our knowledge about complex traits, such as cell

  3. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  4. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  6. Rapid creation of Arabidopsis doubled haploid lines for quantitative trait locus mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Danelle K; Filiault, Daniele L; Henry, Isabelle M; Monson-Miller, Jennifer; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Pang, Andy; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W L; Maloof, Julin N

    2012-03-13

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a powerful tool for investigating the genetic basis of natural variation. QTL can be mapped using a number of different population designs, but recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are among the most effective. Unfortunately, homozygous RIL populations are time consuming to construct, typically requiring at least six generations of selfing starting from a heterozygous F(1). Haploid plants produced from an F(1) combine the two parental genomes and have only one allele at every locus. Converting these sterile haploids into fertile diploids (termed "doubled haploids," DHs) produces immortal homozygous lines in only two steps. Here we describe a unique technique for rapidly creating recombinant doubled haploid populations in Arabidopsis thaliana: centromere-mediated genome elimination. We generated a population of 238 doubled haploid lines that combine two parental genomes and genotyped them by reduced representation Illumina sequencing. The recombination rate and parental allele frequencies in our population are similar to those found in existing RIL sets. We phenotyped this population for traits related to flowering time and for petiole length and successfully mapped QTL controlling each trait. Our work demonstrates that doubled haploid populations offer a rapid, easy alternative to RILs for Arabidopsis genetic analysis.

  7. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between two RIL populations derived from Peking x 7605 under two ecological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchun; Guo, Na; Zhao, Jinming; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ran; Ding, Hui; Zhao, Weiguo; Gai, Junyi; Xing, Han

    2016-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a plant-parasitic nematode that feeds on the roots of soybean and most economically devastating pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most effective control method. To understand SCN resistance in different environments, two recombinant-inbred lines (RILs) populations NJ(RN)P7 (217 F 2:8:11 lines) and JN(RN)P7 (248 F 2:7:9 lines) were developed from the cross of the cultivars Peking x 7605 in Nanjing and Jinan, respectively, and examined in this study. Peking is resistant to SCN race 1 (HG types 2.5.7), while 7605 is highly susceptible. Chi-square test of frequency distribution of families' female index (FI) showed that resistance to SCN was significantly different between NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. Three recessive genes conditioned the inheritance of resistance to SCN race 1 in both populations, but significant difference was detected for the mean of FI on two populations (DM= -16.68, Presistance to SCN. By analysing the variation of phenotype, the genetic structure of the two populations was determined to be different. The inheritance and variation of resistance were confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. For the two populations, 10 SSR markers showed polymorphism of resistant and susceptible DNA bulks. Some markers associated with the resistance of SCN races 1, 2, 3 and 5, and two markers, Satt163 and Satt309, reportedly related to rgh1 were detected both in NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. The results support the view that a disease acts as a selective force on plant resistance characteristics, which may alter the relative fitness of resistance alleles.

  8. Responses to Hypoxia and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Discriminate the Development of Vitreous and Floury Endosperms of Conventional Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Mathieu; Elmorjani, Khalil; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Balzergue, Sandrine M; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Delluc, Caroline; Bakan, Bénédicte; Marion, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Major nutritional and agronomical issues relating to maize ( Zea mays ) grains depend on the vitreousness/hardness of its endosperm. To identify the corresponding molecular and cellular mechanisms, most studies have been conducted on opaque/floury mutants, and recently on Quality Protein Maize, a reversion of an opaque2 mutation by modifier genes. These mutant lines are far from conventional maize crops. Therefore, a dent and a flint inbred line were chosen for analysis of the transcriptome, amino acid, and sugar metabolites of developing central and peripheral endosperm that is, the forthcoming floury and vitreous regions of mature seeds, respectively. The results suggested that the formation of endosperm vitreousness is clearly associated with significant differences in the responses of the endosperm to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This occurs through a coordinated regulation of energy metabolism and storage protein (i.e., zein) biosynthesis during the grain-filling period. Indeed, genes involved in the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle are up-regulated in the periphery, while genes involved in alanine, sorbitol, and fermentative metabolisms are up-regulated in the endosperm center. This spatial metabolic regulation allows the production of ATP needed for the significant zein synthesis that occurs at the endosperm periphery; this finding agrees with the zein-decreasing gradient previously observed from the sub-aleurone layer to the endosperm center. The massive synthesis of proteins transiting through endoplasmic reticulum elicits the unfolded protein responses, as indicated by the splicing of bZip60 transcription factor. This splicing is relatively higher at the center of the endosperm than at its periphery. The biological responses associated with this developmental stress, which control the starch/protein balance, leading ultimately to the formation of the vitreous and floury regions of mature endosperm, are discussed.

  9. Epistasis in maize (Zea mays L.) : 2. Genetic effects in crosses among early flint and dent inbred lines determined by three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Geiger, H H; Schnell, F W

    1986-03-01

    Three flint and three dent maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, their possible F1 crosses, F2 and backcross progenies, and all possible three-way crosses were evaluated in a three-year experiment for yield, ear moisture, and plant height. The purpose was to estimate genetic parameters in European breeding materials from (i) generation means analysis, (ii) diallel analysis of generation means, and (iii) analysis of F1 and three-way cross hybrids. Method (i) was based on the F∞-metric model and methods (ii) and (iii) on the Eberhart-Gardner (1966) genetic model; both models extended for heterotic maternal effects.Differences among generation means for yield and plant height were mainly attributable to dominance effects. Epistatic effects were significantly different from zero in a few crosses and considerably reduced heterosis in both traits. Additive x additive and domiance x dominance effects for yield were consistently positive and negative, respectively. Significant maternal effects were established to the advantage of generations with a heterozygous seed parent. In the diallel analysis, mean squares for dominance effects were greater than for additive effects for yield and plant height but smaller for ear moisture. Though significant for yield and plant height, epistatic variation was small compared to additive and dominance variation. Estimates of additive x additive epistasis for yield were significantly negative in 11 of 15 crosses, suggesting that advantageous gene combinations in the lines had been disrupted by recombination in the segregating generations. The analysis of hybrids supported the above findings regarding the analysis of variance. However, the estimates of additive x additive epistasis for yield were considerably smaller and only minimally correlated with those from the diallel analysis. Use of noninbred materials as opposed to materials with different levels of inbreeding is considered the main reason for the discrepancies in the results.

  10. Leaf growth rate per unit thermal time follows QTL-dependent daily patterns in hundreds of maize lines under naturally fluctuating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Walid; Naudin, Philippe; Boussuge, Benoit; Muller, Bertrand; Welcker, Claude; Tardieu, Francois

    2007-02-01

    We have analysed daily patterns of leaf elongation rate (LER) in large data sets with 318 genotypes placed in naturally fluctuating temperature and evaporative demand, and examined the effect of targeted alleles on these patterns. The method consisted, firstly, in expressing elongation rate per unit thermal time, so it became temperature independent; secondly, in a joint analysis of diurnal fluctuations of elongation rate and of micrometeorological conditions in several experiments, and finally, in a comparison of daily patterns between groups of genotypes possessing targeted alleles. (1) Conditions for using thermal time at a time step of 15 min were first tested successfully in 318 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of three mapping populations. (2) An analysis of 1989 time courses revealed a robust daily pattern of LER per unit thermal time (LERth) over several experiments. LERth was constant during the night and was reproducible (for a given RIL) over up to 10 consecutive nights in different experiments. It declined rapidly during the early morning, closely following the daily pattern of transpiration rate. (3) Groups of RILs carrying alleles conferring a high response to temperature had markedly higher night-time plateau of LER than those with low responses. Groups of RILs with high response to evaporative demand had rapid decreases in elongation rate at the transition between night and day, while this decrease was slower in groups of RILs with low response. These results open the way for using kinetics of responses to environmental stimuli as a phenotyping tool in genetic analyses.

  11. Quantitative trait loci analysis of flowering time related traits identified in recombinant inbred lines of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andargie, Mebeasealassie; Pasquet, Remy S; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Timko, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    Flowering time is a major adaptive trait in plants and an important selection criterion in the breeding for genetic improvement of crop species. QTLs for the time of flower opening and days to flower were identified in a cross between a short duration domesticated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety, 524B, and a relatively long duration wild accession, 219-01. A set of 159 F7 lines was grown under greenhouse conditions and scored for the flowering time associated phenotypes of time of flower opening and days to flower. Using a LOD threshold of 2.0, putative QTLs were identified and placed on a linkage map consisting of 202 SSR markers and four morphological loci. A total of five QTLs related to the time of flower opening were identified, accounting for 8.8%-29.8% of the phenotypic variation. Three QTLs for days to flower were detected, accounting for 5.7%-18.5% of the phenotypic variation. The major QTL of days to flower and time of flower opening were both mapped on linkage group 1. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for developing an efficient way to restrain the gene flow between the cultivated and wild plants.

  12. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  13. QTL Analysis for Seven Quality Traits of RIL Population in Japonica Rice Based on Three Genetic Statistical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-ming LIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available QTL mapping for seven quality traits was conducted by using 254 recombinant inbred lines (RIL derived from a japonica-japonica rice cross of Xiushui 79/C Bao. The seven traits investigated were grain length (GL, grain length to width ratio (LWR, chalk grain rate (CGR, chalkiness degree (CD, gelatinization temperature (GT, amylose content (AC and gel consistency (GC of head rice. Three mapping methods employed were composite interval mapping in QTLMapper 2.0 software based on mixed linear model (MCIM, inclusive composite interval mapping in QTL IciMapping 3.0 software based on stepwise regression linear model (ICIM and multiple interval mapping with regression forward selection in Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5 based on multiple regression analysis (MIMR. Results showed that five QTLs with additive effect (A-QTLs were detected by all the three methods simultaneously, two by two methods simultaneously, and 23 by only one method. Five A-QTLs were detected by MCIM, nine by ICIM and 28 by MIMR. The contribution rates of single A-QTL ranged from 0.89% to 38.07%. All the QTLs with epistatic effect (E-QTLs detected by MIMR were not detected by the other two methods. Fourteen pairs of E-QTLs were detected by both MCIM and ICIM, and 142 pairs of E-QTLs were detected by only one method. Twenty-five pairs of E-QTLs were detected by MCIM, 141 pairs by ICIM and four pairs by MIMR. The contribution rates of single pair of E-QTL were from 2.60% to 23.78%. In the Xiu-Bao RIL population, epistatic effect played a major role in the variation of GL and CD, and additive effect was the dominant in the variation of LWR, while both epistatic effect and additive effect had equal importance in the variation of CGR, AC, GT and GC. QTLs detected by two or more methods simultaneously were highly reliable, and could be applied to improve the quality traits in japonica hybrid rice.

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance in a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Idrissi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 % and 28.9 % for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labour-intensive conventional breeding methods.

  15. Fine Mapping of QTLs for Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Pea Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambuj B. Jha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB is an important disease of pea which can cause severe grain yield loss under wet conditions. In our previous study, we identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs abIII-1 and abI-IV-2 for AB resistance and these QTLs were consistent across locations and/or years in an inter-specific pea population (PR-19 developed from a cross between Alfetta (Pisum sativum and P651 (P. fulvum. The objectives of this study were to fine map the abIII-1 and abI-IV-2 QTLs using a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genetic linkage map and analyze identified markers in heterogeneous inbred family (HIF populations. Selective genotyping of 51 PR-19 recombinant inbred lines was performed using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and the resulting high density genetic linkage map was used to identify eight new SNP markers within the abI-IV-2 QTL, whereas no additional SNPs were identified within the abIII-1 QTL. Two HIF populations HIF-224 (143 lines and HIF-173 (126 lines were developed from F6 RILs PR-19-224 and PR-19-173, respectively. The HIF populations evaluated under field conditions in 2015 and 2016 showed a wide range of variation for reaction to AB resistance. Lodging score had significant positive (P < 0.001 correlation with AB scores. HIFs were genotyped using SNP markers within targeted QTLs. The genotypic and phenotypic data of the HIFs were used to identify two new QTLs, abI-IV-2.1 and abI-IV-2.2 for AB resistance within the abI-IV-2 QTL. These QTLs individually explained 5.5 to 14% of the total phenotypic variation. Resistance to lodging was also associated with these two QTLs. Identified SNP markers will be useful in marker assisted selection for development of pea cultivars with improved AB resistance.

  16. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains

  17. Absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação em linhagens de tomateiro Nutrient uptake and response to fertilization of tomato inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Régis de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove linhagens de tomateiro rasteiro foram avaliadas quanto à eficiência de absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação, em dois ensaios, no ano de 2006, na Embrapa Hortaliças. No primeiro ensaio aplicou-se 1/3 da dosagem de fertilizante utilizada no segundo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As linhagens foram classificadas quanto à eficiência na absorção de nutrientes e reposta à adubação baseando-se nos incrementos de índice DRIS e nos incrementos de produtividade. Os valores críticos para eficiência na absorção e resposta à adubação foram as médias de incremento de índice DRIS e produtividade, respectivamente. As linhagens diferenciaram-se quanto à eficiência na absorção dos nutrientes e quanto à resposta à adubação. Foram consideradas responsivas à adubação e eficientes na absorção de nutrientes as linhagens 03, 04, 05, 09 e 22, para o N; 03, 04, 09, 13, 15 e 29, para o P; 03, 05, 10, 21, 22, 25 e 27, para o K; 05, 10, 21, 22, 25, 27 e 29, para o Ca; 04, 13, 15, 27 e 29, para o S e B; e 03, 05, 09, 10 e 27, para o Cu. As linhagens com os melhores desempenhos foram a 27, na absorção dos nutrientes, e 03, 04, 05 e 29, na responsividade à adubação.Twenty nine processing tomato inbred lines were evaluated for their efficiency in nutrient uptake and in their response to fertilization. Two field assays were carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brazil, with distinct fertilization dosages in 2006. In the first assay 1/3 of the total fertilization was applied when compared with the second assay. The experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design with three replications. The criteria to rank the inbred lines in both assays were the DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System index value and fruit yield. The critical values in order to distinguish efficient versus non-efficient as well as responsive versus non-responsive inbred

  18. Avaliação da resistencia a ferrugem tropical em linhagens de milho Tropical rust evaluation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Lima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 440 linhagens endogâmicas de milho do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, obtidas a partir de diversas populações, quanto à severidade da ferrugem tropical, causada por Physopella zeae, em condições naturais de infecção. Foram instalados 22 experimentos em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, em 1993/94, em Ribeirão Preto (SP e utilizados como testemunhas resistente e suscetível os híbridos Z 8568 e P 3069 respectivamente, incluídos de forma intercalar. A avaliação foi realizada aos 30 dias após o florescimento, mediante uma escala de notas de 1 a 9, correspondendo a 0%; 1%; 2,5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% e >75% de área foliar afetada. Todas as populações estudadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto à resistência a P. zeae, indicando que a utilização de métodos de seleção recorrente pode ser eficaz no melhoramento de populações visando à resistência ao patógeno.Four hundred and forty maize inbred lines, developed at Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, derived from several populations, were evaluated, in field conditions, as to tropical rust resistance caused by Physopella zeae. Twenty two experiments were carried out in randomized complete block designs, with two replications each, during 93/94 summer season, in Ribeirão Preto, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Resistant (Z 8568 and susceptible (P 3069 hybrids were used as controls. The evaluations were performed 30 days after flowering, according to a scale of notes from 1 to 9 (0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and >75% affected leaf area. All populations showed variability as to P. zeae reaction, suggesting that recurrent selection might be effective to achieve tropical rust resistance.

  19. Capacidade combinatória de nove linhagens endogâmicas de milho (Zea mays L. em dois ambientes Combining ability for nine inbred lines of maize in two locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Locatelli

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O milho é um cereal que faz parte de um grande número de produtos e apresenta produção crescente em nível mundial. A maior parte das áreas produtivas no Brasil são ocupadas por híbridos obtidos a partir de linhagens endogâmicas. Nos anos de 1991/92, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em blocos ao acaso e três repetições, com 36 híbridos de nove linhagens endogâmicas de milho em Não Me Toque e Tapera, ambos locais no Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de avaliar estes híbridos quanto à capacidade combinatória em dois ambientes, para os caracteres altura de inserção da espiga superior, porcentagem de tombamento, prolificidade e rendimento de grãos. A significância da interação C.G.C. e C.E.C. com ambiente, evidenciou as diferenças de comportamento dos genótipos nos dois locais. As linhagens presentes nas melhores combinações foram as mesmas nos dois ambientes, mostrando que a C.G.C. foi um bom indicador do desempenho das linhagens em combinações híbridas, embora os melhores híbridos não tenham sido os mesmos nos dois locais. As linhagens que se destacaram foram ID01, IMD04, IMD06 e ID09.Corn is present in a great number of products and its area and production is growing in the world. In 1991/92 two evaluation trials were conducted in a complete randomised block design and three replications, with 36 hybrids of nine inbred lines in "Não Me Toque" and "Tapera", both in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, with the aim of evaluating the genetic diversity and combining ability of these hybrids for ear height, stalk-root, lodging, prolificacy and grain yield. The significant interaction for CGA and SCA with location showed that the genotypes had different performance in the two environments. The inbred lines in the best combinations were the same at the two locations, showing that the CGA was a good indicator of inbred lines performance at hybrid combinations, although the best hybrids were not the same at the two locations

  20. QTL for the thermotolerance effect of heat hardening, knowckdown resistance to heat and chill-coma recovery in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norry, Fabian M.; Scannapieco, Alejandra C.; Sambucetti, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    The thermotolerance effect of heat hardening (also called short-term acclimation), knockdown resistance to high temperature (KRHT) with and without heat hardening and chill-coma recovery (CCR) are important phenotypes of thermal adaptation in insects and other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster......-hardened and nonhardened RIL. Composite interval mapping revealed a more complex genetic architecture for KRHT without heat-hardening than for KRHT in heat-hardened insects. Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found for KRHT, but only two of them were significant after heat hardening. KRHT and CCR showed trade......-off associations for QTL both in the middle of chromosome 2 and the right arm of chromosome 3, which should be the result of either pleiotropy or linkage. The major QTL on chromosome 2 explained 18% and 27-33% of the phenotypic variance in CCR and KRHT in nonhardened flies, respectively, but its KRHT effects...

  1. Plant regeneration from immature embryos of Kenyan maize inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % percent of regenerants were normal and fertile. The successful regeneration of some of the inbred lines and/or hybrids provides a basis for development of genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to improve priority traits such ...

  2. Triticale: avaliação de linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Triticale: evaluation on inbred lines in different regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se entre si vinte e quatro linhagens de triticale e o cultivar de trigo IAC-21, através de ensaios em diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, nos anos de 1986 e 1987, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, peso de cem grãos e resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e às manchas-foliares em condições de campo. A linhagem de triticale Nutria 7272 foi a mais produtiva (3.098kg/ha, diferindo do 'IAC-21' (2.241 kg/ha e das demais linhagens de triticale, com exceção da Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-20 e 21, Nutria 440 e Juanillo 159, com 2.891, 2.870, 2.805 e 2.645kg/ha respectivamente. As linhagens de triticale exibiram maior resistência à ferrugem-da-folha com relação ao 'IAC-21'. A Panche 7287 mostrou-se moderadamente resistente às manchas-foliares e, as demais, suscetíveis. As linhagens M2A-KLA"S" x MA (T-6, Faro"S" e Panche 7287 apresentaram ciclo da emergência ao florescimento significativamente maior que o 'IAC-21', e M2A-CML 360 x M2A (T-2, Turk DWF-V 127 x 6TA 204/IA 146, M2A-CML x IA, TCEP 77138, BGL "S"-IGA x PND"S" e BCM"S"-Addax"S" exibiram plantas significativamente mais baixas. A Juanillo 159 apresentou o maior peso de cem grãos, diferindo do 'IAC-21' e das demais linhagens, com exceção da Nutria 7272 e Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-21.Twenty four triticale inbred lines and the wheat cultivar IAC-21 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at different locations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years of 1986 and 1987. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering, percentage of layed plants, weight of 100 grains, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia graminis sp. tritici and to leaf spots (Helminthosporium sp. and Septoria sp. were evaluated under field conditions. The triticale inbred line Nutria 7272 pre-sented the best grain yield (3,098 kg/ha, showing

  3. Accelerated Generation of Selfed Pure Line Plants for Gene Identification and Crop Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of pure lines is an important step in biological studies and breeding of many crop plants. The major types of pure lines for biological studies and breeding include doubled haploid (DH lines, recombinant inbred lines (RILs, and near isogenic lines (NILs. DH lines can be produced through microspore and megaspore culture followed by chromosome doubling while RILs and NILs can be produced through introgressions or repeated selfing of hybrids. DH approach was developed as a quicker method than conventional method to produce pure lines. However, its drawbacks of genotype-dependency and only a single chance of recombination limited its wider application. A recently developed fast generation cycling system (FGCS achieved similar times to those of DH for the production of selfed pure lines but is more versatile as it is much less genotype-dependent than DH technology and does not restrict recombination to a single event. The advantages and disadvantages of the technologies and their produced pure line populations for different purposes of biological research and breeding are discussed. The development of a concept of complete in vitro meiosis and mitosis system is also proposed. This could integrate with the recently developed technologies of single cell genomic sequencing and genome wide selection, leading to a complete laboratory based pre-breeding scheme.

  4. Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

  5. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  6. Combining ability of inbred lines of maize and stability of their respective single-crosses Capacidade de combinação de linhagens endogâmicas de milho e estabilidade de seus respectivos híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Mendes Aguiar

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of diallel crosses for identification of superior combinations is a common practice in maize (Zea mays L. breeding programs. This methodology allows the estimation of the combining ability of genotypes being evaluated. In this work, five inbred lines were evaluated as to their general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities, by using a complete diallel scheme. The single-crosses produced between these inbred lines were evaluated in seven environments, along with two checks, by using a randomized complete block design. Traits analized were: grain yield, plant height, ear height, ear placement, and prolificacy. A diallel analysis was carried out, following an adaptation of Griffing's method IV, in addition to hybrid stability and adaptability analyses. Significant differences were detected for entries and environments for all traits. The interaction genotype vs. environment was significant for all traits. GCA's were significant for all traits, while SCA's were non-significant only for ear placement. For grain yield, both additive (GCA and non-additive (SCA effects were important, while for the remaining traits additive effects were more important. The high yielding single-cross was obtained from the cross of lines L-08-05F and L-38-05D. Those inbred lines showed higher GCA's and their cross also had high SCA; also, it is responsive to environment improvements and reasonably stable. The second in rank high yielding single-cross, L-46-10D x L-08-05F, showed wide adaptability and stability.No melhoramento de milho (Zea mays L., a utilização de cruzamentos dialélicos visando identificação de combinações superiores é uma prática comum. Esta metodologia visa estimar a capacidade de combinação dos materiais avaliados. Neste trabalho, cinco linhagens endogâmicas foram avaliadas quanto às capacidades gerais (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação, utilizando o esquema de dialelo completo. Os híbridos simples produzidos

  7. Strain-specific and recessive QTLs involved in the control of partial resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchepied, L; Dogimont, C; Pitrat, M

    2005-06-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) causes serious economic losses in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Two dominant resistance genes have been identified, Fom-1 and Fom-2, which provide resistance to races 0 and 2 and races 0 and 1, respectively, however FOM race 1.2 overcomes these resistance genes. A partial resistance to FOM race 1.2 that has been found in some Far East accessions is under polygenic control. A genetic map of melon was constructed to tag FOM race 1.2 resistance with DNA markers on a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between resistant (Isabelle) and susceptible (cv. Védrantais) lines. Artificial root inoculations on plantlets of this population using two strains, one that causes wilting (FOM 1.2w) and one that causes yellowing (FOM 1.2y), resulted in phenotypic and genotypic data that enabled the identification of nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These QTLs were detected on five linkage groups by composite interval mapping and explained between 41.9% and 66.4% of the total variation. Four digenic epistatic interactions involving seven loci were detected and increased the total phenotypic variation that was explained. Co-localizations between QTLs and resistance gene homologs or resistance genes, such as Fom-2 and Vat, were observed. A strain-specific QTL was detected, and some QTLs appeared to be recessive.

  8. Tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio de linhagens e híbridos de milho em solução nutritiva Aluminium toxicity tolerance of maize inbred lines and hybrids evaluated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dez linhagens de milho do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em cruzamentos dialélicos e os 45 híbridos resultantes quanto à tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio em laboratório. Estimou-se a tolerância pelo comprimento líquido da radícula (CLR de plântulas em solução nutritiva contendo 4,5 mg.L-1 de alumínio, em ensaio sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, utilizando-se como padrões linhagens sensível e tolerante de IAC Taiúba. Apresentam-se, ainda, resultados da produtividade desses cruzamentos em ensaios de campo. Identificaram-se linhagens que constituem fontes de tolerância (L 06 e L 09 e híbridos tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio com elevada produtividade em solos corrigidos. Na análise dialélica, o desdobramento dos efeitos de tratamentos, em capacidade geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação, indicou a predominância de efeitos aditivos na manifestação da tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. Obtiveram-se elevados valores de heterose, indicando a existência de interações não alélicas na manifestação do CLR. O híbrido HS 10X11 (denominado IAC 21 aliou alta produtividade e tolerância ao alumínio, apresentando a maior estimativa da CEC para CLR.Ten inbred lines and the resulting forty-five hybrids from the maize IAC breeding program were evaluated for Al tolerance by the nutrient solution technique. Net radicle lengths (CLR of plants grown with 4.5 mg.L-1 were used to estimate Al tolerance. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replications, and it was used two divergent inbred lines IAC Taiuba as control for Al tolerance and sensitivity, respectively. In addition to these data, it is shown also the grain yield of the same materials from field plots. It was identified two inbred lines (L 06 and L 09 as Al tolerance sources and hybrids potentially adapted to acid soil conditions (tolerant to Al toxicity

  9. Índice baseado em RFLPs para seleção de linhagens visando sintéticos de milho RFLP marker index for selection of inbred lines aimed at synthetic maize populations

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    Glauce Cristina Ricardo Rumin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores moleculares têm sido sugeridos como ferramentas úteis em programas de melhoramento de plantas. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo propor um índice de seleção de linhagens visando a geração de populações sintéticas de milho, baseado em marcadores moleculares e dados de campo. Para tanto foram utilizados valores fenotípicos e genotípicos, oriundos de experimentos convencionais de campo e através da genotipagem das plantas-mãe das linhagens por marcadores RFLP, respectivamente. O índice foi examinado quanto à sua capacidade de originar sintéticos com alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis, em comparação com os obtidos baseando-se na seleção convencional. Utilizaram-se inicialmente 157 locos marcadores com distância média de 15,30 cM entre eles. Sessenta e oito linhagens S2, provenientes da geração F2 do cruzamento entre duas linhagens homozigóticas foram cruzadas em topcross e avaliadas em quatro locais de Iowa, EUA, em 1996. Dos 157 locos foram selecionados 18 que explicaram 74,70% da variância genética entre progênies, na média dos locais. O índice proposto leva em conta o comportamento próprio (per se das linhagens e a complementaridade genotípica entre elas, o que não é conseguido utilizando-se apenas dados dos topcrosses. O uso do índice proposto permite obter homólogo de tabela dialélica tendo-se apenas dados de médias de topcrosses. O índice levou à seleção de sintéticos com propriedades superiores às esperadas pela seleção baseada apenas nas médias das progênies topcross. Essa conclusão, no entanto, só é válida para os QTL's abrangidos pelas marcas. A metodologia proposta permite monitoramento muito adequado e útil das propriedades genéticas dos sintéticos a serem obtidos.Molecular markers have been suggested as useful tools in breeding programmes. The purpose of this work was to propose and apply an index for inbred line selection to be used for generating synthetic

  10. Avaliação de dez linhagens e seus híbridos de milho superdoce em um dialelo completo Evaluation of ten inbred lines and their hybrids of supersweet maize in a complete diallel cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Agostinho Lemos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996/97 foram avaliados em Pesqueira e Vitória de Santo Antão (PE, 45 híbridos simples superdoce obtidos de um cruzamento dialélico completo entre dez linhagens S4 e suas linhagens parentais. O delineamento utilizado foi látice 7 x 8 com duas repetições por local. Foram estimados os efeitos das capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação e os valores de heterose para peso de espiga com palha (PECP, peso de espiga sem palha (PESP e rendimento de espiga (REND = PESP/PECP x 100. Os efeitos de CGC e CEC foram significativos (PIn 1996/97, 45 single cross supersweet maize hybrids, from a complete diallel cross involving ten inbred lines (S4 and their parents, were evaluated at Pesqueira and Vitória de Santo Antão, Brazil. A látice 7 x 8 design was used with two replications for each location. The general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability effects and heterosis value were estimated for husked ear weight (HEW, unhusked ear weight (UEW and ear rate (ER = UEW/HEW x 100. The general and specific combining ability effects were significant (P<0.01 for all characteristics. Inbreds L5 = 76.5%; L7 = 71.2% and L4 = 69.6% (Pesqueira; L4 = 70.8%; L5 = 69.4% and L7 = 65.3% (Vitória de Santo Antão showed the highest (ER, and the highest GCA effects at both locations. The best crosses for ER were: L4 x L8 = 74.9% (Pesqueira and L7 x L8 = 70.3% (Vitória de Santo Antão, with the highest SCA effects at both locations. For ER, heterosis values related to parental mean ranged from -20.19 to 24.01% (Pesqueira and -18.02 to 16.76% (Vitória de Santo Antão. Heterosis values related to the higher yielding parent ranged from -23.52 to 22.99% (Pesqueira and -22.05 to 12.03% (Vitória de Santo Antão.

  11. Potential of maize single-cross hybrids for extraction of inbred lines using the mean components and mixed models with microsatellite marker information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestre, M; Von Pinho, R G; Souza, J C; Machado, J C

    2008-10-21

    The present study examined the importance of mean (m+a' and d) components in the performance of single-cross hybrids for the formation of new populations and determined the contribution of the mixed model (best linear unbiased predictor of random effects, BLUP) method associated with molecular markers for the choice of crosses to obtain interpopulation hybrids. Ten single-cross commercial hybrids of different companies were used for this purpose, producing all possible double-cross hybrids through a complete diallel. The hybrids were evaluated in 15 locations in the agricultural year 2005/2006, using randomized complete block design with three repetitions. In three of these locations, estimates of m+a' and d were obtained. DNA was extracted from the single-cross hybrids and 20 SSR primers were used, nine of which were linked to QTL for yield. There was no correlation between m+a' of the single-cross hybrids with general combining ability (r = -0.15) inferring that populations with lines with high means do not always produce good hybrids. Also, it was observed that the correlation between the genetic distances with specific combining ability varied from 0.31 to 0.80 in the inter-group hybrids, while in the intra-group hybrids these estimates were low and non-significant. The heritability value obtained by BLUP was high and greater than that obtained by ordinary least squares (h(2) = 0.95 and 0.86), confirming the greater selection accuracy by the BLUP method. There were no differences between the accuracy values obtained with microsatellite information and without this information, inferring that there was no advantage of progenitor information on balanced data. It can be concluded that the estimate m+a' should not be used as a deciding parameter about the potential for extracting lines from a given population. The heritability and accuracy values obtained by BLUP allow the inference that it is possible to predict success in the choice of progenitors to obtain

  12. Capacidade de combinação entre linhagens de milho visando à produção de milho verde Combining ability of inbred lines of sweet corn

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    Fabricio Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    specific combining ability (SCA in vegetable corn production. Eight inbred lines and 28 hybrids derived from them were evaluated in 2004/2005 season in two environments, in Lavras and Ijaci, State of Minas Gerais. A randomized complete block design with two replications per environment were used, and seven traits of agronomic and commercial interest for vegetable corn production were studied. The quadratic component of specific of combining ability (SCA was greater than the general combining ability (GCA for all the traits assessed. Non-additive genetic effects were more important than additive effects for genotypes variation, indicating that heterosis is important for hybrid selection for vegetable corn production. The inbred line L55 showed higher concentration of favorable alleles to the increase of traits PEC, PEE, MASSA, COR e COMP, being more suitable for the formation of new hybrid and the hybrids HS27, HS48 and HS24 accumulated a larger number of traits with SCA positive effect, significant and of high magnitude, indicating that those combinations presented better performance for all the traits, simultaneously, and can be recommended to the market for vegetable corn.

  13. Antioxidant enzymatic activities and gene expression associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of two cucurbit species ("Cucurbita maxima" and "Cucurbita moschata") and their interspecific inbred line "Maxchata".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-12-10

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant "C. moschata", thermolabile "C. maxima" and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line "Maxchata" genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. "C. moschata" exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by "Maxchata". The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among "C. maxima" and "Maxchata", most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in "Maxchata", which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  14. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata” and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

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    Neelam Ara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C and severe (42 °C heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2− and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  15. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration. PMID:24336062

  16. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain ... variance revealed significant difference among the hybrids for all studied traits. General ... Guto LMS5, L15 x SC22 and L20 x TSC22) gave significantly higher grain yield advantage over the two standard ...

  17. recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, PO Box 30726. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Competition is indirect and two plants will not compete with each other, ..... oat 2, tall erect oat' weed'. Values with the same letters are not significantly different while values with different letters are significantly different.

  18. inbred lines using immature zygotic embryo explants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out using the MINITAB statistical computer software (version 23.22) to test the statistical significance of differences among the genotypes and. 2,4-D levels. Mean separation was carried out using least significance difference (LSD) test at 5% probability ...

  19. Melhoramento do trigo: XXI. Avaliação de linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Wheat breeding: XXI. Evaluation of inbred lines in different regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas entre si vinte e três linhagens e dois cultivares comerciais de trigo através de ensaios instalados em diferentes regiões paulistas, em 1984/86, analisando-se a produtividade, características agronômicas, resistência às doenças e tolerância ao alumínio. Considerando os ensaios conduzidos em Capão Bonito, a linhagem 19 destacou-se quanto à produção de grãos, como moderadamente resistente à helmintosporiose, muito tolerante à toxicidade de Al3+, ciclo precoce e, apesar do porte alto, boa resistência ao acamamento. Nos ensaios do Vale do Paranapanema (Cruzália e Cândido Mota, sobressaíram o cultivar BH-1146 e a linhagem 16 quanto à produção de grãos. A linhagem 16 apresentou porte baixo, ciclo precoce, resistência de campo à ferrugem-da-folha, resistência ao acamamento e tolerância ao Al3+ e, em Tietê, foi a mais produtiva. No ensaio de Campinas, não foram detectadas diferenças entre os tratamentos quanto à produção de grãos. As linhagens 1, 3, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 22 e 23 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46 mostraram plantas de porte semi-anão, diferindo significativamente do 'BH-1146', de porte alto. Em relação à ferrugem-do-colmo (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, as linhagens 9, 10 e 11 e o 'Alondra-S-46' foram resistentes às seis raças testadas em estádio de plântula em casa de vegetação. Em condição de infecção natural no estádio de planta adulta, as linhagens 11, 16 e 18 e o 'BH-1146' apresentaram menor grau de infecção de ferrugem-da-folha (P. recondita. A linhagem 7, com espigas compridas, 7 e 8, com maior número de espiguetas por espiga, 2, com grande fertilidade nas espigas, e 21, com grãos mais pesados, representaram boas fontes genéticas dessas características ao programa de melhoramento. As linhagens 1, 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19 e 21 e o cultivar BH-1146 foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg de Al3+/litro em solução nutritiva.Twenty three inbred lines obtained at

  20. Crescimento diferencial de linhagens de milho em solução nutritiva com baixo nível de potássio Differential growth of corn inbred lines in low potassium nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Cangiani Furlani

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios foram conduzidos no Centro Experimental de Campinas, no período agosto-outubro de 1983, em condições de casa de vegetação, para avaliar e selecionar linhagens de milho (Zea mays L. quanto à eficiência na absorção e utilização de potássio em solução nutritiva. No primeiro ensaio, seis linhagens foram cultivadas com 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 mg/litro de K até aos 34 dias de idade, com o objetivo de determinar o nível adequado para diferenciação das plantas. No segundo, 37 linhagens de milho foram selecionadas com 20 mg/litro de K até aos 25 dias de idade. As soluções nutritivas foram continuamente arejadas e não renovadas e as plantas, deixadas crescer até aparecerem sintomas de deficiência de potássio nas folhas inferiores. As variações observadas nos pesos de matéria seca das raízes (CV das médias = 38,9% foram maiores que aquelas da parte aérea (CV das médias = 28,5%. As linhagens foram classificadas de acordo com a produção de matéria seca total, em grupos eficientes, ineficientes e medianamente eficientes, utilizando-se de um intervalo de confiança para a média geral. A absorção de K pelas linhagens, avaliada pelo seu conteúdo total, variou (CV das médias = 9% acompanhando a variação observada nos pesos de matéria seca total (r = 0,92. Entretanto, a relação de eficiência das linhagens apresentou variação maior (CV das médias = 23% e também acompanhou a variação no crescimento das plantas (r = 0,99. Isso é uma indicação de que o mecanismo de utilização de K pelas plantas foi o fator que mais contribuiu para a diferenciação entre os genótipos.Two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Station of Campinas, Instituto Agronômico, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1983, under greenhouse conditions, in order to evaluate and select efficient corn (Zea mays L. inbred lines in the uptake and use of potassium in nutrient solution. In a first trial, six lines were grow n with 20

  1. Variabilidade do número de internódios e altura da espiga em linhagens e híbridos de milho Variability in internode number and in ear height of corn inbred lines and their hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José da Silva

    1963-01-01

    internodes from the bottom of the plant to the main ear insertion and the ear height. A coeficient of variation of 4.4 per cent was obtained for the number of internodes in seven inbred lines of flint and dent corn. The coefficients for 8 single crosses and 8 double cross hybrids of the lines were 3.4 and 5.9 per cent, respectively. For the ear height in the same lines and crosses the coefficients of variation were 13.3; 9.0 and 16.0 per cent, respectively. The comparison of the internode number and its lenght indicates that the former is less influenced by the environment than the latter and can be advantageously taken into consideration in the selection for plants with low ear height. It is also suggested, based on the lines and hybrids analysed, that the internode number is controlled by factors without dominance while the ear height is conditioned by factors having heterotic effect.

  2. Melhoramento do trigo: XVIII. Comportamento de linhagens em cinco regiões paulistas Wheat breeding. XVIII: evaluation on inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se vinte e duas linhagens e três cultivares de trigo em ensaios instalados em cinco regiões paulistas, em 1984-86, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo, em dias, da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, número de espiguetas por espiga, peso de cem grãos, resistência à ferrugem-do-colmo e da-folha em condições de campo e de casa de vegetação, resistência à helmintosporiose e ao oídio em condições de campo. Em laboratório, foram realizados estudos da tolerância ao alumínio, em soluções nutritivas. Em sequeiro, nos ensaios conduzidos em Capão Bonito e no Vale do Paranapanema (Maracaí e Cruzália, destacaram-se, quanto à produção de grãos, respectivamente, o cultivar BH-1146 e a linhagem 12. As linhagens 4, 9 e 13, em Campinas, e a 8, em Tatuí, evidenciaram alta produção de grãos em condição de irrigação por aspersão. Na média de nove experimentos, destacaram-se em produção de grãos, por ordem decrescente, o cultivar BH-1146 e as linhagens 13, 20 e 14. As linhagens 2, 7, 8, 17 e 18 e o 'Alondra-S-46' mostraram plantas significativamente mais baixas que o 'BH-1146' e 'IAC-5'. As linhagens 7 e 8 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46 mostraram resistência às seis raças e as linhagens 17 e 18 a cinco raças testadas do agente causal de ferrugem-do-colmo em estádio de plântula, em casa de vegetação. Em campo, no estádio de planta adulta, apresentaram menor área infectada por essa doença as linhagens 1, 2, 7, 8, 12 e 17 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46. Nas mesmas condições, as linhagens 1, 5, 8 e 18 exibiram menor área infectada por ferrugem-da-folha. As linhagens 11, 12, 13, 19, 20 e 21 e o cultivar BH-1146 mostraram tolerância à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty two inbred lines from the wheat breeding

  3. Melhoramento do trigo: XVI. Comportamento de novas linhagens em diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XVI. Evaluation of new inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1987-01-01

    , IAC-167 e ISWYN-31 /82, as mais sensíveis.Twenty two inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico, from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18 and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas Experimental Center, at Tietê and Capão Bonito Experimental Stations and at Santa Inês Farm, Maracaí, State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years of 1983, 1984 and 1985. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering and from emergence to maturation, percentage of lodging, head lenght, number of grain per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to the powdery mildew and to the stem and leaf rust agents, were evaluated under field conditions. Tests of resistance to stem and leaf and to aluminum tolerance were also made, respectively, in greenhouse and in laboratory. In relation to grain yield the lines IAC-103, IAC-104, IAC-107, IAC-167 and PAT-73121 showed good performance, but they did not differ from the control cultivars, BH-1146, IAC-18 and Alondra-S-46. The lines IAC-104, IAC-107, IAC-111, IAC-167, ISWYN-31/82 and Kenya Kifaru exhibited the semidwarf type when compared to the tall cultivars BH-1146 and IAC-18. In relation to the powdery mildew disease, the lines IAC-108 and ISWYN-31/82 showed high resistance under field conditions. The line IAC-167 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 were resistant to eight races and IAC-103 and Kenya Kifaru were resistant to seven races of P. graminis tritici, causal agent of stem rust under greenhouse conditions. The lines IAC-104, IAC-108, IAC-110, IAC-111, IAC-167, ISWYN-31/82 and Kenya Kifaru showed high resistance to stem rust under natural conditions of plant infection. The line IAC-1 67 was resistant to three races of P. recondita at the seedling stage under greenhouse conditions. The lines IAC-100, IAC-101, IAC-111, IAC-167 and PAT-73121 presented good resistance to this disease under natural infection out in

  4. Melhoramento do trigo: XII. Comportamento de novas linhagens e cultivares no Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XII. Evaluation of new inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1985-01-01

    -18',foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty one inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-17, and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas Experiment Center and Capão Bonito Experiment Station, during the years of 1982 and 1983, at Tietê Experiment Station, in 1982 and at Floresta Negra Farm, Maracaí, in 1983. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering and from emergente to maturation, percentage of layed plants, head length, number of grain per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to stem and leaf rusts were evaluated under field conditions and tests of resistance to stem and leal rusts and to aluminum were also made, respectively, in greenhouse and in laboratory. Considering the trials planted under sprinkler irrigation, at Campinas, the lines IAC-60 and IAC-67 showed good performance regarding to grain yield. In Capão Bonito, represented by acid soils, the lnes IAC-66, IAC-60 and IAC-69 showed high grain yield. The lines IAC-64, IAC-68, IAC-71 and IAC-60 presented good productivity at Tietê Experiment Station and IAC-67, IAC-63 and IAC-64 were more adapted to high soil fertility showing the best grain yields at Maracaí. The lines IAC-52, IAC-53, IAC-54, IAC-55, IAC-56, IAC-57, IAC-58, IAC-60, IAC-64, IAC-65, IAC-67, IAC-71 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 exhibited semi-dwarf type when compared to the tall cultivar BH-1146. In relation to stem rust, the lines IAC-62 and IAC-65 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 showed very good resistance presenting at seedling stage, resistance to seven rates under both greenhouse and field conditions. The line IAC-64 was resistant to four and IAC-52 and IAC-55 to three races of leaf rust in the seedling stage under greenhouse condition. The lines IAC-51, IAC-56, IAC-61, IAC-62, IAC-63 and IAC-67 presented

  5. Melhoramento do trigo: XIX. Avaliação de novas linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Wheat breeding: XIX. Evaluation of new inbred lines in different regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se entre si vinte e três linhagens e dois cultivares de trigo quanto à produção de grãos, componentes de produção e resistência às doenças, através de ensaios instalados em diferentes localidades paulistas. Em casa de vegetação, efetuaram-se estudos de resistência às raças dos agentes causais das ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha e, em condições de laboratório, estudos da tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas. Considerando a média dos nove experimentos, as linhagens 12, 15 e 18 e o cultivar BH-1146 destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, diferindo do 'Alondra-S-46'. Em relação à ferrugem-do-colmo (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, 'Alondra-S-46' foi resistente às seis raças testadas em estádio de plântula em casa de vegetação, e as linhagens 9 e 11 foram resistentes a cinco e a quatro raças respectivamente Em condições de campo, o 'Alondra-S-46' e as linhagens 2, 3, 6, 10, 11 e 16 apresentaram-se como as mais resistentes à ferrugem-do-colmo. As linhagens 2 (IAC-172 e 20 e o 'BH-1146' mostraram-se com menores graus de infecção do agente causal da ferrugem-da-folha (P. recondita, em condições de infecção natural, em estádio de planta adulta. As linhagens 3 (IAC-231, 8, 9, 20, 21 e 22 e o 'Alondra-S-46' exibiram plantas de porte semi-anão significativamente mais baixas que o 'BH-1146'. A linhagem 20 mostrou ser uma fonte genética das características: espigas compridas e maior número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta. As linhagens 1, 3, 4, 12, 17, 18 e 19 e o 'BH-1146' foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty three inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146 and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas, Capão Bonito and Tatuí Experimental Stations, and at two farms located in Paranapanema Valley, during the period 1984-86. Grain yield

  6. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de pimenta em dois sistemas de cultivo Agronomic performance of recombinant chili pepper inbred lines in two cultivation systems

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    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2009-08-01

    .Climate and management diversity play an important role in crop production, since these characteristics are related to genotype and cultivation environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype-environmental interaction (GE in 12 recombinant inbred lines of C. annuum. These lines were originated from crosses between the following accessions: a sweet pepper cultivar (susceptible to bacterial spot and a chili pepper (resistant to bacterial spot. Two tests were conducted, the first in a conventional agriculture system, under field conditions and the second in ecological or organic system, under greenhouse conditions. The field experiment was carried out in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. The greenhouse experiment was conducted in Seropédica, RJ. Both experiments were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The measured variables were total fruit number (TFN; total fruit weight (TFW; mean fruit weight (MFW; fruit length (FL; fruit diameter (FD; length/diameter fruit ratio (FL/FD and capsaicin presence (CAPS. Data obtained for each experimental condition were submitted to variance analysis, joint variance analysis, and partitioning of genotype environment interaction. Genotype and GE quadratic components, genotypic determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and variation index were determined. The GE interaction was significant for TFN, TFW, MFN, FD, and FL/FD. Cultivation under greenhouse conditions was responsible for the highest mean performance for every trait studied but FL. Values observed for genetic variation were greater than values obtained for environmental variation. For field conditions, the high yield ability observed for line 2 (pungent is suggestive of a potential to be used as a commercial genotype. For greenhouse conditions, line 8 (pungent, had higher fruit number yield. Line 1 (non-pungent also seems promising for commercial cultivation under both conditions.

  7. Molecular mapping and improvement of leaf rust resistance in wheat breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilo, Toi J; Kolmer, James A; Anderson, James A

    2014-08-01

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common and widespread disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Deployment of host-plant resistance is one of the strategies to reduce losses due to leaf rust disease. The objective of this study was to map genes for adult-plant resistance to leaf rust in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population originating from MN98550-5/MN99394-1. The mapping population of 139 RILs and five checks were evaluated in 2005, 2009, and 2010 in five environments. Natural infection occurred in the 2005 trials and trials in 2009 and 2010 were inoculated with leaf rust. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 2BS, 2DS, 7AL, and 7DS were detected. The QTL on 2BS explained up to 33.6% of the phenotypic variation in leaf rust response, whereas the QTL on 2DS, 7AL, and 7DS explained up to 15.7, 8.1, and 34.2%, respectively. Seedling infection type tests conducted with P. triticina races BBBD and SBDG confirmed that the QTL on 2BS and 2DS were Lr16 and Lr2a, respectively, and these genes were expressed in the seedling and field plot tests. The Lr2a gene mapped at the same location as Sr6. The QTL on 7DS was Lr34. The QTL on 7AL is a new QTL for leaf rust resistance. The joint effects of all four QTL explained 74% of the total phenotypic variation in leaf rust severity. Analysis of different combinations of QTL showed that the RILs containing all four or three of the QTL had the lowest average leaf rust severity in all five environments. Deployment of these QTL in combination or with other effective genes will lead to successful control of leaf rust.

  8. Melhoramento do trigo: XVII. comportamento de linhagens de origem mexicana no estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XVII. evaluation of mexican inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Monte Alegre do Sul e Tatuí e no município de Maracaí, de 1984 a 1986, estudaram-se 23 linhagens de trigo introduzidas do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, México, juntamente com os cultivares IAC-24 e Anahuac. Analisaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta e de espiguetas por espiga, resistência às ferrugens do colmo e da folha em condições de campo e de casa de vegetação, tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+ empregando-se soluções nutritivas, em laboratório. As linhas mexicanas, nominadas como IAC-215, IAC-216, IAC-217 e IAC-219, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, porém não diferiram do cultivar controle IAC-24. As linhagens Festiguay-Tecolote 363.30.6.1 x Ciguena e [4777² x (Frontana/Kenya 58//Newthatch] Gabo/Pavon-76 mostraram-se resistentes às nove raças do agente causal da ferrugem-do-colmo e às seis raças do agente causal da ferrugem-da-folha. Os resultados evidenciaram que são fontes genéticas de grande valor para o programa de melhoramento do trigo no Instituto Agronômico os genótipos seguintes: IAC-215, IAC-216, Yaco"S", IAC-218, Dougga-Bluejay (T-4, Buckbuck"S" - Bulbul"S", com ciclo precoce; IAC-215, Yaco"S" e Jupateco 73-Bluejay, com porte baixo, Bonanza-Yecora F-70/Florence 35.70, com espigas compridas e maior número de espiguetas e de grãos por espiga; Jupateco 73-Bluejay, com grande fertilidade de espigas; [(IAS-58-IAS-55 x Alondra"S"/IAC-5 Alondra"S" - IAS-58 103A x Alondra"S"] e IAC-215, IAC-216, IAC-219 e IAC-24, com tolerância a 10 mg/litro de Al3+.Twenty three Mexican inbred lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Monte Alegre do Sul and Tatu

  9. Genetic diversity of maize germplasm lines and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of genetic distances between maize inbred lines can be used to maximise heterosis in hybrids. This study was conducted to determine genetic distances among 25 maize inbred lines in the Maize streak virus disease (MSVD) QTL region to develop MSVD-resistant hybrids. The inbred lines were genotyped using ...

  10. Procedimento para escolha de populações de milho promissoras para extração de linhagens Procedure to select superior maize populations for inbred line extraction

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    MAX WENDEL PAULA LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de um programa de melhoramento de milho visando à obtenção de híbridos está intimamente ligado à identificação da população mais promissora para a extração de linhagens. O presente trabalho objetivou identificar procedimentos para a escolha dessas populações. Para isso, foram obtidas populações segregantes S0, S1 e 196 famílias S0:1 de cada um dos quatro materiais comerciais avaliados: híbridos simples (C 333B e Z 8392, duplo (AG 1051 e variedade (BR-105. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na safra agrícola 98/99 em duas localidades na região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais: Lavras e Ijaci. Na avaliação das 196 famílias S0:1 de cada população foi empregado o delineamento látice simples 14 x 14. Adicionalmente foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, para avaliação simultânea das gerações F1, S0 e S1 A partir dos dados de produtividade de espigas despalhadas (kg por parcela das gerações F1, S0 e S1, foram obtidas as estimativas da contribuição dos locos em homozigose (m + a e em heterozigose (d. Foram também foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos com os experimentos das famílias S0:1. Constatou-se que houve boa associação (r = 0,81 entre a estimativa de (m + a e a média das famílias S0:1 e que população com maior potencial para a extração de linhagens, maior (m + a, foi a AG 1051. A correlação entre as estimativas de (d e h² foi baixa, indicando que a estimativa da contribuição dos locos em heterozigose não foi bom indicador da variabilidade potencial da população.The identification of the population with greatest potential for inbred line extraction is directly linked to the success of a maize hybrid breeding program. This study was carried out to identify procedures for selecting these populations. Segregant S0, S1 populations and 196 S0:1 families were obtained from each of four commercial cultivars assessed: single hybrids (C 333B and

  11. Characterization and Mapping of Leaf Rust and Stripe Rust Resistance Loci in Hexaploid Wheat Lines UC1110 and PI610750 under Mexican Environments

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    Caixia Lan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing resistant wheat varieties is a key method of minimizing the extent of yield losses caused by the globally important wheat leaf rust (LR and stripe rust (YR diseases. In this study, a population of 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between a synthetic wheat derivative (PI610750 and an adapted common wheat line (cv. “UC1110” were phenotyped for LR and YR response at both seedling and adult plant stages over multiple seasons. Using a genetic linkage map consisting of single sequence repeats and diversity arrays technology markers, in combination with inclusive composite interval mapping analysis, we detected a new LR adult plant resistance (APR locus, QLr.cim-2DS, contributed by UC1110. One co-located resistance locus to both rusts, QLr.cim-3DC/QYr.cim-3DC, and the known seedling resistance gene Lr26 were also mapped. QLr.cim-2DS and QLr.cim-3DC showed a marginally significant interaction for LR resistance in the adult plant stage. In addition, two previously reported YR APR loci, QYr.ucw-3BS and Yr48, were found to exhibit stable performances in rust environments in both Mexico and the United States and showed a highly significant interaction in the field. Yr48 was also observed to confer intermediate seedling resistance against Mexican YR races, thus suggesting it should be re-classified as an all-stage resistance gene. We also identified 5 and 2 RILs that possessed all detected YR and LR resistance loci, respectively. With the closely linked molecular markers reported here, these RILs could be used as donors for multiple resistance loci to both rusts in wheat breeding programs.

  12. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudate introgression line in wheat and its genetic association with leaf rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Puneet Inder; Kaur, Satinder; Bansal, Mitaly; Yadav, Bharat; Chhuneja, Parveen

    2016-12-01

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated wheat. Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcrossrecombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a wheat-Ae. caudata introgression line (IL) T291- 2(pau16060) with wheat cv. PBW343 is reported here. Segregation of BC-RILs for stripe rust resistance depicted a single major gene conditioning adult plant resistance (APR) with stripe rust reaction varying from TR-20MS in resistant RILs signifying the presence of some minor genes as well. Genetic association with leaf rust resistance revealed that two genes are located at a recombination distance of 13%. IL T291-2 had earlier been reported to carry introgressions on wheat chromosomes 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D and 7D. Genetic mapping indicated the introgression of stripe rust resistance gene on wheat chromosome 5DS in the region carrying leaf rust resistance gene LrAc, but as an independent introgression. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers designed from the survey sequence data of 5DS enriched the target region harbouring stripe and leaf rust resistance genes. Stripe rust resistance locus, temporarily designated as YrAc, mapped at the distal most end of 5DS linked with a group of four colocated SSRs and two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers at a distance of 5.3 cM. LrAc mapped at a distance of 9.0 cM from the YrAc and at 2.8 cM from RGA-STS marker Ta5DS_2737450, YrAc and LrAc appear to be the candidate genes for marker-assisted enrichment of the wheat gene pool for rust resistance.

  13. Characterization and Mapping of Leaf Rust and Stripe Rust Resistance Loci in Hexaploid Wheat Lines UC1110 and PI610750 under Mexican Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Caixia; Hale, Iago L; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Basnet, Bhoja R; Randhawa, Mandeep S; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Singh, Ravi P

    2017-01-01

    Growing resistant wheat varieties is a key method of minimizing the extent of yield losses caused by the globally important wheat leaf rust (LR) and stripe rust (YR) diseases. In this study, a population of 186 F 8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a synthetic wheat derivative (PI610750) and an adapted common wheat line (cv. "UC1110") were phenotyped for LR and YR response at both seedling and adult plant stages over multiple seasons. Using a genetic linkage map consisting of single sequence repeats and diversity arrays technology markers, in combination with inclusive composite interval mapping analysis, we detected a new LR adult plant resistance (APR) locus, QLr.cim-2DS , contributed by UC1110. One co-located resistance locus to both rusts, QLr.cim-3DC/QYr.cim-3DC , and the known seedling resistance gene Lr26 were also mapped. QLr.cim-2DS and QLr.cim-3DC showed a marginally significant interaction for LR resistance in the adult plant stage. In addition, two previously reported YR APR loci, QYr.ucw-3BS and Yr48 , were found to exhibit stable performances in rust environments in both Mexico and the United States and showed a highly significant interaction in the field. Yr48 was also observed to confer intermediate seedling resistance against Mexican YR races, thus suggesting it should be re-classified as an all-stage resistance gene. We also identified 5 and 2 RILs that possessed all detected YR and LR resistance loci, respectively. With the closely linked molecular markers reported here, these RILs could be used as donors for multiple resistance loci to both rusts in wheat breeding programs.

  14. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  15. Genetic analysis of NPT II x HBC 19 (basmati variety) RIL's and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAU Vikram

    Traditional basmati rice varieties are very low yielding due to their tendency to lodging and increasing susceptibility to .... RILs in F5 generation were evaluated for agronomic traits namely, .... Direct (diagonal) and indirect effects of component traits on grain yield/plant in F5 population derived from cross NPT II x HBC 19.

  16. Seleção de linhagens com tolerância ao calor em germoplasma de tomateiro coletado na região Norte do Brasil Selection of heat tolerant tomato inbred lines from landraces adapted for cultivation in the North Region of Brazil

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    Leonardo de B. Giordano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As altas temperaturas nas regiões tropicais e equatoriais induzem uma série de distúrbios morfológicos e/ou fisiológicos em estruturas florais do tomateiro, resultando em menor produtividade devido a maiores taxas de abortamento e má formação de frutos. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas linhagens de tomateiro oriundas de duas populações que vêm sendo cultivadas em Roraima, região Norte do Brasil. Doze linhagens foram obtidas após um ciclo prévio de seleção (em Brasília-DF em condições de temperatura elevada. A avaliação destas doze linhagens e duas cultivares testemunhas ('Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' foi conduzida em casa de vegetação com temperaturas média das mínimas de 15ºC e média das máximas de 46,2ºC. Foram observadas diferenças significativas para número de frutos abortados, número de frutos maduros, peso de frutos maduros, teores de sólidos solúveis, firmeza e coloração de frutos. As linhagens (como um grupo apresentaram melhor desempenho do que as testemunhas 'Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' para os parâmetros número de frutos abortados, peso, número e coloração de frutos maduros. A metodologia adotada no presente trabalho, permite a identificação de genótipos superiores adaptados ao cultivo em regiões tropicais e equatoriais com elevadas temperaturas.Heat tolerance is a major trait for tomato breeding programs targeted for lowland wet climates in equatorial and tropical areas of the world. High temperatures might cause several disturbances to morphological and physiological characteristics of the tomato flowers leading to yield constraints due to reduction in fruit setting. In the present work, an experiment was conducted to evaluate tomato breeding lines, derived from two tomato landrace populations cultivated by farmers in Roraima State (North Region of Brazil. Twelve inbred lines were obtained from these populations after one cycle of selection in a plastic house with high temperatures. These 12

  17. Quantitative trait loci for mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L. identified using a RIL population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjun Fu

    Full Text Available To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L., a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs.

  18. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD...

  19. Study of yield and yield components of corn ( Zea mays L.) inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of seven corn inbred lines, a field trial was conducted under non-stress and different drought stress conditions (stress at vegetative (6 to 7 leaves), pollination and grain filling stages) at the Agricultural College of Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar ...

  20. Melhoramento do trigo: XXX. Avaliação de linhagens com tolerância a toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em condições de campo Wheat breeding: XXX. Evaluation of inbred lines tolerant to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 23 linhagens tolerantes, ao mesmo tempo, à toxicidade de Al3+ Mn2+ e Fe2+, provindas do cruzamento entre 'BH-1146' (tolerante à toxicidade de A1(3+ e sensível à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e 'Siete Cerros' (sensível à toxicidade de A1(3+ e tolerante à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e os dois cultivares utilizados como pais em quatro ensaios instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Itararé (1990-92 e de Capão Bonito (1992, em solos ácidos, e em cinco ensaios realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas (1990-92 e na Fazenda Santa Lúcia (1990-91, município de Cruzália, em solos corrigidos, analisando os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. Em solos ácidos, vinte linhagens e o 'BH-1146' mostraram maior rendimento de grãos em relação ao 'Siete Cerros' indicando que a toxicidade de alumínio foi um dos principais fatores limitantes à produção. Em solos corrigidos, não se verificaram diferenças significativas entre os genótipos estudados quanto ao rendimento de grãos, mostrando não haver urna associação entre baixa produtividade e tolerância ao A1(3+ nessas condições. A linhagem 21 foi moderadamente resistente ao agente causal de oídio em condições naturais de infecção. Todos os genótipos avaliados revelaram suscetibilidade aos agentes causais das manchas foliares. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens 3 a 12 apresentaram porte baixo associado à menor porcentagem de acamamento; as 13, 14 e 23 mostraram espigas compridas; a 12, maior número de espiguetas e grãos por espiga, e a 17, grãos mais pesados, representando fontes genéticas de valor para essas características.Twenty three inbred lines showing at the same time tolerance to A1(3+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, originated from the cross between 'BH-1146' (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity and sensitive to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities and 'Siete Cerros' (sensitive to Al3+ and tolerant to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, and the two

  1. Performance of testers with different genetic structure for evaluation of maize inbred lines Desempenho de testadores com diferentes estruturas genéticas para avaliação de linhagens endogâmicas de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro José Moreira Guimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate four maize testers for identification of superior inbreed lines in testcross. The four testers evaluated are cultivars with narrow or wide genetic base (single-cross hybrids and open pollinated varieties and two kernel types (flint or dent. SynD and SynF testers are open pollinated varieties with dent and flint kernels, respectively, and FSH and DSH testers are single-cross hybrids with flint and dent kernels, respectively. SynD tester showed the biggest genetic variance among the maize inbreed lines in crosses. The effects of general combining ability (GCA for lines and specific combining ability (SCA for lines x testers were significant, whereas GCA effects for testers were not significant. SynD and SynF testers identified the largest number of lines with higher GCA. The DSH and FSH testers showed suitable to identify lines with high SCA. It was concluded that SynD and SynF testers are adequate to identify inbreed lines with high GCA effects, and it's possible to identify new lines with high heterotic potential in each one of the four testers.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quatro testadores de milho quanto à capacidade de identificar linhagens superiores em testcross. Os quatro testadores avaliados são cultivares com base genética ampla (variedades de polinização aberta e estreita (híbridos simples e dois tipos de grãos (duro e dentado. Os testadores SynD e SynF são populações de milho de polinização aberta com grãos dentados e duros, respectivamente, e FSH e DSH são híbridos simples com grãos duros e dentados, respectivamente. O testador SynD possibilitou a maior expressão de variância genética entre os cruzamentos com as linhagens. A capacidade geral de combinação (CGC das linhagens e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC entre linhagens e testadores foram significativas, enquanto que os efeitos de CGC dos testadores foram não significativos. Concluiu-se que os

  2. Genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heterosis for two diallel sets of maize inbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Lee, M; Lamkey, K R; Hallauer, A R; Woodman, W L

    1990-10-01

    Changes that may have occurred over the past 50 years of hybrid breeding in maize (Zea maize L.) with respect to heterosis for yield and heterozygosity at the molecular level are of interest to both maize breeders and quantitative geneticists. The objectives of this study were twofold: The first, to compare two diallels produced from six older maize inbreds released in the 1950's and earlier and six newer inbreds released during the 1970's with respect to (a) genetic variation for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and (b) the size of heterosis and epistatic effects, and the second, to evaluate the usefulness of RFLP-based genetic distance measures in predicting heterosis and performance of single-cross hybrids. Five generations (parents, F1; F2, and backcrosses) from the 15 crosses in each diallel were evaluated for grain yield and yield components in four Iowa environments. Genetic effects were estimated from generation means by ordinary diallel analyses and by the Eberhart-Gardner model. Newer lines showed significantly greater yield for inbred generations than did older lines but smaller heterosis estimates. In most cases, estimates of additive x additive epistatic effects for yield and yield components were significantly positive for both groups of lines. RFLP analyses of inbred lines included two restriction enzymes and 82 genomic DNA clones distributed over the maize genome. Eighty-one clones revealed polymorphisms with at least one enzyme. In each set, about three different RFLP variants were typically found per RFLP locus. Genetic distances between inbred lines were estimated from RFLP data as Rogers' distance (RD), which was subdivided into general (GRD) and specific (SRD) Rogers' distances within each diallel. The mean and range of RDs were similar for the older and newer lines, suggesting that the level of heterozygosity at the molecular level had not changed. GRD explained about 50% of the variation among RD values in both sets. Cluster

  3. POTENTIAL OF COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS TO GENERATE INBRED LINES IN BREEDING PROGRAMS POTENCIAL DE HÍBRIDOS COMERCIAIS DE MILHO PARA OBTENÇÃO DE LINHAGENS EM PROGRAMAS DE MELHORAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">With the objective of identifying the best commercial hybrids to extract maize lines, a top cross scheme of 49 endogamic partial lines (S3 was carried out with the IA33 tester. The resultant hybrids were evaluated for grain yield, in Campinas, Mococa, and Palmital (São Paulo State, Brazil, in two agricultural years (2005/2006 and 2006/2007, in a randomized block design, with three replications, in two experiments (TC1 and TC2. Individual and group variance analysis and a grouped analysis of the experiments with common treatments were carried out, for each place. The top cross hybrids were grouped according to the line origins. Afterwards, orthogonal contrasts were carried out by using the Student’s t test, in order to compare the hybrid groups. It was verified that the use of commercial hybrids to extract lines is an interesting strategy. In general, it was also verified that the top cross hybrid groups, whose lines originated from the AG1051, Master, and XL357 hybrids, obtained high yield, with a higher potential for lines extraction.

    line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="en-US" align="JUSTIFY">KEY-WORDS: Zea mays L.; top cross hybrids; partially endogamic lines (S3.

    line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar os melhores híbridos comerciais para extração de linhagens de milho. Para isto, foram

  4. Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than outbred individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Barnett, C A; Pettinger, A M; Weddle, C B; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2010-09-01

    Inbreeding is assumed to have negative effects on fitness, including the reduced ability to withstand immune challenges. We examined the immunological consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets from the outbred founder population. Surprisingly, crickets from inbred lines had a greater encapsulation ability compared with crickets from the outbred population. We suggest that because inbred crickets have reduced reproductive effort, they may, therefore, have the option of devoting more resources to this form of immunity than outbred individuals. We also found that both inbred and outbred females had higher immunity than males in PO activity and implant darkness. This result supports the hypothesis that females should devote more effort to somatic maintenance and immunity than males. PO activity and implant darkness were heritable in both males and females, but lytic activity was only heritable in females. Males and females differed in the heritability of, and genetic correlations among, immune traits, suggesting that differences in selective pressures on males and females may have resulted in a sexual conflict over optimal immune trait values.

  5. Híbridos pré-comerciais resistentes a Tuta absoluta obtidos de linhagem de tomateiro rica em acilaçúcares Pre-commercial hybrids obtained from an acylsugar-rich tomato inbred line, resistant to Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M Maciel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial agronômico de híbridos de tomateiro a partir da linhagem TOM-687, rica em acilaçúcares e de resistência comprovada a pragas. O experimento foi instalado na HortiAgro, município de Ijaci, MG. Foi constituído de 30 genótipos (5 híbridos comerciais, 1 linhagem pré-comercial (TOM-687, e 24 híbridos nos quais TOM-687 foi utilizada como um dos pais, os quais foram conduzidos em tutoramento com haste dupla, no espaçamento de 1,30 x 0,50 m, totalizando 15.385 plantas por hectare. Foram realizadas nove colheitas, entre as datas de 01/11/08 a 28/11/08. Foram avaliadas as características de massa média por fruto (g fruto-1 e produção por hectare (t ha-1. Os 24 híbridos que tiveram TOM-687 como um dos pais apresentaram potencial produtivo similar ao das testemunhas comerciais Débora Max, Bravo, Bônus, Kombat e Atyna. Dos 24 híbridos experimentais, quatro (TEX-298, TEX-310, TEX-315 e TEX-316 foram avaliados quanto à resistência à traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta e mostraram-se mais resistentes do que as testemunhas comerciais.This experiment was designed to assess the agronomic potential of tomato hybrids obtained from the tomato line TOM-687, an acylsugar-rich line with confirmed resistance to an array of tomato pests. The experiment was carried out at the HortiAgro Sementes research station, in Ijaci, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The treatments comprised 30 genotypes (5 commercial hybrid checks, 1 high acylsugar line (TOM-687, and 24 hybrids in which TOM-687 was one of the parents. Plants were trained to two stems, in a spacing of 1.30 m between rows x 0.50 m between plants within a row, totaling 15,385 plants per hectare. Nine harvests were performed between November 1st, 2008 and November 28th,2008. Traits assessed were mean fruit weight (g fruit-1 and total yield (t ha-1. All 24 hybrids with TOM-687 as a parent showed yields similar to those of the commercial check

  6. Conservación de la cepa Lecanicillium lecanii en agua destilada estéril

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Ofelia Díaz Llanes; Teresita Lemes Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó el método de preservación en agua destilada para el hongo entomopatógeno Lecanicillium lecanii, con el objetivo de definir sus posibilidades de aplicación en la conservación de este hongo. El estudio se realizó inoculando asépticamente las esporas en bulbos que contenían agua destilada estéril y fueron almacenados a temperatura ambiente y refrigeración. La efectividad del método fue evaluada mediante determinaciones de viabilidad, características macroscópicas y microscópicas del ho...

  7. Lysis of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts by rIL-2 activated autologous natural killer cells from HIV-infected viremic individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fogli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cellular mechanisms that ensure an appropriate innate immune response against viral pathogens is an important challenge of biomedical research. In vitro studies have shown that natural killer (NK cells purified from healthy donors can kill heterologous cell lines or autologous CD4+ T cell blasts exogenously infected with several strains of HIV-1. However, it is not known whether the deleterious effects of high HIV-1 viremia interferes with the NK cell-mediated cytolysis of autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we stimulate primary CD4+ T cells, purified ex vivo from HIV-1-infected viremic patients, with PHA and rIL2 (with or without rIL-7. This experimental procedure allows for the significant expansion and isolation of endogenously infected CD4+ T cell blasts detected by intracellular staining of p24 HIV-1 core antigen. We show that, subsequent to the selective down-modulation of MHC class-I (MHC-I molecules, HIV-1-infected p24(pos blasts become partially susceptible to lysis by rIL-2-activated NK cells, while uninfected p24(neg blasts are spared from killing. This NK cell-mediated killing occurs mainly through the NKG2D activation pathway. However, the degree of NK cell cytolytic activity against autologous, endogenously HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cell blasts that down-modulate HLA-A and -B alleles and against heterologous MHC-I(neg cell lines is particularly low. This phenomenon is associated with the defective surface expression and engagement of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs and with the high frequency of the anergic CD56(neg/CD16(pos subsets of highly dysfunctional NK cells from HIV-1-infected viremic patients. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the chronic viral replication of HIV-1 in infected individuals results in several phenotypic and functional aberrancies that interfere with the NK cell-mediated killing of autologous p24(pos blasts derived from primary T cells.

  8. The Role of Cedex s Railway Inter operability Laboratory (RIL) in the European ERTMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamarit Rodriguez de Huici, J.

    2015-01-01

    The RIL is the most recently laboratory set up within CEDEXs premises. From the start, it has aimed to support the development of rail transport at both European and Spanish levels. This article describes the role played by CEDEX-RIL in the development of ERTMS, and the close link which from its inception, has existed between this system and the EMSET project, in which the feasibility of the European Railway inter operability was demonstrated with the participation of the whole European signalling industry. The key factor for the success of this project was the creation of both and independent laboratory and testing sites which, right from the very beginning, enjoyed the confidence of the industry, thus allowing for the first time the execution of cross tests between companies. Finally, and equally important, this paper shows the fruitful evolution followed by the laboratory aforementioned, which, from its establishment, has evolved from performing tests on generic ERTMS constituents to undertaking, first, remote tests jointly carried out between specific commercial projects with different suppliers on track and on-board; and, second, Handover tests between diverse RBC suppliers. (Author)

  9. Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ∼10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ∼14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

  10. Avaliação de nove linhagens de milho em cruzamentos dialélicos quanto à tolerância ao alumínio Evaluation of nine maize inbred lines in diallel cross in relation to aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela de Almeida Cançado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se nove linhagens endogâmicas de milho e seus cruzamentos quanto à tolerância ao alumínio (Al, em um dialelo incompleto. Foram utilizados os índices fenotípicos de comprimento relativo de raiz seminal (CRRS, comprimento líquido de raiz seminal (CLRS e coloração por hematoxilina, determinados após sete dias de crescimento em solução nutritiva contendo 222 mimoles L-1 de Al. Os resultados dos cruzamentos dialélicos demonstraram que os efeitos aditivos foram mais importantes que os efeitos não-aditivos para os três índices avaliados. As linhagens L13, L724, L723 e L16 seriam as mais indicadas para a obtenção de híbridos visando tolerância ao Al, por apresentarem os melhores valores de capacidade geral de combinação e por participarem dos cruzamentos de melhor capacidade específica de combinação. Uma correlação de 0,76 foi observada entre os índices CLRS e a coloração por hematoxilina, de 0,63 entre CLRS e CRRS e de 0,27 entre CRRS e coloração por hematoxilina. A coloração por hematoxilina demonstrou ser uma valiosa ferramenta para programas de melhoramento de milho que visam a seleção de genótipos com maior tolerância ao alumínio.Nine maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations were evaluated in incomplete diallel crosses to study the aluminum (Al tolerance behavior. The phenotypic indexes used to determine Al tolerance were the relative seminal-root length (RSRL, the net seminal-root length (NSRL and the hemathoxylin staining, determined after seven days of growth in nutrient solution with 222 mumoles L-1 of Al. The diallel crosses results showed that additive effects were more important than not additive effects, for all indexes evaluated. Maize lines L13, L724, L723, and L16 showed better behaviour for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA and are the more indicated for obtaining Al-tolerant hybrids. The correlation observed between NSRL and hematoxylin staining

  11. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas ecombinadas de Capsicum annuum L. em sistema orgânico sob cultivo protegido Agronomic performance of recombinant inbred of Capsicum annuum L. lines cultivated under organic system and greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2010-08-01

    of this work was to study the agronomic performance of 12 recombinant inbred chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. lines, from crosses between UENF 1421 and UENF 1381 accessions, under greenhouse conditions and using an organic system. The experiment was carried out at Seropédica Experimental Station of PESAGRO-RIO, in randomized block design, with four replications. The following variables were evaluated: total number of fruits (TNF; total fruit weight (TFW; average weight of fruits (MWF; fruit length (FL; fruit diameter (FD; length and diameter fruit ratio (LDFR, and capsaicin presence (CAPS. Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental variances, as well as genotypic determination coefficient and variation index were estimated. There was highly significant difference for all traits unless TFW. The lines produced a high number of fruits, with low weight and with variability in shape among lines. Absence of capsaicin was observed only in two lines and other three lines segregated for capsaicin presence. High values of genotypic variance and genotypic determination coefficient were estimated for all traits, indicating that the results were due to genetic causes. The data pointed to a preliminary indication of lines 5 and 8 for cultivation in an organic system under greenhouse conditions.

  12. [Constant Duméril (1774-1860) anatomist doctor and naturalist, about a portrait by G. Devers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2008-12-01

    André, Marie, Constant Duméril (1774-1860) served as a professor in the from 1801 to 1855. He was also chairman of herpetology and ichthyology of the in Paris. The Paris-Descartes University (department of anatomy) owns a great, framed portrait which is an oil painting by Giuseppe Devers, 1855, representing C. Duméril sat on a chair. The study of his portrait, biography and bibliography brings precisions on a noticeable scholar of the anatomical and naturalistic field in Paris in the first half of the 19th century.

  13. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... on hydroponics or supported hydroponics have become the preferred method for most researchers, because it ... Iran (ABRII) with hydroponic. The main plots were salt stress with two levels (10 and 150 mM) ..... The water culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agric. Exp. Station Circular ...

  14. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Keywords: Sudanese maize genotypes, embryogenic callus, regeneration, and tissue culture. INTRODUCTION. Maize is an important food and forage crop in the North- ern and Southern regions of ... Skoog, 1965) containing 60 g l-1 sucrose and lacking 2,4-D (referred to as maturation or RI medium) and ...

  15. Haldane, Waddington and recombinant inbred lines: extension of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Areejit Samal

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... both male and female, and thus produce offspring on its own. Note that each ... meiosis and one gamete via male meiosis, and the two gametes from the same individual are fused together to produce the individual of the next ..... tools and our formulas only involve the four basic opera- tions of addition ...

  16. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  17. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jige Xin

    Full Text Available Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 gene biallelic knockout (KO pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26 among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209 among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209 of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  18. Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) x PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    100-seed weight is a critical component for soybean quality and yield. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 100-seed weight using 169 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Williams 82 x PI 366121. The parental lines and RILs were g...

  19. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for 100-kernel weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Zea mays L.), related to yield. To realize its ... Key words: Maize (Zea mays L.), 100-kernel weight, quantitative trait locus (QTL), recombinant inbred line. (RIL), nitrogen ... cient approach to realize genetic basis of trait, some.

  20. Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daros Máskio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 families were obtained, which were then divided into six sets and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications within the sets. Experiments were carried out in two Brazilian localities. The analysis of variance revealed environmental effects for all evaluated traits, except popping and stand, showing that, for most traits, these environments affected genotype behavior in different ways. In addition, the set as source of variation was significant for most of the evaluated traits, indicating that dividing the families into sets was an efficient strategy. Genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for most traits, except popping expansion and stand. Differences among genotypes were also detected (1% F-test, making viable the proposition of using the genetic variability in the popcorn population as a basis for future recurrent selection cycles. Superior families were selected using the Smith and Hazel classic index, with predicted genetic gains of 17.8% for popping expansion and 26.95% for yield.

  1. Safety and efficacy of subcutaneous and continuous intravenous infusion rIL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; Gore, M E; Negrier, S

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from four open-label, nonrandomised, phase II trials of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma to compare the safety and efficacy of administration by subcutaneous (s.c.) and continuous intravenous (c.......i.v. administration, more patients in the s.c. cohort experienced stable disease (50.5 vs 29.8%) and fewer underwent disease progression (35.0 vs 43.6%). Subcutaneous administration was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse events (46 vs 76%; Ppatients...... required dose reductions because of toxicity (20 vs 82%). At the doses and within the schedules tested, this comparative analysis did not detect any difference in efficacy between s.c. and c.i.v. administration of rIL-2 in terms of overall survival, duration of response and response rate in patients...

  2. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  3. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz L. Mróz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs. MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  4. Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T

    2009-12-01

    We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent.

  5. Fragrance analysis using molecular and biochemical methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through Single seed descent (SSD) method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material ...

  6. Are designer guppies inbred? Microsatellite variation in five strains of ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata, used for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Eklund, Amy C; Brodie, Edmund D

    2008-01-01

    Inbred lines are an important tool of genetic studies of all traits, including behavior. Independently derived strains of ornamental "designer" guppies are readily available and predicted to be inbred; however, little is known about actual levels of inbreeding in any of these strains or whether these lines differ in genetic traits that have not been under strong directional artificial selection. We genotyped five designer strains of guppies known to vary in their responses to predator cues and a wild reference population to determine whether designer strains show evidence of inbreeding and whether the strains differed from each other at five microsatellite loci. The designer strains exhibited lower allelic diversity and observed heterozygosity than the wild population. Observed heterozygosity departed significantly from expected heterozygosity for most markers in all five strains of designer guppies. Inbreeding coefficient (f) comparisons between the wild reference population and the designer strains show considerable inbreeding in the designer strains. F(is) values for the designer strains also provide evidence of inbreeding. Finally, F(st) values indicate that the designer strains differ significantly from each other and the wild population. We therefore concluded that designer guppies are inbred compared to wild populations and differ among strains, making them useful tools for genetic studies of behavioral or life history traits.

  7. Myelogenous leukemia in adult inbred MHC-defined miniature swine: a model for human myeloid leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Cho, Patricia S; Teague, Alexander G S; Fishman, Brian; Fishman, Aaron S; Hanekamp, John S; Moran, Shannon G; Wikiel, Krzysztof J; Ferguson, Kelly K; Lo, Diana P; Duggan, Michael; Arn, J Scott; Billiter, Bob; Horner, Ben; Houser, Stuart; Yeap, Beow Yong; Westmoreland, Susan V; Spitzer, Thomas R; McMorrow, Isabel M; Sachs, David H; Bronson, Roderick T; Huang, Christene A

    2010-06-15

    This manuscript reports on five cases of spontaneous myelogenous leukemia, similar to human disease, occurring within highly inbred, histocompatible sublines of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) MHC-defined miniature swine. In cases where a neoplasm was suspected based on clinical observations, samples were obtained for complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, and flow cytometric analysis. Animals confirmed to have neoplasms were euthanized and underwent necropsy. Histological samples were obtained from abnormal tissues and suspect lesions. The phenotype of the malignancies was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of processed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and affected tissues. Five cases of spontaneous myeloid leukemia were identified in adult animals older than 30 months of age. All animals presented with symptoms of weight loss, lethargy, and marked leukocytosis. At autopsy, all animals had systemic disease involvement and presented with severe hepatosplenomegaly. Three of the five myelogenous leukemias have successfully been expanded in vitro. The clustered incidence of disease in this closed herd suggests that genetic factors may be contributing to disease development. Myelogenous leukemia cell lines established from inbred sublines of MGH MHC-defined miniature swine have the potential to be utilized as a model to evaluate therapies of human leukemia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraspecific Competition and Inbreeding Depression: Increased Competitive Effort by Inbred Males Is Costly to Outbred Opponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jon; Smiseth, Per T

    2017-05-01

    A recent theoretical model suggests that intraspecific competition is an important determinant of the severity of inbreeding depression. The reason for this is that intraspecific competition is density dependent, leading to a stronger negative effect on inbred individuals if they are weaker competitors than outbred ones. In support of this prediction, previous empirical work shows that inbred individuals are weaker competitors than outbred ones and that intraspecific competition often exacerbates inbreeding depression. Here, we report an experiment on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, in which we recorded the outcome of competition over a small vertebrate carcass between an inbred or outbred male resident caring for a brood and a size-matched inbred or outbred male intruder. We found that inbred males were more successful as intruders in taking over a carcass from a male resident and were injured more frequently as either residents or intruders. Furthermore, inbred males gained less mass during the breeding attempt and had a shorter adult life span than outbred males. Finally, successful resident males reared a substantially smaller brood comprised of lighter larvae when the intruder was inbred than when it was outbred. Our results shows that inbred males increased their competitive effort, thus contradicting previous work suggesting that inbred males are weaker competitors. Furthermore, our results shows that inbred intruders impose a greater cost to resident males, suggesting that outbred individuals can suffer fitness costs as a result of competition with inbred ones.

  9. Comportamento alimentar e dieta de Phrynops hilarii (Duméril & Bibron em cativeiro (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae Feeding behavior and diet of Phrynops hilarii (Duméril & Bibron in captivity (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio de Barros Molina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1985 the biology and behavior of Phrynops hilarii (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 at São Paulo Zoo is being studied. Feeding behavior is divided in five phases (foraging, approach, capture, dilaceration and ingestion, but not necessarily all of them happen. During phase 1 the food or prey seems to be visually located. During phase 2 the food itens and stationaty preys are approached and examined by olfaction. Moving preys are pursued and there is no olfactory examination. During phase 3 the food is captured by suction. When food is bigger than turtle mouth it is dilacerated by one or both forefeet used alternately (phase 4. Ingestion is accomplished by gradual suction (phase 5. Intra and inter-specific cleptoparasitism was observed. Success in capture and ingestion of food seems not be dependent on species or size of the turtle. Adults, young, and hatchlings of P. hilarii are primarily carnivorous and vegetables were rarely eaten.

  10. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  11. Caracterização individual do veneno de Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril em função da distribuição geográfica no Brasil (Serpentes,Viperidae Individual characterization of Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril venoms, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa M. T. da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 é uma serpente de importância em saúde pública, com ampla distribuição geográfica, desde o Mato Grosso do Sul até o sudeste do Brasil, chegando até a Argentina e Uruguai, ocupando vários domínios morfoclimáticos. Neste trabalho investigou-se a variação do veneno de adultos de Bothrops alternatus, em função de sua distribuição geográfica no Brasil, comparativamente ao veneno elaborado sob a forma de "pool" desta espécie (veneno referência, que inclui serpentes, em sua maioria, da região do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas as atividades letal, coagulante sobre o plasma, proteolítica sobre a caseína e miotóxica, bem como os padrões eletroforéticos de 61 amostras individuais de veneno contrapostas ao "pool". Os resultados mostraram que o veneno de B. alternatus é pouco ativo, comparativamente ao de outros Bothrops Wagler, 1824. A variação individual prevaleceu, não apresentando correlação com as áreas de distribuição geográfica e domínios morfoclimáticos, porém a atividade coagulante das amostras de veneno provenientes do nordeste da distribuição geográfica apresentaram-se menos ativas comparativamente às da porção central da distribuição. Os venenos provenientes das bordas da distribuição apresentaram ações proteolíticas e miotóxicas mais intensas, que estatisticamente não foram significativamente diferentes. As variações individuais prevaleceram.Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 snakebites are an important public health problem in Brazil. Such snakes are found from Mato Grosso do Sul (central Brazil to southeastern Brazil, reaching even Argentina and Uruguay and thereby occupying different morphoclimatic domains. This work investigated venom variation occurring in adult specimens of B. alternatus specimens, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil. The standard venom pool (reference venom produced by

  12. A phase I study of recombinant human interleukin-21 (rIL-21) in combination with sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, V.; Desar, I.M.E.; Haanen, J.; Fiedler, W.; Mouritzen, U.; Olsen, M.W.; Herpen, C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: sunitinib induces partial responses in 47% of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, the achievement of complete responses remains scarce and all patients will eventually develop progressive disease. Recombinant interleukin-21 (rIL-21) is a novel cytokine, which

  13. Peripheral-blood lymphocyte number and phenotype prior to therapy correlate with response in subcutaneously applied ril-2 therapy of renal-cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R. A. J.; Sleijfer, D. T.; Heijn, A. A.; Mulder, N. H.; The, T. Hauw; de Leij, L.

    1992-01-01

    The phenotype of peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 renal cell carcinoma patients before and at the end of subcutaneously given rIL-2 therapy was determined by two colour flow cytometry. Therapy induced changes in peripheral blood leucocyte composition and phenotypes were comparable to those

  14. Evaluation of the capacity for direct regeneration of maize inbreds of the Lancaster selection group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Derkach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the necessity of bringing elite maize inbreds of the Lancaster germplasm group, which have potential for cultivation in Ukraine, into the system of genetic tranformation, the aim of this investigation is to identify the ability of maize inbreds of this group to regenerate by direct organogenesis and to determine the optimal mineral basis for their nutritional environment using segments of the node area of shoots. As explantats we used sterile 4-day old seedlings of 4 maize inbreds of Lancaster germplasm and model inbred Chi31 exotic germplasm. The seedlings were obtained by germination of sterile seeds in Petri dishes between two layers of moist sterile filter paper at a temperature of 27 ºC in dark conditions. A single 1 cmlong segment was cut from each from each seedling, running from 0.5 cmbefore the node to 0.5 cmafter the node. A cut was made in each segment of the node in order to create a wounded surface. Explantats were planted in a nutrient environment with mineral bases of MS or N6, modified by the addition of 10 mg/l silver nitrate, 100 mg/l casein hydrolyzate, 690 mg/l L-proline, 30 g/l sucrose, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dychlorphenoksiacetic acid and 0,1 mg/l abscisic acid. Cultivation was carried out at 25–27 ºC in the light. Direct hemogenesis in this environment on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro reached 100% for each line. This meant that all researched lines of Lancaster germplasm and the model line showed a high capacity for direct regeneration through direct hemogenesis, which does not depend on the composition of the mineral content of their nutritional environment. Callus formation was observed in all genotypes on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro and the extent of its formation increased during the following month of cultivation. The callus formation was observed only at the site of the wounded surface. The calluses were transparent. Although green areas appeared in these calluses, they were

  15. Closely related glycosylation patterns of recombinant human IL-2 expressed in a CHO cell line and natural IL-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vita, N.; Magazin, M.; Marchese, E.; Lupker, J.; Ferrara, P.

    1990-01-01

    We report here the study of the glycosylation pattern of human recombinant (r) IL2 expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The human rIL2 secreted by this high-producing recombinant CHO cell line was metabolically radiolabelled with [35S]-methionine, or with [3H]-glucosamine and [3H]-galactose, purified to homogeneity, and then characterized. The electrophoretic analysis of the [35S]-methionine-labelled proteins present in the culture medium of the CHO cell line showed that the rIL2 represents approximately 12% of the total secreted proteins. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments showed that the glycosylated rIL2 is synthesized and secreted within 30 min. The point of attachment and the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of the rIL2 was determined by: amino-terminal sequencing and fingerprint analysis of the 3H-labelled rIL2, mass spectroscopy of the amino-terminal tryptic octapeptide, and carbohydrate analysis after enzymatic (Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase and Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase) or sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The results indicate that the recombinant protein possesses a sugar moiety O-linked to the threonine residue at position 3 of the polypeptide chain, and that sialic acid, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine are components of this carbohydrate moiety. Taken together these results suggest that the recombinant molecule is identical to natural IL2

  16. Genetic diversity for RFLPs in European maize inbreds : II. Relation to performance of hybrids within versus between heterotic groups for forage traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Boppenmaier, J; Dhillon, B S; Pollmer, W G; Herrmann, R G

    1992-08-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been proposed for the prediction of the yield potential of hybrids and the assignment of inbreds to heterotic groups. Such use was investigated in 66 diallel crosses among 6 flint and 6 dent inbreds from European maize (Zea mays L.) germ plasm. Inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for seven forage traits in four environments in the Federal Republic of Germany. Midparent heterosis (MPH) and specific combining ability (SCA) were calculated. Genetic distances (GD) between lines were calculated from RFLP data of 194 clone-enzyme combinations. GDs were greater for flint x dent than for flint x flint and dent x dent line combinations. Cluster analysis based on GDs showed separate groupings of flint and dent lines and agreed with pedigree information, except for 1 inbred. GDs of all line combinations in the diallel were partitioned into general (GGD) and specific (SGD) genetic distances; GGD explained approximately 20% of the variation among GD values. For the 62 diallel crosses (excluding 4 crosses of highly related lines), correlations of GD with F1 performance, MPH, and SCA for dry matter yield (DMY) of stover, ear, and forage were positive but mostly of moderate size (0.09≤r≤0.60) compared with the higher correlations (0.39≤r≤0.77) of SGD with these traits. When separate calculations were performed for various subsets, correlations of GD and SGD with DMY traits were generally small (r<0.47) for the 36 flint x dent crosses, significantly positive (r<0.53) for the 14 flint x flint crosses, and inconclusive for the 12 dent x dent crosses because of the lack of significant genotypic variation. Results indicated that RFLPs can be used for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups. RFLP-based genetic distance measures seem to be useful for predicting forage yield of (1) crosses between lines from the same germ plasm group or (2) crosses including line combinations from the same as well as different heterotic groups

  17. Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in inbred knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofen Zuo

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the genotype of 42 out of 198 mouse microsatellite loci, which are distributed among all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, changed from monomorphism to polymorphism (CMP in a genetically modified inbred mouse strain. In this study, we further examined whether CMP also relates to the homologous recombination in gene knockout (KO mouse strains. The same 42 microsatellite loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 29 KO inbred mouse strains via short tandem sequence repeat (STR scanning and direct sequence cloning to justify microsatellite polymorphisms. The C57BL/6J and 129 mouse strains, from which these 29 KO mice were derived, were chosen as the background controls. The results indicated that 10 out of 42 (23.8% loci showed CMP in some of these mouse strains. Except for the trinucleotide repeat locus of D3Mit22, which had microsatellite CMP in strain number 9, the core sequences of the remaining 41 loci were dinucleotide repeats, and 9 out of 41 (21.95% showed CMPs among detected mouse strains. However, 11 out of 29 (37.9% KO mice strains were recognized as having CMPs. The popular dinucleotide motifs in CMP were (TG(n (50%, 2/4, followed by (GT(n (27.27%, 3/11 and (CA(n (23.08%, 3/13. The microsatellite CMP in (CT(n and (AG(n repeats were 20% (1/5. According to cloning sequencing results, 6 KO mouse strains showed insertions of nucleotides whereas 1 showed a deletion. Furthermore, 2 loci (D13Mit3 and D14Mit102 revealed CMP in 2 strains, and mouse strain number 9 showed CMPs in two loci (D3Mit22 and D13Mit3 simultaneously. Collectively, these results indicated that microsatellite polymorphisms were present in the examined inbred KO mice.

  18. Mapping of stripe rust resistance QTL in Cappelle-Desprez × PBW343 RIL population effective in northern wheat belt of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sushma Kumari; Sharma, Davinder; Duhan, Joginder Singh; Saharan, Mahender Singh; Tiwari, Ratan; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is most important and devastating disease of wheat worldwide, which affects the grain yields, quality and nutrition. To elucidate, the genetic basis of resistance, a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines was developed from a cross between resistant Cappelle-Desprez and susceptible cultivar PBW343 using single-seed descent. Variety PBW343 had been one of the most popular cultivars of North Western Plains Zone, for more than a decade, before succumbing to the stripe rust. Cappelle-Desprez, a source of durable adult plant resistance, has maintained its resistance against stripe rust for a long time in Europe. Map construction and QTL analysis were completed with 1012 polymorphic (DArT and SSR) markers. Screenings for stripe rust disease were carried out in field condition for two consecutive crop seasons (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). Susceptible parent (PBW343) achieved a significant level of disease i.e., 100 % in both the years. In present investigations, resistance in Cappelle-Desprez was found stable and response to the rust ranged from 0 to 1.5 % over the years. The estimated broad-sense heritability (h 2 ) of stripe rust rAUDPC in the mapping population was 0.82. The relative area under the disease progress curve data showed continuous distributions, indicating that trait was controlled multigenically. Genomic region identified on chromosome 2D, was located within the short arm, with flanking markers (Xgwm484-Xcfd73), explained phenotypic variation (PVE) ranged from 13.9 to 31.8 %. The genomic region identified on chromosome 5B was found with the effect of maximum contribution with flanking DArT markers (1376633|F|0-1207571|F|0), PVE ranged from 24 to 27.0 %. This can, therefore, be utilized for marker assisted selection in developing much needed stripe rust resistant lines for the northern wheat belt of India.

  19. Heterosis For Litter Traits In Native By Exotic Inbred Pig Crosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inbred strains generated from native and exotic pigs were compared with their F1 and F2 backcross populations for a range of litter performance traits. Animals were intensively reared and at 81/2 months of age, the inbred genotypes from each strain were reciprocally mated to each other to generate F1 crossbred genotypes ...

  20. Uudised : Mravinski festival Narvas. Sünnipäevakontsert talveaias. Tartu Ülikooli Kammerkoor... .25.-26. V toimub Türil... .

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    J. Mravinski nim. rahvusvahelisest festivalist Narvas. L.Sumera 51. sünniaastapäeva tähistati helilooja kammermuusikakontserdiga Estonia talveaias 10. mail. TÜ Kammerkoor tähistab kontserdiga TÜ aulas oma 30. aastapäeva. 25.-26. maini toimub Türil III üleriigiline lastekooride konkurss-festival, mis on pühendatud V. Tormise loomingule

  1. Association analysis of IL10, TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 SNPs with Behçet's disease risk in Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouahiba eKhaib Dit Naib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have conducted the first study of the association of interleukin (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 regionSNPswith Behçet's disease (BD in Western Algeria. Methods: A total of 51 BD patients and 96 unrelated controls from West region of Algeria were genotyped by direct sequencing for 11 SNPs including 2 SNPsfrom the IL10 promoter [c.-819T>C (rs1800871, c.-592A>C (rs1800872], 6 SNPs from the TNF-α promoter [c.-1211T>C (rs1799964, c.-1043C>A (rs1800630, c.-1037C>T (rs1799724, c.-556G>A (rs1800750, c.-488G>A (rs1800629 and c.-418G>A (rs361525], and 3 SNPs from the IL23R-IL12RB2 region [g.67747415A>C (rs12119179, g.67740092G>A (rs11209032 and g.67760140T>C (rs924080]. Results: The minor alleles c.-819T and c.-592A were significantly associated with BD (OR= 2.18; 95% CI 1.28-3.73, p = 0.003; whereas, there was weaker association between TNF-αpromoter SNPs or IL23R-IL12RB2 region and disease risk.Conclusion: Unlike the TNF-αand the IL23R-IL12RB2 region SNPs, the two IL10 SNPs were strongly associated with BD. The -819T, and -592A alleles and the -819TT, -819CT, and -592AA and -592CA genotypes seem to be highly involved in the risk of developing of BD in the population of Western Algeria.

  2. Slow inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster express as much inbreeding depression as fast inbred lines under semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Knudsen, Morten Ravn; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Selection may reduce the deleterious consequences of inbreeding. This may be due to purging of recessive deleterious alleles or balancing selection favouring heterozygote offspring. Such selection is expected to be more efficient at slower compared to at faster rates of inbreeding. In this study ...

  3. Causes and consequences of chromatin variation between inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation at regulatory elements, identified through hypersensitivity to digestion by DNase I, is believed to contribute to variation in complex traits, but the extent and consequences of this variation are poorly characterized. Analysis of terminally differentiated erythroblasts in eight inbred strains of mice identified reproducible variation at approximately 6% of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Only 30% of such variable DHS contain a sequence variant predictive of site variation. Nevertheless, sequence variants within variable DHS are more likely to be associated with complex traits than those in non-variant DHS, and variants associated with complex traits preferentially occur in variable DHS. Changes at a small proportion (less than 10% of variable DHS are associated with changes in nearby transcriptional activity. Our results show that whilst DNA sequence variation is not the major determinant of variation in open chromatin, where such variants exist they are likely to be causal for complex traits.

  4. Heritability and Components of Resistance to Cercospora zeae-maydis Derived from Maize Inbred VO613Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart G; Lipps, Patrick E; Pratt, Richard C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most important foliar diseases of maize. This study was undertaken to estimate heritability of C. zeae-maydis resistance and examine the relationship between previously identified resistance loci and certain components of resistance including incubation period, lesion number, and maximum lesion length. Partially inbred progenies arising from hybridization between maize inbred lines VO613Y (high level of partial resistance) and Pa405 (susceptible) were examined in Ohio and South Africa. Heritability estimates of resistance were calculated based on severity and incubation period values. The range of heritability estimates based on severity was broad, with values ranging from approximately 0.46 to 0.81 (mean = 0.59). Estimates of mean heritability for incubation period were lowest (0.18), indicating that this component would likely be unsuitable for selection of germ plasm intended for deployment in diverse regions. Length of GLS lesions was significantly affected by host genotype, with resistant genotypes having shorter lesions from one site in Ohio during two seasons. Genotype also had a significant effect on incubation period and lesion number; the lower values for these components also were associated with resistant genotypes. The combined action of these resistance components resulted in lower overall disease severity.

  5. Avaliação de linhagens de trigo originárias de hibridação com e sem irradiação gama Evaluation of wheat inbred lines originated from hybridizations with and without gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego da técnica de indução de mutação associada à hibridação tem contribuído para a obtenção de novos genótipos de trigo com características agronômicas desejáveis. Avaliaram-se 18 linhagens de trigo, sendo dez oriundas de seleção de plantas do híbrido Kauz "S"x IAC-24 que tiveram as sementes, em geração F2, irradiadas (I com raios gama e oito não irradiadas (NI, além das cultivares IAC-24 e IAC-289, em seis experimentos instalados no período 1997-99. Foram analisadas a produção de grãos, a resistência a doenças e outras características agronômicas. Em condições de laboratório, estudou-se a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas, utilizando-se as cultivares BH-1146 (tolerante e Anahuac (sensível, como controles. A linhagem L18-I destacou-se quanto à produção de grãos em condição de irrigação por aspersão e solo corrigido, nos três anos considerados. Em solo ácido e condição de sequeiro, L20-I, tolerante à toxicidade de Al3+, em soluções nutritivas, destacou-se quanto à produção de grãos, diferindo somente da IAC-289, a mais sensível à toxicidade de Al3+. IAC-289 e L9-NI destacaram-se na condição de sequeiro e solo corrigido, diferindo somente das linhagens L3-NI e L11-I. Na linhagem L11-I, observou-se porte mais baixo em todos os experimentos associado à resistência ao acamamento e à tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+. Todos os genótipos foram suscetíveis ao agente causal da mancha-da-folha. L9-NI tem potencial como fonte de genes em programas de melhoramento genético dada sua resistência à ferrugem-da-folha. Com exceção de Anahuac, IAC-289 e da L3-NI, todos os genótipos foram tolerantes à presença de 10 mg L-1 de Al3+ em soluções nutritivas.The mutation induction technique associated with hybridization has provided the development of new genotypes with desirable agronomic traits. Seeds of eighteen F2 wheat lines being ten originated by plant selections of

  6. NCEI--Ap-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a simple random sampling scheme without replacement. The unknown feature of the system is the proportion,. (), of individuals in the population who hold the ..... Then the natural approach is what is called regression: exploring and presenting the relationship be- tween design (explanatory) variables and response vari-.

  7. Polyoma virus-induced osteosarcomas in inbred strains of mice: host determinants of metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivel Velupillai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse polyoma virus induces a broad array of solid tumors in mice of many inbred strains. In most strains tumors grow rapidly but fail to metastasize. An exception has been found in the Czech-II/Ei mouse in which bone tumors metastasize regularly to the lung. These tumors resemble human osteosarcoma in their propensity for pulmonary metastasis. Cell lines established from these metastatic tumors have been compared with ones from non-metastatic osteosarcomas arising in C3H/BiDa mice. Osteopontin, a chemokine implicated in migration and metastasis, is known to be transcriptionally induced by the viral middle T antigen. Czech-II/Ei and C3H/BiDa tumor cells expressed middle T and secreted osteopontin at comparable levels as the major chemoattractant. The tumor cell lines migrated equally well in response to recombinant osteopontin as the sole attractant. An important difference emerged in assays for invasion in which tumor cells from Czech-II/Ei mice were able to invade across an extracellular matrix barrier while those from C3H/BiDa mice were unable to invade. Invasive behavior was linked to elevated levels of the metalloproteinase MMP-2 and of the transcription factor NFAT. Inhibition of either MMP-2 or NFAT inhibited invasion by Czech-II/Ei osteosarcoma cells. The metastatic phenotype is dominant in F1 mice. Osteosarcoma cell lines from F1 mice expressed intermediate levels of MMP-2 and NFAT and were invasive. Osteosarcomas in Czech-II/Ei mice retain functional p53. This virus-host model of metastasis differs from engineered models targeting p53 or pRb and provides a system for investigating the genetic and molecular basis of bone tumor metastasis in the absence of p53 loss.

  8. Haplotypes at the Tas2r locus on distal chromosome 6 vary with quinine taste sensitivity in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Steven D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of bitter-tasting compounds by the gustatory system is thought to alert animals to the presence of potentially toxic food. Some, if not all, bitter stimuli activate specific taste receptors, the T2Rs, which are expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells on the tongue and palate. However, there is evidence for both receptor-dependent and -independent transduction mechanisms for a number of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl and denatonium benzoate (DB. Results We used brief-access behavioral taste testing of BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI mouse strains to map the major quantitative trait locus (QTL for taste sensitivity to QHCl. This QTL is restricted to a ~5 Mb interval on chromosome 6 that includes 24 genes encoding T2Rs (Tas2rs. Tas2rs at this locus display in total 307 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the two BXD/Ty RI parental strains, C57BL/6J (quinine-sensitive and DBA/2J (quinine insensitive; approximately 50% of these mutations are silent. Individual RI lines contain exclusively either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J Tas2r alleles at this locus, and RI lines containing C57BL/6J Tas2r alleles are more sensitive to QHCl than are lines containing DBA/2J alleles. Thus, the entire Tas2r cluster comprises a large haplotype that correlates with quinine taster status. Conclusion These studies, the first using a taste-salient assay to map the major QTL for quinine taste, indicate that a T2R-dependent transduction cascade is responsible for the majority of strain variance in quinine taste sensitivity. Furthermore, the large number of polymorphisms within coding exons of the Tas2r cluster, coupled with evidence that inbred strains exhibit largely similar bitter taste phenotypes, suggest that T2R receptors are quite tolerant to variation.

  9. Response to zinc deficiency of two rice lines with contrasting tolerance is determined by root growth maintenance and organic acid exudation rates, and not by zinc-transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Basuki; Broadley, Martin R; Rose, Terry; Frei, Michael; Pariasca-Tanaka, Juan; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Thomson, Michael; Hammond, John P; Aprile, Alessio; Close, Timothy J; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    *Zinc (Zn)-deficient soils constrain rice (Oryza sativa) production and cause Zn malnutrition. The identification of Zn-deficiency-tolerant rice lines indicates that breeding might overcome these constraints. Here, we seek to identify processes underlying Zn-deficiency tolerance in rice at the physiological and transcriptional levels. *A Zn-deficiency-tolerant line RIL46 acquires Zn more efficiently and produces more biomass than its nontolerant maternal line (IR74) at low [Zn](ext) under field conditions. We tested if this was the result of increased expression of Zn(2+) transporters; increased root exudation of deoxymugineic acid (DMA) or low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs); and/or increased root production. Experiments were performed in field and controlled environment conditions. *There was little genotypic variation in transcript abundance of Zn-responsive root Zn(2+)-transporters between the RIL46 and IR74. However, root exudation of DMA and LMWOA was greater in RIL46, coinciding with increased root expression of putative ligand-efflux genes. Adventitious root production was maintained in RIL46 at low [Zn](ext), correlating with altered expression of root-specific auxin-responsive genes. *Zinc-deficiency tolerance in RIL46 is most likely the result of maintenance of root growth, increased efflux of Zn ligands, and increased uptake of Zn-ligand complexes at low [Zn](ext); these traits are potential breeding targets.

  10. The K-INBRE symposium: a 10-institution collaboration to improve undergraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Sarah E; Abraham, K; Burnett, Tim G; Chapin, Bridgett; Hendry, William J; Leung, Sam; Madden, Michael E; Rider, Virginia; Stanford, John A; Ward, Robert E; Chapes, Stephen K

    2018-03-01

    The Kansas-IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence (K-INBRE) is an infrastructure-building program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Undergraduate education, through undergraduate research, is a key component of the program. The K-INBRE network includes 10 higher education institutions in Kansas and northern Oklahoma, with over 1,000 student participants in 16 yr. Since 2003, the K-INBRE has held an annual state-wide research symposium that includes national and regional speakers and provides a forum for undergraduates to give platform and poster presentations. The symposium is well attended by K-INBRE participants and has grown to a size of over 300 participants per year from all 10 K-INBRE schools. Two surveys were distributed to students and mentors to assess the impact of the symposium on student learning. Surveys (153) were distributed to students who participated in K-INBRE from 2013 through 2015 with a 51% response rate. Mentors were surveyed with a response of 111 surveys out of 161. Survey results indicate that students and mentors alike find the symposium to be beneficial and enriching of the student experience. Almost 80% of student respondents indicated that their participation in the symposium fostered appreciation of research. In short, the K-INBRE symposium provides a unique opportunity for students to gain experience in collecting, preparing, and communicating research in a professional environment. The collaborative experience of the annual K-INBRE symposium, the impact it has on student learning, and how it has influenced the research culture at our 10 institutions will be described.

  11. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  12. Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Arcos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4-5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor-calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde -21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = -0.38.The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown

  13. Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcos Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from –21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non–additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = –0.38.

    Key words: Zea mays; callose; inheritance; diallel; heterosis; acid soils.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4–5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de

  14. Identificação sexual através do estudo anatômico do sistema urogenital em recém-eclodidos e jovens de Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae Sexual identification using anatomical study of urogenital system in hatchlings and juveniles of tracHemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Malvasio

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 less than 12 months old are examined for sexual identification through anatomical study of urogenital system. Histological analysis is used to confirm sexual identification. It is concluded that accurate sexual identification is possible in hatchlings using gonadal morphology. Differences between testes and ovaries are clear so histological analysis is necessary for this species only in case of doubts.

  15. Maize inbreds exhibit high levels of copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV) in genome content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathan M; Ying, Kai; Fu, Yan; Ji, Tieming; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Jia, Yi; Wu, Wei; Richmond, Todd; Kitzman, Jacob; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Iniguez, A Leonardo; Barbazuk, W Brad; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Nettleton, Daniel; Schnable, Patrick S

    2009-11-01

    Following the domestication of maize over the past approximately 10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop.

  16. The Role of Cedex s Railway Inter operability Laboratory (RIL) in the European ERTMS; Actuaciones del Laboratorio de Interoperabilidad ferroviaria (LIF) del CEDEX en el despliegue Europeo ERTMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamarit Rodriguez de Huici, J.

    2015-07-01

    The RIL is the most recently laboratory set up within CEDEXs premises. From the start, it has aimed to support the development of rail transport at both European and Spanish levels. This article describes the role played by CEDEX-RIL in the development of ERTMS, and the close link which from its inception, has existed between this system and the EMSET project, in which the feasibility of the European Railway inter operability was demonstrated with the participation of the whole European signalling industry. The key factor for the success of this project was the creation of both and independent laboratory and testing sites which, right from the very beginning, enjoyed the confidence of the industry, thus allowing for the first time the execution of cross tests between companies. Finally, and equally important, this paper shows the fruitful evolution followed by the laboratory aforementioned, which, from its establishment, has evolved from performing tests on generic ERTMS constituents to undertaking, first, remote tests jointly carried out between specific commercial projects with different suppliers on track and on-board; and, second, Handover tests between diverse RBC suppliers. (Author)

  17. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  18. Identification of QTLs for powdery mildew and scald resistance in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtaya, M.J.Y.; Marcel, T.C.; Sillero, J.C.; Niks, R.E.; Rubiales, D.

    2006-01-01

    A population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F9-derived lines) developed from the two-row spring barley cross L94 × `Vada¿ was evaluated under field conditions for resistance against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis). Apart from the major

  19. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  20. Assessment of Newcastle Disease specific T cell proliferation in different inbred MHC chicken lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have described the establishment of an antigen-specific T cell proliferation assay based on recall stimulation with Newcastle disease (ND) antigen; further, we have described the results obtained after recall stimulation of animals containing different Major Histocompatibility...... Complex (MHC) haplotypes, vaccinated against ND. First optimization of the assay was performed to lower unspecific proliferation and to enhance antigen-specific T cell proliferation. These two issues were achieved using ethylene diamine tetra acetic-acid as stabilizing agent in blood samples...... and autologous immune serum in culture medium. The optimized assay was used to screen chickens with different MHC haplotypes for their ability to perform T cell proliferation. Results showed that the antigen-specific response of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from B12 chickens was generally low, whereas B13, B130 and B...

  1. Molecular characterization of high performance inbred lines of Brazilian common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P C B; Veiga, M M; de Menezes, I P P; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Melo, L C; Del Peloso, M J; Brondani, C; Vianello, R P

    2013-02-06

    The identification of germplasm genetic variability in breeding programs of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is essential for determining the potential of each combination of parent plants to obtain superior genotypes. The present study aimed to estimated the extent of genetic diversity in 172 lineages and cultivars of the common bean by integrating five tests of value for cultivation and use (VCU) that were conducted over the last eight years by the breeding program of Embrapa Arroz e Feijão in Brazil. Nine multilocus genotyping systems composed of 36 fluorescent microsatellite markers distributed across 11 different chromosomes of the common bean were used, of which 24 were polymorphic in all trials. One hundred and eighty-seven alleles were identified, with an average of 7.79 alleles per locus and an average gene diversity of 0.65. The combined probability of identity for all loci was 1.32 x 10(-16). Lineages that are more genetically divergent between the selection cycles were identified, allowing the breeding program to develop a crossbreed between elite genotypes with a low degree of genetic relatedness. HE values ranged from 0.31 to 0.63, with a large reduction in the genetic base over successive selection cycles. The test showed a significant degree of differentiation (FST = 0.159). Private alleles (26%) were identified and can be directly incorporated into the gene pool of cultivated germplasm, thereby contributing effectively to the expansion of genetic diversity in this bean-breeding program.

  2. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cátedra de Genética de Poblaciones y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Vélez Sarsfield 299 (5000) Córdoba, Argentina; Cátedra de Histología I y Embriología Básica, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina, ...

  3. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Ear axis weight (EAW) is one of the important agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L.), related to yield. To understand its genetic ... but the studies on using different N environments to map. QTL for maize EAW were not .... Mapping QTLs for grain yield and yield components under high and low phosphorus ...

  4. Combining ability of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines resistant to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Genotype (G) by environment (E) interaction (G x E) was non-significant for stem borer leaf damage, number of exit ... Hybrid 5 x 9 was the best performing hybrid in grain yield (6.53 t/ha) across the locations, while hybrid 1 x 4 was the ... Developed from multiple insect resistant population 590. 8. P590 C7 ...

  5. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Andrew L; Novais, Joana; Grift, Tony E; Bohn, Martin O

    2015-01-01

    The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

  6. Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Linda D.

    2012-01-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc Min mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc Min mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc Min males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene–gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies. Abbreviations:APCadenomatous polyposis coliGWASgenome-wide association studiesQTLquantitative trait lociSNPsingle-nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:22637734

  7. Identification of five novel modifier loci of Apc(Min) harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Stephanie C; Watson, Rayneisha; Innocent, Julie; Gonye, Gregory E; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D

    2012-08-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc ( Min ) mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc ( Min ) mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc ( Min ) mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc ( Min ) males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene-gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies.

  8. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  9. A non-synonymous SNP within the isopentenyl transferase 2 locus is associated with kernel weight in Chinese maize inbreds (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Bo; Liu, Changlin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongwei; Hao, Zhuanfang; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Ci, Xiaoke; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Shihuang

    2013-07-05

    Kernel weight, controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), is an important component of grain yield in maize. Cytokinins (CKs) participate in determining grain morphology and final grain yield in crops. ZmIPT2, which is expressed mainly in the basal transfer cell layer, endosperm, and embryo during maize kernel development, encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) that is involved in CK biosynthesis. The coding region of ZmIPT2 was sequenced across a panel of 175 maize inbred lines that are currently used in Chinese maize breeding programs. Only 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven haplotypes were detected among these inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity (π) within the ZmIPT2 window and coding region were 0.347 and 0.0047, respectively, and they were significantly lower than the mean nucleotide diversity value of 0.372 for maize Chromosome 2 (P maize germplasm, with the most frequent favorable allele identified in subgroup PB (Partner B). These results showed that ZmIPT2, which is associated with kernel weight, was subjected to artificial selection during the maize breeding process. ZmIPT2-T had higher IPT activity than ZmIPT2-C, and this favorable allele for kernel weight could be used in molecular marker-assisted selection for improvement of grain yield components in Chinese maize breeding programs.

  10. TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIOR IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAKINO, J; KATO, K; MAES, FW

    1991-01-01

    Behavior of the inbred mouse strains BALB, C3H, DBA and C57BL in an open field was directly observed for 10 min by a multi-event time sampling method. It was coded into nine behavioral items, the occurrence or absence of which in consecutive 5-s time bins was called a behavioral state. Fourteen

  11. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    Abstract. Density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X level were done to study the reaction mech- anism and regioselectivity for the [2+2] cycloaddition of allyltrimethylsilane with alkynones using InBr3 as the catalyst. The solvent effect was described by the single-point calculations with SMD model in 1,2-.

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we have identified and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to O. foetida in faba bean (Vicia faba) and studied their stability in two different environments. One hundred and forty four Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from the cross between a susceptible and a resistant parent were ...

  14. Transgressive segregation of root-knot nematode resistance in cotton determined by QTL analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, was found in intraspecific (Gossypium hirsutum; resistant Acala NemX x susceptible Acala SJ-2) and interspecific (G. barbadense susceptible Pima-S7 x Acala NemX) cotton recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Similar contribut...

  15. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for 100-kernel weight of maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zea mays L.), related to yield. To realize its genetic basis, in this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4 was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for KW under high and ...

  16. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  17. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj. 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009- ...

  18. Variation in seed dormancy quantitative trait loci in Arabidopsis thaliana originating from one site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silady, R.A.; Effgen, S.; Koornneef, M.; Reymond, M.

    2011-01-01

    A Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was performed using two novel Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) populations, derived from the progeny between two Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes collected at the same site in Kyoto (Japan) crossed with the reference laboratory strain Landsberg erecta (Ler). We

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the early 1930s, J. B. S. Haldane and C. H. Waddington collaborated on the consequences of genetic linkage and inbreeding. One elegant mathematical genetics problem solved by them concerns recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced via repeated self or brother–sister mating. In this classic contribution, Haldane ...

  20. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tassel architecture is an important trait in maize breeding and hybrid seed production. In this study, we investigated total tassel length (TTL) and tassel branch number (TBN) in 266 F2:3 families across six environments and in 301 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) across three environments, where all the plants were derived ...

  1. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Allelopathy in Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Courtois, B; Olofsdotter, M

    2008-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) against Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. was investigated under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. A population of 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived through single-seed descent from a cross between the indica cultivar AC...

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci for salinity tolerance in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... Besides its economic significance, it is rich in genetic ... A set of three hundred F5recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from International Rice Research ..... Emirates Journal of. Food and Agriculture 23(2), 137 - 146. Joehanes R. and Nelson J. C. 2008 QGene 4.0, an extensible Java QTL-analysis platform.

  3. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009-2010 and ...

  4. Identification of novel QTL for sawfly resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Sherman; D. K. Weaver; M. L. Hofland; S. E. Sing; M. Buteler; S. P. Lanning; Y. Naruoka; F. Crutcher; N. K. Blake; J. M. Martin; P. F. Lamb; G. R. Carlson; L. E. Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus Nort.) is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in the Northern Great Plains. This paper reports the genetic analysis of antixenosis for egg-laying WSS females in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of hard red spring wheat. Female WSS preferentially choose certain wheat genotypes for egg-laying, with the...

  5. Simple sequence repeat markers associated with anthracnose and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping of resistance to anthracnose and Turcicum leaf blight (TLB) was undertaken in 126 F8:9 sorghum recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between MUC007/009 and Epuripuri. The F8:9 RILs were evaluated for field resistance to anthracnose and TLB in Uganda and Sudan. There were significant differences ...

  6. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine ...

  7. Comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci for tassel-related traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QIANG YI

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... families across six environments and in 301 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) across three environments, where all the plants were derived from a cross between 08-641 and Ye478. We compared the genetic architecture of the two traits across two generations through combined analysis. In total, 27 ...

  8. Genetic control of protein, oil and fatty acids content under partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to map quantitative trait locus (QTLs) associated with percentage of seed protein, oil and fatty acids content under different conditions in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower. Three independent field experiments were conducted with well-, partial-irrigated and ...

  9. [A Study of the Relationship Among Genetic Distances, NIR Spectra Distances, and NIR-Based Identification Model Performance of the Seeds of Maize Iinbred Lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Jia, Shi-qiang; Wang, Chun-ying; Liu, Zhe; Gu, Jian-cheng; Zhai, Wei; Li, Shao-ming; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Zhu, De-hai; Huang, Hua-jun; An, Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper explored the relationship among genetic distances, NIR spectra distances and NIR-based identification model performance of the seeds of maize inbred lines. Using 3 groups (total 15 pairs) of maize inbred lines whose genetic distaches are different as experimental materials, we calculates the genetic distance between these seeds with SSR markers and uses Euclidean distance between distributed center points of maize NIR spectrum in the PCA space as the distances of NIR spectrum. BPR method is used to build identification model of inbred lines and the identification accuracy is used as a measure of model identification performance. The results showed that, the correlation of genetic distance and spectra distancesis 0.9868, and it has a correlation of 0.9110 with the identification accuracy, which is highly correlated. This means near-Infrared spectrum of seedscan reflect genetic relationship of maize inbred lines. The smaller the genetic distance, the smaller the distance of spectrum, the poorer ability of model to identify. In practical application, near infrared spectrum analysis technology has the potential to be used to analyze maize inbred genetic relations, contributing much to genetic breeding, identification of species, purity sorting and so on. What's more, when creating a NIR-based identification model, the impact of the maize inbred lines which have closer genetic relationship should be fully considered.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the growth hormone (GH encoding gene in inbred and outbred domestic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyana Gencheva Hristova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the growth hormone (GH gene in rabbits is a candidate for meat production, understanding the genetic diversity and variation in this locus is of particular relevance. The present study comprised 86 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus divided into 3 groups: New Zealand White (NZW outbred rabbits; first-generation inbred rabbits (F1 and second-generation inbred rabbits (F2. They were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A 231 bp fragment of the polymorphic site of the GH gene was digested with Bsh1236 restriction enzyme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for the studied GH locus corresponding to 3 genotypes were detected in the studied rabbit populations: CC, CT and TT. In the synthetic inbred F1 and F2 populations, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype CT was 0.696 and 0.609, respectively, while for the homozygous CC genotype the frequency was lower (0.043 and 0.000, and respective values for the homozygous TT genotype were 0.261 and 0.391. This presumed a preponderance of the T allele (0.609 and 0.696 over the C allele (0.391 and 0.304 in these groups. In outbred rabbits, the allele frequencies were 0.613 (allele C and 0.387 (allele Т; consequently, the frequency of the homozygous CC genotype was higher than that of the homozygous TT genotype (0.300 vs. 0.075. Observed heterozygosity for the GH gene was higher than expected, and the result was therefore a negative inbreeding coefficient (Fis=–0.317 for outbred NZW rabbits; –0.460 for inbred F1 and –0.438 for inbred F2, indicating a sufficient number of heterozygous forms in all studied groups of rabbits. The application of narrow inbreeding by breeding full sibs in the synthetic population did not cause a rapid increase in homozygosity.

  11. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Moinul Haque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2 and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45 rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (% declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of blue-crested lizard, Calotes mystaceus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Agamidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Khumkratok, Sutthira; Wongpakam, Komgrit; Thanonkeo, Sudarat; Senakhun, Chadaporn; Appamaraka, Sombat; Yodsiri, Surapon; Thongnetr, Weera; Pilap, Warayutt; Kongbuntad, Watee; Tawong, Wittaya; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Petney, Trevor N; Tantrawatpan, Chairat

    2017-06-01

    The blue-crested lizard, Calotes mystaceus Duméril & Bibron, 1837, is listed as a protected wild animal in Thailand. Its population is likely to be dramatically reduced due to massive hunting in several areas in this country. Basic information on its population genetics is therefore needed to facilitate its conservation. Thus, in this study we investigated the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) sequence variation of 238 individualC.mystaceus from 42 different geographical localities of the north, west, central, east and northeast regions of Thailand. High genetic diversity and genetic differentiation at the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels was observed.We detected 63 unique haplotypes and 12 common/shared haplotypes. The phylogenetic analysis reveals two major lineages, I and II. These two lineages are separated by mountain ranges, which play an important role as natural barriers blocking gene flow. Our finding reveal at least two cryptic lineages represented in C. mystaceus populations in Thailand. However, a comprehensive investigation of the morphology, biology, ecology and genetic diversity of C. mystaceus in other regions within its area of distribution is needed.

  13. Desarrollo y producción de cefazolina 500 mg y 1 g, polvo estéril para inyección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Serrate Merino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo de la formulación para la obtención de cefazolina 500 mg y 1 g, polvo estéril para inyección, con la calidad requerida, así como el estudio de estabilidad para determinar su vida útil, tanto en forma de polvo como después de reconstituida. Se desarrolló este medicamento con calidad similar a las firmas internacionales al contar con la infraestructura necesaria, el personal técnico calificado y la posibilidad de adquirir la materia prima, además de reducir los costos, lo que garantiza un gran beneficio social y económico.The development of the formulation for obtaining 500 mg and 1 mg quality cefazolin, sterile powder for injection, together with the stability studies to determine this drug lifetime cither as powder or as reconstituted substance are described. The quality of the drug obtained was similar to that stated by the international manufacturers since the necessary infrastructure, required skilled personnel, adequate supply of raw material and reduced costs were assured. All this guarantees a great social and economic benefit.

  14. Digital phenotyping for quantification of genetic diversity in inbred guava (Psidium guajava) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Viana, A P; Cavalcante, N R; Ambrósio, M; Santos, E A; Vieira, H D

    2017-03-22

    Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images. Different genetic diversity quantification strategies were tested using the Ward-Modified Location Model method. The set of variables related to geometry of the seeds was the largest contributor to divergence among the guava genotypes. The use of seed descriptors obtained by digital image analysis via the SAS system was efficient at quantifying the genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava families associated with the use of the Ward-Modified Location Model method.

  15. Genetic repairing through storage of gamma irradiated seeds in inbred maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR, Girjesh; RAI, Prashant KUMAR

    2009-01-01

    Gamma irradiation can induce beneficial as well as deleterious impacts on chromosome behavior in crop plants. The cytogenetic changes occurring due to the storage of inbred seeds after gamma irradiation in the somatic and gametic cells of Zea mays L. were investigated in this study. A wide spectrum of chromosomal anomalies was encountered in somatic and gametic cells of maize that are gamma irradiated, stored (aged), and treated with a combination of both of these treatments. Gamma rays and a...

  16. Fibre type composition of soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in normal female inbred Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2002), s. 399-405 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant - others:CZ - SI Czech-Slovenian Intergovernmental S&T Co-operation(XC) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : inbred Lewis rats * skeletal muscles * soleus and EDL muscles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2002

  17. Screening of IR50 x Rathu Heenati F7 RILs and identification of SSR markers linked to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; M Sheba, Jennifer; Marappan, Maheshwaran; Ponnuswamy, Shanmugasunderam; Seetharaman, Suresh; Pothi, Nagarajan; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Natesan, Senthil

    2010-09-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the major insect pests of rice. A Sri Lankan indica rice cultivar Rathu Heenati was found to be resistant to all biotypes of the brown planthopper. In the present study, a total of 268 F(7) RILs of IR50 and Rathu Heenati were phenotyped for their level of resistance against BPH by the standard seedbox screening test (SSST) in the greenhouse. A total of 53 SSR primers mapped on the chromosome 3 were used to screen the polymorphism between the parents IR50 and Rathu Heenati, out of which eleven were found to be polymorphic between IR50 and Rathu Heenati. The eleven primers that have shown polymorphism between the IR50 and Rathu Heenati parents were genotyped in a set of five resistant RILs and five susceptible RILs along with the parents for co-segregation analysis. Among the eleven primers, two primers namely RM3180 (18.22 Mb) and RM2453 (20.19 Mb) showed complete co-segregation with resistance. The identification of SSR markers linked with BPH resistant could be used for the maker assisted selection (MAS) program in rice breeding and to map the resistant genes on rice chromosomes for further gene cloning.

  18. Identification of exercise capacity QTL using association mapping in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Sean M; Massett, Michael P

    2012-10-02

    There are large interindividual differences in exercise capacity. It is well established that there is a genetic basis for these differences. However, the genetic factors underlying this variation are undefined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify novel putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for exercise capacity by measuring exercise capacity in inbred mice and performing genome-wide association mapping. Exercise capacity, defined as run time and work, was assessed in male mice (n = 6) from 34 strains of classical and wild-derived inbred mice performing a graded treadmill test. Genome-wide association mapping was performed with an efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) algorithm to identify QTL. Exercise capacity was significantly different across strains. Run time varied by 2.7-fold between the highest running strain (C58/J) and the lowest running strain (A/J). These same strains showed a 16.5-fold difference in work. Significant associations were identified for exercise time on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 11, and 13. The QTL interval on chromosome 2 (~168 Mb) contains one gene, Nfatc2, and overlaps with a suggestive QTL for training responsiveness in humans. These results provide phenotype data on the widest range of inbred strains tested thus far and indicate that genetic background significantly influences exercise capacity. Furthermore, the novel QTLs identified in the current study provide new targets for investigating the underlying mechanisms for variation in exercise capacity.

  19. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  20. DESPANOJADO Y DENSIDAD DE POBLACIÓN EN UNA CRUZA SIMPLE ANDROESTÉRIL Y FÉRTIL DE MAÍZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Espinosa-Calder\\u00F3n

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el objetivo fue determinar el efecto del despanojado en la productividad de cruzas simples de maíz. Se estableció un experimento durante el ciclo primavera - verano 2004, en el Rancho Almaraz de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM, ubicado en Cuautitlán Izcalli, México, a 2240 msnm. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de campo en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, el análisis estadístico se efectuó en forma factorial, considerando los factores genotipos (2, densidades de población (3 y el tratamiento de despanojado y sin despanojar (2, así como las interacciones. El rendimiento tuvo diferencias altamente significativas para despanojado, así como significancia estadística para genotipos y densidad de población y la interacción densidad de población x despanojado. La cruza simple versión androestéril en promedio rindió 8873 kg/ha, superior estadísticamente (17,9% a la versión fértil que produjo 7521 kg/ha. La densidad de población de 80 000 plantas/ha con 9640 kg/ha, superó estadísticamente al rendimiento obtenido con 50 000 plantas/ha (7193 kg/ha. El testigo sin despanojar (9429 kg/ha superó estadísticamente al despanojado.

  1. Combining ability and heterotic grouping of early maturing provitamin A maize inbreds across Striga infested and optimal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Konate

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development, deployment and production of stress tolerant provitamin A maize is crucial to the fight against vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where maize is a major staple food crop. Fifteen early maturing provitamin A and two early normal yellow endosperm maize inbreds were crossed using the diallel mating design to generate 136 single-cross hybrids. The hybrids were evaluated during 2015 growing season at three locations under two Striga infested and three optimal growing environments in Nigeria. The objectives were to (i determine the combining ability and heterotic groups of early maturing provitamin A inbreds; (ii examine the performance of the inbreds in hybrid combinations across environments and (iii identify early maturing provitamin A inbred testers for use in tropical maize breeding programs. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA effects were significant for grain yield and most other traits indicating that additive and non-additive genetic effects were important in the inheritance of these characters. Inbreds TZEI 10, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 17 had significant positive GCA for grain yield. TZEIOR 108, TZEIOR 42, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for Striga damage while TZEIOR 122, TZEIOR 127, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for number of emerged Striga plants. The inbreds were classified based on heterotic groups’ SCA and GCA of grain yield (HSGCA, SCA and GCA of multiple traits (HGCAMT methods into four, three and five heterotic groups, respectively. The inbreds TZEIOR 108, TZEI 10 and TZEI 17 were identified as testers. Hybrids 8, 3, 5, 10 and 1 were identified as high yielding and most stable across environments.

  2. Reciprocal translocation of small numbers of inbred individuals rescues immunogenetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, Catherine E; Sutton, Jolene T; Heber, Sol; Briskie, James V; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2017-05-01

    Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the New Zealand South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: Toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. We found that the relatively small number of migrants (seven and ten per island) effectively brought the characteristic TLR gene diversity of each source population into the recipient population. However, when migrants transmitted TLR alleles that were already present at high frequency in the recipient population, it was possible for offspring of mixed heritage to have decreased gene diversity compared to recipient population diversity prior to translocation. In contrast to TLRs, we did not observe substantial changes in MHC allelic diversity following translocation, with limited evidence of a decrease in differentiation, perhaps because most MHC alleles were observed at both sites prior to the translocation. Overall, we conclude that small numbers of migrants may successfully restore the diversity of immunogenetic loci with few alleles, but that translocating larger numbers of animals would provide additional opportunity for the genetic rescue of highly polymorphic immunity regions, such as the MHC, even when the source population is inbred. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. RE-SONANCE--IAp-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscope and repeatedly referring to an identification manual, obviously attempting to identify the insect. Hamilton, sitting a meter away, asked "to what level are you trying to identify that insect?" When told that the student was trying to place the specimen in its family, Hamilton immediately gave the correct identification of.

  4. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov; Earl, Patricia L., E-mail: pearl@nih.gov

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  5. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    anism results in the final product (P1) and regenera- tion of the catalyst (InBr3) through a-TS2. In a-TS2, the C2–C4 bond distance is 1.974 Å. The activation free energy for the last step is 10.7 kcal/mol, and the whole catalytic process is exothermic by −14.1 kcal/mol. The intermediate a-IN1 is easy to obtain the product (P1).

  6. Host Defenses in Experimental Scrub Typhus: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Responses of Inbred Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrells, Thomas R.; Osterman, Joseph V.

    1982-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of inbred mice during the course of lethal and chronic infections with strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated by using the influx of radiolabeled cells into antigen-injected ears. Congenic strains of C3H mice, which previously have been shown to be resistant (C3H/RV) or sensitive (C3H/HeDub) to lethal intraperitoneal infection with the Gilliam strain of rickettsiae, both expressed delayed-type hypersensitivity early in the course of infectio...

  7. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    To obtain controlled genetic variation, colon cancer was chemically induced by use of four subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg of body weight/wk) to rats of 3 inbred strains (BDIX/OrlIco, F344/NHsd, WAG/Rij). The selection was based on the availability of established colon cancer cell...... characteristics should resemble the corresponding human tumors. The size of the tumors should be at about 1 cm in diameter, as these tumor cells were intended to be used in future transplantation studies. The two experiments yielded highly reproducible results: histologic evaluation of all colon tumors in all...

  8. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  9. Fine mapping of the Bsr1 barley stripe mosaic virus resistance gene in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cui

    Full Text Available The ND18 strain of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV infects several lines of Brachypodium distachyon, a recently developed model system for genomics research in cereals. Among the inbred lines tested, Bd3-1 is highly resistant at 20 to 25 °C, whereas Bd21 is susceptible and infection results in an intense mosaic phenotype accompanied by high levels of replicating virus. We generated an F(6:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL population from a cross between Bd3-1 and Bd21 and used the RILs, and an F(2 population of a second Bd21 × Bd3-1 cross to evaluate the inheritance of resistance. The results indicate that resistance segregates as expected for a single dominant gene, which we have designated Barley stripe mosaic virus resistance 1 (Bsr1. We constructed a genetic linkage map of the RIL population using SNP markers to map this gene to within 705 Kb of the distal end of the top of chromosome 3. Additional CAPS and Indel markers were used to fine map Bsr1 to a 23 Kb interval containing five putative genes. Our study demonstrates the power of using RILs to rapidly map the genetic determinants of BSMV resistance in Brachypodium. Moreover, the RILs and their associated genetic map, when combined with the complete genomic sequence of Brachypodium, provide new resources for genetic analyses of many other traits.

  10. Incubação artificial dos ovos e processo de eclosão em Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae Artificial egg incubation and hatching proccess in Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudimes, Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio de Barros Molina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial incubation of 558 eggs from 70 clutches of Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 were performed at São Paulo Zoo during 1992 and 1993. Hatching occurred when eggs were incubated between 25 and 31.5oC. Incubation time varied from 54 (at 31.5oC to 120 days (at 25oC, similarly to Trachemys scripla sspp. Hatchling used the caruncle to made small incisions in the egg shell, latter enlarged by movements of the head and forefeet. Hatching usually lasted from one to two days. Newborn's carapace and plastron showed their natural form few hours after the emergence from the egg shell. During the third or fourth week, caruncle usually disappeared, and yolk sac was completely absorbed. Average (x±sd measures of newborn were 3.55±0.18cm of carapace length, 3.35±0.17cm of plastron length, and 10.73±1.36g of weight.

  11. A Maize Inbred Exhibits Resistance Against Western Corn Rootwoorm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano-Duque, Lina; Loades, Kenneth W; Tooker, John F; Brown, Kathleen M; Paul Williams, W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2017-12-01

    Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene. In contrast, Tx601 is susceptible to WCR. These findings will facilitate the use of Mp708 as a model to explore the wide variety of mechanisms and traits involved in plant defense responses and resistance to herbivory by insects with several different feeding habits.

  12. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boxelaere

    Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  13. Agrobacterium- and Biolistic-Mediated Transformation of Maize B104 Inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Jennifer A; Frame, Bronwyn; Little, Daniel; Santoso, Tri Joko; Wang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Genetic transformation of maize inbred genotypes remains non-routine for many laboratories due to variations in cell competency to induce embryogenic callus, as well as the cell's ability to receive and incorporate transgenes into the genome. This chapter describes two transformation protocols using Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods for gene delivery. Immature zygotic embryos of maize inbred B104, excised from ears harvested 10-14 days post pollination, are used as starting explant material. Disarmed Agrobacterium strains harboring standard binary vectors and the biolistic gun system Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He are used as gene delivery systems. The herbicide resistant bar gene and selection agent bialaphos are used for identifying putative transgenic type I callus events. Using the step-by-step protocols described here, average transformation frequencies (number of bialaphos resistant T 0 callus events per 100 explants infected or bombarded) of 4% and 8% can be achieved using the Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods, respectively. An estimated duration of 16-21 weeks is needed using either protocol from the start of transformation experiments to obtaining putative transgenic plantlets with established roots. In addition to laboratory in vitro procedures, detailed greenhouse protocols for producing immature ears as transformation starting material and caring for transgenic plants for seed production are also described.

  14. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski-Boase Laura

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6, BALB/cJ (BALB, C3H/HeJ (C3H, DBA/2J (D2, FVB/NJ (FVB and 129S1/SvImJ (129 mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine.

  15. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxelaere, Michiel; Clements, Jason; Callaerts, Patrick; D'Hooge, Rudi; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  16. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  17. QTL Mapping of Combining Ability and Heterosis of Agronomic Traits in Rice Backcross Recombinant Inbred Lines and Hybrid Crosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junyuan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Sibin; Mou, Tongmin; Zheng, Xingfei; Hu, Zhongli

    2012-01-01

    Background Combining ability effects are very effective genetic parameters in deciding the next phase of breeding programs. Although some breeding strategies on the basis of evaluating combining ability have been utilized extensively in hybrid breeding, little is known about the genetic basis of combining ability. Combining ability is a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes. With the advent and development of molecular markers, it is feasible to evaluate the genetic bases of combining ability and heterosis of elite rice hybrids through QTL analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we first developed a QTL-mapping method for dissecting combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits. With three testcross populations and a BCRIL population in rice, biometric and QTL analyses were conducted for ten agronomic traits. The significance of general combining ability and special combining ability for most of the traits indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive effects on expression levels. A large number of additive effect QTLs associated with performance per se of BCRIL and general combining ability, and dominant effect QTLs associated with special combining ability and heterosis were identified for the ten traits. Conclusions/Significance The combining ability of agronomic traits could be analyzed by the QTL mapping method. The characteristics revealed by the QTLs for combining ability of agronomic traits were similar with those by multitudinous QTLs for agronomic traits with performance per se of BCRIL. Several QTLs (1–6 in this study) were identified for each trait for combining ability. It demonstrated that some of the QTLs were pleiotropic or linked tightly with each other. The identification of QTLs responsible for combining ability and heterosis in the present study provides valuable information for dissecting genetic basis of combining ability. PMID:22291881

  18. QTL mapping of combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits in rice backcross recombinant inbred lines and hybrid crosses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining ability effects are very effective genetic parameters in deciding the next phase of breeding programs. Although some breeding strategies on the basis of evaluating combining ability have been utilized extensively in hybrid breeding, little is known about the genetic basis of combining ability. Combining ability is a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes. With the advent and development of molecular markers, it is feasible to evaluate the genetic bases of combining ability and heterosis of elite rice hybrids through QTL analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we first developed a QTL-mapping method for dissecting combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits. With three testcross populations and a BCRIL population in rice, biometric and QTL analyses were conducted for ten agronomic traits. The significance of general combining ability and special combining ability for most of the traits indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive effects on expression levels. A large number of additive effect QTLs associated with performance per se of BCRIL and general combining ability, and dominant effect QTLs associated with special combining ability and heterosis were identified for the ten traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combining ability of agronomic traits could be analyzed by the QTL mapping method. The characteristics revealed by the QTLs for combining ability of agronomic traits were similar with those by multitudinous QTLs for agronomic traits with performance per se of BCRIL. Several QTLs (1-6 in this study were identified for each trait for combining ability. It demonstrated that some of the QTLs were pleiotropic or linked tightly with each other. The identification of QTLs responsible for combining ability and heterosis in the present study provides valuable information for dissecting genetic basis of combining ability.

  19. Proteomic analysis of seedling roots of two maize inbred lines that differ significantly in the salt stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhou Cui

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant productivity and quality throughout the world. Roots are the sites of salt uptake. To better understand salt stress responses in maize, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling roots from the salt-tolerant genotype F63 and the salt-sensitive genotype F35 under 160 mM NaCl treatment for 2 days. Under salinity conditions, the shoot fresh weight and relative water content were significantly higher in F63 than in F35, while the osmotic potential was significantly lower and the reduction of the K+/Na+ ratio was significantly less pronounced in F63 than in F35. Using an iTRAQ approach, twenty-eight proteins showed more than 2.0- fold changes in abundance and were regarded as salt-responsive proteins. Among them, twenty-two were specifically regulated in F63 but remained constant in F35. These proteins were mainly involved in signal processing, water conservation, protein synthesis and biotic cross-tolerance, and could be the major contributors to the tolerant genotype of F63. Functional analysis of a salt-responsive protein was performed in yeast as a case study to confirm the salt-related functions of detected proteins. Taken together, the results of this study may be helpful for further elucidating salt tolerance mechanisms in maize.

  20. Expression of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes in Maize Lines Differing in Susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J. L.; Yang, W.; Yan, Y.; Crutcher, F.; Kolomiets, M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is a well-known host for Meloidogyne incognita, and there is substantial variation in host status among maize genotypes. In previous work it was observed that nematode reproduction increased in the moderately susceptible maize inbred line B73 when the ZmLOX3 gene from oxylipid metabolism was knocked out. Additionally, in this mutant line, use of a nonspecific primer for phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) genes indicated that expression of these genes was reduced in the mutant maize plant...

  1. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  2. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  3. Nocardia infections in congenitally athymic (nude) mice and in other inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folb, P I; Timme, A; Horowitz, A

    1977-01-01

    The mortality rate and histopathological features of Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis infections in congenitally athymic (nude) mice of ICR and C3H/eB origins were quite different from what we found for Swiss white mice and other inbred mouse strains (namely, C57/BL/6J, New Zealand Black, BALB/c, CBA/LAC, and C3H/eB). The immunocompetent littermates of the congenitally athymic mice occupied an intermediate position between their athymic siblings and Swiss white mice in terms of their responses to both these organisms. Macrophage ingestion and destruction of N. brasiliensis, as demonstrated by electron microscopy, was found to occur. The T-lymphocyte appears to be an essential component in normal mouse resistance to infection by both N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis. Images PMID:336547

  4. Correlation between DNA repair of embryonic fibroblasts and different life span of 3 inbred mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenholz, V.

    1978-02-01

    Primary mouse fibroblast cultures were established from 10 day old embryos of 3 inbred strains with a genetically determined different life expectancy. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis following uv irradiation was studied in these cells at various passage levels of the in vitro ageing process. The mouse fibroblasts show considerable repair synthesis corresponding to the duration of exposure time. The capacity for induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was different in the cells of each strain and correlated to the natural life span of the animal. In each case, however, the ability to perform repair synthesis was subjected to an age-associated decline, although semiconservative DNA synthesis and proliferative potential of the cell was not changed until the cultures entered phase III passages.

  5. Variation in anti-predator behavior among five strains of inbred guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Martell, Christopher M; Brodie, Edmund D

    2006-09-01

    Quantitative genetic studies frequently utilize inbred strains of animals as tools for partitioning the direct and indirect effects of genes from environmental effects in generating an observed phenotype, however, this approach is rarely applied to behavioral studies. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, perform a set of anti-predator behaviors that may provide an ideal system to study how complex behavioral traits are generated. To assess the utility of ornamental guppies in quantitative genetics studies of behavior, we assayed five morphologically distinct strains of ornamental guppies for response to predator cues and for variation in response among strains. Despite individual variation, all five strains responded to predator cues and differences among strains were found for all assayed behaviors, including measures of boldness and predator avoidance.

  6. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Temme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 have been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  7. Allelic expression changes in Medaka (Oryzias latipes hybrids between inbred strains derived from genetically distant populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Murata

    Full Text Available Variations in allele expressions between genetically distant populations are one of the most important factors which affects their morphological and physiological variations. These variations are caused by natural mutations accumulated in their habitats. It has been reported that allelic expression differences in the hybrids of genetically distant populations are different from parental strains. In that case, there is a possibility that allelic expression changes lead to novel phenotypes in hybrids. Based on genomic information of the genetically distant populations, quantification and comparison of allelic expression changes make importance of regulatory sequences (cis-acting factors or upstream regulatory factors (trans-acting modulators for these changes clearer. In this study, we focused on two Medaka inbred strains, Hd-rR and HNI, derived from genetically distant populations and their hybrids. They are highly polymorphic and we can utilize whole-genome information. To analyze allelic expression changes, we established a method to quantify and compare allele-specific expressions of 11 genes between the parental strains and their reciprocal hybrids. In intestines of reciprocal hybrids, allelic expression was either similar or different in comparison with the parental strains. Total expressions in Hd-rR and HNI were tissue-dependent in the case of HPRT1, with high up-regulation of Hd-rR allele expression in liver. The proportion of genes with differential allelic expression in Medaka hybrids seems to be the same as that in other animals, despite the high SNP rate in the genomes of the two inbred strains. It is suggested that each tissue of the strain difference in trans-acting modulators is more important than polymorphisms in cis-regulatory sequences in producing the allelic expression changes in reciprocal hybrids.

  8. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  9. Grain Yield and Fusarium Ear Rot of Maize Hybrids Developed From Lines With Varying Levels of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium spp. is found in all U.S. maize growing regions. Affected grain often contains carcinogenic mycotoxins called fumonisins. We tested the hypothesis that inbred lines with greater resistance to fumonisin contamination would pro...

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  11. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in aging mice of unique and common inbred strains contribution to modeling of human neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, H; Lechowska-Piskorowska, J; Krysiak, E; Strzalkowska, A; Unrug-Bielawska, K; Grygalewicz, B; Skurzak, H M; Pienkowska-Grela, B; Gajewska, M

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of spontaneous lesions in classical inbred strains of mice has become increasingly important because genetically engineered mice (GEMs) are created on these backgrounds. Novel inbred strains-genetically diverse from classic strains-are valuable both as a new background for GEM mice and to increase the genetic variation found in laboratory mice. Newly arising spontaneous genetic alterations in commonly used strains may also lead to new and valuable mouse models of disease. This report evaluates gross and histological lesions in relatively new, classic, and rarely explored mouse inbred strains. Pathological lesions of 1273 mice from 12 inbred strains (129S1/SvW, A.CA-H2(f) /W, AKR/W, BALB/cW, BN/aW, C57BL/6 W, C57BL/10 W, C3H/W, C3H (wad) /W, CBA/W, DBA/2 W, and WOM/W) are reported. BN/aW, WOM/W, and C3H (wad) /W are novel inbred strains produced and maintained in the Department of Genetics and Laboratory Animal Breeding at the Center of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were examined. The prevalence of lung neoplasms was significantly higher in A.CA-H2(f) /W (33.3%) and BALB/cW (33.8%) mice (P WOM/W mice developed T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with high frequency (110/121 [90.9%] and 159/175 [90.9%], respectively) before 1 year of age. The occurrence of nonneoplastic lesions in the kidneys of BN/aW mice was increased (P < .01).

  12. Power to detect higher-order epistatic interactions in a metabolic pathway using a new mapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Benjamin; Yu, Jianming; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Utz, H Friedrich; Maurer, Hans P; Buckler, Edward S

    2007-05-01

    Epistatic interactions among quantitative trait loci (QTL) contribute substantially to the variation in complex traits. The main objectives of this study were to (i) compare three- vs. four-step genome scans to identify three-way epistatic interactions among QTL belonging to a metabolic pathway, (ii) investigate by computer simulations the power and proportion of false positives (PFP) for detecting three-way interactions among QTL in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from a nested mating design, and (iii) compare these estimates to those obtained for detecting three-way interactions among QTL in RIL populations derived from diallel and different partial diallel mating designs. The single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype data of B73 and 25 diverse maize inbreds were used to simulate the production of various RIL populations. Compared to the three-step genome scan, the power to detect three-way interactions was higher with the four-step genome scan. Higher power to detect three-way interactions was observed for RILs derived from optimally allocated distance-based designs than from nested designs or diallel designs. The power and PFP to detect three-way interactions using a nested design with 5000 RILs were for both the 4-QTL and the 12-QTL scenario of a magnitude that seems promising for their identification.

  13. Study of improvement of indices maize line to establish their position in hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana DIRZU-COCOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. crop that is grown on large areas - over 140 million hectares worldwide, and 400-500 thousand ha in Moldova due to production potential broad diversity of use as food for humans, animals, birds raw material for industrial processing. The upward trend in average yields achieved is largely attributed to the improvement of scientific programs. Select the line with the characters and traits that are transmitted hereditary hybrids and contribute to their performance, ensure progress in improvement. Therefore, the process of creating inbred lines associated with combining ability testing as a measure of productivity conferred hybrids, is significant research programs. Orientation purpose of improved maize hybrids to formulas and simple change to a superior capitalization heterosis effect and perfect uniformity of plant requires changes in methodology for the creation, evaluation and classification of inbred lines.

  14. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  15. Quantification of phenolic acids and antioxidant potential of inbred, hybrid and composite cultivars of maize under different nitrogen regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahad, Amjid; Pandey, Renu; Ahmad, Sayeed; Aref, Ibrahim M; Noor, Jewel Jameeta; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a multipurpose crop, which is immensely used worldwide for its nutritional as well as medicinal properties. This study evaluates the effect of varying concentrations of nitrogen (N) on accumulation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in different maize cultivars, including inbreds, hybrids and a composite, which were grown in natural light under controlled temperature (30°C/20°C D/N) and humidity (80%), with sufficient (4.5mM) and low (0.05mM) nitrogen supply. Seeds of different cultivars were powdered and extracted in a methanol:water (80:20) mixture through reflux at 60-75°C, and the extracts obtained were subjected to high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), using ethyl acetate: acetic acid: formic acid: water (109:16:12:31) solvent system for the separation of phenolic acids. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and H2O2-scavenging activity assays. At sufficient nitrogen condition, the contents of different phenolic acids were higher in the composite cultivar (8.7 mg g-1 d.wt. in gallic acid to 39.3 mg g-1 d.wt. in cinnamic and salicylic acids) than in inbreds and hybrids. Under low nitrogen condition, the phenolic acids contents declined significantly in inbreds and hybrids, but remained almost unaffected in the composite. The antioxidant activity was also the maximum in the composite, and declined similarly as phenolic acids under low nitrogen supply, showing a significant reduction in inbreds and hybrids only. Therefore, the maize composite has a potential for being used as a nutraceutical in human-health sector.

  16. The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  18. Genetic mapping of a major dominant gene for resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in eggplant

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, A.; Gouy, M.; Daunay, Marie Christine; Wicker, E.; Chiroleu, F.; Prior, P.; Frary, Anne; Dintinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of eggplant against Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I strains was assessed in a F6 population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a intra-specific cross between S. melongena MM738 (susceptible) and AG91-25 (resistant). Resistance traits were determined as disease score, percentage of wilted plants, and stem-based bacterial colonization index, as assessed in greenhouse experiments conducted in Réunion Island, France. The AG91-25 resistance was highly efficient toward st...

  19. Genetic analysis of resistance to radiation lymphomagenesis with recombinant inbred strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.

    1990-01-01

    Induction of lymphomas by radiation in mice is controlled by genetic factors. We analyzed the genetic control of radiation lymphomagenesis using the CXS series of recombinant inbred strains derived from two progenitor strains: one highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphoma [BALB/cHeA (C)] and one extremely resistant [STS/A (S)]. The best concordances between strain distribution patterns of genetic markers and resistance (or susceptibility) to radiation lymphomagenesis were observed in a region with the b and Ifa genes on chromosome 4. This indicates that one major locus controls the incidence of radiogenic lymphomas in mice. We designated this locus as the Lyr (lymphoma resistance) locus. Backcrosses of (CXS)F1 to the two progenitor strains showed an intermediate incidence of lymphomas between their parental mice and did not significantly differ from (CXS)F1 mice. This and previous observations that (CXS)F1 mice also showed an intermediate incidence, differing from both progenitor strains, indicate that more genes are involved in the resistance (or susceptibility) to lymphoma induced by irradiation

  20. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lisboa Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  1. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyuan Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  3. Inheritance of nitrogen use efficiency in inbred progenies of tropical maize based on multivariate diallel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  4. Brachypodium distachyon line Bd3-1 resistance is elicited by the barley stripe mosaic virus triple gene block 1 movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.Y.; Yan, L.J.; Gorter, F.A.; Kim, B.Y.T.; Cui, Y.; Hu, Y.; Yuan, C.; Grindheim, J.; Ganesan, U.; Liu, Z.Y.; Han, C.G.; Yu, J.L.; Li, D.W.; Jackson, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus North Dakota 18 (ND18), Beijing (BJ), Xinjiang (Xi), Type (TY) and CV21 strains are unable to infect the Brachypodium distachyon Bd3-1 inbred line, which harbours a resistance gene designated Bsr1, but the Norwich (NW) strain is virulent on Bd3-1. Analysis of ND18 and NW

  5. Using gene expression databases for classical trait QTL candidate gene discovery in the BXD recombinant inbred genetic reference population: Mouse forebrain weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianhua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful strategies for QTL gene identification benefit from combined experimental and bioinformatic approaches. Unique design aspects of the BXD recombinant inbred line mapping panel allow use of archived gene microarray expression data to filter likely from unlikely candidates. This prompted us to propose a simple five-filter protocol for candidate nomination. To filter more likely from less likely candidates, we required candidate genes near to the QTL to have mRNA abundance that correlated with the phenotype among the BXD lines as well as differed between the parental lines C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also required verification of mRNA abundance by an independent method, and finally we required either differences in protein levels or confirmed DNA sequence differences. Results QTL mapping of mouse forebrain weight in 34 BXD RI lines found significant association on chromosomes 1 and 11, with each C57BL/6J allele increasing weight by more than half a standard deviation. The intersection of gene lists that were within ± 10 Mb of the strongest associated location, that had forebrain mRNA abundance correlated with forebrain weight among the BXD, and that had forebrain mRNA abundance differing between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, produced two candidates, Tnni1 (troponin 1 and Asb3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing protein 3. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the direction of an increased expression in C57BL/6J genotype over the DBA/2J genotype for both genes, a difference that translated to a 2-fold difference in Asb3 protein. Although Tnni1 protein differences could not be confirmed, a 273 bp indel polymorphism was discovered 1 Kb upstream of the transcription start site. Conclusion Delivery of well supported candidate genes following a single quantitative trait locus mapping experiment is difficult. However, by combining available gene expression data with QTL mapping, we illustrated a five-filter protocol that nominated Asb3 and

  6. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  7. Statistical Physics Methods Provide the Exact Solution to a Long-Standing Problem of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Areejit; Martin, Olivier C.

    2015-06-01

    Analytic and computational methods developed within statistical physics have found applications in numerous disciplines. In this Letter, we use such methods to solve a long-standing problem in statistical genetics. The problem, posed by Haldane and Waddington [Genetics 16, 357 (1931)], concerns so-called recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced by repeated inbreeding. Haldane and Waddington derived the probabilities of RILs when considering two and three genes but the case of four or more genes has remained elusive. Our solution uses two probabilistic frameworks relatively unknown outside of physics: Glauber's formula and self-consistent equations of the Schwinger-Dyson type. Surprisingly, this combination of statistical formalisms unveils the exact probabilities of RILs for any number of genes. Extensions of the framework may have applications in population genetics and beyond.

  8. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  9. Development of a Murine Model for Aerosolized Ebolavirus Infection Using a Panel of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research.  Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported.  A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies.  In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT or mouse-adapted (MA Ebola virus (EBOV.  Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6, and DBA/2 (D2 mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1 knock-out (KO mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe.  Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered.  In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN-γ KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2 recombinant inbred (RI and advanced RI (ARI mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains.  Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains.  Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in

  10. Evaluation on reaction of late maturing maize hybrids and lines to Fusarium ear rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haddadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In order to evaluate and determine resistance rates of different corn genotypes to Fusarium ear rot, 22 inbred lines and 19 late and medium maturity hybrids in 2009 and 17 inbred lines and 14 late and medium maturity hybrids were planted in Qarakheil Agricultural Research Station in 2010. Each line and hybrid were planted separately. For each experiment a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Plant ears were inoculated by Nail th Punch method at the 10 day after anthesis. When the disease symptoms were observed, evaluation of each line and genotype was done based on percentage and severity of the disease symptom. The result in 2009 showed that 14 hybrids were tolerant. Hybrids of K3640/3 X MO17, K166B X K18, K166B X K19/1 and K3547/4 X MO17 were resistant. One hybrid was susceptible. Pure lines of K18 and K LM77007/7-2-6-3-1-2-1 were resistant. 14 tolerance lines and 6 susceptible lines were shown. In 2010 hybrids of K166B X K18 and K3653/2 X K18 were resistant. The other hybrids were tolerant. Pure lines of K3547/3 and K18 were resistant. Five tolerance lines were also shown.

  11. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben eHager

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC. Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear, but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear, including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N versus C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD.

  12. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten eLoos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field, and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1 and progressive ratio (PR2 schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.

  13. Genotype-dependent consequences of traumatic stress in four inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarczyk, K; Korostynski, M; Golda, S; Solecki, W; Przewlocki, R

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops in predisposed individuals following a terrifying event. Studies on isogenic animal populations might explain susceptibility to PTSD by revealing associations between the molecular and behavioural consequences of traumatic stress. Our study employed four inbred mouse strains to search for differences in post-stress response to a 1.5-mA electric foot shock. One day to 6 weeks after the foot shock anxiety, depression and addiction-like phenotypes were assessed. In addition, expression levels of selected stress-related genes were analysed in hippocampus and amygdala. C57BL/6J mice exhibited up-regulation in the expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Crhr1 genes in both brain regions. These alterations were associated with an increase of sensitized fear and depressive-like behaviour over time. Traumatic stress induced expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Fkbp5 genes and developed social withdrawal in DBA/2J mice. In 129P3/J strain, exposure to stress produced the up-regulation of Tsc22d3 and Nfkbia genes and enhanced sensitivity to the rewarding properties of morphine. Whereas, SWR/J mice displayed increase only in Pdyn expression in the amygdala and had the lowest conditioned fear. Our results reveal a complex genetic background of phenotypic variation in response to stress and indicate the SWR/J strain as a valuable model of stress resistance. We found potential links between the alterations in expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia and Pdyn, and different aspects of susceptibility to stress. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  15. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  16. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  17. Cardiovascular response to beta-adrenergic blockade or activation in 23 inbred mouse strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Berthonneche

    Full Text Available We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. Mice were phenotyped either in response to chronic administration of a single dose of the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol or under a low and a high dose of the beta-agonist isoproterenol and compared to baseline condition. The robustness of our data is supported by high trait heritabilities (typically H(2>0.7 and significant correlations of trait values measured in baseline condition with independent multistrain datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database. We then focused on the drug-, dose-, and strain-specific responses to beta-stimulation and beta-blockade of a selection of traits including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cardiac weight indices, ECG parameters and body weight. Because of the wealth of data accumulated, we applied integrative analyses such as comprehensive bi-clustering to investigate the structure of the response across the different phenotypes, strains and experimental conditions. Information extracted from these analyses is discussed in terms of novelty and biological implications. For example, we observe that traits related to ventricular weight in most strains respond only to the high dose of isoproterenol, while heart rate and atrial weight are already affected by the low dose. Finally, we observe little concordance between strain similarity based on the phenotypes and genotypic relatedness computed from genomic SNP profiles. This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains.

  18. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  19. Commissioning and Operation of the FNAL Front end Injection Line and Ion Sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karns, Patrick R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  20. alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene promoter polymorphisms in inbred mice affect expression in a cell type-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexal, Sharon; Jenkins, Paul M; Lautner, Meeghan A; Iacob, Eli; Crouch, Eric L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2007-05-04

    Inbred mouse strains display significant differences in their levels of brain alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) expression, as measured by binding of the alpha7-selective antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. Variations in alpha-bungarotoxin binding have been shown to correlate with an animal's sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures and sensory gating. In two inbred mouse strains, C3H/2Ibg (C3H) and DBA/2Ibg (DBA/2), the inter-strain binding differences are linked to a restriction length polymorphism in the alpha7 nAChR gene, Chrna7. Despite this finding, the molecular mechanism(s) through which genetic variability in Chrna7 may contribute to alpha7 nAChR expression differences remains unknown. However, studies of the human alpha7 nAChR gene (CHRNA7) previously have demonstrated that CHRNA7 promoter polymorphisms are associated with differences in promoter activity as well as differences in sensory processing. In the present study, a 947-base pair region of the Chrna7 promoter was cloned from both the C3H and DBA/2 inbred mouse strains in an attempt to identify polymorphisms that may underlie alpha7 nAChR differential expression. Sequence analysis of these fragments identified 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A combination of two of these SNPs affects promoter activity in an in vitro luciferase reporter assay. These results suggest a mechanism through which the Chrna7 promoter genotype may influence interstrain variations in alpha7 nAChR expression.

  1. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Genetic relationship between placental and fetal weights and markers of the metabolic syndrome in rat recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, M.; Zídek, Václav; Musilová, Alena; Šimáková, Miroslava; Fučíková, A.; Bílá, V.; Křen, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Di Nicolantonio, R.; Pravenec, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2006), s. 226-231 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390; GA MZd(CZ) NR8495 Grant - others:Sixth Framework Programme(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : genetic analysis * thrifty phenotype * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.789, year: 2006

  3. ADN bacteriano en pacientes con cirrosis y ascitis estéril: Papel como marcador de translocación bacteriana y herramienta pronóstica Bacterial DNA in patients with cirrhosis ans sterile ascites: Its role as a marker of bacterial translocation and prognosis tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. González-Navajas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década hemos presenciado un aumento de la cantidad de datos relativos a la presencia de translocación bacteriana en los modelos experimentales de cirrosis. Sin embargo, los estudios clínicos se han visto limitados por la falta de métodos no invasivos para estudiar dicho fenómeno. En los últimos años, las investigaciones realizadas en nuestro laboratorio se han centrado en la detección del ADN bacteriano en el suero y el líquido ascítico de los pacientes con cirrosis y ascitis estéril, y en las implicaciones clínicas que ello conlleva. Al principio, gracias a un método basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y el secuenciamiento automatizado de nucleótidos, pudimos detectar e identificar la presencia de fragmentos de ADN bacteriano en dichos pacientes con ascitis no neutrocítica y con cultivo negativo. Desde entonces hemos acumulado una serie de datos que indican que la presencia de ADN bacteriano podría desempeñar un papel importante no sólo como marcador de translocación bacteriana, sino también como factor pronóstico a corto plazo. Expondremos aquí el pasado, el presente y el futuro de esta línea de investigación.During the last decade, we have witnessed an increase in the amount of data related with the presence of bacterial translocation in experimental models of cirrhosis. However, clinical studies have been limited by the lack of non-invasive methods to study this phenomenon. Over the past years, the research developed in our laboratory has been focused on the detection of bacterial DNA in serum and ascitic fluid of patients with cirrhosis and sterile ascites, the clinical and immunological implications of such finding. Initially, by means of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method and automated nucleotide sequencing, we were able to detect and identify the presence of fragments of bacterial DNA in the mentioned patients with culture-negative, non-neutrocytic ascites. Since

  4. SCREENING FOR MOISTURE DEFICIT TOLERANCE IN FOUR MAIZE (Zea mays L. POPULATIONS DERIVED FROM DROUGHT TOLERANT INBRED X ADAPTED CULTIVAR CROSSES.

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    Gbadebo Lawrence Olaoye

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of soil water utilization under moisture deficit condition can help reduce the adverse effects of drought stress in crops. Growth, physiological responses and grain yield loss due to moisture deficits around flowering, were investigated in maize populations derived by reciprocal crosses between two adapted maize cultivars (DMR-LSR-Y and AFO and two drought tolerant (DT inbred lines (DT-S3-Y and DT-S3-W under glass house conditions. The crosses and their parents and crosses were subjected to irrigation treatments equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% field capacity (FC as well as water withdrawal for two weeks at vegetative, pre and post-anthesis stages respectively.  Reduction in biomass yield (BMY under low moisture regimes were within the range of 75 to 61% of BMY obtained under favourable irrigation treatments while Pre and post- anthesis moisture deficits also significantly reduced grain yield by 49 and 66% of well-watered condition. Reciprocal crosses between AFO and DT-S3-Y consistently gave highest BMY under irrigation treatment equivalent to 75% FC and above with % gains ranging from 3.05 to 44.2 respectively. All crosses except two of them (DT-S3-Y x AFO and AFO x DT-S3-W evidenced superiority for BMY and water use efficiency (WUE over their respective better parents, under low moisture conditions. Heterotic response for grain yield differed among crosses depending on soil moisture condition. There was no direct association between drought sensitivity index (DSI and grain yield in the populations but genotypes with short anthesis-silking-interval (ASI under moisture deficit conditions showed superiority for grain yield over those with longer ASI. The above results suggest that short ASI when combined with high grain yield under moisture deficit conditions is a better selection tool for identifying drought tolerant genotypes than DSI.

  5. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian J.; Davis, Richard C.; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R. Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression

  6. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Bennett

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP. The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP. The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear

  7. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses. PMID:16971002

  8. Genome-wide association studies and the problem of relatedness among advanced intercross lines and other highly recombinant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Riyan; Lim, Jackie E; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Sokoloff, Greta; Abney, Mark; Skol, Andrew D; Palmer, Abraham A

    2010-07-01

    Model organisms offer many advantages for the genetic analysis of complex traits. However, identification of specific genes is often hampered by a lack of recombination between the genomes of inbred progenitors. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans have offered gene-level mapping resolution that is possible because of the large number of accumulated recombinations among unrelated human subjects. To obtain analogous improvements in mapping resolution in mice, we used a 34th generation advanced intercross line (AIL) derived from two inbred strains (SM/J and LG/J). We used simulations to show that familial relationships among subjects must be accounted for when analyzing these data; we then used a mixed model that included polygenic effects to address this problem in our own analysis. Using a combination of F(2) and AIL mice derived from the same inbred progenitors, we identified genome-wide significant, subcentimorgan loci that were associated with methamphetamine sensitivity, (e.g., chromosome 18; LOD = 10.5) and non-drug-induced locomotor activity (e.g., chromosome 8; LOD = 18.9). The 2-LOD support interval for the former locus contains no known genes while the latter contains only one gene (Csmd1). This approach is broadly applicable in terms of phenotypes and model organisms and allows GWAS to be performed in multigenerational crosses between and among inbred strains where familial relatedness is often unavoidable.

  9. Understanding Immune Resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Chicken Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A P; Hauck, R; Zhou, H; Gallardo, R A

    2017-09-01

    Genetic resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases has been largely associated with the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Our goal was to determine resistance and susceptibility of MHC B haplotype in congenic and inbred chicken lines in order to establish a resistant-susceptible model. Eight congenic lines (253/B18, 254/B15, 330/B21, 312/B24, 331/B2, 335/B19, 336/B21, and 342/BO), two inbred lines (003/B17 and 077/B19), and three commercial lines (white leghorn, brown layers, and broilers) were used in two experiments. We analyzed and compared immunologic responses and the effect of challenge by measuring viral load, IgG and IgA humoral responses, histopathology and histomorphometry, clinical signs, and immune cell populations in the different MHC B haplotype lines. We found that respiratory signs, tracheal deciliation and inflammation, airsacculitis, viral shedding in tears, and local humoral responses were good parameters to determine resistance or susceptibility. Based on these results, we identified 331/B2 as the most resistant and 335/B19 as the most susceptible congenic chicken lines. These two lines will be used as an animal model in subsequent experiments to understand the mechanisms by which the immune system in chickens generates resistance to infectious bronchitis virus.

  10. Diversity in secreted PLA2-IIA activity among inbred mouse strains that are resistant or susceptible to Apc Min/+ tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Marina; Koratkar, Revati A; Silverman, Karen A; Sollars, Vincent E; MacPhee-Pellini, Melina; Walters, Rhonda; Palazzo, Juan P; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D; Farber, Steven A

    2005-09-22

    The secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (Pla2g2a) gene was previously identified as a modifier of intestinal adenoma multiplicity in Apc Min/+ mice. To determine if intestinal secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity was also attenuated in susceptible strains, we developed a sensitive assay to directly quantitate sPLA2 activity in the murine intestinal tract utilizing a fluorescent BODIPY-labeled phospholipid substrate. Here, we report assay conditions that distinguish between secreted and cytosolic PLA2 enzyme activities in extracts of intestinal tissue. The small intestine exhibited higher activity levels than the large intestine. Consistent with predictions from the sPLA2-IIA gene sequence in inbred strains, we detected low levels of enzyme activity in inbred strains containing sPLA2-IIA mutations; these strains were also associated with greater numbers of intestinal polyps. Additionally, the assay was able to distinguish differences in levels of sPLA2 activity between neoplasia-resistant strains, which were then shown by sequencing to carry variant wild-type sPLA2-IIA alleles. Immunohistochemical analyses of intestinal tissues were consistent with sPLA2-IIA activity levels. This approach enables further studies of the mechanisms of sPLA2 action influencing the development and tumorigenesis of the small intestine and colon in both mice and humans.

  11. Whole exome sequencing of wild-derived inbred strains of mice improves power to link phenotype and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peter L; Kopania, Emily; Keeble, Sara; Sarver, Brice A J; Larson, Erica; Orth, Annie; Belkhir, Khalid; Boursot, Pierre; Bonhomme, François; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D

    2017-10-01

    The house mouse is a powerful model to dissect the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, and serves as a model to study human diseases. Despite a wealth of discoveries, most classical laboratory strains have captured only a small fraction of genetic variation known to segregate in their wild progenitors, and existing strains are often related to each other in complex ways. Inbred strains of mice independently derived from natural populations have the potential to increase power in genetic studies with the addition of novel genetic variation. Here, we perform exome-enrichment and high-throughput sequencing (~8× coverage) of 26 wild-derived strains known in the mouse research community as the "Montpellier strains." We identified 1.46 million SNPs in our dataset, approximately 19% of which have not been detected from other inbred strains. This novel genetic variation is expected to contribute to phenotypic variation, as they include 18,496 nonsynonymous variants and 262 early stop codons. Simulations demonstrate that the higher density of genetic variation in the Montpellier strains provides increased power for quantitative genetic studies. Inasmuch as the power to connect genotype to phenotype depends on genetic variation, it is important to incorporate these additional genetic strains into future research programs.

  12. An improved procedure for integrated behavioral z-scoring illustrated with modified Hole Board behavior of male inbred laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labots, M Maaike; Laarakker, M C Marijke; Schetters, D Dustin; Arndt, S S Saskia; van Lith, H A Hein

    2018-01-01

    Guilloux et al. introduced: integrated behavioral z-scoring, a method for behavioral phenotyping of mice. Using this method multiple ethological variables can be combined to show an overall description of a certain behavioral dimension or motivational system. However, a problem may occur when the control group used for the calculation has a standard deviation of zero or when no control group is present to act as a reference group. In order to solve these problems, an improved procedure is suggested: taking the pooled data as reference. For this purpose a behavioral study with male mice from three inbred strains was carried out. The integrated behavioral z-scoring methodology was applied, thereby taking five different reference group options. The outcome regarding statistical significance and practical importance was compared. Significant effects and effect sizes were influenced by the choice of the reference group. In some cases it was impossible to use a certain population and condition, because one or more behavioral variables in question had a standard deviation of zero. Based on the improved method, male mice from the three inbred strains differed regarding activity and anxiety. Taking the method described by Guilloux et al. as basis, the present procedure improved the generalizability to all types of experimental designs in animal behavioral research. To solve the aforementioned problems and to avoid getting the diagnosis of data manipulation, the pooled data (combining the data from all experimental groups in a study) as reference option is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Revealing the Complexity in CD8 T Cell Responses to Infection in Inbred C57B/6 versus Outbred Swiss Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew D; Danahy, Derek B; Hartwig, Stacey M; Harty, John T; Badovinac, Vladimir P

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that current mouse models may underrepresent the complexity of human immune responses. While most mouse immunology studies utilize inbred mouse strains, it is unclear if conclusions drawn from inbred mice can be extended to all mouse strains or generalized to humans. We recently described a "surrogate activation marker" approach that could be used to track polyclonal CD8 T cell responses in inbred and outbred mice and noted substantial discord in the magnitude and kinetics of CD8 T cell responses in individual outbred mice following infection. However, how the memory CD8 T cell response develops following infection and the correlates of memory CD8 T cell-mediated protection against re-infection in outbred mice remains unknown. In this study, we investigated development of pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cell responses in inbred C57B/6 and outbred National Institutes of Health Swiss mice following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or L. monocytogenes infection. Interestingly, the size of the memory CD8 T cell pool generated and rate of phenotypic progression was considerably more variable in individual outbred compared to inbred mice. Importantly, while prior infection provided both inbred and outbred cohorts of mice with protection against re-infection that was dependent on the dose of primary infection, levels of memory CD8 T cells generated and degree of protection against re-infection did not correlate with primary infection dose in all outbred mice. While variation in CD8 T cell responses to infection is not entirely surprising due to the genetic diversity present, analysis of infection-induced immunity in outbred hosts may reveal hidden complexity in CD8 T cell responses in genetically diverse populations and might help us further bridge the gap between mouse and human studies.

  14. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    . The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  15. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  16. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Ligation-Induced Neointima Formation in an F2 Intercross of C57BL/6 and FVB/N Inbred Mouse Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östergren, Caroline; Shim, Jeong; Larsen, Jens Vinther

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are central for arterial diseases including atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms may be modeled by carotid ligation in mice. In FVB/N inbred mice, ligation leads to abundant neo...

  18. Whole Genome Sequence of Two Wild-Derived Mus musculus domesticus Inbred Strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, with Different Diploid Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Morgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild-derived mouse inbred strains are becoming increasingly popular for complex traits analysis, evolutionary studies, and systems genetics. Here, we report the whole-genome sequencing of two wild-derived mouse inbred strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, of Mus musculus domesticus origin. These two inbred strains were selected based on their geographic origin, karyotype, and use in ongoing research. We generated 14× and 18× coverage sequence, respectively, and discovered over 1.1 million novel variants, most of which are private to one of these strains. This report expands the number of wild-derived inbred genomes in the Mus genus from six to eight. The sequence variation can be accessed via an online query tool; variant calls (VCF format and alignments (BAM format are available for download from a dedicated ftp site. Finally, the sequencing data have also been stored in a lossless, compressed, and indexed format using the multi-string Burrows-Wheeler transform. All data can be used without restriction.

  19. Plasma lipoprotein profiles and arylesterase activities in two inbred strains of rabbits with high or low response of plasma cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. Cholesterol feeding for 4 weeks of female and male rabbits of two inbred strains increased plasma cholesterol concentrations by about 11 and 48 mmole/I in the hypo- and hyperresponsive strain, respectively. 2. 2. On the low-cholesterol pre-experimental diet, the hyporesponsive animals had

  20. GGE Biplot projection in discriminating the efficiency of popcorn lines to use nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen is essential for sustaining life on the planet, and it is the most important nutrient for obtaining high agricultural production. However, their use leads to the release of nitrous oxide with a global warming potential 296 times higher than the CO2 molecule, making it a challenge to reduce their use in agriculture. The objective of this research was to identify efficient popcorn inbred lines and responsive nitrogen use and exhibit a good expansion volume. For this, 29 inbred lines from the Germplasm Collection of Darcy Ribeiro North Fluminense State University (UENF were evaluated at two contrasting levels of nitrogen availability (low and ideal at two representative locations in the north and northwest of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. These inbred lines were discriminated against efficient use of nitrogen by multivariate GGE Biplot. Selective accuracy was close to 1, showing that the genotypes were enough to provide contrasting success in selection procedures. The first two main components (PC retained 93.82% of the total variation, and PC1 furnished an information ratio (IR that was unaffected by noise. L77 was the most unstable line, while P7, P2, P6, P3, P5, P4, P9, P10, P8, P9, L70, L74, and L55 were efficient and responsive. The GGE biplot method is recommended for the reliable identification of popcorn lines that are efficient and responsive to the use of nitrogen.

  1. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; González-Abuín, Noemi; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Ana; Pinent, Montserrat; Petretto, Enrico; Behmoaras, Jacques; Blay, Mayte

    2016-10-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF) diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Lewis (LEW) show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2) as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Inbred Strain Variant Database (ISVdb: A Repository for Probabilistically Informed Sequence Differences Among the Collaborative Cross Strains and Their Founders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oreper

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Cross (CC is a panel of recently established multiparental recombinant inbred mouse strains. For the CC, as for any multiparental population (MPP, effective experimental design and analysis benefit from detailed knowledge of the genetic differences between strains. Such differences can be directly determined by sequencing, but until now whole-genome sequencing was not publicly available for individual CC strains. An alternative and complementary approach is to infer genetic differences by combining two pieces of information: probabilistic estimates of the CC haplotype mosaic from a custom genotyping array, and probabilistic variant calls from sequencing of the CC founders. The computation for this inference, especially when performed genome-wide, can be intricate and time-consuming, requiring the researcher to generate nontrivial and potentially error-prone scripts. To provide standardized, easy-to-access CC sequence information, we have developed the Inbred Strain Variant Database (ISVdb. The ISVdb provides, for all the exonic variants from the Sanger Institute mouse sequencing dataset, direct sequence information for CC founders and, critically, the imputed sequence information for CC strains. Notably, the ISVdb also: (1 provides predicted variant consequence metadata; (2 allows rapid simulation of F1 populations; and (3 preserves imputation uncertainty, which will allow imputed data to be refined in the future as additional sequencing and genotyping data are collected. The ISVdb information is housed in an SQL database and is easily accessible through a custom online interface (http://isvdb.unc.edu, reducing the analytic burden on any researcher using the CC.

  3. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Micaelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Lewis (LEW show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2 as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity.

  4. Variation in Taxonomic Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in an Inbred Mouse Strain across Individuals and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Yana Emmy; Bik, Elisabeth M; Lawley, Trevor D; Holmes, Susan P; Monack, Denise M; Theriot, Julie A; Relman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals.

  5. Differences in embryo quality are associated with differences in oocyte composition: a proteomic study in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin J; Taher, Leila; Drexler, Hannes; Suzuki, Yutaka; Makałowski, Wojciech; Schwarzer, Caroline; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Current models of early mouse development assign roles to stochastic processes and epigenetic regulation, which are considered to be as influential as the genetic differences that exist between strains of the species Mus musculus. The aim of this study was to test whether mouse oocytes vary from each other in the abundance of gene products that could influence, prime, or even predetermine developmental trajectories and features of derivative embryos. Using the paradigm of inbred mouse strains, we quantified 2010 protein groups (SILAC LC-MS/MS) and 15205 transcripts (RNA deep sequencing) present simultaneously in oocytes of four strains tested (129/Sv, C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeN, DBA/2J). Oocytes differed according to donor strain in the abundance of catalytic and regulatory proteins, as confirmed for a subset (bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 1B [BAZ1B], heme oxygenase 1 [HMOX1], estrogen related receptor, beta [ESRRB]) via immunofluorescence in situ. Given a Pearson's r correlation coefficient of 0.18-0.20, the abundance of oocytic proteins could not be predicted from that of cognate mRNAs. Our results document that a prerequisite to generate embryo diversity, namely the different abundances of maternal proteins in oocytes, can be studied in the model of inbred mouse strains. Thus, we highlight the importance of proteomic quantifications in modern embryology. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001059 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001059). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Differential proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes exhibiting resistance or susceptibility to the insect herbivore, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard M; Afzal, Muhammed; Ward, Deborah A; Prescott, Mark C; Sait, Steven M; Rees, Huw H; Tomsett, A Brian

    2010-04-08

    A proteomic study was conducted to investigate physiological factors affecting feeding behaviour by larvae of the insect, Plutella xylostella, on herbivore-susceptible and herbivore-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana. The leaves of 162 recombinant inbred lines (Rils) were screened to detect genotypes upon which Plutella larvae fed least (P. xylostella-resistant) or most (P. xylostella-susceptible). 2D-PAGE revealed significant differences in the proteomes between the identified resistant and susceptible Rils. The proteomic results, together with detection of increased production of hydrogen peroxide in resistant Rils, suggest a correlation between P. xylostella resistance and the production of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular H2O2, and that this was expressed prior to herbivory. Many of the proteins that were more abundant in the Plutella-resistant Rils are known in other biological systems to be involved in limiting ROS damage. Such proteins included carbonic anhydrases, malate dehydrogenases, glutathione S-transferases, isocitrate dehydrogenase-like protein (R1), and lipoamide dehydrogenase. In addition, patterns of germin-like protein 3 isoforms could also be indicative of higher levels of reactive oxygen species in the resistant Rils. Consistent with the occurrence of greater oxidative stress in the resistant Rils is the observation of greater abundance in susceptible Rils of polypeptides of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex, which are known to be damaged under oxidative stress. The combined results suggest that enhanced production of ROS may be a major pre-existing mechanism of Plutella resistance in Arabidopsis, but definitive corroboration of this requires much further work.

  7. RESO-NA-NCE--IAp-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mechanical Black Box - A Challenge from the 35th. International Physics Olympiad. Viiay A Singh, Raiesh 8 Khaparde and S R Pathare learning Earthquake Design and Construction -17. How do. Earthquakes Affect Reinforced Concrete Buildings? CVRMurly learning Earthquake Design and Construction - 18. How do.

  8. R-ES-ONA--NCEI--Ap-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ability, posterior probability, estimation, estimation error, maximum likelihood estimate, maximum a posteriori estimate, penalized likelihood, statistical computing, Bayes theorem, confidence interval. Introduction. The theory and methodology of statistics is mostly con- cerned with inductive inference - inference from the par-.

  9. RESO-NA-NCE--IAp-ril

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    10 Of Connedions and Fields - I. Chern's Mathematical Ideas in Physics. Joseph Samuel. 22 Chern and Total Curvature. Siddhartha Gadgil. 32 The Special Theory of Relativity. Vasant Natarajan and Diptiman Sen. 22. 51 Mathematics in Engineering - I. Anindya Chatterjee. 65. OH. OH. HO. OH. OH quercetin (a flavonoid) ...

  10. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  11. Early Alterations in Operant Performance and Prominent Huntingtin Aggregation in a Congenic F344 Rat Line of the Classical CAGn51trunc Model of Huntington Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Christine Plank; Fabio Canneva; Kerstin A. Raber; Yvonne K. Urbach; Julia Dobner; Maja Puchades; Jan G. Bjaalie; Clarissa Gillmann; Tobias Bäuerle; Olaf Riess; Hoa H. P. Nguyen; Stephan von Hörsten

    2018-01-01

    The transgenic rat model of Huntington disease expressing a fragment of mutant HTT (tgHD rat) has been thoroughly characterized and reproduces hallmark symptoms of human adult-onset HD. Pursuing the optimization of this model for evaluation of translational therapeutic approaches, the F344 inbred rat strain was considered as advantageous genetic background for the expression of the HD transgenic construct. In the present study, a novel congenic line of the SPRDtgHD transgenic model of HD, car...

  12. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  13. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Walisundera MN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

  14. Genetics of the α 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoostelaere, L.; Potter, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice

  15. Differential response of inbred and F1 hybrid embryos of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. to x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shome, A.; Hazra, S.

    1988-01-01

    Radio-response of HS 4288, HS 7910 and two F 1 hybrid embryos of H. sabdariffa to X-ray doses (2-8 kR) was assessed. Reduction in shoot and root length and incidence of root injuries increased always with the increase of X-ray doses. LD 50 values of HS 4288, HS 7910, F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 428 were in between 5 and 6 kR, 2 and 4 kR, 6 and 8 kR, and 5 and 6 kR respectively. Judging by LD 50 values and 100 per cent seedling abnormality, relatively HS 4288 and F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 were resistant and HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 4288 were susceptible. Induction of macro-mutations was different in two inbreds and also in two F 1 hybrids. Role of cytoplasmic factors for the differential response are discussed. (author). 14 refs., 5 tabs

  16. [Construction and characterization of normalized cDNA library of maize inbred Mo17 from multiple tissues and developmental stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z X; Zhang, F D; Tang, W H; Pi, Y J; Zheng, Y L

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive complementary DNA (cDNA) library is a valuable resource for functional genomics. In this study, we set up a normalized cDNA library of Mo17 (MONL) by saturation hybridization with genomic DNA, which contained expressed genes of eight tissues and organs from inbred Mo17 of maize (Zea mays L.). In this library, the insert sizes range from 0.4 kb to 4 kb and the average size is 1.18 kb. 10.830 clones were spotted on nylon membrane to make a cDNA microarray. Randomly picked 300 clones from the cDNA library were sequenced. The cDNA microarry was hybridized with pooled tissue mRNA probes or housekeeping gene cDNA probes. The results showed the normalized cDNA library comprehensively includes tissue-specific genes in which 71% are unique ESTs (expressed sequence tags) based on the 300 sequences analyzed. Using BLAST program to compare the sequences against online nucleotide databases, 88% sequences were found in ZmDB or NCBI, and 12% sequences were not found in existing nucleotide databases. More than 73% sequences are of unknown function. The library could be extensively used in developing DNA markers, sequencing ESTs, mining new genes, identifying positional cloning and candidate gene, and developing microarrays in maize genomics research.

  17. Coupling estimated effects of QTLs for physiological traits to a crop growth model: Predicting yield variation among recombinant inbred lines in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.Y.; Chasalow, S.D.; Dourleijn, C.J.; Stam, P.; Kropff, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in the use of molecular markers to elucidate the inheritance of quantitative traits enable the integration of genetic information on physiological traits into crop growth models. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a crop growth model with QTL-based estimates of

  18. The effects of brassinosteroids on photosynthetic parameter in leaves of two field-grown maize inbred lines and their F1 hybrid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočová, M.; Rothová, O.; Holá, D.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Kohout, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 785-788 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : brassinosteroids * carotenoids * chlorophylls * heterosis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  19. Ultrastructure and Dimensions of Chloroplasts in Leaves of Three Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines and their F1 Hybrids Grown Under Moderate Chilling Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutík, J.; Holá, D.; Kočová, M.; Rothová, O.; Haisel, Daniel; Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Tichá, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2004), s. 447-455 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/01/0846 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : bundle sheath cells * electron microscopy * genotypes Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  20. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  1. Prevenção de aderências pericárdicas pós-operatórias com uso de carboximetilquitosana termoestéril Prevention of postoperative pericardial adhesions using thermal sterile carboxymethyl chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Renato Dias Daroz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar alterações físico-químicas da carboximetilquitosana após termoesterilização e sua eficácia na prevenção de aderências pericárdicas pós-esternotomia. MÉTODOS: Após ser submetida a termoesterilização em autoclave, a carboximetilquitosana termoestéril (CMQte foi submetida a análises físico-químicas. Doze animais foram divididos em dois grupos e submetidos à pericardiotomia e a protocolo de indução de aderências. A seguir, foi aplicada de forma tópica a CMQte ou solução salina. Após 8 semanas, foi realizada esternotomia e avaliação macroscópica do grau de aderências, tempo de dissecção e quantidade do uso de dissecção cruenta e avaliação microscópica. RESULTADOS: As análises físico-químicas não mostraram diferença entre a CMQ e CMQte. A avaliação macroscópica mostrou que a intensidade das aderências foi significantemente menor no grupo CMQte (P=0,007. O tempo de dissecção e o uso de dissecção cruenta também apresentaram reduções significativas (P=0,007, P=0,008; respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O método de esterilização empregado não alterou as propriedades físico-químicas da carboximetilquitosana. O uso de biopolímeros de barreira como a CMQte pode reduzir a intensidade das aderências pós-cirúrgicas no pericárdio, diminuindo as complicações da esternotomia em reoperações cardiovasculares.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate CMC physical-chemical alterations after thermal sterilization and its efficacy in preventing poststernotomy pericardial adhesions. METHODS: After autoclaving thermal sterilization, thermal sterile Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CMCts was submitted to physical-chemical analysis. Twelve animals were divided into two groups and underwent pericardiotomy and adhesion induction protocol. Afterward, topic CMCts or saline solution was administered. After 8 weeks, a sternotomy was performed for adhesion score

  2. Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but do not predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Page, Kathryn E; Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alex; Valore, Erika; Hui, Simon T; Jung, Grace; Zhou, Jie; Lusis, Aldons J; Fuqua, Brie; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Vulpe, Chris D

    2017-11-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex- and strain-dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin and reported conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin ( Hamp1 ) mRNA levels and iron status. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex, and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron, and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in 14 inbred strains on a control diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes and iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen in males were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron-sufficient or high-iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). However, liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice fed iron-sufficient or high-iron diets, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males. We also measured plasma erythroferrone, performed RNA-sequencing analysis of liver samples from six inbred strains fed the iron-sufficient, low-iron, or high-iron diets, and explored differences in gene expression between the strains with the highest and lowest hepcidin levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). Liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least

  3. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias; Herzog, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners.

  4. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners. PMID:29200436

  5. Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Loos

    Full Text Available Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ. Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery.

  6. Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkel, Martina; Cooper, Dave; Packer, Craig; Slotow, Rob

    2011-07-01

    Disease can dramatically influence the dynamics of endangered wildlife populations, especially when they are small and isolated, with increased risk of inbreeding. In Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), a small, enclosed reserve in South Africa, a large lion (Panthera leo) population arose from a small founder group in the 1960s and started showing conspicuous signs of inbreeding. To restore the health status of the HiP lion population, outbred lions were translocated into the existing population. In this study, we determined the susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and the prevalence of antibody to feline viruses of native lions, and compared the findings with those from translocated outbred lions and their offspring. Antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, and feline coronavirus were present in the lion population, but there was no significant difference in antibody prevalence between native and translocated lions and their offspring, and these feline viruses did not appear to have an effect on the clinical health of HiP lions. However, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which was previously absent from HiP, appears to have been introduced into the lion population through translocation. Within 7 yr, the prevalence of antibody to FIV increased up to 42%. Bovine tuberculosis posed a major threat to the inbred native lion population, but not to translocated lions and their offspring. More than 30% of the native lion population died from bTB or malnutrition compared with lions and their offspring. We have demonstrated that management of population genetics through supplementation can successfully combat a disease that threatens population persistence. However, great care must be taken not to introduce new diseases into populations through translocation.

  7. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  8. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  9. New races of Puccinia striiformis found in Europe reveal race-specificity of long-term effective adult plant resistance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chris Khadgi; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring; Leconte, Marc

    2014-01-01

    esistance to Puccinia striiformis was examined in nine wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between ‘Camp Rémy’ (resistant parent) and ‘Récital’ (susceptible parent) using an isolate of a strain common to the northwestern European population before 2011 (old) and two additional......, the three isolates gave highly contrasting results for infection type, latent period, lesion length, and diseased leaf area. The PstS2 isolate revealed Yr genes and QTL which conferred complete resistance in adult plants. Six QTL had additive effects against the old isolate whereas the effects of these QTL...... were significantly lower for the new isolate. Furthermore, the new isolate revealed previously undetected resistance in the susceptible parent. Disease severity under field conditions agreed with greenhouse results, except for Camp Rémy being fully resistant to the new isolate and for two RILs being...

  10. Partial Dominance, Overdominance, Epistasis and QTL by Environment Interactions Contribute to Heterosis in Two Upland Cotton Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Cai, Shihu; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Hua, Jinping

    2015-12-29

    Based on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, two corresponding backcross (BC) populations were constructed to elucidate the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The yield, and yield components, of these populations were evaluated in three environments. At the single-locus level, 78 and 66 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively, and 29 QTL were identified based on mid-parental heterosis (MPH) data of two hybrids. Considering all traits together, a total of 50 (64.9%) QTL with partial dominance effect, and 27 (35.1%) QTL for overdominance effect were identified in two BC populations. At the two-locus level, 120 and 88 QTL with main effects (M-QTL), and 335 and 99 QTL involved in digenic interactions (E-QTL), were detected by inclusive composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively. A large number of QTL by environment interactions (QEs) for M-QTL and E-QTL were detected in three environments. For most traits, average E-QTL explained a larger proportion of phenotypic variation than did M-QTL in two RIL populations and two BC populations. It was concluded that partial dominance, overdominance, epistasis, and QEs all contribute to heterosis in Upland cotton, and that partial dominance resulting from single loci and epistasis play a relatively more important role than other genetic effects in heterosis in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  11. Epistasis together with partial dominance, over-dominance and QTL by environment interactions contribute to yield heterosis in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Liang, Qingzhi; Wang, Yumei; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-07-01

    QTL mapping based on backcross and RIL populations suggests that epistasis together with partial dominance, over-dominance and their environmental interactions of QTLs play an important role in yield heterosis in upland cotton. A backcross population (BC) was constructed to explore the genetic basis of heterosis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). For yield and yield components, recombinant inbred line (RIL) and BC populations were evaluated simultaneously at three different locations. A total of 35 and 30 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected based on the RILs and BC data, respectively. Six (16.7 %) additive QTLs, 19 (52.8 %) partial dominant QTLs and 11 (30.6 %) over-dominant QTLs were detected by single-locus analysis using composite interval mapping in BC population. QTLs detected for mid-parent heterosis (MPH) were mostly related to those detected in the BC population. No significant correlation was found between marker heterozygosity and performance. It indicated that heterozygosity was not always favorable for performance. Two-locus analysis revealed 46, 25 and 12 QTLs with main effects (M-QTLs), and 55, 63 and 33 QTLs involved in digenic interactions (E-QTLs) were detected for yield and yield components in RIL, BC and MPH, respectively. A large number of M-QTLs and E-QTLs showed QTL by environment interactions (QEs) in three environments. These results suggest that epistasis together with partial dominance, over-dominance and QEs all contribute to yield heterosis in upland cotton.

  12. The nodule conductance to O₂ diffusion increases with phytase activity in N₂-fixing Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazali, Mohamed; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2014-07-01

    To understand the relationship between phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and respiration for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume nodules, six recombinant inbred lines of common bean (RIL Phaseolus vulgaris L.), contrasting in PUE for SNF, were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and grown under hydroaeroponic culture with sufficient versus deficient P supply (250 versus 75 μmol P plant(-1) week(-1)). At the flowering stage, the biomass of plants and phytase activity in nodules were analyzed after measuring O2 uptake by nodulated roots. Our results show that the P-deficiency significantly increased the phytase activity in nodules of all RILs though with highest extent for RILs 147, 29 and 83 (ca 45%). This increase in phytase activity was associated with an increase in nodule respiration (ca 22%) and in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (ca 21%). A significant correlation was found under P-deficiency between nodule O2 permeability and phytase activity in nodules for RILs 104, 34 and 115. This observation is to our knowledge the first description of a correlation between O2 permeability and phytase activity of a legume nodule. It is concluded that the variation of phytase activity in nodules can increase the internal utilization of P and might be involved in the regulation of nodule permeability for the respiration linked with SNF and the adaptation to P-deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. COMBINING ABILITY IN MAIZE LINES USING A DIALLEL CROSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés-Meza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to select maize (Zea mays L. lines, based on the effects of general combining ability (GCA, specific combining ability (SCA and heterosis, for the formation of single crosses. During the spring-summer 2008 cycle, 120 single crosses with the combination of 16 lines of white grain maize were evaluated. To estimate the GCA and SCA effects, the method IV, model I of Griffing's method, was used, in an alpha lattice design with two 16 x 8 repetitions. The results revealed that there are lines with good GCA: LRB-14RC2-1-1, LT-154RC2-1-2, LT-155RC2-1-1, VS-536RC2-1-1, VS-536RC2-1-1, CML-264Q and CML-159. The crosses LT-155RC2-1-1xVS-536RC2-1-1, CABGRC2-1-3xD-539RC2-1-1 and D-539RC2-1-1xCML-159 showed the greatest effects of SCA. Of the inbred lines evaluated, LRB-14RC2-1-1, LT-154RC2-1-2, LT-155RC2-1-1, VS-536RC2-1-1, VS-536RC2-1-1, FAM. V-537C, CML-264Q and CML-159 showed the greatest varietal effect values, considering that there is greater additive gene action and that formation of synthetic varieties is possible. The crosses LT155RC2-1-1xVS536RC2-1-1, CABGRC2-1-3xD-539RC2-1-1 and D-539RC2-1-1xCML-159 showed high ACE effects and high heterosis levels, adequate for the formation of maize hybrids. The use of diallel designs to estimate GCA and SCA in inbred lines and their crosses allowed knowing the most efficient breeding method.

  14. Outcome of xenografted fetal porcine pancreatic tissue is superior in inbred scid (C.B-17/Icr-scid/scid) compared to outbred nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, B E; Casamento, F M

    1999-01-01

    Nude mice are used as recipients of foreign tissue because of their inability to reject these grafts. Our experience has been that there is variable rejection of fetal porcine insulin-producing tissue transplanted into CD-1 (athymic) outbred nude mice. To examine the suitability of this line of nude mouse as a recipient of the tissue, fetal porcine pancreas was grafted either into these outbred animals or into an inbred mutant strain of mice, the more immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. Eight weeks after transplantation grafts were recovered from recipients and assayed for insulin content. Mean insulin levels were not significantly different between the two groups of mice, but a wider range of values was obtained from grafts recovered from nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice. Reversal of diabetes in hyperglycemic recipients was achieved in 4 of 8 nude mice and 8 of 8 scid (C.B-17/lcr-scid/scid) mice. The time taken to achieve this was longer in the nudes than the scid mice, 121 +/- 12 vs. 44 +/- 2 days, the grafts increasing in size at a slower rate in the nude mice. Time taken for the weight of the grafts to double in size was 94 +/- 17 vs. 32 +/- 1 days, respectively. Histologically the grafts in the scid mice contained mostly epithelial cell clusters, a majority of which were insulin containing. In the nude mice that achieved normoglycemia, a similar pattern was observed and, as well, there was a localized lymphoid infiltrate. In those nude mice that remained diabetic fibrous tissue predominated together with a lymphoid infiltrate. In summary, fetal porcine pancreatic tissue grows and develops more efficiently when xenografted into scid rather than outbred nude mice.

  15. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  16. Mapping and characterization of the new adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr77 derived from Santa Fe winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James A; Su, Zhenqi; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Chao, Shiaoman

    2018-04-25

    A new gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance in wheat was mapped to chromosome 3BL. This gene was designated as Lr77. 'Santa Fe' is a hard red winter cultivar that has had long-lasting resistance to the leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosome location of the adult plant leaf rust resistance in Santa Fe wheat. A partial backcross line of 'Thatcher' (Tc) wheat with adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Santa Fe was crossed with Thatcher to develop a Thatcher//Tc*2/Santa Fe F 6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The RIL population and parental lines were evaluated for segregation of leaf rust resistance in three field plot tests and in an adult plant greenhouse test. A genetic map of the RIL population was constructed using 90,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with the Illumina Infinium iSelect 90K wheat bead array. A significant quantitative trait locus for reduction of leaf rust severity in all four tests was found on chromosome 3BL that segregated as a single adult plant resistance gene. The RILs with the allele from the resistant parent for SNP marker IWB10344 had lower leaf rust severity and a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response compared to the susceptible RILs and Thatcher. The gene derived from Santa Fe on chromosome 3BL was designated as Lr77. Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay markers linked to Lr77 on 3BL should be useful for selection of wheat germplasm with this gene.

  17. Comparison of parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels in two chicken lines during sustained infection with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Pleidrup, Janne

    2013-01-01

    performed.In the present experiment, 20 chickens of two inbred chicken lines containing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, B14 and R5, were inoculated with 500 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs. The A. galli-specific IgG titres of serum samples and the excretion of A. galli eggs...... in chicken faeces were measured for a period of 81 weeks.The level of excreted A. galli eggs measured as eggs per gram chicken faeces (EPG) varied greatly between chickens in each line. Significant differences were found between the two lines and with the R5 chickens reaching the highest levels. Likewise......, the A. galli-specific IgG titres in serum differed significantly between the two lines, and an inverse relationship between infection level (EPG) and antibody titres was found. Although this inverse relationship suggests that humoral immunity may be involved in protection against A. galli infection...

  18. Cytokine response to the RSV antigen delivered by dendritic cell-directed vaccination in congenic chicken lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mucksová, J.; Plachý, Jiří; Staněk, Ondřej; Hejnar, Jiří; Kalina, J.; Benešová, B.; Trefil, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 18 (2017), č. článku 18. ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1210041 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * natural-killer-cells * rous-sarcoma-virus * class-i molecule * c-type lectin * induced tumors * inbred lines * b-nk * mycobacterium-tuberculosis * receptor dec-205 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2016

  19. Linking inbreeding effects in captive populations with fitness in the wild: Release of replicated Drosophila melanogaster lines under different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Loeschcke, Volker; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2008-01-01

    Inbreeding effects have been detected in captive populations of threatened species, but the extent to which these effects translate into fitness under field conditions is mostly unknown. We address this issue by comparing the performance of replicated noninbred and inbred Drosophila lines under...... conditions and involve traits not easily measured under laboratory conditions. More generally, inbreeding effects measured in captive populations may not necessarily predict their field performance, and programs to purge captive populations of deleterious alleles may not necessarily lead to fitness benefits...

  20. Characterization of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After IBV Infection in Chicken Lines Differing in MBL Serum Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    Chickens from two inbred lines selected for high (L10H) or low (L10L) mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentrations were infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and innate as well as adaptive immunological parameters were measured throughout the experimental period. Chickens with high...... MBL serum concentrations were found to have less viral load in the trachea than chickens with low MBL serum concentrations indicating that these chickens were less severely affected by the infection. This study is the first to show that MBL expression is present in the lungs of healthy chickens...

  1. [Combining ability analysis for SP4 lines of maize from space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Bo; Wu, Zhang-Dong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Liu, He-Yang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju

    2013-07-01

    Three maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines 08-641, RP125, and 18-599 were carried into cosmic space by recoverable satellite "Shijian 8". Some mutant lines were selected from SP4 and combinations were made according to the NC II genetic design. The materials were planted in Sichuan and Yunnan separately to analyze combining ability based on the incomplete diallel cross design. The results showed that space flight affected the combining ability of mutant lines, and the GCA value of mutant lines were different in two kinds of environmental condition. The GCA of ear length, row per ear, kernel per row, and yield per plant for the mutant line C03 showed substantial increase compared with the control 08-641; the GCA of row per ear, kernel per row, and other yield component traits for the mutant lines C01 and C04 were significantly higher than those of the control. The SCA of yield and yield components for the combinations derived from the mutant lines C06, R18, and S22 were higher than others. These results laid a material foundation for maize breeding and provided some important references for improving and utilizing the mutant lines.

  2. Gene expression profiling describes the genetic regulation of Meloidogyne arenaria resistance in Arachis hypogaea and reveals a candidate gene for resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to root-knot nematode was introgressed into cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea from a wild peanut relative, A. cardenasii and previously mapped to chromosome A09. The highly resistant recombinant inbred RIL 46 and moderately resistant RIL 48 were selected from a population with cv. Gregor...

  3. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability in CXS series of recombinant inbred mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Mori, N.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.; Takamori, Y.; Yagasaki, O.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas differs remarkably among various mouse strains. BALB/cHeA (C) mice are highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphomas, while STS/A (S) mice are resistant. Thus, the induction of the disease is controlled by some genetic factors. To examine an involvement of radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells in lymphomagenesis, we have compared genetic control of the radiosensitivity for antibody-forming ability with that of lymphoma development in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, (CXS)F 1 hybrids and CXS series of recombinant inbred strains. Decrease of number of splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) in Jerne's method by 3 Gy of X-irradiation for BALB/cHeA mice was larger than that for STS/A mice by more than one order of magnitude. (CXS)F 1 hybrid mice showed small number of decrease of PFC similar to STS/A mice suggesting that phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The best concordance between genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody-forming ability in recombinant inbred strains was observed in a region containing Igh locus on chromosome 12. The results show that one locus controlling the radioresistance of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability might exist in the region containing Igh locus, and that this region clearly differ from a region with Ifa locus on chromosome 4 which regulate the susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. (author)

  4. A mouse model system for genetic analysis of sociability: C57BL/6J versus BALB/cJ inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Kaercher, Kristin A; Boon, Catherine J; Lee, Jin Kyoung; Brodkin, Edward S

    2006-03-01

    Impairments in social behaviors are highly disabling symptoms of autism, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Mouse model systems are useful for identifying the many genes and environmental factors likely to affect complex behaviors, such as sociability (the tendency to seek social interaction). To progress toward developing such a model system, we tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J inbred mice show higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ inbred mice. Mice tested for sociability were 4- and 9-week-old, male and female C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. On 2 consecutive days, the sociability of each test mouse toward an unfamiliar 4-week-old DBA/2J stimulus mouse was assessed with a social choice paradigm conducted in a three-chambered apparatus. Measures of sociability included the time that the test mouse spent near versus far from the stimulus mouse, the time spent directly sniffing the stimulus mouse, and the time spent in contact between test and stimulus mice in a free interaction. C57BL/6J mice showed higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ mice overall in each of these measures. We propose that C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice will be a useful mouse model system for future genetic and neurobiological studies of sociability.

  5. Genotype Modulates Age-Related Alterations in Sensitivity to the Aversive Effects of Ethanol: An 8 Inbred Strain Analysis of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen M.; Forrest, Robert D.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Thus far there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in 8 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25, 3g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72h intervals for a total of 5 CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

  6. SNP array profiling of mouse cell lines identifies their strains of origin and reveals cross-contamination and widespread aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, John P; Buus, Ryan J; Naghashfar, Zohreh; Threadgill, David W; Morse, Herbert C; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2014-10-03

    The crisis of Misidentified and contaminated cell lines have plagued the biological research community for decades. Some repositories and journals have heeded calls for mandatory authentication of human cell lines, yet misidentification of mouse cell lines has received little publicity despite their importance in sponsored research. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling is the standard authentication method, but it may fail to distinguish cell lines derived from the same inbred strain of mice. Additionally, STR profiling does not reveal karyotypic changes that occur in some high-passage lines and may have functional consequences. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiling has been suggested as a more accurate and versatile alternative to STR profiling; however, a high-throughput method for SNP-based authentication of mouse cell lines has not been described. We have developed computational methods (Cell Line Authentication by SNP Profiling, CLASP) for cell line authentication and copy number analysis based on a cost-efficient SNP array, and we provide a reference database of commonly used mouse strains and cell lines. We show that CLASP readily discriminates among cell lines of diverse taxonomic origins, including multiple cell lines derived from a single inbred strain, intercross or wild caught mouse. CLASP is also capable of detecting contaminants present at concentrations as low as 5%. Of the 99 cell lines we tested, 15 exhibited substantial divergence from the reported genetic background. In all cases, we were able to distinguish whether the authentication failure was due to misidentification (one cell line, Ba/F3), the presence of multiple strain backgrounds (five cell lines), contamination by other cells and/or the presence of aneuploid chromosomes (nine cell lines). Misidentification and contamination of mouse cell lines is potentially as widespread as it is in human cell culture. This may have substantial implications for studies that are dependent on the

  7. Inflammatory response of different chicken lines and B haplotypes to infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post......-infection. Non-infected control chickens were run in parallel. The variables recorded were all significantly changed by the virus infection, including the serum concentration of mannan-binding lectin that was increased 2-fold 3 days post-infection. A significantly increased mortality, liver to body weight ratio...... the layer-type line, and that mortality rate, liver to body weight ratio and ESR were valuable variables for evaluation of the level of IBDV infection-induced inflammation and disease....

  8. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  10. Sunflower resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana is controlled by specific QTLs for different parasitism stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann eLouarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation.In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with H. debilis. Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii young tubercle and (iii shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey and for the three stages of broomrape development.The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  11. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding. PMID:27242810

  12. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  13. Differences in Extinction of an Appetitive Instrumental Response in Female Inbred Roman High- (RHA-I and Low- (RLA-I Avoidance Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the goal of exploring strain differences between female inbred Roman High and Low Avoidance rats (RHA-I, and RLA-I, respectively on acquisition and extinction of a food-rewarded running response in a straight alley. Acquisition proceeded faster in the less emotional RHA-I and Wistar rats (used as controls than in the more emotional RLA-I rats. However, extinction proceeded slower in RHA-I rats than in RLA-I and Wistar rats. This strain-based asymmetry on instrumental performance between acquisition and extinction is discussed in terms of strain differences in locomotor activity, associative flexibility and emotional reactivity.

  14. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  15. Effects of 60-Week Feeding Diet Containing Bt Rice Expressing the Cry1Ab Protein on the Offspring of Inbred Wuzhishan Pigs Fed the Same Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Yang, Weigang; Li, Mingjie; Wu, Yi; Wang, Yingzheng; Wu, Shuaishuai; Gao, Hui; Han, Ying; Yang, Feng; Feng, Shutang; Zeng, Shenming

    2017-11-29

    We evaluated the chronic effects of Bt rice carrying the Cry1Ab protein (1.64 mg/kg) on offspring of highly inbred WZSP, fed with Bt rice for 360 days, in a 60-week feeding study. The WZSP offspring (n = 27) were assigned to two groups (Minghui86 group, female n = 6, male n = 5; Bt group, female n = 11, male n = 5). The average obtained Cry1Ab protein dosage for female and male pigs was 1.003 and 1.234 mg/kg body weight after 10 weeks of feeding, respectively. The experimental feed in the study was nutritionally matched in both groups. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of the females in week 3 and males from weeks 1 to 10 were different between the Bt and Minghui86 groups (P rice carrying Cry1Ab protein exerts no unintended adverse effects on WZSP offspring.

  16. Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Theodore M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally measured consumption, which can be confounded by post-ingestive effects. Here, we used a taste-salient brief-access procedure to measure taste sensitivity to eight stimuli characterized as bitter or aversive in C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 mice. Results B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP, and MgCl2. D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA. These strains did not differ in sensitivity to cycloheximide (CYX, denatonium benzoate (DB, KCl or HCl. Conclusion B6-D2 taste sensitivity differences indicate that differences in consumption of QHCl, PROP, MgCl2 and RUA are based on immediate orosensory cues, not post-ingestive effects. The absence of a strain difference for CYX suggests that polymorphisms in a T2R-type taste receptor shown to be differentially sensitive to CYX in vitro are unlikely to differentially contribute to the CYX behavioral response in vivo. The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for investigation into the genetic mechanisms of taste.

  17. Dissection of Recombination Attributes for Multiple Maize Populations Using a Common SNP Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Guan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination is a vital characteristic for quantitative trait loci mapping and breeding to enhance the yield potential of maize. However, recombination characteristics in globally used segregating populations have never been evaluated at similar genetic marker densities. This study aimed to divulge the characteristics of recombination events, recombinant chromosomal segments, and recombination frequency for four dissimilar populations. These populations were doubled haploid (DH, recombination inbred line (RIL, intermated B73xMo17 (IBM, and multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC, using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip to provide markers. Our results revealed that the average number of recombination events was 16, 41, 72, and 86 per line in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Accordingly, the average length of recombinant chromosomal segments was 84.8, 47.3, 29.2, and 20.4 Mb in DH, RIL, IBM, and MAGIC populations, respectively. Furtherly, the recombination frequency varied in different genomic regions and population types [DH (0–12.7 cM/Mb, RIL (0–15.5 cM/Mb, IBM (0–24.1 cM/Mb, MAGIC (0–42.3 cM/Mb]. Utilizing different sub-sets of lines, the recombination bin number and size were analyzed in each population. Additionally, different sub-sets of markers and lines were employed to estimate the recombination bin number and size via formulas for relationship in these populations. The relationship between recombination events and recombination bin length was also examined. Our results contribute to determining the most suitable number of genetic markers, lines in each population, and population type for successful mapping and breeding.

  18. Time course of biochemical, physiological and molecular responses to field-mimicked conditions of drought, salinity and recovery in two maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eMorari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and salinity stresses will have a high impact on future crop productivity, due to climate change and the increased competition for land, water and energy. The response to drought (WS, salinity (SS and the combined stresses (WS+SS was monitored in two maize lines: the inbred B73 and an F1 commercial stress-tolerant hybrid. A protocol mimicking field progressive stress conditions was developed and its effect on plant growth analyzed at different time points. The results indicated that the stresses limited growth in the hybrid and arrested it in the inbred line. In SS, the two genotypes had different ion accumulation and translocation capacity, particularly for Na+ and Cl-. Moreover, the hybrid perceived the stress, reduced all the analyzed physiological parameters, and kept them reduced until the recovery. B73 decreased all physiological parameters more gradually, being affected mainly by SS. Both lines recovered better from WS than the other stresses. Molecular analysis revealed a diverse modulation of some stress markers in the two genotypes, reflecting their different capacity to cope with stresses. Combining biochemical and physiological data with expression analyses yielded insight into the mechanisms regulating the different stress tolerance of the two lines.

  19. Development, applications and distribution of DNA markers for genetic information for sorghum and maize improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made towards the enhancement and distribution of genetic resources (e.g. genetic stocks, seed and DNA clones) used for basic and applied aspects of the genetic improvement of maize and sorghum. The genetic maps of maize and sorghum were improved through comparative mapping of RFLP loci detected by 124 maize cDNA clones and through the development of a new mapping population of maize. Comparative mapping between maize and sorghum and maize and rice, using the set of 124 maize cDNA clones (and other clones) in each study, substantiated previous observations of extensive conservation of locus order but it also provided strong evidence of numerous large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. The new mapping population for maize (intermated B73xMo17, 'IBM') was created by random intermating during the first segregating generation. Intermating for four generations prior to the derivation of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) increased the frequency of recombinants at many regions of the maize genome and provided better genetic resolution of locus order. Expansion of the maize genetic map was not uniform along the length of a linkage group and was less than the theoretical expectation. The 350 IBM RILs were genotyped at 512 loci detected by DNA clones, including 76 of the 124 supported by this contract. The production of the sorghum mapping population of RILs from the cross CK60xPI229828 has been delayed by weather conditions that were not conducive to plant growth and seed development. Seed of the IBM RILs have been distributed (approximately 5000 RILs in total) to 16 research organizations in the public and private sector. The DNA clones have been distributed (1,206 in total) to nine research labs. Further distribution of the seed and clones will be managed by curators at stock centers in the public domain. (author)

  20. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  1. Genetic Interaction between Arabidopsis Qpm3.1 Locus and Bacterial Effector Gene hopW1-1 Underlies Natural Variation in Quantitative Disease Resistance to Pseudomonas Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Pan, Ke-Di; Peng, You-Liang; Fan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Wide quantitative variation in plant disease resistance across Arabidopsis wild populations has been documented and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. To investigate the genetic and molecular basis of this variation, Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Aa-0 × Col-0 and Gie-0 × Col-0 crosses were constructed and used for inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pathovars maculicola ES4326 (ES4326) and tomato DC3000 (DC3000). Bacterial growth assays revealed continuous distribution across the large differences between the most and the least susceptible lines in the RILs. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses identified a number of QTLs underpinning the variance in disease resistance, among which Qpm3.1, a major QTL on chromosome III from both Aa-0 and Gie-0 accessions, preferentially restricted the growth of ES4326. A genetic screen for the ES4326 gene selectively leading to bacterial growth inhibition on accession Aa-0 uncovered the effector gene hopW1-1. Further QTL analysis of disease in RILs inoculated with DC3000 carrying hopW1-1 showed that the genetic interaction between Qpm3.1 and hopW1-1 determined Arabidopsis resistance to bacterial infection. These findings illustrate the complexity of Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interaction and highlight the importance of pathogen effectors in delineating genetic architectures of quantitative variation in plant disease resistance. PMID:28523008

  2. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis...... and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...... and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...

  3. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae.

  4. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...

  5. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, Elizabeth M [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique (α < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (ToG), narrower range of gelatinization (RG), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHG). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower ToG, wider RG, and lower ΔHG. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were

  6. Myeloid leukemias and virally induced lymphomas in miniature inbred swine; development of a large animal tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMON eDURAN-STRUUCK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the MGH miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in MHC characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  7. Genetic variation in hippocampal microRNA expression differences in C57BL/6 J X DBA/2 J (BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Michael J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background miRNAs are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation that play a major role in normal biological functions and diseases. Little is currently known about how expression of miRNAs is regulated. We surveyed variation in miRNA abundance in the hippocampus of mouse inbred strains, allowing us to take a genetic approach to the study of miRNA regulation, which is novel for miRNAs. The BXD recombinant inbred panel is a very well characterized genetic reference panel which allows quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of miRNA abundance and detection of correlates in a large store of brain and behavioural phenotypes. Results We found five suggestive trans QTLs for the regulation of miRNAs investigated. Further analysis of these QTLs revealed two genes, Tnik and Phf17, under the miR-212 regulatory QTLs, whose expression levels were significantly correlated with miR-212 expression. We found that miR-212 expression is correlated with cocaine-related behaviour, consistent with a reported role for this miRNA in the control of cocaine consumption. miR-31 is correlated with anxiety and alcohol related behaviours. KEGG pathway analysis of each miRNA’s expression correlates revealed enrichment of pathways including MAP kinase, cancer, long-term potentiation, axonal guidance and WNT signalling. Conclusions The BXD reference panel allowed us to establish genetic regulation and characterize biological function of specific miRNAs. QTL analysis enabled detection of genetic loci that regulate the expression of these miRNAs. eQTLs that regulate miRNA abundance are a new mechanism by which genetic variation influences brain and behaviour. Analysis of one of these QTLs revealed a gene, Tnik, which may regulate the expression of a miRNA, a molecular pathway and a behavioural phenotype. Evidence of genetic covariation of miR-212 abundance and cocaine related behaviours is strongly supported by previous

  8. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  9. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Shang, Lianguang; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F14 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC) population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00–14.17% of phenotype variation (PV) and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13–34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits. PMID:29312408

  10. Characterization of QTLs for Root Traits of Wheat Grown under Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Supply Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongzhe; Qian, Yingying; Xu, Yanhua; Zou, ChunQin; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhao, Xueqiang; Zhang, Aimin; Tong, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Root is important in acquiring nutrients from soils. Developing marker-assisted selection for wheat root traits can help wheat breeders to select roots desirable for efficient acquisition of nutrients. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from wheat varieties Xiaoyan 54 and Jing 411 was used to detect QTLs for maximum root length and root dry weight (RDW) under control, low nitrogen and low phosphorus conditions in hydrophobic culture (HC). We totally detected 17 QTLs for the investigated root traits located at 13 loci on 11 chromosomes. These loci differentially expressed under different nutrient supplying levels. The RILs simultaneously harboring positive alleles or negative alleles of the most significant three QTLs for RDW, qRDW.CK-2A, qRDW.CK-2D, and qRDW.CK-3B, were selected for soil column culture (SC) trial to verify the effects of these QTLs under soil conditions. The RILs pyramiding the positive alleles not only had significantly higher shoot dry weight, RDW, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in all the three treatments of the HC trial, but also had significantly higher RDW distribution in both the top- and sub-soils in the SC trial than those pyramiding the negative alleles. These results suggested that QTL analysis based on hydroponic culture can provide useful information for molecular design of wheat with large and deep root system. PMID:29312372

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsanachandee, Ratanakorn; Somta, Prakit; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Akhtar, Khalid P; Shah, Tariq Mahmud; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Bains, Tejinderjit S; Sirari, Asmita; Kaur, Livinder; Srinives, Peerasak

    2013-12-01

    Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is one of the major diseases affecting mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). In this study, we report the mapping of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean. An F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was generated in Thailand from a cross between NM10-12-1 (MYMIV resistance) and KPS2 (MYMIV susceptible). One hundred and twenty-two RILs and their parents were evaluated for MYMIV resistance in infested fields in India and Pakistan. A genetic linkage map was developed for the RIL population using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Composite interval mapping identified five QTLs for MYMIV resistance: three QTLs for India (qYMIV1, qYMIV2 and qYMIV3) and two QTLs for Pakistan (qYMIV4 and qYMIV5). qYMIV1, qYMIV2, qYMIV3, qYMIV4 and qYMIV5 explained 9.33%, 10.61%, 12.55%, 21.93% and 6.24% of variation in disease responses, respectively. qYMIV1 and qYMIV4 appeared to be the same locus and were common to a major QTL for MYMIV resistance in India identified previously using a different resistant mungbean.

  12. B genome specific polymorphism in the TdDRF1 gene is in relationship with grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantale, Cristina; Di Bianco, Domenico; Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Ammar, Karim; Galeffi, Patrizia

    2018-02-01

    A and B genome copies of DRF1 gene in durum wheat were isolated and sequenced using gene variability. B genome specific polymorphism resulted, in a RIL population, in relationship with grain yield mainly in drought condition. Drought tolerance is one of the main components of yield potential and stability, and its improvement is a major challenge to breeders. Transcription factors are considered among the best candidate genes for developing functional markers, since they are components of the signal transduction pathways that coordinate the expression of several downstream genes. Polymorphisms of the Triticum durum dehydration responsive factor 1 (TdDRF1) gene that belongs to DREB2 transcription factor family were identified and specifically assigned to the A or B genome. A panel of primers was derived to selectively isolate the corresponding gene copies. These molecular information were also used to develop a new molecular marker: an allele-specific PCR assay discriminating two genotypes (Mohawk and Cocorit) was developed and used for screening a durum wheat recombinant inbred line population (RIL-pop) derived from the above genotypes. Phenotypic data from the RIL-pop grown during two seasons, under different environmental conditions, adopting an α-lattice design with two repetitions, were collected, analyzed and correlated with molecular data from the PCR assay. A significant association between a specific polymorphism in the B genome copy of the TdDRF1 gene and the grain yield in drought conditions were observed.

  13. Mapping QTLs associated to germination stability following dry-heat treatment in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yeob; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Gang-Seob

    2017-07-01

    Using 164 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Milyang 23 (indica/japonica) and Gihobyeo (japonica) in rice, dry-heat tolerance was evaluated for the seeds of parents and RILs, whose dormancy was naturally broken in six months after harvesting. Mapping QTLs associated to dry-heat tolerance was carried out through interval mapping using Qgene 3.0. Seed germination after dry-heat treatments (90 °C for 24 h) showed a significant difference between the two parents, when evaluated for percentage germination and mean germination time. Milyang 23 was highly tolerant to the dry-heat treatment, while Gihobyeo was sensitive. Three QTLs (qDHT 1, qDHT 5, and qDHT 7) conferring the dry-heat tolerance were mapped to chromosomes 1, 5 and 7, respectively. qDHT 1 on chromosome 1 was tightly linked at 4 cM from ME1-1. The phenotypic variation explained by the three QTLs was 27.18% of the total variance in the 164 RIL populations, and the parental additive effects of three QTLs affected the Milyang 23 allele increased dry-heat tolerance. The detection of new QTLs associated with dry-heat tolerance will provide important information for disease and insect control, using dry-heat treatment in organic or low input sustainable agriculture.

  14. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Mycosphaerella pinodes in pea (Pisum sativum L.), at the seedling and adult plant stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioul, S; Frankewitz, A; Deniot, G; Morin, G; Baranger, A

    2004-05-01

    The inheritance of resistance to Ascochyta blight, an economically important foliar disease of field pea ( Pisum sativum L.) worldwide, was investigated. Breeding resistant pea varieties to this disease, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is difficult due to the availability of only partial resistance. We mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to M. pinodes in pea. A population of 135 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from the cross between DP (partially resistant) and JI296 (susceptible), was genotyped with morphological, RAPD, SSR and STS markers. A genetic map was elaborated, comprising 206 markers distributed over eight linkage groups and covering 1,061 cM. The RILs were assessed under growth chamber and field conditions at the seedling and adult plant stages, respectively. Six QTLs were detected at the seedling stage, which together explained up to 74% of the variance. Ten QTLs were identified at the adult plant stage in the field, and together these explained 56.6-67.1% of the variance, depending on the resistance criteria and the organ considered. Four QTLs were detected under both growth chamber and field conditions, suggesting they were not plant-stage dependent. Three QTLs for flowering date and three QTLs for plant height were also identified in the RIL population, some of which co-located with QTLs for resistance. The relationship between QTLs for resistance to M. pinodes, plant height and flowering date is discussed.

  15. Different effect of chronic stress on learning and memory in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice: Involvement of hippocampal NO production and PKC activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, María Laura; Zorrilla Zubilete, María Aurelia; Cremaschi, Graciela Alicia; Genaro, Ana María

    2009-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been involved in many pathophysiological brain processes. Recently, we showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-mediated decrease in NO production is involved in memory impairment induced by chronic mild stress (CMS) in BALB/c mice. Two genetically different inbred murine strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, show distinct behavioral responses, neurodevelopmental and neurochemical parameters. Here, we perform a comparative study on CMS effects upon learning and memory in both strains, analyzing the role of NO production and its regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). Stressed BALB/c, but not C57Bl/6 mice, showed a poor learning performance in both the open field and passive avoidance inhibitory tasks. Also, CMS induced a diminished NO production by nNOS, associated with an increment in gamma and zeta PKC isoenzymes in BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, CMS had no effect on NO production, but increased delta and decreased betaI PKC isoforms. In vivo administration of a NOS inhibitor induced behavioral alterations in both strains. These results suggest a differential effect of stress, with BALB/c being more vulnerable to stress than C57BL/6 mice. This effect could be related to a differential regulation of NOS and PKC isoenzymes, pointing to an important role of NO in learning and memory.

  16. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda; Lodahl, Marianne; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Cesur, Yasar; Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Akgun, Cihangir; Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome, also named "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is an inherited association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as key diagnostic criteria. Renal tract abnormalities and neurodegenerative disorder may occur in the third and fourth decade. The wolframin gene, WFS1, associated with this syndrome, is located on chromosome 4p16.1. Many mutations have been described since the identification of WFS1 as the cause of Wolfram syndrome. We identified a new homozygous WFS1 mutation (c.1532T>C; p.Leu511Pro) causing Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels of protein expression compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly supporting that this mutation is disease-causing. The mutation showed perfect segregation with disease in the family, characterized by early and severe clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    processes of lined canvas paintings. The impact of cyclic relative humidity on the biological and physical stability of the laminate structure is reported. Carefully constructed mock-ups, simulating lined canvas paintings, were used to examine the effect of pest infestation, mould growth, mechanical damage...

  18. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  19. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  20. A Novel Phytophthora sojae Resistance Rps12 Gene Mapped to a Genomic Region That Contains Several Rps Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipak K; Abeysekara, Nilwala S; Cianzio, Silvia R; Robertson, Alison E; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, which causes Phytophthora root rot, is a widespread pathogen that limits soybean production worldwide. Development of Phytophthora resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora resistance Rps genes is a cost-effective approach in controlling this disease. For this mapping study of a novel Rps gene, 290 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (F7 families) were developed by crossing the P. sojae resistant cultivar PI399036 with the P. sojae susceptible AR2 line, and were phenotyped for responses to a mixture of three P. sojae isolates that overcome most of the known Rps genes. Of these 290 RILs, 130 were homozygous resistant, 12 heterzygous and segregating for Phytophthora resistance, and 148 were recessive homozygous and susceptible. From this population, 59 RILs homozygous for Phytophthora sojae resistance and 61 susceptible to a mixture of P. sojae isolates R17 and Val12-11 or P7074 that overcome resistance encoded by known Rps genes mapped to Chromosome 18 were selected for mapping novel Rps gene. A single gene accounted for the 1:1 segregation of resistance and susceptibility among the RILs. The gene encoding the Phytophthora resistance mapped to a 5.8 cM interval between the SSR markers BARCSOYSSR_18_1840 and Sat_064 located in the lower arm of Chromosome 18. The gene is mapped 2.2 cM proximal to the NBSRps4/6-like sequence that was reported to co-segregate with the Phytophthora resistance genes Rps4 and Rps6. The gene is mapped to a highly recombinogenic, gene-rich genomic region carrying several nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-like genes. We named this novel gene as Rps12, which is expected to be an invaluable resource in breeding soybeans for Phytophthora resistance.

  1. A Novel Phytophthora sojae Resistance Rps12 Gene Mapped to a Genomic Region That Contains Several Rps Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K Sahoo

    Full Text Available Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, which causes Phytophthora root rot, is a widespread pathogen that limits soybean production worldwide. Development of Phytophthora resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora resistance Rps genes is a cost-effective approach in controlling this disease. For this mapping study of a novel Rps gene, 290 recombinant inbred lines (RILs (F7 families were developed by crossing the P. sojae resistant cultivar PI399036 with the P. sojae susceptible AR2 line, and were phenotyped for responses to a mixture of three P. sojae isolates that overcome most of the known Rps genes. Of these 290 RILs, 130 were homozygous resistant, 12 heterzygous and segregating for Phytophthora resistance, and 148 were recessive homozygous and susceptible. From this population, 59 RILs homozygous for Phytophthora sojae resistance and 61 susceptible to a mixture of P. sojae isolates R17 and Val12-11 or P7074 that overcome resistance encoded by known Rps genes mapped to Chromosome 18 were selected for mapping novel Rps gene. A single gene accounted for the 1:1 segregation of resistance and susceptibility among the RILs. The gene encoding the Phytophthora resistance mapped to a 5.8 cM interval between the SSR markers BARCSOYSSR_18_1840 and Sat_064 located in the lower arm of Chromosome 18. The gene is mapped 2.2 cM proximal to the NBSRps4/6-like sequence that was reported to co-segregate with the Phytophthora resistance genes Rps4 and Rps6. The gene is mapped to a highly recombinogenic, gene-rich genomic region carrying several nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR-like genes. We named this novel gene as Rps12, which is expected to be an invaluable resource in breeding soybeans for Phytophthora resistance.

  2. Cell line provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  3. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  4. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  5. Illustrating the Euler Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubillo, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Euler's discovery about the centroid of a triangle trisecting the line segment joining its circumference to its orthocenter is discussed. An activity that will help students review fundamental concepts is included. (MNS)

  6. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  7. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  8. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  9. Incentive loss and hippocampal gene expression in inbred Roman high- (RHA-I) and Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Marta; Morón, Ignacio; Gómez, M José; Donaire, Rocío; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Martínez-Conejero, José A; Esteban, Francisco J; Torres, Carmen

    2013-11-15

    Two recent microarray and qRT-PCR studies showed that inbred Roman high- (RHA-I, low anxiety and frustration vulnerability) and low-avoidance (RLA-I, high anxiety and frustration vulnerability) rats, psychogenetically selected on the basis of their divergence in two-way avoidance performance, differed in basal whole-brain and hippocampal expression of genes related to neurotransmission, emotion, stress, aversive learning, and drug seeking behavior. We have extended these studies by analyzing strain differences in hippocampal gene expression following a frustrative experience involving reward downshift, i.e. instrumental successive negative contrast (iSNC), a phenomenon in which the sudden reduction of an expected reward induces frustration/anxiety. Food-deprived male Roman rats were exposed to a reduction in the amount of solid food presented in the goal of a straight alley (from 12 pellets in "training" trials - i.e. preshift trials- to 2 pellets in "frustration testing" trials - i.e. postshift trials-). The iSNC effect, as measured by response latencies in the "postshift" trials, appeared only in RLA-I rats (i.e. higher response latencies in the 12-2 RLA-I group as compared to the 2-2 RLA-I control group in postshift trials). Two and a half hours after the "postshift" behavioral test, hippocampi were removed and stored (-80°C) until analysis. Microarray analysis of these hippocampi showed that four differentially-expressed, and qRT-PCR-validated genes (TAAR2, THAP1, PKD2L1, NANOS), have relevance for brain function and behavior, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and drug addiction, thus showing the usefulness of Roman strains as a genetic model for research on the neurogenetic basis of frustration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  11. Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future.

  12. Private selective sweeps identified from next-generation pool-sequencing reveal convergent pathways under selection in two inbred Schistosoma mansoni strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A J Clément

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and copy number variations (CNV. In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (π = 2 × 10(-4 within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst = 0.73 between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions. Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection.

  13. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Beauchemin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.

  14. Pain behavior and spinal cell activation due to carrageenan-induced inflammation in two inbred rat strains with differential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juif, Pierre-Eric; Anton, Fernand; Hanesch, Ulrike

    2012-02-28

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (FIS) inbred rats were used to study the relationship of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity with inflammation-related pain behavior. LEW rats are susceptible to the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, whereas FIS rats are resistant. Since contradictory data have previously been collected under conditions of acute inflammation, we investigated the onset and maintenance of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal activation of neurons and glia cells in a model of ongoing inflammation in both strains. Hind paw volumes and mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were measured prior to and during one week after intraplantar injection of carrageenan. The activation of nociceptive neurons (FosB), astroglia (GFAP) and microglia (OX-42) in the spinal cord of segments L5/L6 was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Inflammation increased paw volume, pain sensitivity and cell activation in both strains. FIS rats were more sensitive to sensory stimulation and developed a more severe edema on day 1, but recovered faster up to day 7 than LEW rats. At that time a higher amount of activated nociceptive neurons and corticosterone was seen in FIS rats, but microglial activation was more pronounced in LEW rats. Our results suggest a biphasic role of the HPA axis in pain behavior and spinal cell activation associated with ongoing inflammation. In the acute stage, the stronger reaction in FIS rats might be explained by an activating effect of corticosteroids on neutrophil function. Under ongoing inflammatory conditions the immunosuppressive actions of corticosteroids may dominate and lead to a quicker recovery of paw volume and pain sensitivity in FIS rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Hulke, B S; Qi, L L

    2013-08-01

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that rust resistance genes in HA-R6 and RHA 397, an oilseed-type restorer line, are either allelic or closely linked; however, neither have been characterized nor molecularly mapped. The objectives of this study are (1) to locate the rust resistance genes in HA-R6 and RHA 397 on a molecular map, (2) to develop closely linked molecular markers for rust resistance diagnostics, and (3) to determine the resistance spectrum of two lines when compared with other rust-resistant lines. Two populations of 140 F2:3 families each from the crosses of HA 89, as susceptible parent, with HA-R6 and RHA 397 were inoculated with race 336 of P. helianthi in the greenhouse. The resistance genes (R-genes) in HA-R6 and RHA 397 were molecularly mapped to the lower end of linkage group 13, which encompasses a large R-gene cluster, and were designated as R 13a and R 13b, respectively. In the initial maps, SSR (simple sequence repeat) and InDel (insertion and deletion) markers revealed 2.8 and 8.2 cM flanking regions for R 13a and R 13b, respectively, linked with a common marker set of four co-segregating markers, ORS191, ORS316, ORS581, and ZVG61, in the distal side and one marker ORS464 in the proximal side. To identify new markers closer to the genes, sunflower RGC (resistance gene candidate) markers linked to the downy mildew R-gene Pl 8 and located at the same region as R 13a and R 13b were selected to screen the two F2 populations. The RGC markers RGC15/16 and a newly developed marker SUN14 designed from a BAC contig anchored by RGC251 further narrowed down the region flanking R 13a and R 13b to 1.1 and 0.1 cM, respectively. Both R 13a and R 13b are highly effective against all rust races

  17. Malaysian meteoric water line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Shahid Ayub

    2006-01-01

    The quest for Malaysian meteoric water line began in 1981 when environmental isotope hydrology was introduced. In the 1980, and with the establishment of three stations at Pengkalan Chepa, Kepala Batas and Kuah, the Malaysian Meteoric Water Line acquired then was δD = 8δ 18 O + 12.68. With the addition of another four stations, by the end of 1990s, the Malaysian Meteoric Water Line for the decade was established as δD = 8 δ 18 O + 11.76. Taking the overall result between 1980 and mid 2000s the Malaysian Meteoric Water Line was established as δD = 8 δ 18 O + 13.255 and the weighted mean precipitation is (-7.64, -46.74). In establishing this meteoric water line it was observed that the higher altitude station manifested poorer stable isotopes content as compared to lower altitude station. It was also observed that as the amount of rain increased, the stable isotopes content would decrease and vice versa. The effect is reversed when the amount is due to monsoon rains and tropical storms. (Author)

  18. Expression of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes in Maize Lines Differing in Susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L; Yang, W; Yan, Y; Crutcher, F; Kolomiets, M

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a well-known host for Meloidogyne incognita, and there is substantial variation in host status among maize genotypes. In previous work it was observed that nematode reproduction increased in the moderately susceptible maize inbred line B73 when the ZmLOX3 gene from oxylipid metabolism was knocked out. Additionally, in this mutant line, use of a nonspecific primer for phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) genes indicated that expression of these genes was reduced in the mutant maize plants whereas expression of several other defense related genes was increased. In this study, we used more specific gene primers to examine the expression of six PAL genes in three maize genotypes that were good, moderate, and poor hosts for M. incognita, respectively. Of the six PAL genes interrogated, two (ZmPAL3 and ZmPAL6) were not expressed in either M. incognita-infected or noninfected roots. Three genes (ZmPAL1, ZmPAL2, and ZmPAL5) were strongly expressed in all three maize lines, in both nematode-infected and noninfected roots, between 2 and 16 d after inoculation (DAI). In contrast, ZmPAL4 was most strongly expressed in the most-resistant maize line W438, was not detected in the most-susceptible maize line CML, and was detected only at 8 DAI in the maize line B73 that supported intermediate levels of reproduction by M. incognita. These observations are consistent with at least one PAL gene playing a role in modulating host status of maize toward M. incognita and suggest a need for additional research to further elucidate this association.

  19. Development of genetic markers linked to straighthead resistance through fine mapping in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhao Pan

    Full Text Available Straighthead, a physiological disorder characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, causes significant yield losses in rice, and occurs in many countries. The current control method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly, and wastes water. Development of resistant cultivar is regarded as the most efficient way for its control. We mapped a QTL for straighthead resistance using two recombinant inbred line (RIL F(9 populations that were phenotyped over two years using monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA to induce the symptoms. One population of 170 RILs was genotyped with 136 SSRs and the other population of 91 RILs was genotyped with 159 SSRs. A major QTL qSH-8 was identified in an overlapping region in both populations, and explained 46% of total variation in one and 67% in another population for straighthead resistance. qSH-8 was fine mapped from 1.0 Mbp to 340 kb using 7 SSR markers and further mapped to 290 kb in a population between RM22573 and InDel 27 using 4 InDel markers. SSR AP3858-1 and InDel 11 were within the fine mapped region, and co-segregated with straighthead resistance in both RIL populations, as well as in a collection of diverse global accessions. These results demonstrate that AP3858-1 and InDel 11 can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS for straighthead resistant cultivars, which is especially important because there is no effective way to directly evaluate straighthead resistance.

  20. Inheritance, fine-mapping, and candidate gene analyses of resistance to soybean mosaic virus strain SC5 in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Adhimoolam; Li, Kai; Jiang, Hua; Ren, Rui; Li, Cui; Zhi, Haijian; Chen, Shouyi; Gai, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens for soybeans in China. Among the country-wide 22 strains, SC5 dominates in Huang-Huai and Changjiang valleys. For controlling its damage, the resistance gene was searched through Mendelian inheritance study, gene fine-mapping, and candidate gene analysis combined with qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) analysis. The parents F 1 , F 2 , and RILs (recombinant inbred lines) of the cross Kefeng-1 (Resistance, R) × NN1138-2 (Susceptible, S) were used to examine the inheritance of SC5-resistance. The F 1 was resistant and the F 2 and RILs segregated in a 3R:1S and 1R:1S ratio, respectively, indicating a single dominant gene conferring the Kefeng-1 resistance. Subsequently, the genomic region conferring the resistance was found in "Bin 352-Bin353 with 500 kb" on Chromosome 2 using the phenotyping data of the 427 RILs and a high-density genetic map with 4703 bin markers. In the 500 kb genomic region, 38 putative genes are contained. The association analysis between the SNPs in a putative gene and the resistance phenotype for the 427 RILs prioritized 11 candidate genes using Chi-square criterion. The expression levels of these genes were tested by qRT-PCR. On infection with SC5, 7 out of the 11 genes had differential expression in Kefeng-1 and NN1138-2. Furthermore, integrating SNP-phenotype association analysis with qRT-PCR expression profiling analysis, Glyma02g13495 was found the most possible candidate gene for SC5-resistance. This finding can facilitate the breeding for SC5-resistance through marker-assisted selection and provide a platform to gain a better understanding of SMV-resistance gene system in soybean.

  1. Monosomic and molecular mapping of adult plant leaf rust resistance genes in the Brazilian wheat cultivar Toropi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Silva, P R; Brammer, S P; Guerra, D; Milach, S C K; Barcellos, A L; Baggio, M I

    2012-08-24

    Leaf rust is one of the most destructive diseases affecting wheat worldwide. The most effective way to control it is to use resistant cultivars. Resistance based on slow-rusting adult plant resistance (APR) genes has proven to be the best method for developing cultivars with durable resistance. A source of slow-rusting APR for leaf rust is the Brazilian wheat cultivar Toropi. The Toropi/IAC 13 F₂ and F₇ recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed in previous studies. Phenotypic analysis of the F₂ and F₇ RILs showed that 2 recessive genes that were temporarily named trp-1 and trp-2 conferred APR in Toropi. In the present study, we used monosomic families and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), sequence-tagged site, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to map trp-1 and trp-2 on wheat chromosomes. Analysis of the F₂ monosomic RIL showed that trp- 1 and trp-2 were located on chromosomes 1A and 4D, respectively. AFLP analysis of the F₇ RIL identified 2 independent AFLP markers, XPacgMcac3 and XPacgMcac6, which were associated with Toropi APR. These markers explained 71.5% of the variation in the phenotypic data in a multiple linear regression model. The AFLP markers XPacg/ Mcac3 and XPacg/Mcac6 were anchored by SSR markers previously mapped on the short arms of chromosomes 1A (1AS) and 4D (4DS), respectively. The trp-2 gene is the first leaf rust resistance gene mapped on wheat chromosome 4DS. The mapping of trp-1 and trp-2 provides novel and valuable information that could be used in future studies involving the fine mapping of these genes, as well as in the identification of molecular markers that are closely related to these genes for marker-assisted selection of this important trait in wheat.

  2. Genetic analysis of the physiological responses to low boron stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Changying; Han, Yanlai; Shi, Lei; Peng, Lishun; Wang, Yunhua; Xu, Fangsen; Meng, Jinling

    2008-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for higher plants. There is wide genetic variation in the response to B deficiency among plant species and cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control B efficiency in natural Arabidopsis accessions. The B efficiency coefficient (BEC) and seed yield under low B conditions (SYLB) were investigated by solution culture in two separate experiments in an Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Both of the traits studied exhibited high transgressive variation in the RIL population, and, in total, five and three QTL were identified for BEC and SYLB, respectively. Three of the five QTL, including the QTL, AtBE1-2, that has a large effect on the BEC, were found at the interval of the corresponding QTL for SYLB in both experiments. The close genetic relationship between BEC and SYLB was further confirmed by conditional QTL mapping in the RIL population and unconditional QTL mapping in an AtBE1-2-segregated F(2) population. Epistatic interactions for the tested traits were analysed, and were found to be widespread in the detected QTL of Arabidopsis in the RIL population. Comparison of the QTL interval for B efficiency with reported B-related genes showed that 10 B-related genes, together with one BOR1 homolog (BOR5, At1g74810) were located in the QTL region of AtBE1-2. These results suggest that natural variation in B efficiency in Arabidopsis has a complex molecular basis. They also provide a basis for fine mapping and cloning of the B-efficiency genes, with the ultimate aim of discovering the physiological mechanism of action of the genes.

  3. Lr67/Yr46 confers adult plant resistance to stem rust and powdery mildew in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Singh, Ravi P; Lillemo, Morten; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Bhavani, Sridhar; Singh, Sukhwinder; Lan, Caixia; Calvo-Salazar, Violeta; Lagudah, Evans S

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that Lr67/Yr46 has pleiotropic effect on stem rust and powdery mildew resistance and is associated with leaf tip necrosis. Genes are designated as Sr55, Pm46 and Ltn3 , respectively. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) accession RL6077, known to carry the pleiotropic slow rusting leaf and yellow rust resistance genes Lr67/Yr46 in Thatcher background, displayed significantly lower stem rust (P. graminis tritici; Pgt) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici; Bgt) severities in Kenya and in Norway, respectively, compared to its recurrent parent Thatcher. We investigated the resistance of RL6077 to stem rust and powdery mildew using Avocet × RL6077 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two photoperiod-insensitive F3 families segregating for Lr67/Yr46. Greenhouse seedling tests were conducted with Mexican Pgt race RTR. Field evaluations were conducted under artificially initiated stem rust epidemics with Pgt races RTR and TTKST (Ug99 + Sr24) at Ciudad Obregon (Mexico) and Njoro (Kenya) during 2010-2011; and under natural powdery mildew epiphytotic in Norway at Ås and Hamar during 2011 and 2012. In Mexico, a mean reduction of 41 % on stem rust severity was obtained for RILs carrying Lr67/Yr46, compared to RILs that lacked the gene, whereas in Kenya the difference was smaller (16 %) but significant. In Norway, leaf tip necrosis was associated with Lr67/Yr46 and RILs carrying Lr67/Yr46 showed a 20 % reduction in mean powdery mildew severity at both sites across the 2 years of evaluation. Our study demonstrates that Lr67/Yr46 confers partial resistance to stem rust and powdery mildew and is associated with leaf tip necrosis. The corresponding pleiotropic, or tightly linked, genes, designated as Sr55, Pm46, and Ltn3, can be utilized to provide broad-spectrum durable disease resistance in wheat.

  4. Growth and nutritional status of Brazilian wood species Cedrella fissilis and Anadenanthera peregrina in bauxite spoil in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and substrate amendment Crescimento e estado nutricional das espécies Cedrella fissilis e Anadenanthera peregrina em estéril de mineração de bauxita em resposta à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares e à melhoria do substrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério Tótola

    2000-10-01

    G. etunicatum.Estudou-se o crescimento de plantas de Cedrella fissilis Vell. (Cedro Rosa e de Anadenanthera peregrina Benth (Angico Vermelho em estéril de mineração de bauxita e sua resposta à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs ou à melhoria do substrato. As plantas foram cultivadas em estéril de mineração de bauxita, em solo de camada superficial, em estéril adicionado de solo de camada superficial ou de composto orgânico e inoculadas com os FMAs Acaulospora scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita ou Glomus etunicatum. A colonização de C. fissilis por Gigaspora margarita foi reduzida de 75% em estéril de mineração de bauxita para apenas 4% em solo de camada superficial. Ao contrário, a colonização de A. peregrina pela mesma espécie fúngica aumentou de 48% no estéril para 60% em solo de camada superficial. A colonização radicular de C. fissilis em solo de camada superficial foi menor que nos outros três substratos testados, o oposto do resultado observado com A. peregrina. A inoculação de C. fissilis e A. peregrina com Acaulospora scrobiculata ou com Glomus etunicatum resultou em aumentos significativos na produção de biomassa vegetal. Plantas das duas espécies, quando não-inoculadas, não responderam às alterações das características do substrato de crescimento. Observou-se também uma partição preferencial de fotossintatos para a parte aérea de plantas de A. peregrina inoculadas com G. etunicatum ou com A. scrobiculata e de C. fissilis inoculadas com qualquer das três espécies de FMAs. C. fissilis respondeu mais significativamente à inoculação micorrízica que A. peregrina. A eficiência micorrízica média (EM para a produção de matéria seca por C. fissilis foi de 1.847% para A. scrobiculata, 1.922% para G. etunicatum e 119% para G. margarita. Em A. peregrina, a EM foi de 249% para A. scrobiculata, 540% para G. etunicatum e de 50% para G. margarita. O efeito da inoculação sobre o crescimento das

  5. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  6. Genetic map of AFLP markers in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) derived from the H x B/Ipcv and B x H/cub sets of recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonné, A. C. M.; den Bieman, M. G.; Gillissen, G. F.; Křen, Vladimír; Křenová, D.; Bílá, V.; Zídek, Václav; Kostka, Vlastimil; Musilová, Alena; Pravenec, Michal; Van Zutphen, B. F. M.; Van Lith, H. A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3-4 (2003), s. 77-89 ISSN 0006-2928 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015; GA ČR GA305/00/1646 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) BIO4CT960562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : AFLP technique * rat * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.569, year: 2003

  7. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  8. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  9. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  10. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...

  11. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  12. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  13. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  14. K-line photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief r