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Sample records for inbred lines bils

  1. Cluster Analysis of Maize Inbred Lines

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    Jiban Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of diversity among inbred lines is important for heterosis breeding. Sixty maize inbred lines were evaluated for their eight agro morphological traits during winter season of 2011 to analyze their genetic diversity. Clustering was done by average linkage method. The inbred lines were grouped into six clusters. Inbred lines grouped into Clusters II had taller plants with maximum number of leaves. The cluster III was characterized with shorter plants with minimum number of leaves. The inbred lines categorized into cluster V had early flowering whereas the group into cluster VI had late flowering time. The inbred lines grouped into the cluster III were characterized by higher value of anthesis silking interval (ASI and those of cluster VI had lower value of ASI. These results showed that the inbred lines having widely divergent clusters can be utilized in hybrid breeding programme.

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  3. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

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    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  4. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

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    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  5. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Callus induction capacity was highest in inbred lines IL3, IL15 and IL1. The. Varieties Hudiba-2 and ... Maize plant regeneration can take place through two avenues, that is ..... regenerants were tussel ear formation and dwarfism. These abnormalities are typical of tissue-cultured cells, plants derived from ...

  6. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  7. Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their hybrids under normal and drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for most of the characters under study which indicates the presence of sufficient amount of variability offering ample scope for ...

  8. recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    The QTLs identified are stable for these characters and are located on ... number of seeds per ear, with better thousand kernel weight and grain yield ... to determine environmentally friendly way of barley lines to withstand oat .... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done .... yield components, multiple QTL mapping or.

  9. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

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    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  10. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

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    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  11. Evaluation of Spring Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines under Drought Stress

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    M. Moghaddaszadeh-Ahrabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Wheat as a strategic agricultural products faces water deficiency in most areas of the country. Therefore, identification of the resistant varieties to drought stress is one of main aims for breeders. To assess effect of drought stress at heading on 72 spring wheat recombinant inbred lines derived from American Yecora Rojo (high yielder, dwarf and early maturity as paternal parent and Iranian No. 49 line (tall and late maturiting as maternal parent cross were studied. The experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the University of Tabriz using a randomized complete block design with two replications during 2009 growing season. Based on the results from combined analysis of variance significant difference was observed among lines for all of traits studied, except for harvest index, grain number per spike and days to heading. There was significant difference between normal and drought stress conditions. Since the interaction between line and conditions was insignificant for all traits, it does therefore, provide the possibility of comparing the lines without regard to irrigation levels. Based on the means of, the traits it was found that the lines 96, 122, 123 and 155 were superior. MP, GMP and STI indices were recognized to be suitable indices to identify superior lines. With respect to these indices, lines 96, 122, 123, 138, 149 and 155 were found superior as compared with remaining lines. Based on stepwise regression analysis of grain yield with other traits, respectively grain number per spike, number of spikes/m2 and 1000 kernel weight were inserted into final model as effective variables on grain yield, which made 81/9 percent of the grain yield variation. Path analysis of grain yield and related traits, based on stepwise regression, demonstrated the significant positive direct effect for grain number per spike, number of spikes/m2 and 1000 kernel weight on grain yield

  12. Effective selection criteria for screening drought tolerant recombinant inbred lines of sunflower

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    Abdi Nishtman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seventy two sunflower recombinant inbred lines were tested for their yielding ability under both water-stressed and well-watered states. The inbred lines were evaluated in a rectangular 8´9 lattice design with two replications in both well-watered and water-stressed conditions, separately. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI, mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, harmonic mean (HM, stress susceptibility index (SSI, tolerance index (TOL, yield index (YI and yield stability index (YSI were calculated based on grain yield for every genotype. Results showed the highest values of mean productivity (MP index, geometric mean productivity (GMP, yield index (YI, harmonic mean (HM and stress tolerance index (STI indices for ‘C134a’ inbred line and least values of stress susceptibility index (SSI and tolerance (TOL for C61 inbred line. According to correlation of indices with yield performance under both drought stress and non-stress states and principle component analysis, indices including HM, MP, GMP and STI could properly distinguish drought tolerant sunflower inbred lines with high yield performance under both states. Cluster analysis of inbred lines using Ys, Yp and eight indices, categorized them into four groups including 19, 6, 26 and 19 inbred lines.

  13. Inbreeding depression in maize populations and its effects on the obtention of promising inbred lines

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    Deoclecio Domingos Garbuglio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding can potentially be used for the development of inbred lines containing alleles of interest, but the genetic causes that control inbreeding depression are not completely known, and there are few studies found in the literature. The present study aimed to obtain estimates of inbreeding depression for eight traits in seven tropical maize populations, analyze the effects of inbreeding over generations and environments, and predict the behavior of inbred lines in future generation S? through linear regression methods. It was found that regardless of the base population used, prediction values could vary when the model was based on only 2 generations of inbreeding due to the environmental component. The influence of the environment in this type of study could be reduced when considering 3 generations of inbreeding, allowing greater precision in predicting the phenotypes of inbred lines. The use of linear regression was effective for inbred line prediction for the different agronomic traits evaluated. The use of 3 levels of inbreeding minimizes the effects of the environmental component in inbred line prediction for grain yield. GO-S was the most promising population for inbred line extraction.

  14. Analysis of genetic diversity among the maize inbred lines (Zea mays L. under heat stress condition

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    Manoj Kandel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High temperature adversely affects the plant physiological processes: limits plant growth and reduction in grain yield. Heat stress is often encountered to spring sowing of maize in spring season. Twenty maize inbred lines were studied for days to 50 % anthesis and silking, anthesis–silking interval, leaf firing, tassel blast, SPAD reading and leaf senescence, plant and ear height, leaf area index, ear per plant, cob length and diameter, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel row, silk receptivity, shelling percentage, thousand kernel weight and grain yield in alpha lattice design at National Maize Research Program at Rampur, Chitwan,Nepal with the objective to identify superior heat stress tolerant lines. Analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits. Result of multivariable analysis revealed that twenty inbred lines formed four clusters. The resistance inbred lines and susceptible inbred lines formed different clusters. The members of cluster 4 were found to be tolerant to heat stress due to they had lowest value of tassel blast, leaf firing, and leaf area index with highest value of cob diameter and length, ear per plant, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel/ear, number of kernel row, shelling percentage, silk receptivity and grain yield whereas as members of cluster 1were found most susceptible due to they had longer anthesis silking interval, with maximum tassel blast and leaf firing along with no grain yield under heat stress condition. From this study inbred lines RL-140, RML-76, RML-91 and RML-40 were found most tolerant to heat stress. These inbred lines belonging to superior cluster could be considered very useful in developing heat tolerant variety and other breeding activities.

  15. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To estimate the genetic variability levels maintained by inbred lines selected for body weight and to compare them with a nonselected population from which the lines were derived, we calculated the per cent polymorphic loci (P) and marker diversity (MD) index from data on 43 putative loci of inter simple sequence repeats ...

  16. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  17. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  18. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Soda, El M.; Kim, H.K.; Fritsche, S.; Jung, C.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

  19. QTL analysis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis using recombinant inbred lines and MQM mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaar, Wybe van der; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Léon-Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Ooijen, Johan W. van; Koornneef, Maarten

    1997-01-01

    The genetic differences for seed germination between two commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Ler and Col, both showing a low level of seed dormancy, were investigated. The analysis was performed with 98 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the two ecotypes, and

  20. The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and Reaction to Grey ... East African Journal of Sciences ... (GLS) to maize production, the national maize research program of Ethiopia ... The information from this study will be useful for the development of high-yielding and GLS disease-resistant maize varieties.

  1. Identification of resistance to Maize rayado fino virus in maize inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is one of the most important virus diseases of maize in America. Severe yield losses, ranging from 10 to 50% in landraces to nearly 100% in contemporary cultivars, have been reported. Resistance has been reported in populations, but few inbred lines have been identifie...

  2. Registration of Wyandot × PI 567301B soybean recombinant inbred line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] mapping population (Reg. No., SNL MAP) consisting of 357 F7-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) in Wooster, OH. The population was ...

  3. Analysis of the genetic diversity of super sweet corn inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W R; Sa, K J; Roy, N S; Choi, H-J; Lee, J K

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) markers for analyzing genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and population structure of 87 super sweet corn inbred lines from different origins. SSR markers showed higher average gene diversity and Shannon's information index than SSAP markers. To assess genetic relationships and characterize inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers, genetic similarity (GS) matrices were constructed. The dendrogram using SSR marker data showed a complex pattern with nine clusters and a GS of 53.0%. For SSAP markers, three clusters were observed with a GS of 50.8%. Results of combined marker data showed six clusters with 53.5% GS. To analyze the genetic population structure of SSR and SSAP marker data, the 87 inbred lines were divided into groups I, II, and admixed based on the membership probability threshold of 0.8. Using combined marker data, the population structure was K = 3 and was divided into groups I, II, III, and admixed. This study represents a comparative analysis of SSR and SSAP marker data for the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in super sweet corn inbred lines. Our results would be useful for maize-breeding programs in Korea.

  4. Resistance Evaluation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. Inbred Lines against Turnip mosaic virus

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    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of twenties radish (Raphanus sativus L. inbred lines were mechanically inoculated with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV strain HY to evaluate TuMV resistance of the radish inbred lines. The inoculated radish plants were incubated at 22°C±3°C and resistance assessment was examined using symptom development for 4 weeks. Based on the reactions of differential radish inbred lines, 16 radish lines were produced mild mosaic, mottling, mosaic and severe mosaic symptoms by TuMV infection. These results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of TuMV coat protein gene, suggesting that TuMV is responsible for the disease symptoms. Four resistant radish lines did not induce systemic mosaic symptoms on upper leaves and chlorosis in stem tissues for 4 weeks, showing they were symptomless by 8 weeks. Further examination of TuMV infection in the 4 radish lines showed no TuMV infection in all systemic leaves. These results suggest that the 4 radish lines are highly resistant to TuMV.

  5. Characterization and performance of 16 new inbred lines of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of sixteen breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five (SM13-I1, SM13-I2, SM13-I3, SM13-I4, and SM13-I5) of the six iceberg breeding lines can be used for whole head or salad blend production; the sixth i...

  6. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

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    Charles Addo-Quaye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation.

  7. Screening of inbred popcorn lines for tolerance to low phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, O J A P; Gonçalves, L S A; Scapim, C A; S M de Sousa, de; Castro, C R; Y Baba, V; de Oliveira, A L M

    2016-05-06

    Increasing phosphorus use efficiency in agriculture is essential for sustainable food production. Thus, the aims of this study were: i) to identify phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) in popcorn lines during the early plant stages, ii) to study the relationship between traits correlated with PUE, and iii) to analyze genetic diversity among lines. To accomplish this, 35 popcorn lines from Universidade Estadual de Maringá breeding program were studied. The experiment was conducted in a growth chamber using a nutrient solution containing two concentrations of phosphorus (P): 2.5 μM or low P (LP) and 250 μM or high P (HP). After 13 days in the nutrient solution, root morphology traits, shoot and root dry weight, and P content of the maize seedlings were measured. A deviance analysis showed there was a high level of genetic variability. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering analysis identified three groups for the LP treatment (efficient, intermediate, and inefficient) and three groups for the HP treatment (responsive, moderately responsive, and unresponsive). The results of a principal component analysis and selection index were consistent with the UPGMA analysis, and lines 1, 2, 13, 17, 26, and 31 were classified as PUE.

  8. The application of protein markers in conversion of maize inbred lines to the cytoplasmic male sterility basis

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    Stevanovic Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven maize inbred lines of different origin and maturity group were used in the trial set up according to the split-plot randomized complete block design in five environments. Each inbred was observed in five variants: original inbred (N; cytoplasmic male sterile C-type (CMS-C; restorer for CMS-C (RfC; cytoplasmic male sterile S-type (CMS-S and restorer for CMS-S (RfS. The objective was to compare grain yield of original inbreds and their CMS and Rf variants and to apply Isoelectric focusing (IEF to determine whether the conversion of original inbreds to their CMS and Rf counterparts have been done completely. Protein markers have shown that conversion of almost all inbreds was done good and completely. Only original inbreds ZPL2 and ZPL5 did not concur on banding patterns with their RfC variants. The type of cytoplasm had a very significant impact on grain yield. Namely, CMS-C counterparts significantly out yielded their CMS-S versions, while the inbreds with C and S cytoplasm over yielded inbreds with N cytoplasm, as well as their RfC and RfS versions.

  9. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor ? S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map ha...

  10. Maize forage aptitude: Combining ability of inbred lines and stability of hybrids

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    Luis Máximo Bertoia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of forage maize should combine improvement achieved for grain with the specific needs of forage hybrids. Production stability is important when maize is used for silage if the planting area is not in the ideal agronomic environment. The objectives of the present research were: (i to quantify environmental and genetic and their interaction effects on maize silage traits; (ii to identify possible heterotic groups for forage aptitude and suggest the formation of potential heterotic patterns, and (iii to identify suitable inbred line combinations for producing hybrids with forage aptitude. Forty-five hybrids derived from diallelic crosses (without reciprocals among ten inbred lines of maize were evaluated in this study. Combined ANOVA over environments showed differences between genotypes (G, environments (E, and their interactions (GEI. Heritability (H2, and genotypic and phenotypic correlations were estimated to evaluate the variation in and relationships between forage traits. Postdictive and predictive AMMI models were fitted to determine the importance of each source of variation, G, E, and GEI, and to select genotypes simultaneously on yield, quality and stability. A predominance of additive effects was found in the evaluated traits. The heterotic pattern Reid-BSSS × Argentine flint was confirmed for ear yield (EY and harvest index (HI. High and broad genetic variation was found for stover and whole plant traits. Some inbred lines had genes with differential breeding aptitude for ear and stover. Stover and ear yield should be the main breeding objectives in maize forage breeding.

  11. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  12. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  13. Nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity of RTCS gene in China elite maize inbred lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enying Zhang

    Full Text Available The maize RTCS gene, encoding a LOB domain transcription factor, plays important roles in the initiation of embryonic seminal and postembryonic shoot-borne root. In this study, the genomic sequences of this gene in 73 China elite inbred lines, including 63 lines from 5 temperate heteroric groups and 10 tropic germplasms, were obtained, and the nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype diversity were detected. A total of 63 sequence variants, including 44 SNPs and 19 indels, were identified at this locus, and most of them were found to be located in the regions of UTR and intron. The coding region of this gene in all tested inbred lines carried 14 haplotypes, which encoding 7 deferring RTCS proteins. Analysis of the polymorphism sites revealed that at least 6 recombination events have occurred. Among all 6 groups tested, only the P heterotic group had a much lower nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and selection analysis also revealed that only this group was under strong negative selection. However, the set of Huangzaosi and its derived lines possessed a higher nucleotide diversity than the whole set, and no selection signal were identified.

  14. Field screening of experimental corn hybrids and inbred lines for multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Brown, Steve L; Lee, R Dewey; Coy, Anton E

    2007-10-01

    Identifying and using native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. In this study, 10 experimental corn, Zea mays L., hybrids and 10 inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern Coastal Plain region of the United States during 2004 and 2005. Ear-feeding insect damage was assessed at harvest by visual damage rating for the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and by the percentage of kernels damaged by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and stink bugs [combination of Euschistus servus (Say) and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)]. Among the eight inbred lines and two control populations examined, C3S1B73-5b was resistant to corn earworm, maize weevil, and stink bugs. In contrast, C3S1B73-4 was resistant to corn earworm and stink bugs, but not to maize weevil. In a similar manner, the corn hybrid S1W*CML343 was resistant to all three ear-feeding insects, whereas hybrid C3S1B73-3*Tx205 was resistant to corn earworm and maize weevil in both growing seasons, but susceptible to stink bugs in 2005. The silk-feeding bioassay showed that corn earworm developed better on corn silk than did fall armyworm. Among all phenotypic traits examined (i.e., corn ear size, husk extension, and husk tightness), only corn ear size was negatively correlated to corn earworm damage in the inbred lines examined, whereas only husk extension (i.e., coverage) was negatively correlated to both corn earworm and maize weevil damage on the experimental hybrids examined. Such information could be used to establish a baseline for developing agronomically elite corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

  15. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

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    Jambrović Antun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  16. Salt-induced root protein profile changes in seedlings of maize inbred lines with differing salt tolerances

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    Yujing Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the severest growth limited-factors to agriculture production. To gain in-depth knowledge of salt-stress response mechanisms, the proteomics analysis from two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. There were 57 salt-regulated proteins identified, 21 and 36 proteins were differentially regulated in inbred lines 'Nongda 1145' (salt-resistant and 'D340' (salt-sensitive, respectively. The identified proteins were distributed in 11 biological processes and seven molecular functions. Under salt stress, proteins related to antioxidation and lignin synthesis were increased in both inbred lines. The relative abundance of proteins involved in translation initiation, elongation, and protein proteolysis increased in 'Nongda 1145' and decreased in 'D340'. In addition, the abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein refolding, ATP synthase and transcription differed between the two inbred lines. Our results suggest that the enhanced ability of salt-tolerant inbred line 'Nongda 1145' to combat salt stress occurs via regulation of transcription factors promoting increased antioxidation and lignin biosynthesis, enhanced energy production, and acceleration of protein translation and protein proteolysis.

  17. Correlation and path analysis on main agronomic traits of progeny from space mutation maize inbred lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caibo; Wu Zhangdong; Xu Wei; Rong Tingzhao; Cao Moju

    2013-01-01

    In order to discover and utilize the valuable resources from spaceflight mutagenesis maize offspring effectively, cross combinations derived from the offspring of three different maize inbred lines induced by space flight were made to investigate the yield and related agronomic traits under different environmental conditions. Correlation and path analysis indicated that the factors affecting the yield of combinations varied with different mutagenic materials and environmental effects with larger effect coming from environment. Therefore, different selection strategies should be chosen for different induced maize. For the 08-641 mutagenic material, the 100-kernel weight should be first considered to select while taking into account the number of rows per ear and kernels per row. For the RP125 mutagenic material, the kernels per row should be first selected, and then to select the 100-kernels weight and the number of rows per ear traits. For 18-599 mutagenic material, the 100-seed weight should be first selected, then the plant height, ear diameter, ear height, kernels rate and other traits should be selected in different environments. Combined with field resistance, plant types and other traits, excellent maize inbred lines with high yield potential from space mutagenesis offspring were selected. Thus study has obtained some breeding materials useful for further breeding purpose, and provide a reference method as how to use the spaceflight induced materials for for maize breeding. (authors)

  18. Comparative Cytotoxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine to Four Inbred Maize Lines (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, Afaf I; AlGhethar, Haila A; AlHomaidan, Ali A; Arif, Ibrahim A

    2008-01-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Recent reports have indicated that it has adverse impacts on the endocrine systems and on the early developments of wild animals and it has been banned in many European countries including Switzerland, the home of the manufacturing company. The genotoxic effects of Atrazine on four inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated. The herbicide showed mitoinhibition and clastogenic effects on the mitotic index of maize lines and they were proportional to the concentrations and time. The frequency of abnormality, chromosomal breakage, stickiness, lagging, C-metaphase and C-anaphase were observed at different stages of mitosis in treated cells. The harmful effect of this environmental pollutant proved that it may act as a strong mutagen. (author)

  19. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines

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    Carlotta BALCONI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L. grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and animal feed. Hence, the development of maize genotypes with reduced mycotoxin accumulation in grain is of major importance. In order to find maize germplasm sources of resistance to Fusarium ear rot, 34 Italian and six public inbred lines were evaluated by means of artificial inoculation in field experiments during 2009 and 2010. Relationships between ear rot and fumonisin concentration in the ears were investigated. Primary ears were challenged with a mixture of two Fusarium verticillioides isolates from Northern Italy, through kernel inoculation, and ear rot severity was assessed.The average number of visibly infected kernels per ear, after inoculation, ranged from 2 to 68 in 2009 and from 0 to 120 in 2010. Fumonisin concentrations in the inoculated ears were greater than in the experimental controls for both years. Variability was found between the inbred lines: fumonisin accumulation ranged from 0.56 to 240.83 mg kg-1 in 2009 and from 1.09 to 190.60 mg kg-1 in 2010. In both years, six inbred lines showed high fumonisin content (≥100 mg kg-1, while the other genotypes were almost equally split into two groups, low (≤10 mg kg-1 and medium (from 11 to 100 mg kg-1 fumonisin content. The number of infected kernels after artificial inoculation correlated with fumonisin concentration both in 2009 (r = 0.94; P≤0.01 and 2010 (r = 0.67; P≤0.01. Additionally, the percentage of internally infected kernels correlated positively with fumonisin concentration (r = 0.37; P≤0.01 and with the number of infected kernels (r = 0.29; P≤0.05. This research has demonstrated that Italian maize germplasm is a valid source of resistance to Fusarium ear rot. Furthermore, there is a strong association of visible Fusarium symptoms with fumonisin concentration, suggesting that selection in maize for reduced visible moulds should reduce the risk of

  20. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

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    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  1. Artificial induction of third-stage dispersal juveniles of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using newly established inbred lines.

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    Suguru E Tanaka

    Full Text Available The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. This nematode has two developmental forms in its life cycle; i.e., the propagative and dispersal forms. The former is the form that builds up its population inside the host pine. The latter is specialized for transport by the vector. This form is separated into two dispersal stages (third and fourth; the third-stage dispersal juvenile (JIII is specialized for survival under unfavorable conditions, whereas the fourth-stage juvenile (JIV, which is induced by a chemical signal from the carrier Monochamus beetle, is transported to new host pines and invades them. Because of its importance in the disease cycle, molecular and chemical aspects of the JIV have been investigated, while the mechanism of JIII induction has not been sufficiently investigated. In an effort to clarify the JIII induction process, we established inbred lines of B. xylophilus and compared their biological features. We found that the total number of nematodes (propagation proportion was negatively correlated with the JIII emergence proportion, likely because nematode development was arrested at JIII; i.e., they could not develop to adults via the reproductive stage. In addition, JIII induction seemed to be regulated by a small number of genes because the JIII induction proportion varied among inbred lines despite the high homozygosity of the parental line. We also demonstrated that JIII can be artificially induced by the nematode's secreted substances. This is the first report of artificial induction of JIII in B. xylophilus. The dauer (dispersal juvenile of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans corresponds functionally to JIII of B. xylophilus, and this stage is known to be induced by a chemical signal referred to as daumone, derived from the nematodes' secretion. The artificial induction of JIII suggests the presence of daumone-like material in B. xylophilus.

  2. The Genetic Basis of Plant Architecture in 10 Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingchun; Xu, Yuancheng; Li, Kun; Peng, Yong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Lin; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-10-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor affecting planting density and grain yield in maize ( Zea mays ). However, the genetic mechanisms underlying plant architecture in diverse genetic backgrounds have not been fully addressed. Here, we performed a large-scale phenotyping of 10 plant architecture-related traits and dissected the genetic loci controlling these traits in 10 recombinant inbred line populations derived from 14 diverse genetic backgrounds. Nearly 800 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with major and minor effects were identified as contributing to the phenotypic variation of plant architecture-related traits. Ninety-two percent of these QTLs were detected in only one population, confirming the diverse genetic backgrounds of the mapping populations and the prevalence of rare alleles in maize. The numbers and effects of QTLs are positively associated with the phenotypic variation in the population, which, in turn, correlates positively with parental phenotypic and genetic variations. A large proportion (38.5%) of QTLs was associated with at least two traits, suggestive of the frequent occurrence of pleiotropic loci or closely linked loci. Key developmental genes, which previously were shown to affect plant architecture in mutant studies, were found to colocalize with many QTLs. Five QTLs were further validated using the segregating populations developed from residual heterozygous lines present in the recombinant inbred line populations. Additionally, one new plant height QTL, qPH3 , has been fine-mapped to a 600-kb genomic region where three candidate genes are located. These results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling plant architecture and will benefit the selection of ideal plant architecture in maize breeding. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  4. Preliminary study on mutagenic effects of heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lixia; Li Wenjian; Xie Hongmei; Chen Xuejun; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    In order to study mutagenic effects of different heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines,corn seeds of Zheng58, Lu9801, Jinxiang4C-1, CSR24001, 308 and 478 were irradiated with 12 C 6+ and 36 Ar 18+ ions. The experimental results showed that the germination rate and planting percent were different after irradiation. The wettish seeds had higher sensibility to heavy ion irradiation. The leaf type of the plant appeared visible changes in M 1 generation. In M 2 generation, great changes had taken place in economic traits, many of which are beneficial mutation. Some beneficia1 mutation could be stably inherited in M 3 generation. From the above, it can be predicted that heavy ions irradiation is an effective means of genetic improvement of maize. (authors)

  5. Comparison of RAPD, RFLP, AFLP and SSR markers for diversity studies in tropical maize inbred lines

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    Antonio A. F. Garcia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare their relative efficiencies as markers and to find the most suitable marker for maize diversity studies we evaluated 18 inbred tropical maize lines using a number of different loci as markers. The loci used were: 774 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs; 262 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs; 185 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs; and 68 simple sequence repeats (SSR. For estimating genetic distance the AFLP and RFLP markers gave the most correlated results, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87. Bootstrap analysis were used to evaluate the number of loci for the markers and the coefficients of variation (CV revealed a skewed distribution. The dominant markers (AFLP and RAPD had small CV values indicating a skewed distribution while the codominant markers gave high CV values. The use of maximum values of genetic distance CVs within each sample size was efficient in determining the number of loci needed to obtain a maximum CV of 10%. The number of RFLP and AFLP loci used was enough to give CV values of below 5%, while the SSRs and RAPD loci gave higher CV values. Except for the RAPD markers, all the markers correlated genetic distance with single cross performance and heterosis which showed that they could be useful in predicting single cross performance and heterosis in intrapopulation crosses for broad-based populations. Our results indicate that AFLP seemed to be the best-suited molecular assay for fingerprinting and assessing genetic relationships among tropical maize inbred lines with high accuracy.

  6. A new set of BXD recombinant inbred lines from advanced intercross populations in mice

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    Gu Jing

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant inbred (RI strains are an important resource for mapping complex traits in many species. While large RI panels are available for Arabidopsis, maize, C. elegans, and Drosophila, mouse RI panels typically consist of fewer than 30 lines. This is a severe constraint on the power and precision of mapping efforts and greatly hampers analysis of epistatic interactions. Results In order to address these limitations and to provide the community with a more effective collaborative RI mapping panel we generated new BXD RI strains from two independent advanced intercrosses (AI between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 progenitor strains. Progeny were intercrossed for 9 to 14 generations before initiating inbreeding, which is still ongoing for some strains. Since this AI base population is highly recombinant, the 46 advanced recombinant inbred (ARI strains incorporate approximately twice as many recombinations as standard RI strains, a fraction of which are inevitably shared by descent. When combined with the existing BXD RI strains, the merged BXD strain set triples the number of previously available unique recombinations and quadruples the total number of recombinations in the BXD background. Conclusion The combined BXD strain set is the largest mouse RI mapping panel. It is a powerful tool for collaborative analysis of quantitative traits and gene function that will be especially useful to study variation in transcriptome and proteome data sets under multiple environments. Additional strains also extend the value of the extensive phenotypic characterization of the previously available strains. A final advantage of expanding the BXD strain set is that both progenitors have been sequenced, and approximately 1.8 million SNPs have been characterized. This provides unprecedented power in screening candidate genes and can reduce the effective length of QTL intervals. It also makes it possible to reverse standard mapping strategies and

  7. SNP frequency, haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite maize inbred lines

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    Smith Oscar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of ancestral maize populations indicate that linkage disequilibrium tends to dissipate rapidly, sometimes within 100 bp. We set out to examine the linkage disequilibrium and diversity in maize elite inbred lines, which have been subject to population bottlenecks and intense selection by breeders. Such population events are expected to increase the amount of linkage disequilibrium, but reduce diversity. The results of this study will inform the design of genetic association studies. Results We examined the frequency and distribution of DNA polymorphisms at 18 maize genes in 36 maize inbreds, chosen to represent most of the genetic diversity in U.S. elite maize breeding pool. The frequency of nucleotide changes is high, on average one polymorphism per 31 bp in non-coding regions and 1 polymorphism per 124 bp in coding regions. Insertions and deletions are frequent in non-coding regions (1 per 85 bp, but rare in coding regions. A small number (2–8 of distinct and highly diverse haplotypes can be distinguished at all loci examined. Within genes, SNP loci comprising the haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium with each other. Conclusions No decline of linkage disequilibrium within a few hundred base pairs was found in the elite maize germplasm. This finding, as well as the small number of haplotypes, relative to neutral expectation, is consistent with the effects of breeding-induced bottlenecks and selection on the elite germplasm pool. The genetic distance between haplotypes is large, indicative of an ancient gene pool and of possible interspecific hybridization events in maize ancestry.

  8. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

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    Pedram Kashiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei, Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703, while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10.

  9. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  10. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

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    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total

  11. Photosynthetic properties of erect leaf maize inbred lines as the efficient photo-model in breeding and seed production

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    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial idea of this study was a hypothesis that erect leaf maize inbred lines were characterized by properties of an efficient photo-model and that as such were very desirable in increasing the number of plants per area unit (plant density in the process of contemporary selection and seed production. The application of a non-invasive bioluminescence-photosynthetic method, suitable for the efficiency estimation of the photo-model, verified the hypothesis. Obtained photosynthetic properties of observed erect leaf maize inbred lines were based on the effects and characteristics of thermal processes of delayed chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. The temperature dependence of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence intensity phase transitions (critical temperatures in the thylakoid membranes and activation energy are the principal parameters of the thermal processes. Based on obtained photosynthetic properties it is possible to select erect leaf maize inbred lines that are resistant and tolerant to high and very high temperatures, as well as, to drought. They could be good and efficient photo-models wherewith.

  12. Genetic analysis of recombinant inbred lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K; Auckland, Susan A; Goff, Valorie H; Rainville, Lisa K; Burow, Gloria B; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development.

  13. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

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    Heinz Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and short insertion and/or deletions (indels to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056, as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88. Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2, with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1. Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance. Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop

  15. Study of Yield and Effective Traits in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines (Triticum aestivum L. under Water Deficit Condition

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    S. Mohammad zadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects some traits on seed yield of recombinant inbred lines of wheat under water deficit stress was studied. This research was done at the Agricultural Research Stations, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2010- 2011. 28 recombinant inbred lines of wheat bread with two parents (Norstar and Zagros in split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at two irrigation levels (70 and 140 mm evaporation from pan class A were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant genetic differences in all traits under study among the lines. Lines No. 32, 163 and 182 produced highest yield under both irrigation levels. Number of spikes, grains per spike and harvest index had the highest positive correlation with grain yield. Path analysis based on stepwise regression showed that under the normal irrigation conditions, number spike (0.556, number of grains per spike (0.278, weight of 1000 grain (0.259 and the drought stress number spike (0.430, straw yield (0.276 and peduncle length (0.323 had the most direct and positive effect on yield respectively.

  16. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Gerlach, Nina; Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

  17. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis. Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and

  18. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

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    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  19. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

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    Baozhu Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays and affecting crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and fumonisin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, is a goal in breeding programs that screen for these important traits with the aim of developing resistant commercial hybrids. We conducted two years of field evaluations on 87 inbred lines originating primarily in China and Mexico and not previously screened for resistance. The objectives of our study were to identify resistant germplasm for breeding purposes and to examine possible relationships between resistances to the two mycotoxins. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were present in samples harvested from all lines in both years. Concentrations of total aflatoxin ranged from 52.00 ± 20.00 to 1524.00 ± 396.00 μg kg−1, while those of fumonisin ranged from 0.60 ± 0.06 to 124.00 ± 19.50 mg kg−1. The inbred lines TUN15, TUN61, TUN37, CY2, and TUN49 showed the lowest aflatoxin accumulation and CN1, GT601, TUN09, TUN61, and MP717 the lowest fumonisin accumulation. TUN61 showed the lowest accumulation of both mycotoxins. This study confirmed previous observations that high levels of aflatoxin can coexist with fumonisin, with 55 maize lines showing a positive correlation coefficient between the concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin and 32 lines showing a negative correlation coefficient. These selected lines, particularly TUN61, may provide sources of resistance to mycotoxin contamination in breeding programs. However, the mechanism of resistance in this germplasm remains to be identified. Future research should also address factors that influence the fungus–plant interaction, such as herbivory and environmental stress.

  20. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

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    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  1. [Effect of selenium deficiency on the F344 inbred line offspring rats' neuro-behavior, ability of learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang-Li; Tian, Dong-Ping; Su, Min; Shen, Xiu-Na; Gao, Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To establish the selenium (Se) deficient animal model on F344 inbred line rats and observe the effects of a long-term Se-deficiency on the offspring's neuro-behavior, abilities of learning and memory. Feeding F344 inbred line rats on Se-deficient diet to establish Se-deficient animal model. For the offspring, the body weight, physiological indexes nervous reflections for growth and development were monitored during the early postnatal period. The Se-deficient diet contained less than 0.01 mg/kg and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood of the Se-deficient group rats is lower than the Se-normal group after feeding on Se-deficient diet for 4 weeks. For the offspring, the birth weight and the body weight of Se-deficient group were obviously lower than the Se-normal group before weaning. Se-deficient offspring rats differed from Se-normal controls in lower scores in surface righting reflex (RR) test at postnatal 4th day after delivery, cliff avoidance test at postnatal 7th day and auditory acuity trial at postnatal 10th day respectively. But these differences disappear after a few days in the same tests. In addition, no significant differences between two groups in suspending test and walking ability test at postnatal 12th and 14th day. In open field test, Se-deficient male offspring stayed less time in the middle grid and moved less. In Morris water maze test, the Se-deficient offspring spent more time to find the hidden platform at the 6th and 9th training tests in the place navigation trial. Furthermore, the Se-deficient group spent less time in target quadrant when giving the spatial probe trial. A Se-deficient animal model have been established on F344 inbred line rats successfully. A long-term Se deficiency could retard the development of the offspring in uterus and after delivery. Se deficiency also decreased the offspring's abilities of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test and resulted in the male offspring's nervousness to new

  2. Effects of the time of application and the form of nitrogen on two maize inbred lines seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental filed of the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, on calcareous chernozem in the period 2001-2003. The traits of two maize inbred lines (L1-FAO 400 and L2-FAO 600 were observed in dependence on the time of the nitrogen application (No-control without fertilizing; Nautumn - 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 60 kg K2O ha-1 applied in autumn (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in autumn; Nspring - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in spring; N1/2 - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (half of which was applied in autumn and the other half in spring; N1/2-PK (const 100 kg N ha-1 (1/3 of which was applied in autumn, 1/3 in spring and 1/3 through soil dressing; Nmin - PK (const + fertilizing in spring on the basis of the Nmin method, and forms of applied nitrogen: Urea (amide form KAN (ammonium-nitrate form and (NH42SO4 (ammonium form. The highest average yield was obtained by the use of Nmin method (3,486 kg ha-1, as well as, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in sprig (Nspring (3,337 kg ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn and spring (N1/2 (3,020 kgha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn, spring and soil dressing (N1/3 (3,005 kg ha-1 in the ammonium-nitrate form (KAN. The highest average seed yield of observed maize inbred lines (3,264 kg ha-1 was obtained by the application of ammonium-sulphate in the primary tillage (Nautumn. The use of the Nmin method (N ranging from 17 to 35 kg ha-1, in dependence on the soil mineral nitrogen content, especially in years with lower precipitation sums resulted in the highest increase in seed yield (39.2% of observed maize inbred lines in relation to the control.

  3. [Expression and distribution of xenoantigen alpha-Gal in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Jian-guo; Mi, Jian-hong; Ying, Da-jun

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of xenoantigen in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line, and to study the availability of xenograft transplantation of intervertebral disk. Samples of intervertebral disk were collected from six Banna pigs of 8 to 11-month-old. The fixation, embedment and slice were performed. alpha-Gal specific binding lection (BSI-B4) were used as affinity reagents and affinity-immunohistochemistry assays (SABC methods and DAB stain) were conducted to detect the expression and distribution of xenoantigen (alpha-Gal). alpha-Gal was found in chondrocyte cell and chondrocyte-like cell in intervertebral disk which have the positive yellow-stained particulate aggradation. There was no stain in the matrix, elastic fiber and collagen fiber. The distribution of xenoantigen is locally in the tissue of intervertebral disk and its expression is weak. This suggests that the intervertebral disk of Banna pig may be alternative donor for xenotransplantation.

  4. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Janet P; Schmitt, Kyle; Folta, Kevin M

    2009-10-31

    The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry), and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. xananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2) was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses. These day-neutral plants have a small genome, a seed to seed

  5. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry, and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2 was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses

  6. QTLs for agronomic traits in the Mediterranean environment identified in recombinant inbred lines of the cross 'Arta' × ¤H. spontaneum¤ 41-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, M.; Grando, S.; Backes, G.

    2003-01-01

    A genetic linkage map has been developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross 'Arta' x Hordeum spontaneum 41-1. One hundred and ninety four RILs, randomly chosen from a population of 494 RILs, were mapped with 189 markers including one morphological trait (btr = brittle rachis locus...

  7. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  8. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Rector, Brian G; Guo, Baozhu; Snook, Maurice E

    2008-08-01

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)], and common smut [Ustilago maydis DC (Corda)] infection on these inbred lines were evaluated in 2005 and 2006 under subtropical conditions at Tifton, GA. Ten inbred lines possessing good agronomic traits were also resistant to the corn earworm. The correlation between ear-feeding insect damage or smut infection and three phenotypic traits (silk maysin level, husk extension, and husk tightness of corn ears) was also examined. Corn earworm and stink bug damage was negatively correlated to husk extension, but not to either silk maysin levels or husk tightness. In combination with the best agronomic trait ratings that show the least corn earworm and stink bug damage, lowest smut infection rate, and good insect-resistant phenotypic traits (i.e., high maysin and good husk coverage and husk tightness), 10 best inbred lines (CML90, CML92, CML94, CML99, CML104, CML108, CML114, CML128, CML137, and CML373) were identified from the 94 lines examined. These selected inbred lines will be used for further examination of their resistance mechanisms and development of new corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-colonizing pest resistance.

  9. Genetic determination of the biological radiation response in inbred mice lines; Genetische Determination der biologischen Strahlenantwort in Mausinzuchtstaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomolka, M.; Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz Oberschleissheim (Germany). Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene

    2000-07-01

    Variation in radiation sensitivity and radiation resistance is influenced by the genetic constitution of an individual. Loss of function of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle or controlled cell death can have serious consequences on individual radiation sensitivity. For example, individuals suffering on the clinical syndrome of Ataxia telangiectasia exhibit radiation sensitivity in the order of 2-3 magnitudes higher than other cancer patients. For radiation protection it is important to clarify the role of genetic predisposition for radiation sensitivity in clinical healthy people. Therefore, data were collected from the literature describing the genetic variation (heritability) of radiation sensitivity in the mouse model. A heritability of 30-50% was calculated for 27 inbred mice lines by Roderick (1963) based on days of survival after a daily dose of 1 Gy {gamma}-irradiation. The following inbred lines were described in the literature as radiation sensitive (phenotypical markers were e.g., time of survival, mortality, reduction in fertility post exposure): SWR, RIII, NC, K, HLG, DBA, CBA, BALB/c, A, AKR. Radiation resistance was demonstrated in SJL, SEC, RF, MA, C58, C57BR, BDP and 129. Parameter of longevity, some physiological, biochemical and immunological parameters as given in the data bank of the Jackson Laboratory, U.S.A., were compared between radiation sensitive and radiation resistant inbred strains. No correlation was seen for the most of the parameters except for the development of breast cancer. In 6 out of 10 radiosensitive inbred strains breast cancer is described while only 1 of 8 strains exhibits breast cancer. The higher heritability of 30-50% in spite of a very complex phenotype like survival and the correlation between radiosensitivity and tumour incidence show that individual genetic susceptibility is important on the biological radiation reaction. (orig.) [German] Die phaenotypische Variation der Strahlensensitivitaet und

  10. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  11. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  12. Impacts of irrigation and genotype on yield, protein, starch and oil contents in grain of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipovic Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four inbred lines of maize (Os 438-95 = C1, Os 30-8 = C2, Os 6 = C3 and Os 1-44 =C4 were grown for 4-year period (2006-2009 in the stationary field experiment on Osijek eutric cambisol. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotype were tested. Soil moisture was maintained by two irrigation rates from 60-100% and 80-100% of the field water capacity. Two steps of N (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 were applied, while P and K fertilization was equal (500 kg/ha NPK 0:30:20. Eight maize genotypes (four inbred lines and four hybrids were grown on each basic plot of fertilization. The experiment was duplicated for maize - soybean rotation. The experiment was set by split-split plot method according to randomized block design in three replicates. The basic plot areas were 617.2 m2 (irrigation, 313.6 m2 (fertilization and 39.2 m2 (genotype. Selection of N non-fertilized treatment and four inbred lines were made for this study with aim of testing year (A irrigation (B and genotype (C effects under natural N-soil conditions. Average grain yield in level 1809 kg ha-1without N fertilization is indication of very high fertility of the soil. Differences of yield among the years were from 823 (2007 to 2450 (2006 kg ha-1. Excessive drought and high air-temperature stress is responsible for the low maize yield in 2007. Irrigation considerable affected on maize yields (4-year averages: 1500, 1809 and 2118 kg ha-1, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of the 4-year average yields among the genotypes were from 1259 (C3 to 2765 (C1 kg ha-1. Differences of yield among the genotypes in the different years were also considerable because the lowest yield was for 71% (A1, 23% (A2, 63% (A3 and 40% (A4 lower in comparison to the highest yield. The genotype effects under different water supplies were less influencing factor because the high-yielding C1 had for 128%, 129% and 106% the higher yield compared to the low-yielding C3, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively

  13. Evaluation of Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To study drought stress effect on grain quality properties of wheat, an experiment was conductedusing 169 recombinant inbreed lines (RILS under water stress and non-stress condition and with two separated lattice designs. Grain yield, protein yield, protein content, volume of Zeleny sediment, grain hardness, water absorption, grain moisture content and grain dry matter were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among the lines for all traits. Moreover, comparison between two lines in two environmental conditions showed, the quality in bread wheat under drought stress conditions due to increment of protein yield is improved. Protein yield in both irrigation regimes has a significant and negative correlation with grain moisture and in the other hand, significant and positive correlation with the grain hardiness dry matter, Zeleny sedimentation and water intake in both conditions. The results showed that the identification of favorable quality characteristics in optimum and stressed conditions were possible and the lines with high grain quality can be used in breeding programs for improving of baking quality. Although some drought sensitive genotypes possessed a favorable baking quality but their grain yield was low.

  14. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  15. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  16. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  17. Effect of x-ray irradiation on maize inbred line B73 tissue cultures and regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.S.; Cheng, D.S.K.; Milcic, J.B.; Yang, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    In order to enhance variation induced by the tissue culture process and to obtain agronomically desirable mutants, friable embryogenic tissue cultures of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line B73 were x-ray irradiated with 11 doses [0-8.4 kilorads (kR)]. Reductions in callus growth rate and embryogenic callus formation occurred with increasing x-ray doses 20 d and 3 months after irradiation. Callus irradiated with 0.8 kR showed a significant increase in growth rate and a 20% increase in embryogenic callus 9 months after irradiation. A total of 230 R 0 plants were regenerated for evaluation. Pollen fertility and seed set of R 0 plants decreased with increasing x-ray dosage. Days to anthesis and plant height of R 0 plants varied among x-ray treatments but were generally reduced with higher dosages. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with x-ray dosage. The R 1 seeds taken from R 0 plants were also grown and tested for mutant segregation. Plants regenerated from irradiated calli had a two- to 10-fold increase in mutations over plants regenerated from unirradiated control callus. Germination frequency of seeds from R 0 plants decreased with increasing x-ray dosage. Although chlorophyll mutants were most frequently observed, a number of vigorous plants with earlier anthesis date were also recovered

  18. Bursal transcriptome profiling of different inbred chicken lines reveals key differentially expressed genes at 3 days post-infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah, Mohd Isa; Yasmin, Abd Rahaman; Mat Isa, Nurulfiza; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Ideris, Aini; Powers, Claire; Oladapo, Omobolanle; Nair, Venugopal; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease in the poultry industry and causes immunosuppression in chickens. Genome-wide regulations of immune response genes of inbred chickens with different genetic backgrounds, following very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection are poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the bursal tissue transcriptome of six inbred chicken lines 6, 7, 15, N, O and P following infection with vvIBDV strain UK661 using strand-specific next-generation sequencing, by highlighting important genes and pathways involved in the infected chicken during peak infection at 3 days post-infection. All infected chickens succumbed to the infection without major variations among the different lines. However, based on the viral loads and bursal lesion scoring, lines P and 6 can be considered as the most susceptible lines, while lines 15 and N were regarded as the least affected lines. Transcriptome profiling of the bursa identified 4588 genes to be differentially expressed, with 2985 upregulated and 1642 downregulated genes, in which these genes were commonly or uniquely detected in all or several infected lines. Genes that were upregulated are primarily pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and IFN-related. Various genes that are associated with B-cell functions and genes related to apoptosis were downregulated, together with the genes involved in p53 signalling. In conclusion, bursal transcriptome profiles of different inbred lines showed differential expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Th1 cytokines, JAK-STAT signalling genes, MAPK signalling genes, and their related pathways following vvIBDV infection.

  19. Genetic dissection of maize plant architecture with an ultra-high density bin map based on recombinant inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chaoshu; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xing; Di, Hong; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-03-03

    Plant architecture attributes, such as plant height, ear height, and internode number, have played an important role in the historical increases in grain yield, lodging resistance, and biomass in maize (Zea mays L.). Analyzing the genetic basis of variation in plant architecture using high density QTL mapping will be of benefit for the breeding of maize for many traits. However, the low density of molecular markers in existing genetic maps has limited the efficiency and accuracy of QTL mapping. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an improved strategy for addressing a complex genome via next-generation sequencing technology. GBS has been a powerful tool for SNP discovery and high-density genetic map construction. The creation of ultra-high density genetic maps using large populations of advanced recombinant inbred lines (RILs) is an efficient way to identify QTL for complex agronomic traits. A set of 314 RILs derived from inbreds Ye478 and Qi319 were generated and subjected to GBS. A total of 137,699,000 reads with an average of 357,376 reads per individual RIL were generated, which is equivalent to approximately 0.07-fold coverage of the maize B73 RefGen_V3 genome for each individual RIL. A high-density genetic map was constructed using 4183 bin markers (100-Kb intervals with no recombination events). The total genetic distance covered by the linkage map was 1545.65 cM and the average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM with a physical distance of about 0.51 Mb. Our results demonstrated a relatively high degree of collinearity between the genetic map and the B73 reference genome. The quality and accuracy of the bin map for QTL detection was verified by the mapping of a known gene, pericarp color 1 (P1), which controls the color of the cob, with a high LOD value of 80.78 on chromosome 1. Using this high-density bin map, 35 QTL affecting plant architecture, including 14 for plant height, 14 for ear height, and seven for internode number were detected

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  1. Avaliação de linhagens de melão Evaluation of melon inbred lines for plant and fruit characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir híbridos de melão adaptados à região Nordeste do Brasil, foi avaliado, em Pacajús-CE o comportamento de 29 linhagens, sendo 23 do grupo cantalupensis, cinco do inodorus e uma do grupo momordica. Para efeito de comparação, foram utilizadas cultivares comerciais: o híbrido Hy-mark e a cultivar Eldorado-300. Na avaliação da precocidade a maturação das linhagens do grupo cantalupensis levaram em média 35,1 dias, as do grupo inodorus 30,6 dias e as do grupo momordica 24,4 dias. A concentração da produção, estimada aos 70 dias, foi mais elevada (75,8% numa linhagem que não produz frutos comerciais. A produção das linhagens variou de 16,2 t/ha a 65,1 t/ha, enquanto a média das testemunhas comerciais foi de 28,4 t/ha. Três linhagens do grupo cantalupensis e todas do grupo inodorus mostraram-se mais produtivas que as testemunhas. O teor de sólidos solúveis entre linhagens e testemunhas foi semelhante (8,6%, sendo que uma das linhagens, M46-00 se destacou pelos altos teores (Brix=12,2%. Em geral, os frutos das linhagens tardias mostraram elevado teor de sólidos solúveis.In order to obtain melon hybrids adapted for growing in the Northeast of Brazil, 29 inbred lines (23 belonging to the cantaloupensis group, 5 to the inodorus and 1 to the momordica group were evaluated in Pacajus, in the state of Ceará. Two commercial varieties, the hybrid Hy-mark and the cultivar Eldorado-300, were used as checks. It was observed that the average period for fruit ripening was 35.1 days for the cantalupensis group, 30.6 days for the inodorus group and 24.4 days for the momordica group. The highest yield concentration (75.8%, evaluated 70 days after sowing, was attained in a inbred line that does not produce commercial fruits. The yield of the lines ranged from 16.2 t/ha up to 65.1 t/ha, whereas the two commercial varieties produced 28.0 t/ha. Three of the cantalupensis group and all inbred lines of the inodorus group

  2. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain yield, yield .... mass selection followed by self-pollination for generating inbred lines. The inbred lines ... for the experiment was an alpha (0, 1) lattice (Patterson and Williams, 1996) with two replications at each ...

  3. Evaluation of the Morpho-physiology characteristics of maize inbred lines introduced from CIMMYT to identify the best candidates for planting in acidic soil in Jasinga, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Sutjahjo, S. H.; Syukur, M.; Trikoesoemaningtyas

    2016-08-01

    Technological developments and climate change have affected crop planting strategies. For example, maize production has expanded to sub-optimal lands, including acidic soil common in areas like Indonesia. Breeding programs have created inbred lines of maize introduced from CIMMYT; they were tested locally in acidic soils to determine their adaptability and tolerance mechanisms. Breeds CLA 46 and NEI 9008 were found to be excellent candidates for acidic soil due to their ASI, high number of grains per year, and suitable dry seed weight.

  4. SSR marker analysis on genetic variation of M3 from maize inbred lines 48-2 and R08 after irradiation inducement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Shi Haichun; Ke Yongpei; Yuan Jichao; Yu Xuejie

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the biological effects and the genetic variations of maize mutagenic progenies is important to facilitate effective selections and utilization of the mutants. In this study, the genetic variation of 103 mutagenic progenies of M 3 lines of inbred lines 48-2 and R08 with 60 Co γ-rays inducement were evaluated with SSR molecular markers. The results indicated that, the amplitude of polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 48-2 and R08 M 3 lines ranged 0.307 ∼ 0.948 and 0.108 ∼ 0.955, with an average of 0.762 and 0.701, respectively. The amplitude of genetic diversity indexes (H') ranged 0.552 ∼ 2.830 and 0.254 ∼ 3.309, with an average of 1.830 and 1.777, respectively. The average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the 49 M 3 lines of 48-2 with its check (M673) was 0.8194. However, the average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the M 3 lines of R08 with its check (M487) was 0.8373. Based on the genetic similarity coefficient, inbred lines 48-2, R08 and their 101 M 3 lines were clustered in 7 and 5 populations respectively. This phenomenon indicated that massive genetic variation could appear in progenies due to irradiation. The strengthen of selection and utilization of mutants based on the breeding objectives and in accordance with the feature and regularity on genetic variations of main characteristics of mutant lines in various populations could be enhanced in breeding program, to some extent, which can increase the breeding efficiency of irradiation induced mutation in maize. (authors)

  5. Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

  6. Shelf life determinants and enzyme activities of pearl millet: a comparison of changes in stored flour of hybrids, CMS lines, inbreds and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Preeti; Chugh, L K

    2017-09-01

    Shelf life of pearl millet flour is very short because of rapid development of rancidity. This investigation was carried out in view of generating breeding material for development of low rancid pearl millet hybrids/varieties. Flour of twenty-one genotypes; seven hybrids, seven CMS lines, five inbreds and two composites stored in covered aluminium boxes at 37 °C for 30 days along with respective fresh flour was analysed for shelf life indicators/determinants. Crude fat content and fat acidity (FA) of fresh flour of the genotypes varied from 3.8 to 7.2% and 11 to 75 mg KOH/100 g d.m., respectively. FA in stored flour ranged between 180 and 330 mg KOH/100 g d.m. After storage, magnitude of decrease in pH of water extract of flour of the genotypes varied from 0.15 to 0.44. Activity of peroxidase (POX) varied from 378 to 588 units in control flour and irrespective of the genotypes decreased upon storage. Increase in FA (difference between FA of fresh and stored flour) rather total build up of FA was positively associated with crude fat content (r = 0.440*) indicated comparatively more prominent role of lipolytic enzymes. Chemical changes taking place in water soluble fraction of flour were independent of fat content as no correlation was discerned between fat content and decrease in pH. Among the hybrids, HHB 197 had lowest crude fat content (4.7%), lowest total build up FA (212 mg KOH/100 g d.m.), slowest increase in FA (191 mg KOH/100 g d.m.), least decrease in pH (0.31) of water soluble fraction flour during storage and lowest activity of POX in fresh flour (377 units/g d.m). Among all the tested CMS lines, inbreds and composites, HBL 11 showed pattern of quantitative changes in FA, pH and POX activity similar to the hybrid HHB 197 and was identified a promising inbred for developing low-rancid pearl millet variety or hybrid.

  7. Estimates of Combining Ability and Heterosis for Yield and Its Related Traits in Pearl Millet Inbred Lines under Downy Mildew Prevalent Areas of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Kanfany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is an important cereal crop for smallholder farmers’ food security in West and Central Africa. However, its production has stagnated due to several factors such as the continuous use of local populations. A set of 17 inbred lines was crossed with Sosat C 88 and Souna 3 following a line × tester mating design. The F1 hybrids, their parents, and a check were evaluated in Bambey and Nioro research stations during the rainy season of 2017. Data on downy mildew incidence, plant height, flowering time, panicle length and diameter, productive tillers, thousand-grain weight, panicle, and grain yield were recorded. GCA and SCA mean squares were significant for most of the traits indicating that both additive and nonadditive gene effects were involved in the control of the inheritance of these traits. However, the contribution of GCA to total mean squares was higher than that of SCA for all the traits, providing that additive gene action was more important in their inheritance. The top-cross hybrid IBL155-2-1 × Sosat C 88 exhibited negative and significant SCA effects for downy mildew incidence, flowering time, and plant height. Lines IBL003-B-1, IBL091-1-1, IBL095-4-1, IBL110-B-1, and IBL 206-1-1 had positive GCA effects for grain yield and negative GCA effects for downy mildew, flowering time, and plant height. These lines can be used as parents to create synthetic varieties or hybrids.

  8. [Index screening and comprehensive evaluation of phenotypic traits of low nitrogen tolerance using BILs population derived from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao-lin; Li, Xia; Wan, Yong; Qiu, Zai-hui; Nie, Yuan-yuan; Xie, Jian-kun

    2015-08-01

    To identify the low nitrogen tolerance of Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) and its progenies, ten phenotypic traits including plant height (PH), heading day (HD), panicle length (PL), number of effective tillers per plant (NETP), number of filled grains per panicle (NFGP), number of grains per panicle (NGP), grain density (GD), spikelet fertility (SF), 1000-grain mass (TGM) and grain yield per plant (GYP) were studied under normal and low nitrogen treatments, using backcross inbred lines (BILs) of Xieqingzao B//DXWR/Xieqingzao B in BC1 F12. Comprehensive evaluation on the low nitrogen tolerance of the BILs population was conducted using principal component analysis and the subordinate function. The evaluation results indicated that the low nitrogen tolerance of the line 116, 143 and 157 was the strongest, which could be served as the intermediate materials for genetic studies on the low nitrogen tolerance of DXWR and breeding for the low nitrogen tolerance in rice. The optimal regression equation of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice was established using stepwise regression analysis. The relative values of five traits including PH, NGP, SF, TGM and GYP were screened out and could be used as comprehensive evaluation indices for the low nitrogen tolerance in the whole growth stage. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the relative values of these five traits, especially for NGP and GYP, in the genetic improvement of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice.

  9. Quantitative trait loci underlying resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) in MD96-5722 by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line population of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Akond, M; Kassem, M A; Meksem, K; Kantartzi, S K

    2015-04-01

    The best way to protect yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] due to sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki, O'Donnel, Homma & Lattanzi), is the development and use of resistant lines. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to SDS help developing resistant soybean germplasm through molecular marker-assisted selection strategy. QTL for SDS presented herein are from a high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map of MD 96-5722 (a.k.a 'Monocacy') by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line using SoySNP6K Illumina Infinium BeadChip genotyping array. Ninety-four F 5:7 lines were evaluated for 2 years (2010 and 2011) at two locations (Carbondale and Valmeyer) in southern Illinois, USA to identify QTL controlling SDS resistance using disease index (DX). Composite interval mapping identified 19 SDS controlling QTL which were mapped on 11 separate linkage group (LG) or chromosomes (Chr) out of 20 LG or Chr of soybean genome. Many of these significant QTL identified in one environment/year were confirmed in another year or environment, which suggests a common genetic effects and modes of the pathogen. These new QTL are useful sources for SDS resistance studies in soybean breeding, complementing previously reported loci.

  10. Potencial de híbridos simples de milho para extração de linhagens Potential of maize single hybrids to generate inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos simples comerciais de milho é uma das opções de populações para a extração de linhagens, porque são adaptados e provavelmente concentram alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis já fixados. Mesmo nos locos que estão segregando, a freqüência de alelos favoráveis é 0,5. Assim, a identificação de populações promissoras, derivadas de híbridos simples superiores, é uma boa estratégia para aumentar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. As populações derivadas dos híbridos simples comerciais AG9012 e C333 foram avaliadas com o objetivo de verificar o potencial dessas para extração de linhagens superiores, por meio das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, da estimativa de m+a e a metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976. Foram avaliadas 169 famílias S1 de cada população, durante a safra agrícola de 1999/2000, na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da UFLA, em Lavras - MG, em látice simples 13x13, sendo as parcelas constituídas por uma linha de 3 m. As características analisadas foram incidência de Phaeosphaeria maydis em duas épocas, altura de plantas, altura de espigas e produtividade de espigas despalhadas. Foi constatado que há possibilidade de se obterem linhagens com bom desempenho per se, sendo a população derivada do C333 a mais promissora, por associar resistência a Phaeosphaeria maydis e possuir média mais alta e maior probabilidade de obtenção de linhagens superiores. A metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976 mostrou-se mais informativa do que a estimativa de m+a para a escolha de populações, mas, quando possível, as duas podem ser utilizadas simultaneamente para auxiliar na decisão dos melhoristas.Populations derived from commercial single hybrids are one of the breeder options for inbred line extraction because of their adaptation and probable high frequency of loci with fixed favorable alleles. Even the segregating loci carry

  11. Identification of candidate genes associated with cell wall digestibility and eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci analysis in a Flint × Flint maize recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-wall digestibility is the major target for improving the feeding value of forage maize. An understanding of the molecular basis for cell-wall digestibility is crucial towards breeding of highly digestible maize. Results 865 candidate ESTs for cell-wall digestibility were selected according to the analysis of expression profiles in 1 three sets of brown-midrib isogenic lines in the genetic background of inbreds 1332 (1332 and 1332 bm3, 5361 (5361 and 5361 bm3, and F2 (F2, F2 bm1, F2 bm2, and F2 bm3, 2 the contrasting extreme lines of FD (Flint × Dent, AS08 × AS 06, DD1 (Dent × Dent, AS11 × AS09, and DD2 (Dent × Dent, AS29 × AS30 mapping populations, and 3 two contrasting isogenic inbreds, AS20 and AS21. Out of those, 439 ESTs were assembled on our "Forage Quality Array", a small microarray specific for cell wall digestibility related experiments. Transcript profiles of 40 lines of a Flint × Flint population were monitored using the Forage Quality Array, which were contrasting for cell wall digestibility. Using t-tests (p Conclusion 102 candidate genes for cell-wall digestibility were validated by genetical genomics approach. Although the cDNA array highlights gene types (the tested gene and any close family members, trans-acting factors or metabolic bottlenecks seem to play the major role in controlling heritable variation of gene expression related to cell-wall digestibility, since no in silico mapped ESTs were in the same location as their own eQTL. Transcriptional variation was generally found to be oligogenic rather than monogenic inherited due to only 26% ESTs detected a single eQTL in the present study. One eQTL hotspot was co-localized with cell wall digestibility related QTL cluster on bins 3.05, implying that in this case the gene(s underlying QTL and eQTL are identical. As the field of genetical genomics develops, it is expected to significantly improve our knowledge about complex traits, such as cell

  12. Comparison of whole-genome prediction models for traits with contrasting genetic architecture in a diversity panel of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedelsheimer Christian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing empirical evidence that whole-genome prediction (WGP is a powerful tool for predicting line and hybrid performance in maize. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of WGP models towards the genetic architecture of the trait. Whereas previous studies exclusively focused on highly polygenic traits, important agronomic traits such as disease resistances, nutrifunctional or climate adaptational traits have a genetic architecture which is either much less complex or unknown. For such cases, information about model robustness and guidelines for model selection are lacking. Here, we compared five WGP models with different assumptions about the distribution of the underlying genetic effects. As contrasting model traits, we chose three highly polygenic agronomic traits and three metabolites each with a major QTL explaining 22 to 30% of the genetic variance in a panel of 289 diverse maize inbred lines genotyped with 56,110 SNPs. Results We found the five WGP models to be remarkable robust towards trait architecture with the largest differences in prediction accuracies ranging between 0.05 and 0.14 for the same trait, most likely as the result of the high level of linkage disequilibrium prevailing in elite maize germplasm. Whereas RR-BLUP performed best for the agronomic traits, it was inferior to LASSO or elastic net for the three metabolites. We found the approach of genome partitioning of genetic variance, first applied in human genetics, as useful in guiding the breeder which model to choose, if prior knowledge of the trait architecture is lacking. Conclusions Our results suggest that in diverse germplasm of elite maize inbred lines with a high level of LD, WGP models differ only slightly in their accuracies, irrespective of the number and effects of QTL found in previous linkage or association mapping studies. However, small gains in prediction accuracies can be achieved if the WGP model is

  13. Effectiveness of the Ty-3 Introgression for Conferring Resistance in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Tomato to Bipartite Begomoviruses in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of begomovirus-incited diseases on tomatoes in Guatemala continues to be a challenge and there continues to be a need to better understand the genetics of resistance to begomoviruses. In this study, the resistant line, Gh13, was crossed with the susceptible line, HUJ-VF, that lacked the ...

  14. Identification of quantitative trait Loci for resistance to southern leaf blight and days to anthesis in a maize recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint-Kurti, P J; Krakowsky, M D; Jines, M P; Robertson, L A; Molnár, T L; Goodman, M M; Holl, J B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines NC300 (resistant) and B104 (susceptible) was evaluated for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O and for days to anthesis in four environments (Clayton, NC, and Tifton, GA, in both 2004 and 2005). Entry mean and average genetic correlations between disease ratings in different environments were high (0.78 to 0.89 and 0.9, respectively) and the overall entry mean heritability for SLB resistance was 0.89. When weighted mean disease ratings were fitted to a model using multiple interval mapping, seven potential quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, the two strongest being on chromosomes 3 (bin 3.04) and 9 (bin 9.03-9.04). These QTL explained a combined 80% of the phenotypic variation for SLB resistance. Some time-point-specific SLB resistance QTL were also identified. There was no significant correlation between disease resistance and days to anthesis. Six putative QTL for time to anthesis were identified, none of which coincided with any SLB resistance QTL.

  15. Quantification of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C in inbred lines of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyoung; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Lee, Min-Ki; Chun, Jin-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2014-02-15

    We profiled and quantified glucosinolates (GSLs), anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C metabolites in forty-five lines of green and red cabbages. Analysis of these distinct cabbages revealed the presence of 11 GSLs, 13 anthocyanins, 22 free amino acids, and vitamin C. GSL contents were varied amongst the different lines of cabbage. The total GSL content was mean 10.6 μmol/g DW, and sinigrin was the predominant GSL accounted mean 4.0 μmol/g DW (37.7% of the total) followed by glucoraphanin (1.9) and glucobrassicin (2.4). Amongst the 13 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. The amounts of total free amino acids in green cabbage lines ranged 365.9 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) to 1089.1mg/100g FW. Vitamin C levels were much higher in red cabbage line (129.9 mg/100g FW). Thus, the amounts of GSLs, anthocyanins, free amino acids, and vitamin C varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the lines of cabbage were significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrogen-15 uptake by whole plants and root callus cultures of inbred maize lines and their F1 hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenova, Y.; Karadimova, M.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of nitrogen-15 by 3 maize genotypes was investigated. Comparative analysis of N15 assimilation and distribution in the organs of intact plants of two self-pollinated lines and their F1 hybrid and also in a callus tissue of roots of the same genotypes was made. From the results the conclusion is drawn that the N-use efficiency of the female line is higher than that of the male line both in intact plants and callus tissues from roots. This fact indicates that the N-use efficiency is determined not only by the functions of the cells in the shoots, suggesting the participation of the photosynthetic carboxylases but also by the functions of cells without a photosynthesizing apparatus. The N-use efficiency in the F1 hybrid manifests ''heterosis'', in spite of the intact plants or root callus tissues are being studied. (author)

  17. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  18. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  19. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Protein Profiles Reveal Diverse Responsive Signaling Pathways in Kernels of Two Maize Inbred Lines with Contrasting Drought Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major factor that contributes to disease susceptibility and yield loss in agricultural crops. To identify drought responsive proteins and explore metabolic pathways involved in maize tolerance to drought stress, two maize lines (B73 and Lo964 with contrasting drought sensitivity were examined. The treatments of drought and well water were applied at 14 days after pollination (DAP, and protein profiles were investigated in developing kernels (35 DAP using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. Proteomic analysis showed that 70 and 36 proteins were significantly altered in their expression under drought treatments in B73 and Lo964, respectively. The numbers and levels of differentially expressed proteins were generally higher in the sensitive genotype, B73, implying an increased sensitivity to drought given the function of the observed differentially expressed proteins, such as redox homeostasis, cell rescue/defense, hormone regulation and protein biosynthesis and degradation. Lo964 possessed a more stable status with fewer differentially expressed proteins. However, B73 seems to rapidly initiate signaling pathways in response to drought through adjusting diverse defense pathways. These changes in protein expression allow for the production of a drought stress-responsive network in maize kernels.

  1. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  2. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Cristina Brusamarello-Santos

    Full Text Available Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs. However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2, already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+. The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts

  3. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  4. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance in a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Idrissi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 % and 28.9 % for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labour-intensive conventional breeding methods.

  5. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  6. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains

  7. Grouping and clustering of maize Lancaster germplasm inbreds according to the results of SNP-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Derkach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is the grouping and clustering of maize inbred lines based on the results of SNP-genotyping for the verification of a separate cluster of Lancaster germplasm inbred lines. As material for the study, we used 91 maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines, including 31 Lancaster germplasm lines and 60 inbred lines of other germplasms (23 Iodent inbreds, 15 Reid inbreds, 7 Lacon inbreds, 12 Mix inbreds and 3 exotic inbreds. The majority of the given inbred lines are included in the Dnipro breeding programme. The SNP-genotyping of these inbred lines was conducted using BDI-III panel of 384 SNP-markers developed by BioDiagnostics, Inc. (USA on the base of Illumina VeraCode Bead Plate. The SNP-markers of this panel are biallelic and are located on all 10 maize chromosomes. Their range of conductivity was >0.6. The SNP-analysis was made in completely automated regime on Illumina BeadStation equipment at BioDiagnostics, Inc. (USA. A principal component analysis was applied to group a general set of 91 inbreds according to allelic states of SNP-markers and to identify a cluster of Lancaster inbreds. The clustering and determining hierarchy in 31 Lancaster germplasm inbreds used quantitative cluster analysis. The share of monomorphic markers in the studied set of 91 inbred lines equaled 0.7%, and the share of dimorphic markers equaled 99.3%. Minor allele frequency (MAF > 0.2 was observed for 80.6% of dimorphic markers, the average index of shift of gene diversity equaled 0.2984, PIC on average reached 0.3144. The index of gene diversity of markers varied from 0.1701 to 0.1901, pairwise genetic distances between inbred lines ranged from 0.0316–0.8000, the frequencies of major alleles of SNP-markers were within 0.5085–0.9821, and the frequencies of minor alleles were within 0.0179–0.4915. The average homozygosity of inbred lines was 98.8%. The principal component analysis of SNP-distances confirmed the isolation of the Lancaster

  8. Absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação em linhagens de tomateiro Nutrient uptake and response to fertilization of tomato inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Régis de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove linhagens de tomateiro rasteiro foram avaliadas quanto à eficiência de absorção de nutrientes e resposta à adubação, em dois ensaios, no ano de 2006, na Embrapa Hortaliças. No primeiro ensaio aplicou-se 1/3 da dosagem de fertilizante utilizada no segundo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As linhagens foram classificadas quanto à eficiência na absorção de nutrientes e reposta à adubação baseando-se nos incrementos de índice DRIS e nos incrementos de produtividade. Os valores críticos para eficiência na absorção e resposta à adubação foram as médias de incremento de índice DRIS e produtividade, respectivamente. As linhagens diferenciaram-se quanto à eficiência na absorção dos nutrientes e quanto à resposta à adubação. Foram consideradas responsivas à adubação e eficientes na absorção de nutrientes as linhagens 03, 04, 05, 09 e 22, para o N; 03, 04, 09, 13, 15 e 29, para o P; 03, 05, 10, 21, 22, 25 e 27, para o K; 05, 10, 21, 22, 25, 27 e 29, para o Ca; 04, 13, 15, 27 e 29, para o S e B; e 03, 05, 09, 10 e 27, para o Cu. As linhagens com os melhores desempenhos foram a 27, na absorção dos nutrientes, e 03, 04, 05 e 29, na responsividade à adubação.Twenty nine processing tomato inbred lines were evaluated for their efficiency in nutrient uptake and in their response to fertilization. Two field assays were carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brazil, with distinct fertilization dosages in 2006. In the first assay 1/3 of the total fertilization was applied when compared with the second assay. The experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design with three replications. The criteria to rank the inbred lines in both assays were the DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System index value and fruit yield. The critical values in order to distinguish efficient versus non-efficient as well as responsive versus non-responsive inbred

  9. Selection of Common Bean Lines, Recombinant Inbred Lines and Commercial Genotypes Tolerant to Low Phosphorus Availability in an Acrisol Soil on the Basis of Root Traits and Grain Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Gomez, L. A.; Morales, A. [Instituto de Suelos, MINAG (Cuba); others, and

    2013-11-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume for human consumption worldwide and especially in Latin America and Africa, but low soil phosphorus (P) availability limits grain production in these areas. For these reason eighty five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of BAT 477 x DOR 364 and twenty commercial bean genotypes were sown in plots in an Acrisol soil with low P availability to evaluate nine root traits and grain yield. The study was carried out in Pinar del Rio province in Cuba between November 2006 and February 2009. The plots received basal fertilization (N and K) and P fertilization between 15 and 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} ha{sup -1}. Ten plants were sampled from each plot at R{sub 6} pod fill to evaluate root traits and shoot biomass, and at R{sub 9} physiological maturity to estimate grain yield. The 85 RILs showed great variability for root traits, grain yield and P stress tolerance calculated as relative grain yield. The commercial bean lines also showed large diversity in yield parameters. Principal Component Analysis showed that there were high and significant correlations between root traits (basal root number, primary root depth, adventitious root length and adventitious root number) and grain yield parameters (grain yield at 15 P level and relative grain yields). Adventitious root traits showed the greatest correlation with yield under low P. Promising RILs included 75.1.1, 60.1.1, 38.1.1, 14.1.1 and 38.1.1 and promising commercial bean lines included ICA Pijao, BAT 482, ICA 23, BAT 24 and BAT 832. (author)

  10. Triticale: avaliação de linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Triticale: evaluation on inbred lines in different regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se entre si vinte e quatro linhagens de triticale e o cultivar de trigo IAC-21, através de ensaios em diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, nos anos de 1986 e 1987, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, peso de cem grãos e resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e às manchas-foliares em condições de campo. A linhagem de triticale Nutria 7272 foi a mais produtiva (3.098kg/ha, diferindo do 'IAC-21' (2.241 kg/ha e das demais linhagens de triticale, com exceção da Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-20 e 21, Nutria 440 e Juanillo 159, com 2.891, 2.870, 2.805 e 2.645kg/ha respectivamente. As linhagens de triticale exibiram maior resistência à ferrugem-da-folha com relação ao 'IAC-21'. A Panche 7287 mostrou-se moderadamente resistente às manchas-foliares e, as demais, suscetíveis. As linhagens M2A-KLA"S" x MA (T-6, Faro"S" e Panche 7287 apresentaram ciclo da emergência ao florescimento significativamente maior que o 'IAC-21', e M2A-CML 360 x M2A (T-2, Turk DWF-V 127 x 6TA 204/IA 146, M2A-CML x IA, TCEP 77138, BGL "S"-IGA x PND"S" e BCM"S"-Addax"S" exibiram plantas significativamente mais baixas. A Juanillo 159 apresentou o maior peso de cem grãos, diferindo do 'IAC-21' e das demais linhagens, com exceção da Nutria 7272 e Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-21.Twenty four triticale inbred lines and the wheat cultivar IAC-21 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at different locations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years of 1986 and 1987. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering, percentage of layed plants, weight of 100 grains, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia graminis sp. tritici and to leaf spots (Helminthosporium sp. and Septoria sp. were evaluated under field conditions. The triticale inbred line Nutria 7272 pre-sented the best grain yield (3,098 kg/ha, showing

  11. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Røveri af bil - forbrydelsen der ikke findes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Lene Wacher

    2018-01-01

    Artiklen behandler den særegne strafferetlige problematik, at røveri af bil ikke straffes som sådan, men alene som ulovlig tvang og brugstyveri. Dette skyldes en formodning om, at tyven kun vil bruge bilen, ikke tilegne sig bilen. Konsekvensen bliver en langt lavere straf for "røveri af bil", end...

  13. Tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio de linhagens e híbridos de milho em solução nutritiva Aluminium toxicity tolerance of maize inbred lines and hybrids evaluated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dez linhagens de milho do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em cruzamentos dialélicos e os 45 híbridos resultantes quanto à tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio em laboratório. Estimou-se a tolerância pelo comprimento líquido da radícula (CLR de plântulas em solução nutritiva contendo 4,5 mg.L-1 de alumínio, em ensaio sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, utilizando-se como padrões linhagens sensível e tolerante de IAC Taiúba. Apresentam-se, ainda, resultados da produtividade desses cruzamentos em ensaios de campo. Identificaram-se linhagens que constituem fontes de tolerância (L 06 e L 09 e híbridos tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio com elevada produtividade em solos corrigidos. Na análise dialélica, o desdobramento dos efeitos de tratamentos, em capacidade geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação, indicou a predominância de efeitos aditivos na manifestação da tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. Obtiveram-se elevados valores de heterose, indicando a existência de interações não alélicas na manifestação do CLR. O híbrido HS 10X11 (denominado IAC 21 aliou alta produtividade e tolerância ao alumínio, apresentando a maior estimativa da CEC para CLR.Ten inbred lines and the resulting forty-five hybrids from the maize IAC breeding program were evaluated for Al tolerance by the nutrient solution technique. Net radicle lengths (CLR of plants grown with 4.5 mg.L-1 were used to estimate Al tolerance. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replications, and it was used two divergent inbred lines IAC Taiuba as control for Al tolerance and sensitivity, respectively. In addition to these data, it is shown also the grain yield of the same materials from field plots. It was identified two inbred lines (L 06 and L 09 as Al tolerance sources and hybrids potentially adapted to acid soil conditions (tolerant to Al toxicity

  14. Índice baseado em RFLPs para seleção de linhagens visando sintéticos de milho RFLP marker index for selection of inbred lines aimed at synthetic maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauce Cristina Ricardo Rumin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores moleculares têm sido sugeridos como ferramentas úteis em programas de melhoramento de plantas. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo propor um índice de seleção de linhagens visando a geração de populações sintéticas de milho, baseado em marcadores moleculares e dados de campo. Para tanto foram utilizados valores fenotípicos e genotípicos, oriundos de experimentos convencionais de campo e através da genotipagem das plantas-mãe das linhagens por marcadores RFLP, respectivamente. O índice foi examinado quanto à sua capacidade de originar sintéticos com alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis, em comparação com os obtidos baseando-se na seleção convencional. Utilizaram-se inicialmente 157 locos marcadores com distância média de 15,30 cM entre eles. Sessenta e oito linhagens S2, provenientes da geração F2 do cruzamento entre duas linhagens homozigóticas foram cruzadas em topcross e avaliadas em quatro locais de Iowa, EUA, em 1996. Dos 157 locos foram selecionados 18 que explicaram 74,70% da variância genética entre progênies, na média dos locais. O índice proposto leva em conta o comportamento próprio (per se das linhagens e a complementaridade genotípica entre elas, o que não é conseguido utilizando-se apenas dados dos topcrosses. O uso do índice proposto permite obter homólogo de tabela dialélica tendo-se apenas dados de médias de topcrosses. O índice levou à seleção de sintéticos com propriedades superiores às esperadas pela seleção baseada apenas nas médias das progênies topcross. Essa conclusão, no entanto, só é válida para os QTL's abrangidos pelas marcas. A metodologia proposta permite monitoramento muito adequado e útil das propriedades genéticas dos sintéticos a serem obtidos.Molecular markers have been suggested as useful tools in breeding programmes. The purpose of this work was to propose and apply an index for inbred line selection to be used for generating synthetic

  15. Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in maize inbred lines involves an earlier and enhanced expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Valentina; Marocco, Adriano; Malachova, Alexandra; Lanubile, Alessandra

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot in maize and contaminates the kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. It is known that plant lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins regulate defence against pathogens and that the host-pathogen lipid cross-talk influences the pathogenesis. The expression profiles of fifteen genes of the LOX pathway were studied in kernels of resistant and susceptible maize lines, grown in field condition, at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) with F. verticillioides. Plant defence responses were correlated with the pathogen growth, the expression profiles of fungal FUM genes for fumonisin biosynthesis and fumonisin content in the kernels. The resistant genotype limited fungal growth and fumonisin accumulation between 7 and 14 dpi. Pathogen growth became exponential in the susceptible line after 7 dpi, in correspondence with massive transcription of FUM genes and fumonisins augmented exponentially at 14 dpi. LOX pathway genes resulted strongly induced after pathogen inoculation in the resistant line at 3 and 7 dpi, whilst in the susceptible line the induction was reduced or delayed at 14 dpi. In addition, all genes resulted overexpressed before infection in kernels of the resistant genotype already at 3 dpi. The results suggest that resistance in maize may depend on an earlier activation of LOX genes and genes for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Capacidade de combinação entre linhagens de milho visando à produção de milho verde Combining ability of inbred lines of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    specific combining ability (SCA in vegetable corn production. Eight inbred lines and 28 hybrids derived from them were evaluated in 2004/2005 season in two environments, in Lavras and Ijaci, State of Minas Gerais. A randomized complete block design with two replications per environment were used, and seven traits of agronomic and commercial interest for vegetable corn production were studied. The quadratic component of specific of combining ability (SCA was greater than the general combining ability (GCA for all the traits assessed. Non-additive genetic effects were more important than additive effects for genotypes variation, indicating that heterosis is important for hybrid selection for vegetable corn production. The inbred line L55 showed higher concentration of favorable alleles to the increase of traits PEC, PEE, MASSA, COR e COMP, being more suitable for the formation of new hybrid and the hybrids HS27, HS48 and HS24 accumulated a larger number of traits with SCA positive effect, significant and of high magnitude, indicating that those combinations presented better performance for all the traits, simultaneously, and can be recommended to the market for vegetable corn.

  17. Antioxidant enzymatic activities and gene expression associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of two cucurbit species ("Cucurbita maxima" and "Cucurbita moschata") and their interspecific inbred line "Maxchata".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-12-10

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant "C. moschata", thermolabile "C. maxima" and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line "Maxchata" genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. "C. moschata" exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by "Maxchata". The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among "C. maxima" and "Maxchata", most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in "Maxchata", which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  18. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration. PMID:24336062

  19. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata” and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Ara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C and severe (42 °C heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2− and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  20. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain ... variance revealed significant difference among the hybrids for all studied traits. General ... Guto LMS5, L15 x SC22 and L20 x TSC22) gave significantly higher grain yield advantage over the two standard ...

  1. Induced cytomictic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been used for improving oligogenic and polygenic characters, disease resistance and quantitative characters including yielding ability. The cytological stability of maize inbred lines is an important consideration in view of their extensive use in genetics and plant breeding research. Investigation in Zea mays L. confirms that the migration of chromosomes is a real event that cannot be misunderstood as an artifact produced by fixation or mechanical injuries. During present investigation, we found that out of six inbred lines of Zea mays L. viz. CM-135, CM-136, CM-137, CM-138, CM-142 and CM-213 at various treatment doses of gamma irradiations viz. 200, 400 and 600 Gy, some of the plants of inbred line CM- 138 at 200 Gy dose displayed characteristic cytoplasmic connections during all the stages of meiosis. Four plants from this treatment set were found to be engaged in a rare phenomenon reported as "Cytomixis". It elucidates that in inbred of Zea mays L., induced cytomixis through gamma rays treatment may be considered to be a possible source of production of aneuploid and polyploid gametes. This phenomenon may have several applications in Zea mays L. improvement in the sense of diversity and ever yield potential.

  2. Selection of common bean inbred lines with tolerance to high moisture at harvest Seleção de linhagens de feijão com tolerância a alta umidade no momento da colheita

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    Lidiane Kely de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of precipitation / rain in harvest bean causes damage to the product and reduces the yield. The main alternative to mitigate this problem is to obtain cultivars presenting low germination of beans in the pods under conditions of high moisture. The purpose of this study was to verify if there is genetic variability among the common bean inbred lines that are in the phase of recommendation for the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil in regard to tolerance to moisture after harvest, and identify traits that may be routinely used in selection of tolerant lines to these conditions. Ninety-five lines in the phase of recommendation by the Genetic Breeding Program from UFLA were used. After harvest, a sample of plants from each plot was removed for assessments of seed germination in the pods in a moist chamber and water absorption by pod and seed. Eight days after harvest, another sample was removed to assess seed appearance using a scoring scale. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and estimates of the Pearson phenotypic correlations were obtained among traits. Lines differ in relation to tolerance to moisture at the time of harvest, with those of higher tolerance having lighter colored seeds. The main difficulty in selection of common bean lines for tolerance to high moisture at harvest is the repeatability of the environmental conditions among crop seasons. The alternative is assessing the amount of water absorbed by pods.A ocorrência de precipitação / chuva na colheita do feijão comum provoca danos ao produto e reduz o rendimento. A principal alternativa para mitigar este problema é a obtenção de cultivares com baixa germinação de grãos nas vagens em condições de alta umidade. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se vrificar se há variabilidade genética entre as linhagens do feijoeiro que estão em fase de recomendação para o Sul de Minas Gerais quanto à tolerância à umidade após a colheita e identificar caracteres que

  3. Crescimento diferencial de linhagens de milho em solução nutritiva com baixo nível de potássio Differential growth of corn inbred lines in low potassium nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Cangiani Furlani

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios foram conduzidos no Centro Experimental de Campinas, no período agosto-outubro de 1983, em condições de casa de vegetação, para avaliar e selecionar linhagens de milho (Zea mays L. quanto à eficiência na absorção e utilização de potássio em solução nutritiva. No primeiro ensaio, seis linhagens foram cultivadas com 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 mg/litro de K até aos 34 dias de idade, com o objetivo de determinar o nível adequado para diferenciação das plantas. No segundo, 37 linhagens de milho foram selecionadas com 20 mg/litro de K até aos 25 dias de idade. As soluções nutritivas foram continuamente arejadas e não renovadas e as plantas, deixadas crescer até aparecerem sintomas de deficiência de potássio nas folhas inferiores. As variações observadas nos pesos de matéria seca das raízes (CV das médias = 38,9% foram maiores que aquelas da parte aérea (CV das médias = 28,5%. As linhagens foram classificadas de acordo com a produção de matéria seca total, em grupos eficientes, ineficientes e medianamente eficientes, utilizando-se de um intervalo de confiança para a média geral. A absorção de K pelas linhagens, avaliada pelo seu conteúdo total, variou (CV das médias = 9% acompanhando a variação observada nos pesos de matéria seca total (r = 0,92. Entretanto, a relação de eficiência das linhagens apresentou variação maior (CV das médias = 23% e também acompanhou a variação no crescimento das plantas (r = 0,99. Isso é uma indicação de que o mecanismo de utilização de K pelas plantas foi o fator que mais contribuiu para a diferenciação entre os genótipos.Two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Station of Campinas, Instituto Agronômico, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1983, under greenhouse conditions, in order to evaluate and select efficient corn (Zea mays L. inbred lines in the uptake and use of potassium in nutrient solution. In a first trial, six lines were grow n with 20

  4. Melhoramento do trigo: XVIII. Comportamento de linhagens em cinco regiões paulistas Wheat breeding. XVIII: evaluation on inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se vinte e duas linhagens e três cultivares de trigo em ensaios instalados em cinco regiões paulistas, em 1984-86, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo, em dias, da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, número de espiguetas por espiga, peso de cem grãos, resistência à ferrugem-do-colmo e da-folha em condições de campo e de casa de vegetação, resistência à helmintosporiose e ao oídio em condições de campo. Em laboratório, foram realizados estudos da tolerância ao alumínio, em soluções nutritivas. Em sequeiro, nos ensaios conduzidos em Capão Bonito e no Vale do Paranapanema (Maracaí e Cruzália, destacaram-se, quanto à produção de grãos, respectivamente, o cultivar BH-1146 e a linhagem 12. As linhagens 4, 9 e 13, em Campinas, e a 8, em Tatuí, evidenciaram alta produção de grãos em condição de irrigação por aspersão. Na média de nove experimentos, destacaram-se em produção de grãos, por ordem decrescente, o cultivar BH-1146 e as linhagens 13, 20 e 14. As linhagens 2, 7, 8, 17 e 18 e o 'Alondra-S-46' mostraram plantas significativamente mais baixas que o 'BH-1146' e 'IAC-5'. As linhagens 7 e 8 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46 mostraram resistência às seis raças e as linhagens 17 e 18 a cinco raças testadas do agente causal de ferrugem-do-colmo em estádio de plântula, em casa de vegetação. Em campo, no estádio de planta adulta, apresentaram menor área infectada por essa doença as linhagens 1, 2, 7, 8, 12 e 17 e o cultivar Alondra-S-46. Nas mesmas condições, as linhagens 1, 5, 8 e 18 exibiram menor área infectada por ferrugem-da-folha. As linhagens 11, 12, 13, 19, 20 e 21 e o cultivar BH-1146 mostraram tolerância à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty two inbred lines from the wheat breeding

  5. Melhoramento do trigo: XII. Comportamento de novas linhagens e cultivares no Estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XII. Evaluation of new inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1985-01-01

    -18',foram tolerantes à presença de 10mg/litro de Al3+ na solução nutritiva.Twenty one inbred lines obtained at the Instituto Agronômico from the wheat breeding program plus the cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-17, and Alondra-S-46 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Campinas Experiment Center and Capão Bonito Experiment Station, during the years of 1982 and 1983, at Tietê Experiment Station, in 1982 and at Floresta Negra Farm, Maracaí, in 1983. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering and from emergente to maturation, percentage of layed plants, head length, number of grain per spike and per spikelet, number of spikelets, weight of 100 grains, and resistance to stem and leaf rusts were evaluated under field conditions and tests of resistance to stem and leal rusts and to aluminum were also made, respectively, in greenhouse and in laboratory. Considering the trials planted under sprinkler irrigation, at Campinas, the lines IAC-60 and IAC-67 showed good performance regarding to grain yield. In Capão Bonito, represented by acid soils, the lnes IAC-66, IAC-60 and IAC-69 showed high grain yield. The lines IAC-64, IAC-68, IAC-71 and IAC-60 presented good productivity at Tietê Experiment Station and IAC-67, IAC-63 and IAC-64 were more adapted to high soil fertility showing the best grain yields at Maracaí. The lines IAC-52, IAC-53, IAC-54, IAC-55, IAC-56, IAC-57, IAC-58, IAC-60, IAC-64, IAC-65, IAC-67, IAC-71 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 exhibited semi-dwarf type when compared to the tall cultivar BH-1146. In relation to stem rust, the lines IAC-62 and IAC-65 and the cultivar Alondra-S-46 showed very good resistance presenting at seedling stage, resistance to seven rates under both greenhouse and field conditions. The line IAC-64 was resistant to four and IAC-52 and IAC-55 to three races of leaf rust in the seedling stage under greenhouse condition. The lines IAC-51, IAC-56, IAC-61, IAC-62, IAC-63 and IAC-67 presented

  6. Perspectivas da profissão contábil

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    Nivaldo João dos Santos

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available As perspectivas profissionais na área contábil são muito promissoras. É natural que estudantes demonstrem apreensão acerca da carreira que advirá após a conclusão do curso de graduação em ciências contábeis, pois trata-se de investimento elevado - envolvendo muito tempo e dinheiro. De tempos em tempos leigos anunciam a extinção da atividade contábil, sem nenhum fundamento. A atividade contábil é das que mais evolui e sua essencialidade se revela com mais força quando são descobertas fraudes contábeis e novos artifícios ilícitos visando iludir acionistas e investidores. Apesar do grande contingente de pessoas que conclui cursos na área, muitas novas empresas são constituídas, outras formas de sociedades são desenvolvidas, todas necessitando de serviços de profissionais contabilistas. O grande desafio da classe contábil consiste no contínuo aperfeiçoamento e na consolidação do elevado nível intelectual que o mercado globalizado requisita.

  7. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de pimenta em dois sistemas de cultivo Agronomic performance of recombinant chili pepper inbred lines in two cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2009-08-01

    .Climate and management diversity play an important role in crop production, since these characteristics are related to genotype and cultivation environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype-environmental interaction (GE in 12 recombinant inbred lines of C. annuum. These lines were originated from crosses between the following accessions: a sweet pepper cultivar (susceptible to bacterial spot and a chili pepper (resistant to bacterial spot. Two tests were conducted, the first in a conventional agriculture system, under field conditions and the second in ecological or organic system, under greenhouse conditions. The field experiment was carried out in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. The greenhouse experiment was conducted in Seropédica, RJ. Both experiments were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The measured variables were total fruit number (TFN; total fruit weight (TFW; mean fruit weight (MFW; fruit length (FL; fruit diameter (FD; length/diameter fruit ratio (FL/FD and capsaicin presence (CAPS. Data obtained for each experimental condition were submitted to variance analysis, joint variance analysis, and partitioning of genotype environment interaction. Genotype and GE quadratic components, genotypic determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and variation index were determined. The GE interaction was significant for TFN, TFW, MFN, FD, and FL/FD. Cultivation under greenhouse conditions was responsible for the highest mean performance for every trait studied but FL. Values observed for genetic variation were greater than values obtained for environmental variation. For field conditions, the high yield ability observed for line 2 (pungent is suggestive of a potential to be used as a commercial genotype. For greenhouse conditions, line 8 (pungent, had higher fruit number yield. Line 1 (non-pungent also seems promising for commercial cultivation under both conditions.

  8. Melhoramento do trigo: XVII. comportamento de linhagens de origem mexicana no estado de São Paulo Wheat breeding: XVII. evaluation of mexican inbred lines for the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Monte Alegre do Sul e Tatuí e no município de Maracaí, de 1984 a 1986, estudaram-se 23 linhagens de trigo introduzidas do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, México, juntamente com os cultivares IAC-24 e Anahuac. Analisaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, comprimento da espiga, número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta e de espiguetas por espiga, resistência às ferrugens do colmo e da folha em condições de campo e de casa de vegetação, tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+ empregando-se soluções nutritivas, em laboratório. As linhas mexicanas, nominadas como IAC-215, IAC-216, IAC-217 e IAC-219, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, porém não diferiram do cultivar controle IAC-24. As linhagens Festiguay-Tecolote 363.30.6.1 x Ciguena e [4777² x (Frontana/Kenya 58//Newthatch] Gabo/Pavon-76 mostraram-se resistentes às nove raças do agente causal da ferrugem-do-colmo e às seis raças do agente causal da ferrugem-da-folha. Os resultados evidenciaram que são fontes genéticas de grande valor para o programa de melhoramento do trigo no Instituto Agronômico os genótipos seguintes: IAC-215, IAC-216, Yaco"S", IAC-218, Dougga-Bluejay (T-4, Buckbuck"S" - Bulbul"S", com ciclo precoce; IAC-215, Yaco"S" e Jupateco 73-Bluejay, com porte baixo, Bonanza-Yecora F-70/Florence 35.70, com espigas compridas e maior número de espiguetas e de grãos por espiga; Jupateco 73-Bluejay, com grande fertilidade de espigas; [(IAS-58-IAS-55 x Alondra"S"/IAC-5 Alondra"S" - IAS-58 103A x Alondra"S"] e IAC-215, IAC-216, IAC-219 e IAC-24, com tolerância a 10 mg/litro de Al3+.Twenty three Mexican inbred lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac were evaluated in field experiments carried out at Monte Alegre do Sul and Tatu

  9. Procedimento para escolha de populações de milho promissoras para extração de linhagens Procedure to select superior maize populations for inbred line extraction

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    MAX WENDEL PAULA LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de um programa de melhoramento de milho visando à obtenção de híbridos está intimamente ligado à identificação da população mais promissora para a extração de linhagens. O presente trabalho objetivou identificar procedimentos para a escolha dessas populações. Para isso, foram obtidas populações segregantes S0, S1 e 196 famílias S0:1 de cada um dos quatro materiais comerciais avaliados: híbridos simples (C 333B e Z 8392, duplo (AG 1051 e variedade (BR-105. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na safra agrícola 98/99 em duas localidades na região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais: Lavras e Ijaci. Na avaliação das 196 famílias S0:1 de cada população foi empregado o delineamento látice simples 14 x 14. Adicionalmente foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, para avaliação simultânea das gerações F1, S0 e S1 A partir dos dados de produtividade de espigas despalhadas (kg por parcela das gerações F1, S0 e S1, foram obtidas as estimativas da contribuição dos locos em homozigose (m + a e em heterozigose (d. Foram também foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos com os experimentos das famílias S0:1. Constatou-se que houve boa associação (r = 0,81 entre a estimativa de (m + a e a média das famílias S0:1 e que população com maior potencial para a extração de linhagens, maior (m + a, foi a AG 1051. A correlação entre as estimativas de (d e h² foi baixa, indicando que a estimativa da contribuição dos locos em heterozigose não foi bom indicador da variabilidade potencial da população.The identification of the population with greatest potential for inbred line extraction is directly linked to the success of a maize hybrid breeding program. This study was carried out to identify procedures for selecting these populations. Segregant S0, S1 populations and 196 S0:1 families were obtained from each of four commercial cultivars assessed: single hybrids (C 333B and

  10. TUPURISME LEXICAL AU SERVICE D’UN COMMERCE FLORISSANT À MAROUA: LA VENTE DU BIL-BIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul BALGA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adamawa-Ubangi language spoken in south-western Chad and north-east of Cameroon, with nearly one million speakers, the Tupuri is in close cohabitation with the French in the border region of Central Africa (Ruelland, 2003: 127. The use of French in the bilingual context does not live smoothly. The resulting linguistic consequences, which modify its configuration syntax and semantics. This article is from a classic sociolinguistic survey, to describe some aspects of language vitality of French spoken in the pubs in Maroua. In other words, it comes to analyzing the vocabulary used by sellers of consumer bil-bil to attract customers and improve the quality of the atmosphere in the stores. This vocabulary derives in particular the contact between the French and the language Tupuri.

  11. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  12. Crystal Structure of the Substrate-Binding Domain from Listeria monocytogenes Bile-Resistance Determinant BilE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Stephanie J.; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    BilE has been reported as a bile resistance determinant that plays an important role in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis. The mechanism(s) by which BilE mediates bile resistance are unknown. BilE shares significant sequence

  13. Seleção de linhagens com tolerância ao calor em germoplasma de tomateiro coletado na região Norte do Brasil Selection of heat tolerant tomato inbred lines from landraces adapted for cultivation in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de B. Giordano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As altas temperaturas nas regiões tropicais e equatoriais induzem uma série de distúrbios morfológicos e/ou fisiológicos em estruturas florais do tomateiro, resultando em menor produtividade devido a maiores taxas de abortamento e má formação de frutos. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas linhagens de tomateiro oriundas de duas populações que vêm sendo cultivadas em Roraima, região Norte do Brasil. Doze linhagens foram obtidas após um ciclo prévio de seleção (em Brasília-DF em condições de temperatura elevada. A avaliação destas doze linhagens e duas cultivares testemunhas ('Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' foi conduzida em casa de vegetação com temperaturas média das mínimas de 15ºC e média das máximas de 46,2ºC. Foram observadas diferenças significativas para número de frutos abortados, número de frutos maduros, peso de frutos maduros, teores de sólidos solúveis, firmeza e coloração de frutos. As linhagens (como um grupo apresentaram melhor desempenho do que as testemunhas 'Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' para os parâmetros número de frutos abortados, peso, número e coloração de frutos maduros. A metodologia adotada no presente trabalho, permite a identificação de genótipos superiores adaptados ao cultivo em regiões tropicais e equatoriais com elevadas temperaturas.Heat tolerance is a major trait for tomato breeding programs targeted for lowland wet climates in equatorial and tropical areas of the world. High temperatures might cause several disturbances to morphological and physiological characteristics of the tomato flowers leading to yield constraints due to reduction in fruit setting. In the present work, an experiment was conducted to evaluate tomato breeding lines, derived from two tomato landrace populations cultivated by farmers in Roraima State (North Region of Brazil. Twelve inbred lines were obtained from these populations after one cycle of selection in a plastic house with high temperatures. These 12

  14. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD...

  15. Melhoramento do trigo: XXX. Avaliação de linhagens com tolerância a toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em condições de campo Wheat breeding: XXX. Evaluation of inbred lines tolerant to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 23 linhagens tolerantes, ao mesmo tempo, à toxicidade de Al3+ Mn2+ e Fe2+, provindas do cruzamento entre 'BH-1146' (tolerante à toxicidade de A1(3+ e sensível à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e 'Siete Cerros' (sensível à toxicidade de A1(3+ e tolerante à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e os dois cultivares utilizados como pais em quatro ensaios instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Itararé (1990-92 e de Capão Bonito (1992, em solos ácidos, e em cinco ensaios realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas (1990-92 e na Fazenda Santa Lúcia (1990-91, município de Cruzália, em solos corrigidos, analisando os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. Em solos ácidos, vinte linhagens e o 'BH-1146' mostraram maior rendimento de grãos em relação ao 'Siete Cerros' indicando que a toxicidade de alumínio foi um dos principais fatores limitantes à produção. Em solos corrigidos, não se verificaram diferenças significativas entre os genótipos estudados quanto ao rendimento de grãos, mostrando não haver urna associação entre baixa produtividade e tolerância ao A1(3+ nessas condições. A linhagem 21 foi moderadamente resistente ao agente causal de oídio em condições naturais de infecção. Todos os genótipos avaliados revelaram suscetibilidade aos agentes causais das manchas foliares. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens 3 a 12 apresentaram porte baixo associado à menor porcentagem de acamamento; as 13, 14 e 23 mostraram espigas compridas; a 12, maior número de espiguetas e grãos por espiga, e a 17, grãos mais pesados, representando fontes genéticas de valor para essas características.Twenty three inbred lines showing at the same time tolerance to A1(3+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, originated from the cross between 'BH-1146' (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity and sensitive to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities and 'Siete Cerros' (sensitive to Al3+ and tolerant to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, and the two

  16. Kunsti lastekodu / Stuart Bailey, Peter Bil'ak ; interv. Kristjan Mändmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bailey, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest disainiajakirjast Dot Dot Dot. Väljaandjate slovakkia disaineri ja tüpograafi Peter Bil'aki ja inglise disaineri Stuart Bailey eluloolisi andmeid. Korraldavad õpikoja Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  17. Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than outbred individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Barnett, C A; Pettinger, A M; Weddle, C B; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2010-09-01

    Inbreeding is assumed to have negative effects on fitness, including the reduced ability to withstand immune challenges. We examined the immunological consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets from the outbred founder population. Surprisingly, crickets from inbred lines had a greater encapsulation ability compared with crickets from the outbred population. We suggest that because inbred crickets have reduced reproductive effort, they may, therefore, have the option of devoting more resources to this form of immunity than outbred individuals. We also found that both inbred and outbred females had higher immunity than males in PO activity and implant darkness. This result supports the hypothesis that females should devote more effort to somatic maintenance and immunity than males. PO activity and implant darkness were heritable in both males and females, but lytic activity was only heritable in females. Males and females differed in the heritability of, and genetic correlations among, immune traits, suggesting that differences in selective pressures on males and females may have resulted in a sexual conflict over optimal immune trait values.

  18. POTENTIAL OF COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS TO GENERATE INBRED LINES IN BREEDING PROGRAMS POTENCIAL DE HÍBRIDOS COMERCIAIS DE MILHO PARA OBTENÇÃO DE LINHAGENS EM PROGRAMAS DE MELHORAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">With the objective of identifying the best commercial hybrids to extract maize lines, a top cross scheme of 49 endogamic partial lines (S3 was carried out with the IA33 tester. The resultant hybrids were evaluated for grain yield, in Campinas, Mococa, and Palmital (São Paulo State, Brazil, in two agricultural years (2005/2006 and 2006/2007, in a randomized block design, with three replications, in two experiments (TC1 and TC2. Individual and group variance analysis and a grouped analysis of the experiments with common treatments were carried out, for each place. The top cross hybrids were grouped according to the line origins. Afterwards, orthogonal contrasts were carried out by using the Student’s t test, in order to compare the hybrid groups. It was verified that the use of commercial hybrids to extract lines is an interesting strategy. In general, it was also verified that the top cross hybrid groups, whose lines originated from the AG1051, Master, and XL357 hybrids, obtained high yield, with a higher potential for lines extraction.

    line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="en-US" align="JUSTIFY">KEY-WORDS: Zea mays L.; top cross hybrids; partially endogamic lines (S3.

    line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar os melhores híbridos comerciais para extração de linhagens de milho. Para isto, foram

  19. Híbridos pré-comerciais resistentes a Tuta absoluta obtidos de linhagem de tomateiro rica em acilaçúcares Pre-commercial hybrids obtained from an acylsugar-rich tomato inbred line, resistant to Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M Maciel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial agronômico de híbridos de tomateiro a partir da linhagem TOM-687, rica em acilaçúcares e de resistência comprovada a pragas. O experimento foi instalado na HortiAgro, município de Ijaci, MG. Foi constituído de 30 genótipos (5 híbridos comerciais, 1 linhagem pré-comercial (TOM-687, e 24 híbridos nos quais TOM-687 foi utilizada como um dos pais, os quais foram conduzidos em tutoramento com haste dupla, no espaçamento de 1,30 x 0,50 m, totalizando 15.385 plantas por hectare. Foram realizadas nove colheitas, entre as datas de 01/11/08 a 28/11/08. Foram avaliadas as características de massa média por fruto (g fruto-1 e produção por hectare (t ha-1. Os 24 híbridos que tiveram TOM-687 como um dos pais apresentaram potencial produtivo similar ao das testemunhas comerciais Débora Max, Bravo, Bônus, Kombat e Atyna. Dos 24 híbridos experimentais, quatro (TEX-298, TEX-310, TEX-315 e TEX-316 foram avaliados quanto à resistência à traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta e mostraram-se mais resistentes do que as testemunhas comerciais.This experiment was designed to assess the agronomic potential of tomato hybrids obtained from the tomato line TOM-687, an acylsugar-rich line with confirmed resistance to an array of tomato pests. The experiment was carried out at the HortiAgro Sementes research station, in Ijaci, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The treatments comprised 30 genotypes (5 commercial hybrid checks, 1 high acylsugar line (TOM-687, and 24 hybrids in which TOM-687 was one of the parents. Plants were trained to two stems, in a spacing of 1.30 m between rows x 0.50 m between plants within a row, totaling 15,385 plants per hectare. Nine harvests were performed between November 1st, 2008 and November 28th,2008. Traits assessed were mean fruit weight (g fruit-1 and total yield (t ha-1. All 24 hybrids with TOM-687 as a parent showed yields similar to those of the commercial check

  20. Crystal Structure of the Substrate-Binding Domain from Listeria monocytogenes Bile-Resistance Determinant BilE

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie J. Ruiz; Gea K. Schuurman-Wolters; Bert Poolman

    2016-01-01

    BilE has been reported as a bile resistance determinant that plays an important role in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis. The mechanism(s) by which BilE mediates bile resistance are unknown. BilE shares significant sequence similarity with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importers that contribute to virulence and stress responses by importing quaternary ammonium compounds that act as compatible solutes. Assays using related co...

  1. Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ∼10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ∼14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

  2. Physiological and photosynthesis response of popcorn inbred seedings to waterlogging stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.; Wang, J.; Li, F.; Shi, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is one of the most severe global problems, which affects crop growth and yield worldwide, especially in the low-lying rainfed areas, and irrigated and heavy rainfall environment. Our objective was to study the physiological and photosynthetic characteristics of two popcorn genotypes under waterlogging conditions. The experiment was carried out in pots with two contrasting inbred lines differing in waterlogging tolerance: Q5 (tolerant) and Q10 (sensitive). Leaf gas exchange, oxidative stress, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6d in the control and waterlogged plants. A decrease in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration was observed in both genotypes. The waterlogging-sensitive plants showed reduced chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content and increased activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Response curves for the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net photosynthetic rate (P /subN/ ) for waterlogged plants were similar in both genotypes. The different physiological and photosynthetic response in the two popcorn inbred lines might be responsible for higher tolerance of Q5 than Q10. These results suggest that Q5 popcorn inbred lines are a source of genetic diversity for important traits such as P /subN/ and WUE. (author)

  3. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas ecombinadas de Capsicum annuum L. em sistema orgânico sob cultivo protegido Agronomic performance of recombinant inbred of Capsicum annuum L. lines cultivated under organic system and greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2010-08-01

    of this work was to study the agronomic performance of 12 recombinant inbred chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. lines, from crosses between UENF 1421 and UENF 1381 accessions, under greenhouse conditions and using an organic system. The experiment was carried out at Seropédica Experimental Station of PESAGRO-RIO, in randomized block design, with four replications. The following variables were evaluated: total number of fruits (TNF; total fruit weight (TFW; average weight of fruits (MWF; fruit length (FL; fruit diameter (FD; length and diameter fruit ratio (LDFR, and capsaicin presence (CAPS. Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental variances, as well as genotypic determination coefficient and variation index were estimated. There was highly significant difference for all traits unless TFW. The lines produced a high number of fruits, with low weight and with variability in shape among lines. Absence of capsaicin was observed only in two lines and other three lines segregated for capsaicin presence. High values of genotypic variance and genotypic determination coefficient were estimated for all traits, indicating that the results were due to genetic causes. The data pointed to a preliminary indication of lines 5 and 8 for cultivation in an organic system under greenhouse conditions.

  4. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran ... indexes for screening bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance. ... published on screening methods in salinity tolerance in.

  5. Regenerability of elite tropical maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... maize production (Evenson and Gollin, 2003) due to high heterotic ... the culture media used in the process (Armstrong and. Green, 1985). This calls .... a temperature of 27 ± 1°C. After two weeks of culture on the EMM, embryogenic .... al., 2008). This could be due to blockage of cell division and inactivation ...

  6. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Keywords: Sudanese maize genotypes, embryogenic callus, regeneration, and tissue culture. INTRODUCTION. Maize is an important food and forage crop in the North- ern and Southern regions of ... Skoog, 1965) containing 60 g l-1 sucrose and lacking 2,4-D (referred to as maturation or RI medium) and ...

  7. Haldane, Waddington and recombinant inbred lines: extension of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Areejit Samal

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... advantage for genetic research (Crow 2007). RILs are typically ... quencies to consider which by symmetry can be reduced to 5. ... coined two decades after the work of of Haldane and. Waddington ... and short cut for 3 loci.

  8. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jige Xin

    Full Text Available Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 gene biallelic knockout (KO pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26 among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209 among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209 of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  9. Pengembangan Model Pembangunan Ummat Melalui Lembaga Filantropi Islam Sebagai Bentuk Dakwah bil Hal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrazaq Abdurrazaq

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini mengkaji mengenai dakwah bil hal. Dakwah bil-hal yang merupakan salah satu metode dalam berdakwah menjadi bagian yang mempertemukan dengan konsep filantropi dalam Islam. Dalam ajaran Islam, wacana filantropi sesungguhnya sudah ada dan melekat dalam sistem teologi yang dimilikinya dan telah dipraktekkan sejak dahulu dalam bentuk zakat, wakaf, dan sebagainya. Program-program filantropi yang dalam pelaksanaannya membantu memperbaiki kondisi ummat dalam bidang pendidikan, kesejahteraan, kesehatan, menjauhkan dari kefakiran dan meningkatkan kualitas hidup adalah bagian dari ajaran Islam. Bentuk-bentuk pelaksanaan filantropi inilah yang merupakan bentuk dakwah bil hal. Melalui kegiatan meredistribusi kekayaan, memberikan santunan dan banyak lagi kegiatan amal lainnya sebagaimana halnya dalam filantropi Islam, maka pelaku-pelaku atau mediator yang menjalankan kegiatan meredistribusi kekayaan ini menjadi penting, melakukan aksi nyata dalam perbaikan kondisi umat (dakwah bil hal. Program filantropi dalam bentuk CSR yang telah dijalankan oleh Perbankan Syariah di Indonesia telah menyentuh aspek-aspek penting dalam rangka pembangunan umat, seperti: kesehatan, pendidikan dan kesejahteraan.   This paper examined about dakwah bil hal. Da'wah bil-hal was one method of preaching that became part that brought with the concept of philanthropy in Islam. In Islamic doctrine, philanthropy discourse in fact already existed and was inherent in theological system and had been practiced since long ago in the form of zakat, waqf, and so on. Philanthropic programs in implementation helped improve the condition of the Ummah in the areas of education, welfare, health, estranged from poverty and improved the quality of life was part of the doctrine of Islam. The forms of implementation of philanthropy were what a form of dakwah bil hal was. Through the activities of redistribute wealth, providing compensation and many other charitable activities, as well as in

  10. Las consecuencias de Chernóbil quince años después

    OpenAIRE

    Lutgen, Pierre; Minotas Ruíz, Julio César (Traductor)

    2001-01-01

    Se hace un recuento de lo que se ha dicho sobre el accidente nuclear de Chernóbil y se analizan sus reales consecuencias a la luz de accidentes similares y de observaciones, estudios y reflexiones realizados por el autor.

  11. Análise dos fundamentos teóricos associados à pesquisa contábil na área ambiental = Analysis of environmental accounting research theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz da Costa Laurencel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os principais enfoques teóricos aplicáveis à Contabilidade Socioambiental,analisando seus aspectos positivos e limitações, particularizados à consolidação de uma teoriacontábil de cunho ambiental. Para isso, realiza-se uma revisão da bibliografia pertinente ao tema,buscando estabelecer uma taxonomia da literatura contábil desta natureza, e comentam-seoportunidades para o desenvolvimento de linhas de pesquisas alternativas ao mainstream. O estudodemonstra a existência de um pluralismo teórico aplicável ao campo socioambiental, concluindo quehá outros enfoques teóricos capazes de se contraporem às suposições do mainstream. Apesar de aortodoxia contábil estar fundamentada em paradigmas funcionalistas, existem opções alternativaspara explicar os fenômenos socioambientais dentro da Teoria da Contabilidade.This paper presents the major conceptual positions for Social and Environmental Accounting while analyzingtheir strengths and limitations with respect to the consolidation of social and environmental accountingtheory. In order to do this, a review of the relevant literature was carried out tht tried to establish a taxonomyof related accounting literature and comments regarding the opportunities for developing alternative lines ofresearch to the mainstream. The study shows that theoretical pluralism occurs in this field and concludesthat there are other theoretical approaches capable of challenging the existing mainstream assumptions.Although accounting orthodoxy is based upon functionalist paradigms, there are alternative options that maybe used to explain the social and environmental phenomena within accounting theory.

  12. Crystal Structure of the Substrate-Binding Domain from Listeria monocytogenes Bile-Resistance Determinant BilE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BilE has been reported as a bile resistance determinant that plays an important role in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis. The mechanism(s by which BilE mediates bile resistance are unknown. BilE shares significant sequence similarity with ATP-binding cassette (ABC importers that contribute to virulence and stress responses by importing quaternary ammonium compounds that act as compatible solutes. Assays using related compounds have failed to demonstrate transport mediated by BilE. The putative substrate-binding domain (SBD of BilE was expressed in isolation and the crystal structure solved at 1.5 Å. Although the overall fold is characteristic of SBDs, the binding site varies considerably relative to the well-characterized homologs ProX from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and OpuBC and OpuCC from Bacillus subtilis. This suggests that BilE may bind an as-yet unknown ligand. Elucidation of the natural substrate of BilE could reveal a novel bile resistance mechanism.

  13. Optimization of particle bombardment parameters for the genetic transformation of Brazilian maize inbred lines Otimização dos parâmetros de bombardeamento de partículas para a transformação genética de linhagens brasileiras de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pereira Petrillo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a genetic transformation system for tropical maize genotypes via particle bombardment of immature zygotic embryos. Particle bombardment was carried out using a genetic construct with bar and uidA genes under control of CaMV35S promoter. The best conditions to transform maize tropical inbred lines L3 and L1345 were obtained when immature embryos were cultivated, prior to the bombardment, in higher osmolarity during 4 hours and bombarded at an acceleration helium gas pressure of 1,100 psi, two shots per plate, and a microcarrier flying distance of 6.6 cm. Transformation frequencies obtained using these conditions ranged from 0.9 to 2.31%. Integration of foreign genes into the genome of maize plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis as well as bar and uidA gene expressions. The maize genetic transformation protocol developed in this work will possibly improve the efficiency to produce new transgenic tropical maize lines expressing desirable agronomic characteristics.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um sistema de transformação genética para genótipos tropicais de milho pelo bombardeamento de embriões imaturos com micropartículas. O bombardeamento com partículas foi realizado utilizando-se uma construção gênica contendo os genes bar e uidA sob o controle do promotor CaMV35S. As melhores condições para transformação das linhagens de milho tropical L3 e L1345 foram obtidas após o cultivo de embriões imaturos durante 4 horas, antes do bombardeamento, em alta osmolaridade, e bombardeados com a pressão de 1.100 psi de gás hélio, dois tiros por placa e uma distância de vôo da micropartícula de 6,6 cm. As freqüências de transformação obtidas variaram entre 0,9 e 2,31%. A integração dos genes heterólogos no genoma das plantas transgênicas de milho foi confirmada por análises de Southern blot e expressão dos genes bar e uidA. O protocolo de transformação genética de

  14. Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daros Máskio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 families were obtained, which were then divided into six sets and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications within the sets. Experiments were carried out in two Brazilian localities. The analysis of variance revealed environmental effects for all evaluated traits, except popping and stand, showing that, for most traits, these environments affected genotype behavior in different ways. In addition, the set as source of variation was significant for most of the evaluated traits, indicating that dividing the families into sets was an efficient strategy. Genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for most traits, except popping expansion and stand. Differences among genotypes were also detected (1% F-test, making viable the proposition of using the genetic variability in the popcorn population as a basis for future recurrent selection cycles. Superior families were selected using the Smith and Hazel classic index, with predicted genetic gains of 17.8% for popping expansion and 26.95% for yield.

  15. X-ray and NQR studies of bromoindate(III) complexes. [C2H5NH3]4InBr7, [C(NH2)3]3InBr6, and [H3NCH2C(CH3)2CH2NH3]InBr5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Takeharu; Ishihara, Hideta; Terao, Hiromitsu; Lork, Enno; Gesing, Thorsten M.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structures of [C 2 H 5 NH 3 ] 4 InBr 7 (1), [C(NH 2 ) 3 ] 3 InBr 6 (2), and [H 3 NCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 NH 3 ]InBr 5 (3) were determined at 100(2) K: monoclinic, P2 1 /n, a=1061.94(3), b=1186.40(4), c=2007.88(7) pm, β= 104.575(1) , Z=4 for 1; monoclinic, C2/c, a=3128.81(12), b=878.42(3), c=2816.50(10) pm, β=92.1320(10) , Z=16 for 2; orthorhombic, P2 1 2 1 2 1 , a=1250.33(5), b=1391.46(6), c=2503.22(9) pm, Z=4 for 3. The structure of 1 contains an isolated octahedral [InBr 6 ] 3- ion and a Br - ion. The structure of 2 contains three different isolated octahedral [InBr 6 ] 3- ions. The structure of 3 has a corner-shared double-octahedral [In 2 Br 11 ] 5- ion and an isolated tetrahedral [InBr 4 ] - ion. The 81 Br nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines of the terminal Br atoms of the compounds are widely spread in frequency, and some of them show unusual positive temperature dependence. These observations manifest the N-H..Br-In hydrogen bond networks developed between the cations and anions to stabilize the crystal structures. The 81 Br NQR and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have revealed the occurrence of unique phase transitions in 1 and 3. When the bond angles were estimated from the electric field gradient (EFG) directions calculated by the molecular orbital (MO) methods, accurate values were obtained for [InBr 6 ] 3- of 1 and for [In 2 Br 11 ] 5- and [InBr 4 ] - of 3, except for several exceptions in those for the latter two ions. On the other hand, the calculations of 81 Br NQR frequencies have produced up to 1.4 times higher values than the observed ones.

  16. Living Hadis Dalam Tradisi Malam Kamis Majelis Shalawat Diba’ Bil-Mustofa

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    Adrika Fithrotul Aini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research studies the tradition of Diba blessings in Mejelis bil Musthafa Yogyakarta. The focus is on knowing the signification of selawat in the community. It is based-field research, that is, concerning living-hadits phenomena characterized by descriptive, qualitative and inductive study. It means that the research aimed at gaining general picture or the description about living-hadits. The approach to be used in the study is phenomenological one combined with functional theory. It results that the developing tradition in the life of Krapyak people is living-hadits one. In addition, there are some principal hadits to be used as guide in the activity. Besides, there is an important significance by the existence of the council, that is, spiritual aspect which cannot be lost from people tradition.Keywords: Living Hadis, Tradition, Hadis, Blessing, Bil Mustaha Council

  17. BilKristal 2.0: A tool for pattern information extraction from crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyan, Erhan; Güdükbay, Uğur

    2014-01-01

    We present a revised version of the BilKristal tool of Okuyan et al. (2007). We converted the development environment into Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 in order to resolve compatibility issues. We added multi-core CPU support and improvements are made to graphics functions in order to improve performance. Discovered bugs are fixed and exporting functionality to a material visualization tool is added.

  18. Biochemical markers of embryogenesis in tissue cultures of the maize inbred B73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, N.P.; Wach, M.J.; Ashworth, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Stable embryogenic, organogenic and undifferentiated cell lines of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred B73 were used to assess the value of using isozyme analyses and the composition of secreted polysaccharides to identify embryogenic cells. Esterase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase all possessed developmentally regulated isozymes but only esterase and glutamate dehydrogenase could be used to distinguish between embryogenic and shoot-forming cultures. Embryogenic callus and suspension cultures secreted a mucilagenous polysaccharide whose production was stimulated by 2, 4-dichlorophenozyacetic acid (2, 4-D). The polysaccharide was different from root slime and corn hull gum and may be related to the 'cementing layer' in maize kernels (author)

  19. Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T

    2009-12-01

    We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent.

  20. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

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    Tomasz L. Mróz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs. MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  1. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  2. O tratamento contábil do capital intelectual em empresas com valor de mercado superior ao valor contábil

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    Joel Marques de Oliveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo sintetizar o resultado da pesquisa sobre o tratamento contábil que é aplicado ao capital intelectual, sob a ótica do processo de gestão, representado pelos conceitos e técnicas que são utilizados e que dão suporte à ação da administração, em empresas com valor de mercado superior ao valor contábil. Para atingir este propósito, o artigo consubstancia-se em uma pesquisa realizada em duas empresas de capital aberto, de Santa Catarina, que apresentam valor de mercado, considerado o valor das ações superior ao seu valor contábil. Observou-se que, embora as empresas pesquisadas possuam todas as características das organizações voltadas ao conhecimento e domínio tecnológico, o tratamento contábil do capital intelectual é algo ainda muito incipiente, e que, os critérios utilizados para mensurar, registrar e evidenciar as informações referentes ao capital humano, capital estrutural e capital de clientes, com vistas ao processo de gestão, é algo que ainda carece de uma sistematização, para que se possa refletir, por meio das demonstrações contábeis, alguma posição nesse sentido. Concluiu-se que as empresas pesquisadas, mesmo não possuindo as informações sistematizadas sobre as iniciativas de mensuração do capital intelectual, têm consciência da sua importância. No entanto, para que os gestores desses empreendimentos possam, efetivamente, utilizá-las como um diferencial competitivo no processo de gestão, as informações sistematizadas sobre o capital intelectual devem fazer parte dos relatórios gerados para a tomada de decisões.The objective of this article si to summarize the result of the research about the accounting treatment which is applied to the intellectual capital, through the management viewpoint, in companies with a market value superior than the accounting value. In order to reach this intention, the article is substantiated on a research carried out in two open

  3. Perícia contábil: uma ferramenta de combate ao crime organizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDALBERTO JOSÉ DAS NEVES JÚNIOR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil e no mundo, devido principalmente à ausência do Estado no cumprimento do seu papel de garantidor da lei e da ordem, as organizações criminosas cresceram significativamente, e as suas ações passaram a ocorrer de formas planejadas e estratégicas. Para combatê-las e reprimi-las, a Perícia Contábil, materializada nos laudos periciais elaborados pelos peritos criminalistas, surge como importante ferramenta de Inteligência. Nesse contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar a relevância da Perícia Contábil como meio de prova para a solução de controvérsias relativas ao crime organizado. Para tanto, houve a realização de pesquisa de campo por meio de questionário aplicado aos Delegados, Escrivães e Agentes de Polícia das divisões da Diretoria de Combate ao Crime organizado – DCOR do Departamento de Polícia Federal. Também, houve a utilização de técnicas de estatística multivariada de análise de cluster para o estudo dos registros (K-Means clusters do software SPSS, que resultou na formação de dois agrupamentos. Considerando a pesquisa de campo e o referencial teórico, verificou-se que a Perícia Contábil, no limite de suas atribuições, é um relevante meio de prova para a solução de controvérsias relativas ao crime organizado.

  4. 6a. Jornada de Mecatrònica: Robótica mòbil

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Vic. Grup de Recerca Mecatrònica i Modelització Aplicada a la Tecnologia de Materials

    2014-01-01

    Tríptic de la 6a Jornada de la Mecatrònica : Robòtica Mòbil, celebrada el 8 d'abril de 2014 a Ripoll i Vic. La jornada, adreçada a estudiants, professors i empreses interessats en l’àrea de la Mecatrònica, vol donar a conèixer diversos camps d’aplicació d’aquesta disciplina i els estudis que s’hi relacionen, mitjançant ponències, demostracions i tallers.

  5. Computació distribuïda sobre dispositius mòbils

    OpenAIRE

    Marugán Calles, Jose Carlos

    2015-01-01

    En aquest projecte, s'ha desenvolupat una plataforma que ajuda a la paral·lelització d’aplicacions utilitzant dispositius mòbils com a nodes o processadors. Per al seu desenvolupament, el projecte s'ha dividit en tres subprojectes (client, servidor i proveïdor). La plataforma de computació distribuïda i paral·lelització es compon dels subprojectes client i servidor. El subprojecte proveïdor s'ha desenvolupat per utilitzar la plataforma de computació distribuïda creada, i concretament, s'ha de...

  6. Divergence and inheritance of neocortical heterotopia in inbred and genetically-engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Alyssa R; Cuoco, Joshua A; Esposito, Anthony W; Ahsan, Jawad; Joshi, Alok; Herron, Bruce J; Torres, German; Bolivar, Valerie J; Ramos, Raddy L

    2017-01-18

    Cortical function emerges from the intrinsic properties of neocortical neurons and their synaptic connections within and across lamina. Neurodevelopmental disorders affecting migration and lamination of the neocortex result in cognitive delay/disability and epilepsy. Molecular layer heterotopia (MLH), a dysplasia characterized by over-migration of neurons into layer I, are associated with cognitive deficits and neuronal hyperexcitability in humans and mice. The breadth of different inbred mouse strains that exhibit MLH and inheritance patterns of heterotopia remain unknown. A neuroanatomical survey of numerous different inbred mouse strains, 2 first filial generation (F1) hybrids, and one consomic strain (C57BL/6J-Chr 1 A/J /NaJ) revealed MLH only in C57BL/6 mice and the consomic strain. Heterotopia were observed in numerous genetically-engineered mouse lines on a congenic C57BL/6 background. These data indicate that heterotopia formation is a weakly penetrant trait requiring homozygosity of one or more C57BL/6 alleles outside of chromosome 1. These data are relevant toward understanding neocortical development and disorders affecting neocortical lamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  8. O Encheirídion de Epicteto: Edição Bilíngue

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    Aldo Lopes Dinucci

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Edição bilíngue do Encheirídion de Epicteto, obra do aluno de Epicteto (55-135 e cidadão romano de origem grega Lúcio Flávio Arriano de Nicomédia (86-160. Tal tradução, produzida por Aldo Dinucci (doutor em filosofia pela PUC-RJ e professor associado do Departamento de Filosofia da UFS e Alfredo Julien (doutor em história pela USP e professor adjunto do Departamento de História da UFS, foi financiada pelo CNPq (edital MCT/CNPq 02/2009 - Ciências Humanas, Sociais e Sociais Aplicadas.

  9. New Masculinities on Contemporary Mexican Television?: El sexo débil (2011

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    Rosana Blanco-Cano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the TV series El sexo débil [The Weak Sex] visually proposes a “reposition of masculinity” (Vendrell, 2011, particularly in the affective-corporeal experiences of its protagonists. As Nikki Wedgwood (2009 argues, it is imperative to highlight dissident models of masculinity that symbolically undermine—through television or other powerful media channels—heteropatriarchal discourses and practices. By using a theoretical framework that incorporates cultural studies, television studies, and gender studies, this work also analyzes the limits of such representation, since this series proposes the notion of gender flexibility only in the context of the upper classes—and mostly white characters— in Mexico City.

  10. Evaluation of the capacity for direct regeneration of maize inbreds of the Lancaster selection group

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    K. V. Derkach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the necessity of bringing elite maize inbreds of the Lancaster germplasm group, which have potential for cultivation in Ukraine, into the system of genetic tranformation, the aim of this investigation is to identify the ability of maize inbreds of this group to regenerate by direct organogenesis and to determine the optimal mineral basis for their nutritional environment using segments of the node area of shoots. As explantats we used sterile 4-day old seedlings of 4 maize inbreds of Lancaster germplasm and model inbred Chi31 exotic germplasm. The seedlings were obtained by germination of sterile seeds in Petri dishes between two layers of moist sterile filter paper at a temperature of 27 ºC in dark conditions. A single 1 cmlong segment was cut from each from each seedling, running from 0.5 cmbefore the node to 0.5 cmafter the node. A cut was made in each segment of the node in order to create a wounded surface. Explantats were planted in a nutrient environment with mineral bases of MS or N6, modified by the addition of 10 mg/l silver nitrate, 100 mg/l casein hydrolyzate, 690 mg/l L-proline, 30 g/l sucrose, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dychlorphenoksiacetic acid and 0,1 mg/l abscisic acid. Cultivation was carried out at 25–27 ºC in the light. Direct hemogenesis in this environment on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro reached 100% for each line. This meant that all researched lines of Lancaster germplasm and the model line showed a high capacity for direct regeneration through direct hemogenesis, which does not depend on the composition of the mineral content of their nutritional environment. Callus formation was observed in all genotypes on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro and the extent of its formation increased during the following month of cultivation. The callus formation was observed only at the site of the wounded surface. The calluses were transparent. Although green areas appeared in these calluses, they were

  11. Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwegler Herbert

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper we review a series of experiments showing that heritable variations in the size of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields correlate with performance in spatial, but not non-spatial radial-maze tasks. Experimental manipulation of the size of this projection by means of early postnatal hyperthyroidism produces the effects predicted from the correlations obtained with inbred mouse strains. Although the physiological mechanisms behind these correlations are unknown as yet, several lines of evidence indicate that these correlations are causal.

  12. BXSB/long-lived is a recombinant inbred strain containing powerful disease suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Michelle E K; Gabriel, Luisa; Rose, S Jane; Rogers, Nicola J; Izui, Shozo; Morley, Bernard J

    2007-08-15

    The BXSB strain of recombinant inbred mice develops a spontaneous pathology that closely resembles the human disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Six non-MHC loci, Yaa, Bxs1-4, and Bxs6, have been linked to the development of aspects of the disease while a further locus, Bxs5, may be a BXSB-derived disease suppressor. Disease development is delayed in a substrain of BXSB, BXSB/MpJScr-long-lived (BXSB/ll). We compared the genetic derivation of BXSB/ll mice to the original strain, BXSB/MpJ, using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. These differences were clustered and included two regions known to be important in the disease-susceptibility of these mice, Bxs5 and 6, as well as regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, and 13. We compared BXSB/ll to >20 strains including the BXSB parental SB/Le and C57BL/6 strains. This revealed that BXSB/ll is a separate recombinant inbred line derived from SB/Le and C57BL/6, but distinctly different from BXSB, that most likely arose due to residual heterozygosity in the BXSB stock. Despite the continued presence of the powerful disease-susceptibility locus Bxs3, BXSB/ll mice do not develop disease. We propose that the disappearance of the disease phenotype in the BXSB/ll mice is due to the inheritance of one or more suppressor loci in the differentially inherited intervals between the BXSB/ll and BXSB strains.

  13. LIF-measurements on a low prassure RF-driven InBr lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, H.C.J.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiment has been carried out on a low pressure, capacitively coupled RF driven. Ar discharge with InBr as an additive. The intention is to find the density of the different states of InBr and the metastable states in particular. We measured the density profile

  14. Determinantes para utilização de Hedge Accouting: uma escolha contábil

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    Fernando Caio Galdi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga a sistemática da escolha contábil, no meio corporativo,referente à contratação e à qualificação, ou não, de operações com derivativos para aplicação da contabilidade de hedge (Hedge Accounting, conforme as normas do Fasb (SFAS 133. Dentro dessa abordagem, foram utilizadas variáveis relacionadas aos incentivos/benefícios que as empresas podem ter ao classificarem uma transação dentro dos requisitos necessários para aplicação da contabilidade de operações de hedge (Hedge Accounting. As empresas avaliadas são aquelas listadas na NYSE nos setores de Mineração, Siderurgia/Metalurgia e Papel/Celulose. Os dados utilizados foram obtidos por meio da base de dados Economatica, websites das firmas selecionadas e da análise das demonstrações financeiras publicadas nos relatórios anuais, em dólares norte-americanos, de cada uma das selecionadas firmas, referentes ao ano de 2006. As evidências apontam para uma relação positiva e significante entre a dívida de longo prazo e a aplicação da contabilidade de hedge, o que é consistente com a teoria e corrobora com a relação esperada.

  15. Mosaico da linguagem das crianças bilíngues bimodais: estudos experimentais

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    Ronice Müller de Quadros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente trabalho apresenta a metodologia utilizada no estudo experimental que investiga o desenvolvimento bilíngue bimodal de crianças surdas com implante coclear (IC e crianças ouvintes filhas de pais surdos (Kodas2, com faixa etária entre 4 e 8 anos. Além desses dois grupos de crianças, participaram da pesquisa crianças surdas filhas de pais surdos ou filhas de pais ouvintes, e adultos ouvintes filhos de pais surdos, com o intuito de constituírem os grupos de controle. Inicialmente, descrevemos o estudo experimental desenvolvido e apresentamos como organizamos as feiras para coleta de dados. E, em seguida, apresentamos os testes utilizados no estudo, que contemplam os aspectos linguísticos da Língua de Sinais Brasileira (Libras e do Português Brasileiro (PB e formam o mosaico da linguagem dessas crianças. Concluímos com os resultados gerais das investigações realizadas até o momento.

  16. Vias bilíferas no tapir ou anta (Tapirus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Miglino

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram as vias bilíferas do tapir ou anta (Tapirus americanus, após injeção do sistema excretor do fígado de 2 animais, machos e adultos, com látex Neoprene 650 corado, fixação das peças com solução aquosa de formol a 10% e dissecação. O ductus choledocus origina-se a partir da confluência do ramus principalis dexter e do sinister, sendo este animal desprovido de vesícula biliar. O ramus principalis dexter é formado pelos ramus ventralis lobi dextri, ramus medius lobi dextri, ramus dorsalis lobi dextri e ramus processi caudati, os quais se unem por diferentes modalidades. O ramus principalis sinister é formado pelos ramus medius lobi sinistri lateralis, ramus dorsalis lobi sinistri lateralis, ramus lobi quadrati, ramus ventralis lobi sinistri lateralis e ramus lobi sinistri medialis, com diferentes arranjos

  17. Formação do professor bilíngue para surdos: de quais competências estamos falando?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiane Pinto Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na perspectiva das políticas de inclusão, a partir da década de 1990, os surdos teriam direito à educação bilíngue, ou seja, teriam acesso a sua primeira língua, ou língua natural, que é a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras - L1 e, posteriormente, em Língua Portuguesa que seria sua segunda língua (L2. Diante dessa diretriz político-pedagógica, a presente pesquisa buscou identificar quais as competências pertinentes à formação do professor bilíngue (PB para surdos através de pesquisa de campo realizada com professores que atuam na educação de surdos no município de ltajaí - SC. Com base em seus depoimentos, buscamos traçar o perfil do profissional bilíngue, à luz da literatura corrente. Segundo as professoras entrevistadas não há investimento suficiente para que os profissionais construam as competências necessárias para o exercício de uma educação bilíngue condizente com os apelos da comunidade surda e das diretrizes oficiais. Para se identificar um professor com competência em educação bilíngue para surdos parte-se da premissa de que este privilegia as peculiaridades que se configuram em sua cultura visual na intermediação dos conhecimentos em detrimento da reabilitação da fala e de habilidades fonológicas para a apropriação da escrita. Por outro lado, destaca- se a necessária incorporação do conhecimento da história, cultura e identidades surdas, respeitando essas peculiaridades e baseando-se nelas para construir sua práxis.

  18. Slow inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster express as much inbreeding depression as fast inbred lines under semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Knudsen, Morten Ravn; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Selection may reduce the deleterious consequences of inbreeding. This may be due to purging of recessive deleterious alleles or balancing selection favouring heterozygote offspring. Such selection is expected to be more efficient at slower compared to at faster rates of inbreeding. In this study ...

  19. Selection of inbred maize (Zea mays L.) progenies by topcrosses conducted in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C S; Pacheco, C A P; Guedes, M L; Pinho, R G V; Castro, C R

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this study was to identify inbred progenies of S 0:1 maize (Zea mays L.) plants that were efficient at a low level of technology and responsive at a high level of technology through the use of topcrosses. Two contrasting environments were created using two levels of base fertilization and topdressing, so that the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were applied four times higher in one environment than in the other. We used S 0:1 progenies derived from commercial hybrids in topcrosses with two testers (an elite line from the flint heterotic group and an elite line from the dent heterotic group). The progenies and three controls were evaluated in an augmented block design in Nossa Senhora das Dores, SE, Brazil in the 2010 crop season. The average grain yield in the high-technological level was 21.44% greater than that in the low-technological level. There were no changes in progeny behavior in the two technological levels for grain yield. The testers did not differ in the average grain yield of the progenies at the two technological levels. Therefore, it is possible to select progenies derived from commercial hybrids that have an efficient response to fertilization.

  20. Causes and consequences of chromatin variation between inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation at regulatory elements, identified through hypersensitivity to digestion by DNase I, is believed to contribute to variation in complex traits, but the extent and consequences of this variation are poorly characterized. Analysis of terminally differentiated erythroblasts in eight inbred strains of mice identified reproducible variation at approximately 6% of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Only 30% of such variable DHS contain a sequence variant predictive of site variation. Nevertheless, sequence variants within variable DHS are more likely to be associated with complex traits than those in non-variant DHS, and variants associated with complex traits preferentially occur in variable DHS. Changes at a small proportion (less than 10% of variable DHS are associated with changes in nearby transcriptional activity. Our results show that whilst DNA sequence variation is not the major determinant of variation in open chromatin, where such variants exist they are likely to be causal for complex traits.

  1. Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

  2. A socialização e a criança bilíngue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Bullio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artigo tem como objetivo observar e analisar os primeiros dados coletados de uma pesquisa longitudinal com duas crianças bilíngues. Bilinguismo é, para nós, um processo análogo ao de aquisição da língua materna, em que o indivíduo adquire outra língua ao mesmo tempo, ou seja, uma mesma criança é exposta a mais de uma língua desde o nascimento. Acreditamos que a criança constrói a língua e adquire valores sociais, na troca de experiências e, essencialmente, na interação (OCHS; SCHIEFFELIN, 1999 – ela não é uma “tabula rasa”, vazia, pronta para receber informações que depois serão repetidas. As trocas verbais “defi nem” a formação das ideologias e a constituição da subjetividade da criança, que cresce e se desenvolve biologicamente, psicologicamente e socialmente em um ambiente ideológico (BAKHTIN, 1997. Sendo assim, trataremos estas línguas como língua dominante e língua não dominante. Interessa-nos aqui, principalmente, considerar a importância da socialização no processo de aquisição da linguagem, isto é, a maneira pela qual o indivíduo torna-se membro de uma sociedade (OCHS; SCHIEFFELIN, 1999, e observar como se dá essa socialização nas duas línguas.

  3. O novo velho enfoque da informação contábil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaine de Magalhães Barros

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O eixo temático deste trabalho é mostrar a necessidade de se resgatar a relevância das informações contábeis no processo de gerenciamento das organizações. Ao distinguir os diferentes enfoques da Contabilidade Gerencial e Financeira e relatar as constatações de uma pesquisa de campo, aponta, também, desafios que, se bem trabalhados, poderão representar um precioso estímulo para o profissional da área contábil. Desse modo, pretende provocar uma reflexão nesse setor profissional em geral e, em particular, nos meios acadêmicos, responsáveis pela formação desses profissionais. A premissa fundamental deste trabalho é que a Contabilidade representa um instrumento gerencial por excelência e não apenas um procedimento para apuração de impostos.This paper demonstrates the need to rescue the relevance of accounting information for the organizational management process. In distinguishing the various foci of managerial and financial accounting and discussing the results of a field research, the study also points out challenges that, if seriously considered, may represent a valuable stimulus for accounting professionals. Thus, it aims at fostering a reflection in this professional sector in general and particularly in the academic sphere, which is in charge of qualifying these professionals. The fundamental premise of the study is that accounting is not just a tax assessment procedure, but a management tool par excellence.

  4. Heritability and Components of Resistance to Cercospora zeae-maydis Derived from Maize Inbred VO613Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart G; Lipps, Patrick E; Pratt, Richard C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most important foliar diseases of maize. This study was undertaken to estimate heritability of C. zeae-maydis resistance and examine the relationship between previously identified resistance loci and certain components of resistance including incubation period, lesion number, and maximum lesion length. Partially inbred progenies arising from hybridization between maize inbred lines VO613Y (high level of partial resistance) and Pa405 (susceptible) were examined in Ohio and South Africa. Heritability estimates of resistance were calculated based on severity and incubation period values. The range of heritability estimates based on severity was broad, with values ranging from approximately 0.46 to 0.81 (mean = 0.59). Estimates of mean heritability for incubation period were lowest (0.18), indicating that this component would likely be unsuitable for selection of germ plasm intended for deployment in diverse regions. Length of GLS lesions was significantly affected by host genotype, with resistant genotypes having shorter lesions from one site in Ohio during two seasons. Genotype also had a significant effect on incubation period and lesion number; the lower values for these components also were associated with resistant genotypes. The combined action of these resistance components resulted in lower overall disease severity.

  5. Conservadorismo contábil nas companhias abertas familiares e não-familiares no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Izadora Souza Lapa de Melo Paulo

    2015-05-01

    observadas nesta pesquisa apontam que as empresas familiares apresentam maior reversão de perdas contábeis do que as firmas não-familiares, sugerindo que elas têm práticas contábeis mais agressivas. Porém, com base na análise estatística proposta, não se pode confirmar que o conservadorismo contábil é significativamente diferente entre as empresas familiares e não-familiares.

  6. Lobbying na Regulação Contábil: Evidências do Setor Petrolífero

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Odilanei Morais dos; Santos, Ariovaldo dos

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os fatores determinantes à submissão de cartas comentários, como estratégia de lobbying no contexto da regulação contábil, à audiência pública do Discussion Paper Extractive Activities do International Accounting Standards Board IASB).Os resultados mostram o tamanho como fator determinante, em todas as modelagens utilizadas, indicando que grandes empresas petrolíferas possuem maior probabilidade para realizar lobbying. Essa propensão é verificada pa...

  7. Variation in DNA Methylation Patterns is More Common among Maize Inbreds than among Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Eichten

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications, such as DNA methylation, can provide heritable, epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the absence of genetic changes. A role for DNA methylation in meiotically stable marking of repetitive elements and other sequences has been demonstrated in plants. Methylation of DNA is also proposed to play a role in development through providing a mitotic memory of gene expression states established during cellular differentiation. We sought to clarify the relative levels of DNA methylation variation among different genotypes and tissues in maize ( L.. We have assessed genomewide DNA methylation patterns in leaf, immature tassel, embryo, and endosperm tissues of two inbred maize lines: B73 and Mo17. There are hundreds of regions of differential methylation present between the two genotypes. In general, the same regions exhibit differential methylation between B73 and Mo17 in each of the tissues that were surveyed. In contrast, there are few examples of tissue-specific DNA methylation variation. Only a subset of regions with tissue-specific variation in DNA methylation show similar patterns in both genotypes of maize and even fewer are associated with altered gene expression levels among the tissues. Our data indicates a limited impact of DNA methylation on developmental gene regulation within maize.

  8. Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387

  9. Ciudadanía biológica: La ciencia y la política de las poblaciones expuestas a Chernóbil

    OpenAIRE

    Petryna, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    En la transición del socialismo al capitalismo de mercado, los cuerpos, las poblaciones y las categorías de ciudadanía han sido reordenados. La gestión racional y técnica de los grupos afectados por el desastre de Chernóbil en Ucrania es una ventana a este controvertido proceso. Chernóbil ejemplifica un momento en el que el conocimiento científico se colapsó y emergieron nuevos mapas y categorías. Los modelos antiguos de bienestar dependen de definiciones precisas que sitúan a los ciudadanos ...

  10. Las lecciones de Chernóbil: Ciencia y tecnología en la sociedad global y el proyecto cosmopolita

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Acosta, Willy

    2012-01-01

    El artículo parte de las tres grandes lecciones que dejó la tragedia de Chernóbil. En primer lugar, que las invenciones científicas y tecnológicas pueden escapar del control humano y pueden llegar a re- presentar un riesgo, es decir, un potencial negativo contra la misma humanidad. Segundo, que la ciencia y la tecnología pueden volverse contra el mismo gé- nero humano si no son enmarcadas dentro de un proyecto cosmopolita.Tercero, Chernóbil demostró que los riesgos ecológicos no respetan fron...

  11. Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcos Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from –21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non–additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = –0.38.

    Key words: Zea mays; callose; inheritance; diallel; heterosis; acid soils.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4–5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de

  12. Development of genetic and molecular indices for drought tolerance in some inbred and hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    From eighteen zea mays inbred lines, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G621W and G603W, respectively). They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield traits. The physiological markers cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and their ratios (K/Na, Ca/K and Ca/Mg) showed differential association with drought tolerance was observed.SDS-protein profiles indicated the presence of two bands in the tolerant group associated with drought tolerance. Western blotting analysis didn't give polymorphism patterns such as esterase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase showed differential responses with respect to drought tolerance

  13. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  14. La versión débil de la hipótesis del pensamiento en lenguaje natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Skidelsky

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Entre los filósofos que consideran que pensamos utilizando representaciones simbólicas, P. Carruthers ha defendido, versus la hipótesis del ‘lenguaje del pensamiento' (LDP, una versión débil de la hipótesis del ‘pensamiento en lenguaje natural' (PLN. En este trabajo, me ocuparé, en primer lugar, de mostrar las razones por las cuales Carruthers, en su defensa de la hipótesis débil del PLN, siembra cierta confusión en la polémica entre el LDP y PLN. En segundo lugar, intentaré esbozar una salida de esta confusión, ofreciendo y evaluando dos opciones posibles, i.e. la estrategia trascendental y la de la inferencia a la mejor explicación revisada, para quien desee sostener una versión débil del PLN que no desvirtúe la polémica.Among the philosophers who believe that we think with symbolic representations, P. Carruthers has defended -against the ‘language of thought' hypothesis (LOT- a weak version of the ‘thinking in natural language' hypothesis (TNL. In this paper, I will firstly state the reasons why I think that Carruthers throws the LOT-TNL debate into some confusion. Secondly, I will try to outline a way out of this confusion, offering and evaluating two possible options -i.e., the

  15. Intergenerational effects of inbreeding in Nicrophorus vespilloides: offspring suffer fitness costs when either they or their parents are inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, S N; Strutt, L; Smiseth, P T

    2013-04-01

    Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness caused by mating between related individuals. Inbreeding is expected to cause a reduction in offspring fitness when the offspring themselves are inbred, but outbred individuals may also suffer a reduction in fitness when they depend on care from inbred parents. At present, little is known about the significance of such intergenerational effects of inbreeding. Here, we report two experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with elaborate parental care, in which we investigated inbreeding depression in offspring when either the offspring themselves or their parents were inbred. We found substantial inbreeding depression when offspring were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of inbred eggs and survival of inbred offspring. We also found substantial inbreeding depression when parents were inbred, including reductions in hatching success of eggs produced by inbred parents and survival of outbred offspring that received care from inbred parents. Our results suggest that intergenerational effects of inbreeding can have substantial fitness costs to offspring, and that future studies need to incorporate such costs to obtain accurate estimates of inbreeding depression. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... mays L.) ear-related traits were concentrated on yield per ... but the studies on using different N environments to map. QTL for .... ANOVA of the RIL population on EAW under two N regimes. ... (2007), but our study was different from theirs in many ... Mapping QTLs for grain yield and yield components under.

  17. Multiple disease resistance to fungal and oomycete pathogens using a recombinant inbred line population in pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating disease resistance into cultivars is a primary focus of modern breeding programs. Resistance to pathogens is often introgressed from landrace or wild individuals with poor fruit quality into commercial-quality cultivars. Sites of multiple disease resistance (MDR) are regions or “hotspo...

  18. Combining ability of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines resistant to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... evaluated across four locations in Kenya under artificial and natural infestation in 2009. Genotype (G) ... harvested area of annual food crops and 25% of total ..... to additive rather than non-additive gene effects, and selection ...

  19. Transcriptome analysis of two recombinant inbred lines of common bean contrasting for symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Effective utilization of existing variability for SNF in common bean for genetic improvement requires an understanding of underlying genes and molecular mechanisms. The utility of ...

  20. Molecular characterization of high performance inbred lines of Brazilian common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P C B; Veiga, M M; de Menezes, I P P; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Melo, L C; Del Peloso, M J; Brondani, C; Vianello, R P

    2013-02-06

    The identification of germplasm genetic variability in breeding programs of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is essential for determining the potential of each combination of parent plants to obtain superior genotypes. The present study aimed to estimated the extent of genetic diversity in 172 lineages and cultivars of the common bean by integrating five tests of value for cultivation and use (VCU) that were conducted over the last eight years by the breeding program of Embrapa Arroz e Feijão in Brazil. Nine multilocus genotyping systems composed of 36 fluorescent microsatellite markers distributed across 11 different chromosomes of the common bean were used, of which 24 were polymorphic in all trials. One hundred and eighty-seven alleles were identified, with an average of 7.79 alleles per locus and an average gene diversity of 0.65. The combined probability of identity for all loci was 1.32 x 10(-16). Lineages that are more genetically divergent between the selection cycles were identified, allowing the breeding program to develop a crossbreed between elite genotypes with a low degree of genetic relatedness. HE values ranged from 0.31 to 0.63, with a large reduction in the genetic base over successive selection cycles. The test showed a significant degree of differentiation (FST = 0.159). Private alleles (26%) were identified and can be directly incorporated into the gene pool of cultivated germplasm, thereby contributing effectively to the expansion of genetic diversity in this bean-breeding program.

  1. Lobbying na Regulação Contábil: Evidências do Setor Petrolífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilanei Morais dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os fatores determinantes à submissão de cartas comentários, como estratégia de lobbying no contexto da regulação contábil, à audiência pública do Discussion Paper Extractive Activities do International Accounting Standards Board IASB.Os resultados mostram o tamanho como fator determinante, em todas as modelagens utilizadas, indicando que grandes empresas petrolíferas possuem maior probabilidade para realizar lobbying. Essa propensão é verificada para posicionamentos essencialmente desfavoráveis às propostas apresentadas pelo IASB, o que implica em considerar que a revisão/substituição do International Financial Reporting Standard -IFRS6 será um processo complexo e sujeito a pressões por parte das empresas petrolíferas para manter o status quo.

  2. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI PEMEGANG POLIS DAN/ ATAU PESERTA ASURANSI JIWA DALAM AKAD WAKALAH BIL UJRAH PRODUK UNIT LINK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destri Budi Nugraheni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Syariah unit link life insurance is Syariah Insuranc’s product  that provide benefits and investment protection by allowing participants to choose the type of investment themselves. This product is abainding by the regulations, including the obligation to implement syriah principle. One form of akad that is used in this product is akad wakalah bil ujrah which authorizes the insurance company to manage the charity fund and investment funds. Legal protection for policyholders and/or participants should be implemented in the insurance policy specifically related to legal protection in the event of a loss in risk management activities and/or investment management activities caused by the willful misconduct, negligence, or breach of contract made by the Company Keywords : wakalah, syariah insurance, legal protection

  3. La frontière entre le bilād al-islām et le bilād al-Nūba : enjeux et ambiguïtés d’une frontière immobile (VIIe-XIIe siècle The frontier between bilād al-islām and bilād al-Nūba: issues and ambiguities of fixed boundary (seventh-twelfth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Seignobos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le bilād al-Nūba occupe dans la nomenclature juridique et idéologique arabo-musulmane une position particulière. L’échec de la conquête de la Nubie au viie siècle a débouché sur la signature d’un traité de paix unique qui a fait de cet espace un territoire à part. Ces spécificités ne resteront pas sans effet sur l’appréhension de la frontière qui sépare les pays d’Islam de la Nubie. S’efforçant de définir la limite du bilād al-islām, les géographes arabes semblent unanimes à désigner Assouan comme la dernière ville frontière de l’islam chargée de défendre l’Égypte de l’ennemi latent que demeure, malgré la paix, le pays des Nubiens. Néanmoins, en examinant plus attentivement ces témoignages, ce dispositif frontalier se révèle en réalité plus complexe. Il se structure autour d���un élément naturel, la première cataracte, qui, loin de constituer la barrière infranchissable que certains de ces auteurs souhaiteraient y voir, forme plutôt un espace de transition entre ces deux mondes. Or, c’est justement en tirant parti des porosités de cette frontière que l’islam parvient, sans que cette démarcation soit véritablement remise en question, à étendre son influence bien au-delà de celle-ci.Bilād al-Nūbaholds a special place in the Arab-Islamic juridical and ideological nomenclature. As a consequence of the failure to conquer Nubia in the 7th century, a peace treaty was signed that singled out this territory. These specificities were not devoid of consequences on the perception of the frontier between Islamic countries and Nubia. When delimiting bilād al-islām, Arabic geographers unanimously agreed in designating Aswan as the last frontier-town of Islam, in charge of defending Egyptian territory from potential Nubian enemies.A closer examination of the sources brings to light the unexpected complexity of this frontier system. It was apparently shaped around a geographical

  4. Incorrect strain information for mouse cell lines: sequential influence of misidentification on sublines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchio-Yamada, Kozue; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Kohara, Arihiro

    2017-03-01

    Misidentification or cross-contamination of cell lines can cause serious issues. Human cell lines have been authenticated by short tandem repeat profiling; however, mouse cell lines have not been adequately assessed. In this study, mouse cell lines registered with the JCRB cell bank were examined by simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) analysis to identify their strains. Based on comparisons with 7 major inbred strains, our results revealed their strains in 80 of 90 cell lines. However, 12 of the 80 cell lines (15%) were found to differ from registered information. Of them, 4 cell lines originated from the same mouse, which had been generated through mating between two different inbred strains. The genotype of the mouse sample had not been examined after the backcross, leading to strain misidentification in those cell lines. Although 8 other cell lines had been established as sublines of a BALB/c cell line, their SSLP profiles are similar to a Swiss cell line. This affects differences in genotypes between inbred and outbred strains. Because the use of inbred samples and interbreeding between strains are not involved in human materials, our results suggest that the cause and influence of misidentification in mouse cell lines are different from those in human.

  5. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Andrew L; Novais, Joana; Grift, Tony E; Bohn, Martin O

    2015-01-01

    The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

  6. Aprenentatge mòbil de llengües basat en criteris pedagògics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Seiz Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El MALL (Mobile Assisted Language Learning aporta una immensa quantitat d'aplicacions d'aprenentatge de llengües. En aquest context cal que el triple procés d'anàlisi, avaluació i desenvolupament d'aplicacions de MALL compleixi amb dues premisses fonamentals. En primer lloc, s'ha de dur a terme en base a criteris pedagògics específics de l'aprenentatge de llengües. En segon lloc, ha de recolzar-se en models teòrics que consideren el procés d'ensenyament-aprenentatge de llengües. Aquest treball s'emmarca dins d'una investigació més general que proposa una metodologia per a l'anàlisi, avaluació i desenvolupament pedagògic d'aplicacions mòbils d'aprenentatge de llengües, en base a les dues necessitats esmentades. El treball presenta dos resultats d'aquesta investigació general, consistents en la proposta d'un model teòric per al MALL, d'una banda, i en la creació d'una plantilla o rúbrica per facilitar l'anàlisi, l'avaluació i el desenvolupament d'aplicacions MALL específiques. En primer lloc, s'ha proposat un model teòric d'estudi del MALL. Seguidament, s'ha elaborat una plantilla que incorpora paràmetres observables que serveixen per a la descripció, l'avaluació i el desenvolupament pedagògic de recursos per a l'aprenentatge de llengües assistit per tecnologies mòbils.

  7. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  8. Enzyme markers in inbred rat strains: genetics of new markers and strain profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Baverstock, P R; Watts, C H; Gutman, G A

    1984-08-01

    Twenty-six inbred strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) were examined for electrophoretic variation at an estimated 97 genetic loci. In addition to previously documented markers, variation was observed for the enzymes aconitase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase. The genetic basis of these markers (Acon-1, Ahd-2, and Akp-1) was confirmed. Linkage analysis between 35 pairwise comparisons revealed that the markers Fh-1 and Pep-3 are linked. The strain profiles of the 25 inbred strains at 11 electrophoretic markers are given.

  9. A Educação Bilíngue e o Acesso à Língua Brasileira de Sinais na Educação Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcéria Tartuci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ao considerarmos que mais de 90% das crianças surdas brasileiras têm pais ouvintes e que o acesso à Libras ocorre tardiamente é que este artigo teve por objetivo discutir a importância da educação bilíngue para as crianças surdas e o acesso à Língua brasileira de sinais – Libras na educação infantil. As análises apontaram que a produção acadêmica sobre esse tema é escassa no Brasil, inclusive nos Grupos de Trabalho que respaldam pesquisas sobre a educação infantil e educação especial, ressaltaram como meta a educação bilíngue no contexto escolar do aluno surdo, mas que essa prerrogativa não vem se efetivando amplamente na educação infantil. Além disso, apontaram a complexidade envolvida no aprendizado da Libras e no ensino da Língua portuguesa escrita, como segunda língua; a falta de acesso ao mundo letrado por meio de suportes que considere a perspectiva bilíngue e a demanda por professores surdos e ouvintes com domínio da Libras. ResumoAo considerarmos que mais de 90% das crianças surdas brasileiras têm pais ouvintes e que o acesso à Libras ocorre tardiamente é que este artigo teve por objetivo discutir a importância da educação bilíngue para as crianças surdas e o acesso à Língua brasileira de sinais – Libras na educação infantil. As análises apontaram que a produção acadêmica sobre esse tema é escassa no Brasil, inclusive nos Grupos de Trabalho que respaldam pesquisas sobre a educação infantil e educação especial, ressaltaram como meta a educação bilíngue no contexto escolar do aluno surdo, mas que essa prerrogativa não vem se efetivando amplamente na educação infantil. Além disso, apontaram a complexidade envolvida no aprendizado da Libras e no ensino da Língua portuguesa escrita, como segunda língua; a falta de acesso ao mundo letrado por meio de suportes que considere a perspectiva bilíngue e a demanda por professores surdos e ouvintes com domínio da Libras. 

  10. Conservadorismo Contábil no Reconhecimento de Ativos Intangíveis em Fase de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento: Um Estudo em Empresas da BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservadorismo contábil pode implicar assimetrias no reconhecimento de ativos intangíveis em fase de pesquisa e desenvolvimento, desde o registro indevido até a sua não contabilização. Este estudo objetiva examinar o conservadorismo contábil no reconhecimento de ativos intangíveis em fase de pesquisa e desenvolvimento de empresas da BM&FBovespa. A pesquisa descritiva foi realizada por meio de análise documental, com abordagem quantitativa, utilizando, no cálculo do conservadorismo contábil o modelo de Ball e Shivakumar (2005 e a aplicação de regressão linear e correlação de Pearson para relações entre variáveis. A população da pesquisa compreendeu as 236 empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa, com saldo em ativos intangíveis nos anos de 2009 e 2010, e a amostra as 34 com ativos intangíveis em fase de pesquisa e desenvolvimento. Os resultados mostram que no período analisado ocorreu conservadorismo contábil nas empresas pesquisadas. Todavia, não se constatou relação positiva do conservadorismo contábil e dos ativos intangíveis em fase de pesquisa e desenvolvimento com tamanho, alavancagem, setor e nível de governança corporativa das empresas. Com a aplicação da correlação de Pearson, tal resultado foi confirmado, com exceção de 2009 nas empresas pertencentes ao setor de Construção e Transporte. Assim, conclui-se que houve conservadorismo contábil no reconhecimento de ativos intangíveis em fase de pesquisa e desenvolvimento nas empresas pesquisadas, mas não se constatou associação com as variáveis de controle.

  11. Memória fonológica em crianças bilíngues bimodais e crianças com implante coclear

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Cruz, Carina Rebello; Pizzio, Aline Lemos

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO Este estudo comparou o desempenho de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes (filhas de pais surdos) e crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear (filhas de pais surdos e de pais ouvintes), com diferentes contextos de acesso à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), em tarefas que envolvem memória fonologica. Os testes utilizados foram: Teste de Pseudopalavras (Santos e Bueno, 2003) e Teste de Pseudosinais (desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores responsáveis pelo Projeto ‘Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimoda’). Além disso, foram incluídos dois grupos de controle, formados por crianças surdas (usuarias de Libras), e adultos bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. Na análise dos resultados, em relação ao desempenho entre os dois grupos testados foi constatado que o grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes apresentou desempenho superior, nos dois testes. No entanto, ao ser analisado o desempenho da criança surda usuaria de implante coclear, filha de pais surdos, que possui acesso irrestrito à Libras e comparado com o das crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear, que possuem acesso restrito à Libras, foi constatado que o seu desempenho foi semelhante ao do grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. As crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear com acesso restrito à Libras e, portanto, com acesso maior ao Português apresentaram escores mais baixos nas tarefas, principalmente do teste em Português. Os resultados sugerem que as crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear em processo de aquisição da línguagem podem se beneficiar com o acesso irrestrito à Libras, atingindo inclusive desempenho semelhante a de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. PMID:25110473

  12. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens and male sterile cytoplasm of chaisma frequency in pearl millet inbreds and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.B.; Singh, R.M.; Vijay Laxmi

    1977-01-01

    Chiasma frequency was recorded in normal and treated [10, 20, 30 Kr γ-rays, 0.2% ethyl methane-sulphonate (EMS) and 10 Kr γ-rays + 0.2% EMS] populations of 7 inbreds and 3 hybrids of pearl millet. Inbreds in general showed lower chiasma frequency than hybrids. However, inbred Bi13B showed the highest chiasma frequency. The male sterile cytoplasm reduced the chaisma frequency and increased the among-plant-variability in the inbreds and, therefore, possibly in the hybrids which had male sterile cytoplasm. γ-rays were more effective than EMS in reducing chiasma frequency. In most of the genotypes 10Kr γ-rays and 0.2% EMS promoted chiasma frequency. The combination treatments showed greater effect than γ-rays and EMS applied individually. Hybrids as a group, showed lower variation for chiasma number than inbreds in response to the mutagenic treatments. (author)

  13. Diversity analysis of Ethiopian mustard breeding lines using RAPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using cluster analysis based on unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), the 21 Ethiopian inbred lines were grouped into three subgroups and the single genotype introduced from Sweden formed a separate group. The clustering pattern failed to show a ...

  14. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    To obtain controlled genetic variation, colon cancer was chemically induced by use of four subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg of body weight/wk) to rats of 3 inbred strains (BDIX/OrlIco, F344/NHsd, WAG/Rij). The selection was based on the availability of established colon cancer cell...

  15. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIOR IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAKINO, J; KATO, K; MAES, FW

    1991-01-01

    Behavior of the inbred mouse strains BALB, C3H, DBA and C57BL in an open field was directly observed for 10 min by a multi-event time sampling method. It was coded into nine behavioral items, the occurrence or absence of which in consecutive 5-s time bins was called a behavioral state. Fourteen

  17. Evidenciaçao contábil de instituições bancárias no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marques de Brito e Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A contabilidade constitui um sistema integrado de dados com o objetivo maior de oferecer informações sobre a entidade, objeto de contabilização, aos mais diversos interessados, entre os quais se destacam os investidores, os credores e os administradores. Essas informações podem ser de natureza econômica, financeira, física e de produtividade, e devem possibilitar uma adequada avaliação da situação atual do empreendimento, assim como oferecer subsídios para progn6sticos. O instrumental utilizado e composto basicamente por demonstrações contábeis tradicionais e por algumas informações suplementares, geralmente divulgadas em notas explicativas, relatório da administração e parecer dos auditores independentes. Alguns autores entendem que evidenciação é um principio contábil, outros entendem que e um objetivo, mas, nos diversos pronunciamentos, torna-se claro que evidenciação e mais do que um principio, a uma espécie de ligação entre os postulados, os princípios contábeis e os objetivos da contabilidade. E um meio para se atingir os objetivos da contabilidade. Nesse contexto, identificamos uma forte ligação entre disclosure - ou evidenciação - e o objetivo principal da contabilidade: as informações divulgadas devem ser transparentes e úteis ao processo de tomada de decisões. Para se definir o que e útil, faz-se necessário uma constante interação com o usuário da informação contábil, de modo a poder oferecer um produto que atenda as suas necessidades, constantemente alteradas face à dinâmica do próprio mercado e em decorrência do processo de globalização. Com isso, a demanda por demonstrações contábeis, assim como sua grande importância, cresce a uma taxa acelerada, requerendo um dinamismo semelhante na evolução da qualidade da informação fornecida.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the growth hormone (GH encoding gene in inbred and outbred domestic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyana Gencheva Hristova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the growth hormone (GH gene in rabbits is a candidate for meat production, understanding the genetic diversity and variation in this locus is of particular relevance. The present study comprised 86 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus divided into 3 groups: New Zealand White (NZW outbred rabbits; first-generation inbred rabbits (F1 and second-generation inbred rabbits (F2. They were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A 231 bp fragment of the polymorphic site of the GH gene was digested with Bsh1236 restriction enzyme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for the studied GH locus corresponding to 3 genotypes were detected in the studied rabbit populations: CC, CT and TT. In the synthetic inbred F1 and F2 populations, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype CT was 0.696 and 0.609, respectively, while for the homozygous CC genotype the frequency was lower (0.043 and 0.000, and respective values for the homozygous TT genotype were 0.261 and 0.391. This presumed a preponderance of the T allele (0.609 and 0.696 over the C allele (0.391 and 0.304 in these groups. In outbred rabbits, the allele frequencies were 0.613 (allele C and 0.387 (allele Т; consequently, the frequency of the homozygous CC genotype was higher than that of the homozygous TT genotype (0.300 vs. 0.075. Observed heterozygosity for the GH gene was higher than expected, and the result was therefore a negative inbreeding coefficient (Fis=–0.317 for outbred NZW rabbits; –0.460 for inbred F1 and –0.438 for inbred F2, indicating a sufficient number of heterozygous forms in all studied groups of rabbits. The application of narrow inbreeding by breeding full sibs in the synthetic population did not cause a rapid increase in homozygosity.

  19. Incorrect strain information for mouse cell lines: sequential influence of misidentification on sublines

    OpenAIRE

    Uchio-Yamada, Kozue; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Kohara, Arihiro

    2016-01-01

    Misidentification or cross-contamination of cell lines can cause serious issues. Human cell lines have been authenticated by short tandem repeat profiling; however, mouse cell lines have not been adequately assessed. In this study, mouse cell lines registered with the JCRB cell bank were examined by simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) analysis to identify their strains. Based on comparisons with 7 major inbred strains, our results revealed their strains in 80 of 90 cell lines. However,...

  20. Bases das escolas Européia Norte e Americana, perante a cultura contábil e a proposta neopatrimonialista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lopes de Sá

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Como entender a matéria contábil, o método que se emprega para estudá-la, o respeito às tradições históricas como conquistas já feitas, as grandes finalidades desse conhecimento, em suma, como possuir uma visão realista e verdadeira sobre os fenômenos da riqueza individualizada é o que caracteriza uma "escola científica de Contabilidade". Diversos desses núcleos se formaram e ainda se formam, não só no setor contábil, mas, em todas as ciências, sempre em torno de lideranças, quer de pensadores, quer de grupos interessados em manipular idéias. Algumas escolas, todavia, basearam-se apenas no consenso de grupos e se ataram a um raciocínio pragmático. Por serem diferentes as concepções e os efeitos do tratamento que se tem dado à Contabilidade, as principais distinções de entendimento encontram-se, na atualidade, entre as escolas norte-americanas, pragmáticas e as européias, científicas. No Brasil a corrente científica do neopatrimonialismo oferece novas propostas em suas bases, mas, mantendo a fidelidade com as raízes latinas do conhecimento contábil.

  1. O Secretário Executivo Bilíngue como Agente Facilitador em Negociações do Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Ferreira Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho se volta ao fenômeno da globalização e sua contribuição para a formação de blocos econômicos, como o Mercado Comum do Sul (MERCOSUL. Nesse contexto, ressalta-se a importância da língua espanhola para as negociações comerciais do Brasil com os demais países membros, como o objetivo enfatizar a participação do profissional de Secretariado Executivo Bilíngue (SEB e sua possibilidade de atuação nesse contexto. A metodologia de pesquisa utilizada é a dedutivo-explicativa, procurando identificar quais foram os fatores determinantes na sua elaboração, sendo embasada a partir de livros e sites relacionados ao tema, caracterizada ainda como bibliográfica. Tais aspectos possibilitaram a construção da reflexão de que com as mudanças na economia mundial e a criação de blocos como o MERCOSUL, as empresas que atuam no Brasil necessitam de profissionais que atendam as exigências desse mercado. Por isso, o profissional de SEB está apto para atuar como agente facilitador em negociações do MERCOSUL.

  2. Redox-active labile iron in fortified flours from the Brazilian market Ferro lábil redox-ativo em farinhas fortificadas do mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Pannia Espósito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the fraction of redox-active labile iron in iron-fortified flours acquired on the Brazilian market. METHODS: Samples of wheat flour, maize flour and breadcrumbs were extracted with buffers that mimic gastric juice, saliva and intestinal juice. Redox-active labile iron levels were assessed through the reaction of autoxidation of ascorbic acid catalyzed by iron in the presence of a fluorescence probe. RESULTS: Redox-active labile iron represents 1% to 9% of the total iron in the flour and breadcrumb samples, with the lowest values found under gastric juice conditions and the highest in the more alkaline media. Redox-active labile iron possibly arises from the decomposition of an iron-phytic acid complex. A positive correlation between redox-active labile iron and total iron was found in saline biomimetic fluids. CONCLUSION: Redox-active labile iron may be a risk factor for people with impaired antioxidant defenses, such as those who are atransferrinemic or iron overloaded (e.g. thalassemic. Total iron can be used to predict redox-active labile iron absorption at each stage of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of iron-fortified flours.OBJETIVO: Quantificar a porcentagem de ferro lábil redox ativo em farinhas fortificadas adquiridas no comércio popular. MÉTODOS: Amostras de farinha de trigo, fubá e rosca foram extraídas com tampões miméticos de suco gástrico, saliva e suco intestinal. Os níveis de ferro lábil redox ativo foram determinados por meio da reação de auto-oxidação do ácido ascórbico catalisada pelo ferro, em presença de uma sonda fluorimétrica. RESULTADOS: A fração de ferro lábil redox ativo representa entre 1% e 9% do ferro total nas farinhas estudadas, sendo os menores valores encontrados em condições miméticas do suco gástrico e os maiores nos meios mais alcalinos. Há indícios de que o ferro lábil redox ativo origina-se da decomposição de um complexo entre ferro e ácido f

  3. Abiotic stress growth conditions induce different responses in kernel iron concentration across genotypically distinct maize inbred varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659

  4. Digital phenotyping for quantification of genetic diversity in inbred guava (Psidium guajava) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Viana, A P; Cavalcante, N R; Ambrósio, M; Santos, E A; Vieira, H D

    2017-03-22

    Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images. Different genetic diversity quantification strategies were tested using the Ward-Modified Location Model method. The set of variables related to geometry of the seeds was the largest contributor to divergence among the guava genotypes. The use of seed descriptors obtained by digital image analysis via the SAS system was efficient at quantifying the genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava families associated with the use of the Ward-Modified Location Model method.

  5. Fibre type composition of soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in normal female inbred Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2002), s. 399-405 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant - others:CZ - SI Czech-Slovenian Intergovernmental S&T Co-operation(XC) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : inbred Lewis rats * skeletal muscles * soleus and EDL muscles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2002

  6. Conservadorismo contábil e o custo do crédito bancário no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa investiga se a adoção de práticas contábeis conservadoras leva à redução no custo do crédito bancário das empresas no Brasil. O estudo se baseia em uma amostra de 1.300 empresas e de 813 mil contratos de crédito, no período de 2000 a 2009. São utilizados modelos que associam o custo do crédito a medidas de conservadorismo e a um conjunto de variáveis de controle. Não foram obtidas evidências de relação estatisticamente significante entre as medidas de conservadorismo e as taxas de juros das operações crédito, confirmandose a hipótese de pesquisa. O ambiente institucional brasileiro de fraca proteção legal dos credores e de baixa demanda por qualidade da informação contábil restringe os benefícios gerados pelo conservadorismo e faz com que os credores não estimulem a adoção de práticas conservadoras pelas empresas, por meio da redução nas taxas de juros. Como as empresas não percebem benefícios associados ao reporte de números conservadores, a utilização de tais práticas é restrita no Brasil.

  7. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  8. INFORMAÇÃO CONTÁBIL E CONCENTRAÇÃO ACIONÁRIA: ANÁLISE SOB A ÓTICA DA PERSISTÊNCIA E DA OPORTUNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan de Azevedo Herculano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar a influência do nível de concentração de capital sobre a qualidade da informação contábil em empresas brasileiras de diversos setores econômicos listadas na BM&FBovespa. Para tal, realizou-se pesquisa descritiva e quantitativa em uma amostra composta por 222 companhias, com dados obtidos por meio do banco de dados Economática referentes ao período de 2010 a 2012. Como proxy para analisar a qualidade da informação contábil, foram utilizadas duas características: persistência dos resultados contábeis e do fluxo de caixa (DECHOW; SCHRAND, 2004 e oportunidade da informação contábil (BUSHMANN et al., 2004. Em relação a concentração do capital foi verificado o percentual total de ações (ordinárias e preferenciais em posse dos controladores. Os resultados demonstraram maior persistência nos resultados contábeis e nos fluxos de caixa e, também, maior oportunidade da informação contábil nas empresas com maiores concentrações de capital, indicando que a concentração de capital pode ser um fator influenciador para a qualidade da informação contábil.

  9. Characterization of central and peripheral components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the inbred Roman rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Javier; Márquez, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Tobeña, Adolfo; Fernández-Teruel, Albert; Armario, Antonio

    2008-05-01

    Several studies performed in outbred Roman high- and low-avoidance lines (RHA and RLA, respectively) have demonstrated that the more anxious line (RLA) is characterized by a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to certain stressors than the less anxious one (RHA). However, inconsistent results have also been reported. Taking advantage of the generation of an inbred colony of RLA and RHA rats (RHA-I and RLA-I, respectively), we have characterized in the two strains not only resting and stress levels of peripheral HPA hormones but also central components of the HPA axis, including CRF gene expression in extra-hypothalamic areas. Whereas resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone did not differ between the strains, a greater response to a novel environment was found in RLA-I as compared to RHA-I rats. RLA-I rats showed enhanced CRF gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, with normal arginin-vasopressin gene expression in both parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the PVN. This enhanced CRF gene expression is not apparently related to altered negative corticosteroid feedback as similar levels of expression of brain glucorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were found in the two rat strains. CRF gene expression tended to be higher in the central amygdala and it was significantly higher in the dorsal region of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) of RLA-I rats, while no differences appeared in the ventral region of BNST. Considering the involvement of CRF and the BNST in anxiety and stress-related behavioral alterations, the present data suggest that the CRF system may be a critical neurobiological substrate underlying differences between the two rat strains.

  10. Taxonomia da rede científica do Dark Triad: revelações no meio empresarial e contábil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Figueredo D\\u2019Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar a pesquisa científica do Dark Triad, elucidando o direcionamento dessa temática, no contexto empresarial e contábil, no período de 2012 a 2014. Método: Para essa investigação, utilizou-se o levantamento sociobibliométrico como estratégia de pesquisa, com base na observação de conteúdos, em duas fontes: Portal Periódicos Capes e o Web Science Knowledge. A amostra do estudo totalizou 90 artigos e foram ilustrados por redes científicas. Ao final, foi elaborada a taxonomia dos 12 trabalhos que convergiram para a discussão do constructo Dark Triad. Resultados: Sobre o direcionamento dos artigos, o Narcisismo é o mais explorado e associado à liderança e tomada de decisão empresarial. A Psicopatia atrai atenção dos pesquisadores quanto ao comportamento aversivo do líder no meio corporativo. O Maquiavelismo tem maior ênfase em investigações relacionadas à manipulação. Especificamente à área contábil, a maioria associa os traços a comportamentos antiéticos com propensão a fraudes nos relatórios financeiros. Contribuições: Os resultados apontaram oportunidades de pesquisas com os traços do Dark Triad, especialmente pela interdisciplinaridade e relevância científica desta temática, ainda pouco explorado pelos pesquisadores da área contábil. Ademais, merecem a atenção de líderes, no sentido de refletirem suas atitudes e dos seus funcionários no ambiente empresarial.

  11. Habilidades sociais de alunos surdos na perspectiva de professores da classe bilíngue, da classe comum e intérprete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Paviani Casalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou descrever o repertório de habilidades sociais, problemas de comportamento e a competência acadêmica de 15 crianças/adolescentes com surdez, na visão de professores de classe bilíngue, intérprete e de professores de classes comuns. Participaram deste estudo quatro professores e um intérprete, sendo dois de classe comum e dois de classe bilíngue. Utilizou-se como instrumento de coleta de dados, o Sistema de Avaliação de Habilidades Sociais (SSRS-BR. A avaliação dos professores para as três escalas do instrumento – Habilidades Sociais, Problemas de Comportamento e Competência Acadêmica – foi positiva, pois a maioria dos alunos foi classificada com repertórios medianos e altos. Os resultados ainda mostraram-se contrários à hipótese inicial, pois esperava-se que as professoras da classe bilíngue, por atuarem diretamente com os alunos surdos, utilizando a Libras como língua de instrução, pudessem avaliá-los de forma mais positiva, com relação às Habilidades Sociais, Problemas de Comportamento e Competência Acadêmica, quando comparados às avaliações dos professores da classe comum, o que não ocorreu. Conclui-se que de modo geral os alunos surdos foram avaliados com um repertório mediano de habilidades sociais e competência acadêmica, sendo os professores da classe comum os que fizeram avaliações mais positivas. Sugere-se que pesquisas com a utilização de outras medidas de avaliação sejam realizadas para aprofundar e confirmar os dados obtidos.

  12. Aproximação entre contabilidade gerencial e contabilidade financeira com a convergência contábil brasileira às normas IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Gilio

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho investiga se a adoção das normas IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards, por meio dos pronunciamentos técnicos do Comitê de Pronunciamentos Contábeis - CPC, resultou em aproximação significativa dos conceitos usados pela contabilidade gerencial e pela contabilidade financeira nas empresas brasileiras. Com a adoção das normas internacionais de contabilidade (as normas do International Accounting Standards Board - IASB) no Brasil, chamada de convergência contábil brasi...

  13. A influência dos grupos de interesse no processo de normatização contábil internacional o caso do discussion paper sobre leasing

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Alex Mussoi; Carmo, Carlos Henrique Silva do; Carvalho, Luiz Nelson Guedes de

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa é investigar a influência de grupos de interesse (lobby) no processo de normatização contábil internacional empreendido pelo International Accounting Standards Board – IASB. A fim de identificar a possível associação de características específicas dos respondentes das cartas de comentários e o resultado do processo normativo foram utilizadas as 302 cartas de comentários enviadas ao IASB por conta do discussion paper Leases Preliminary Views no período de março a j...

  14. A influência de características da auditoria independente na qualidade da informação contábil

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Marcelo Paulo de

    2016-01-01

    A auditoria contábil se mostra como ferramenta importante na detecção de falhas e erros possivelmente contidas nas relatórios financeiros. As pesquisas nessa área tem se concentrado em verificar as características de auditoria, tratadas como proxies para qualidade da auditoria, discutindo estas. Mediante a literatura existente, infere-se que os serviços de auditoria pode minimizar os conflitos de agência, bem como a assimetria informacional existente entre as partes relacionadas a companhia. ...

  15. Disseny i prototipatge d'un programari per l'ús dels dispositius mòbils en l'aprenentatge online

    OpenAIRE

    Cartanyà Yárnoz, Ana

    2012-01-01

    L'objectiu d'aquest projecte és crear una aplicació per dispositius mòbils que permeti interactuar amb Moodle, un entorn d'aprenentatge en línia. Actualment s'ha estès molt els smartphones, i cada vegada hi ha més gent connectada al mon web les 24h amb aquests aparells. I s'estan acostumant a rebre alertes cada vegada que reben un correu, un tweet, un missatge a Facebook... lo que fa que la gent estigui sempre assabentada de tot en qualsevol lloc i moment. El objetivo de este proyecto es ...

  16. Resultados finales del programa cubano con niños de territorios afectados por el accidente de Chernóbil

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Julio; García, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Cuba organizó y desarrolló desde 1990 hasta 2011 un programa de atención médica integral masivo y gratuito destinado a niños de áreas afectadas por el accidente de Chernóbil. Este trabajo recoge los resultados finales de este programa, al cual estuvieron vinculados cientos de trabajadores de la salud y la ciencia en Cuba y que permitió, durante más de 21 años, que se trataran y rehabilitaran en la isla un total de 26 114 pacientes, el 84 % de los cuales eran niños, procedentes fundamentalment...

  17. Análise de processos de tecnologia da informação para o disclosure da informação contábil

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzari, Robson Luis Meneguzzi

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar como os processos de TI contribuem para o disclosure da informação contábil. Esta investigação foi realizada com relação ao disclosure das informações contábeis para a gestão da empresa, envolvendo os principais agentes internos nesse processo. A metodologia de pesquisa baseia-se em um estudo de caso realizado no segundo semestre de 2015, em uma empresa atuante no setor moveleiro do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados coletados foram analisados por meio de análise...

  18. A pesquisa em Educação Contábil: produção científica e preferências de doutores no período de 2005 a 2009 Accounting Education Research: scientific production and preference of PhDs, 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Miranda

    2013-04-01

    ência. Educação e Pesquisa é a linha que tem a maior presença de mulheres. Esses achados apontam a necessidade de valorização da pesquisa sobre o ensino da Contabilidade para o desenvolvimento da profissão contábil e para a melhor formação docente.The present study aims at describing the lines of scientific research engaged in by doctors who presented their dissertations on "Accounting Education and Research" in the School of Economics, Business Administration and Accounting of the University of São Paulo (Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade da Universidade de São Paulo - FEA/USP during the period from 2005 to 2009. We evaluate whether publications in this field are treated in a prejudiced manner in Brazil - the phenomenon identified internationally by Pierre, Wilson, Richard, Ravenscroft, and Rebel (2009 - which may indicate disinterest on the part of researchers. We used descriptive research with a quantitative approach for our purposes. Data were collected from documentary research on the Lattes Platform and accounting dissertations defended at the USP, comprising a total of 203 PhDs. We found that the number of dissertations defended has practically doubled every decade and that the number of females obtaining doctoral degrees has increased significantly. Of the PhDs surveyed, 7% were productivity grant recipients from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, 76% were linked to some research group and 56% identified a research line on their Lattes resume. Of the research groups and lines, 8% and 6%, respectively, were related to accounting education. We found that the research line, "Accounting Education and Research", showed the lowest percentage of defended studies (8% of dissertations, 4% in the "Accounting Education" field. With respect to publications, the most prominent subjects were those dealing with specific accounting issues and topics

  19. Evaluation of fall armyworm resistance in maize germplasm lines using visual leaf injury rating and predator survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    After examining ear-colonizing pest resistance, 20 maize lines from the USDA-ARS germplasm enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program were evaluated for whorl-feeding fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) resistance using four maize inbred lines as the resistant and susceptible controls. Both FAW inju...

  20. Adoção do Padrão Contábil Internacional nas Pequenas e Médias Empresas e seus Efeitos na Concessão de Crédito

    OpenAIRE

    Riva,Enrico Dalla; Salotti,Bruno Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    Resumo Esta pesquisa examina a relação entre a adoção do padrão contábil internacional pelas pequenas e médias empresas no Brasil e o custo de crédito concedido pelas instituições financeiras. A literatura a respeito desse assunto discute a regulação contábil como resposta à existência de ambientes com assimetria informacional e a Teoria da Divulgação estuda o fenômeno da evidenciação contábil, sob o ponto de vista de suas causas e efeitos. O International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) su...

  1. EFEITOS DAS IFRS NO CONSERVADORISMO CONTÁBIL: UM ESTUDO EM COMPANHIAS ABERTAS DOS PAÍSES MEMBROS DO GLENIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Brunozi Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available É compreensível que devido a relevância dos relatórios contábeis e sua maior importância com a adoção das IFRS haja nas empresas uma preocupação com os fatores que causam interferência na sua qualidade, bem como, com os critérios utilizados na sua formação, consistência e avaliação. Dentre os fatores que exercem influencia na qualidade das informações contábeis está o conservadorismo, definido por Basu (1997 como um reconhecimento assimétrico das perdas em relação aos ganhos, se refletem as más notícias mais rapidamente do que as boas notícias. Considerando este contexto, o presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar as magnitudes das influências das IFRS nos níveis de conservadorismo contábil das práticas adotadas nos países membros do GLENIF, mais especificadamente, Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru no período de 2003 a 2013. Com uma amostra de 513 empresas e 5643 observações, aplicou-se por meio de dados em painel a equação original de Basu (1997 e, posteriormente, incluiu-se uma variável dummy considerando os efeitos da adoção das IFRS no conservadorismo. Os resultados indicaram que, mesmo com a adoção das IFRS notou-se no Brasil e no México a presença de práticas conservadoristas. Na Argentina constatou-se situação contrária, as IFRS amenizaram o conservadorismo nas empresas do país. Já no Chile, Colômbia e Peru os resultados não significativos foram insuficientes para indicarem a presença de conservadorismo após a adoção das IFRS.

  2. Hidden Markov model analysis of maternal behavior patterns in inbred and reciprocal hybrid mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Carola

    Full Text Available Individual variation in maternal care in mammals shows a significant heritable component, with the maternal behavior of daughters resembling that of their mothers. In laboratory mice, genetically distinct inbred strains show stable differences in maternal care during the first postnatal week. Moreover, cross fostering and reciprocal breeding studies demonstrate that differences in maternal care between inbred strains persist in the absence of genetic differences, demonstrating a non-genetic or epigenetic contribution to maternal behavior. In this study we applied a mathematical tool, called hidden Markov model (HMM, to analyze the behavior of female mice in the presence of their young. The frequency of several maternal behaviors in mice has been previously described, including nursing/grooming pups and tending to the nest. However, the ordering, clustering, and transitions between these behaviors have not been systematically described and thus a global description of maternal behavior is lacking. Here we used HMM to describe maternal behavior patterns in two genetically distinct mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, and their genetically identical reciprocal hybrid female offspring. HMM analysis is a powerful tool to identify patterns of events that cluster in time and to determine transitions between these clusters, or hidden states. For the HMM analysis we defined seven states: arched-backed nursing, blanket nursing, licking/grooming pups, grooming, activity, eating, and sleeping. By quantifying the frequency, duration, composition, and transition probabilities of these states we were able to describe the pattern of maternal behavior in mouse and identify aspects of these patterns that are under genetic and nongenetic inheritance. Differences in these patterns observed in the experimental groups (inbred and hybrid females were detected only after the application of HMM analysis whereas classical statistical methods and analyses were not able to

  3. Informações contábil-financeiras e custo de captação em mercados de bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Ribeiro do Valle

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a questão do conteúdo informacional de números contábil-financeiros e analisa a relação entre estas informações e o custo de captação das maiores empresas do setor Papel & Celulose que obtiveram recursos nos mercados americano e internacional de bonds durante o período 1991-98. Os indicadores contábil-financeiros analisados mostraram que as empresas brasileiras não apresentaram um elevado desempenho como as empresas que captaram recursos com um baixo custo, mas, também, não apresentaram características semelhantes às empresas - americanas e canadenses com profundos problemas financeiros - que captaram a um alto custo nos mercados estudados.The article concerns the information provided by accounting/financial variables and analyzes the relationship between this information and the cost of funding for the largest Pulp and Paper companies that raised capital in the U.S. and international bond markets in the period 1991-98. The analyzed accounting/financial variables showed that Brazilian companies neither performed as well as the companies that raised capital with a low cost, nor presented the same characteristics as the companies - American and Canadian companies with large financial problems - that raised capital with a high cost in the studied markets.

  4. La interpretación débil de la autoridad en la Teoría Pura del Derecho de Hans Kelsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley L. Paulson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoridad qua habilitación es la interpretación débil de la autoridad en los escritos de Hans Kelsen. Por un lado, esta interpretación parece no responder al problema de la autoridad como se conoce en la tradición. Por otro lado, ella se ajusta al positivismo jurídico. ¿Es Kelsen un positivista? No sin reservas. Él defiende la tesis de la normatividad junto con la tesis de la separación, pero es en todo caso discutible si la tesis de la normatividad obliga a una interpretación más fuerte de la autoridad que aquella modelada sobre la habilitación. En el ensayo, yo ofrezco un argumento prima facie en favor de una interpretación más fuerte de la autoridad en Kelsen. Argumento, sin embargo, que la evidencia textual tiene mucho peso en favor de la interpretación débil. Tanto la perspectiva estática como aquella dinámica de las normas son puntos de vista omnipresentes en la Teoría Pura del Derecho, y ambos reflejan diversas especies de habilitación como puntos conclusivos de las reconstrucciones de Kelsen.

  5. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus

  6. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov; Earl, Patricia L., E-mail: pearl@nih.gov

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  7. Korte ture i bil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    %. The figures might be a bit lower when taking into account the error from leaving out public trans-port from the model. This extensive cycling friendly policy will have greater effects in cities, up to 8 % re-duction of the car traffic in the Municipality of Copenhagen and 5-6 % in the rest of the Danish...... a considerable amount of trips may be transferred if the necessary political ef-fort is made. The paper analyzes the determining factors for mode choice by using a logit model on round tours shorter than 22 km. The potential for mode shift as a result of political means is further assessed. The analyses...... choice turn out to be car ownership, gender, travel time, topography and outdoor temperatures. But also travel purposes are impor-tant – especially escorting and shopping tends to increase the share of car driving. It is often claimed that the extensive bicycling in The Netherlands and Denmark is due...

  8. Effect of. gamma. -radiation on chiasma frequency in four inbred strains of Trigonella L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, T; Lakshmi, N

    1983-12-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-rays on chiasma frequency was studied in M/sub 1/ plants of three inbred strains of T. foenum-graecum and T. corniculata. The response of the varieties to different doses of radiation with respect to chaiasma frequency was found to be different on the basis of students 't' test. In all the treated strains a decrease in chiasma frequency was observed compared to controls and the decrease was found to be inversely proportional to the dose. The possible causes for reduction in chiasma frequency are discussed. 16 refs., 3 tables.

  9. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  10. Renal blood flow dynamics in inbred rat strains provides insight into autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mitrou, Nicholas G; Cupples, William A

    2014-01-01

    Renal autoregulation maintains stable renal blood flow in the face of constantly fluctuating blood pressure. Autoregulation is also the only mechanism that protects the delicate glomerular capillaries when blood pressure increases. In order to understand autoregulation, the renal blood flow response to changing blood pressure is studied. The steadystate response of blood flow is informative, but limits investigation of the individual mechanisms of autoregulation. The dynamics of autoregulation can be probed with transfer function analysis. The frequency-domain analysis of autoregulation allows investigators to probe the relative activity of each mechanism of autoregulation. We discuss the methodology and interpretation of transfer function analysis. Autoregulation is routinely studied in the rat, of which there are many inbred strains. There are multiple strains of rat that are either selected or inbred as models of human pathology. We discuss relevant characteristics of Brown Norway, Spontaneously hypertensive, Dahl, and Fawn-Hooded hypertensive rats and explore differences among these strains in blood pressure, dynamic autoregulation, and susceptibility to hypertensive renal injury. Finally we show that the use of transfer function analysis in these rat strains has contributed to our understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of autoregulation and hypertensive renal disease.Interestingly all these strains demonstrate effective tubuloglomerular feedback suggesting that this mechanism is not sufficient for effective autoregulation. In contrast, obligatory or conditional failure of the myogenic mechanism suggests that this component is both necessary and sufficient for autoregulation.

  11. Substrains of Inbred Mice Differ in Their Physical Activity as a Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Coletti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies strengthen the belief that physical activity as a behavior has a genetic basis. Screening wheel-running behavior in inbred mouse strains highlighted differences among strains, showing that even very limited genetic differences deeply affect mouse behavior. We extended this observation to substrains of the same inbred mouse strain, that is, BALB/c mice. We found that only a minority of the population of one of these substrains, the BALB/c J, performs spontaneous physical activity. In addition, the runners of this substrain cover a significantly smaller distance than the average runners of two other substrains, namely, the BALB/c ByJ and the BALB/c AnNCrl. The latter shows a striking level of voluntary activity, with the average distance run/day reaching up to about 12 kilometers. These runners are not outstanders, but they represent the majority of the population, with important scientific and economic fallouts to be taken into account during experimental planning. Spontaneous activity persists in pathological conditions, such as cancer-associated cachexia. This important amount of physical activity results in a minor muscle adaptation to endurance exercise over a three-week period; indeed, only a nonsignificant increase in NADH transferase+ fibers occurs in this time frame.

  12. Agrobacterium- and Biolistic-Mediated Transformation of Maize B104 Inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Jennifer A; Frame, Bronwyn; Little, Daniel; Santoso, Tri Joko; Wang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Genetic transformation of maize inbred genotypes remains non-routine for many laboratories due to variations in cell competency to induce embryogenic callus, as well as the cell's ability to receive and incorporate transgenes into the genome. This chapter describes two transformation protocols using Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods for gene delivery. Immature zygotic embryos of maize inbred B104, excised from ears harvested 10-14 days post pollination, are used as starting explant material. Disarmed Agrobacterium strains harboring standard binary vectors and the biolistic gun system Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He are used as gene delivery systems. The herbicide resistant bar gene and selection agent bialaphos are used for identifying putative transgenic type I callus events. Using the step-by-step protocols described here, average transformation frequencies (number of bialaphos resistant T 0 callus events per 100 explants infected or bombarded) of 4% and 8% can be achieved using the Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods, respectively. An estimated duration of 16-21 weeks is needed using either protocol from the start of transformation experiments to obtaining putative transgenic plantlets with established roots. In addition to laboratory in vitro procedures, detailed greenhouse protocols for producing immature ears as transformation starting material and caring for transgenic plants for seed production are also described.

  13. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxelaere, Michiel; Clements, Jason; Callaerts, Patrick; D'Hooge, Rudi; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  14. A Maize Inbred Exhibits Resistance Against Western Corn Rootwoorm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano-Duque, Lina; Loades, Kenneth W; Tooker, John F; Brown, Kathleen M; Paul Williams, W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2017-12-01

    Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene. In contrast, Tx601 is susceptible to WCR. These findings will facilitate the use of Mp708 as a model to explore the wide variety of mechanisms and traits involved in plant defense responses and resistance to herbivory by insects with several different feeding habits.

  15. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cJ (BALB), C3H/HeJ (C3H), DBA/2J (D2), FVB/NJ (FVB) and 129S1/SvImJ (129) mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine. PMID:21806802

  16. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boxelaere

    Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  17. O processo de harmonização da informação contábil consolidada nos países integrantes do Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Pinto Braga

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar o processo de harmonização da informação contábil consolidada, que está sendo executado pelos países membros do Mercosul. Em virtude da extensão do assunto, esta investigação limitou-se aos estudos da configuração e delimitação do perímetro de consolidação. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto utilizou-se uma metodologia baseada em dois tipos de análises. Em primeiro lugar, uma comparação entre as normas nacionais e, em segundo, a observação das diferenças e similitudes existentes entre estas e as emitidas em nível internacional pelo International Accounting Standard Board (IASB.

  18. Contribuição ao gerenciamento da empresa contábil de pequeno porte com base no método de custeio por atividades

    OpenAIRE

    Bendlin, Cleonice Witt

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia de Produção Este trabalho descreve, por meio de um estudo de caso, a aplicação do método de custeio por atividades na gestão da empresa contábil de pequeno porte. A empresa em análise possui necessidade de apurar o custo dos serviços contábeis prestados por grupos de clientes e o sistema de custos praticado é incipiente para atender a essa necessidade. As infor...

  19. A TRIDIMENSIONALIDADE DA LINGUAGEM CONTÁBIL NA MENSURAÇÃO DE ATIVOS COM ÊNFASE NA AVALIAÇÃO DO CAPITAL INTELECTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Colauto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O capital intelectual, entendido como a soma do conhecimento de todos os participantes de uma empresa é um intangível que se enquadra no grupo de ativos de maior complexidade de entendimento, mensuração e evidenciação. Entretanto, como recurso econômico proeminente é visto como um elemento importante, dada sua capacidade de geração de benefícios econômicos futuros para a entidade que o detém, ainda que sua mensuração seja revestida de complexidade e carente de métodos unanimemente aceitos. Nesse contexto, para que a contabilidade possa cumprir seu papel de geração de informações ao processo decisório, vem ao longo do tempo buscando identificar as melhores alternativas para medir economicamente os recursos que compõem o patrimônio da empresa, no qual se inserem os ativos intangíveis. Desta forma, o artigo faz uma incursão teórica no processo de mensuração de ativos, centrando maior atenção nas alternativas relacionadas ao capital intelectual, sobre o enfoque da tridimensionalidade da linguagem contábil. Nessa perspectiva, o estudo é delineado como exploratório com abordagem qualitativa. Por meio da investigação bibliográfica buscou-se contemplar os achados sobre as metodologias de avaliação do capital intelectual sobre o enfoque semântico. Os resultados da investigação mostram que os ativos possuem diversos atributos possíveis de serem medidos e, a consideração de mais de um atributo pode ser relevante para os usuários da informação contábil.

  20. A Utilização da Informação Contábil para a Gestão da Apicultura de Pequeno Porte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemar Azolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados de um estudo que focalizou as empresas ligadas à exploração da apicultura de pequeno porte e tem por objetivo caracterizar esse tipo de empresa bem como as condições e a receptividade do apicultor de pequeno porte para a utilização de sistema de informação contábil. Finalmente, propõe um modelo de sistema contábil, que ofereça aos seus administradores o embasamento necessário ao gerenciamento e à tomada de decisões, incluindo-se o atendimento aos aspectos fisco-legais. Sua realização requereu traçar o perfil do empreendedor e caracterizar a gestão de empresas desse porte. Apresenta alguns indicadores importantes para o desenvolvimento de um modelo de informações contábeis-financeiras, enfatizando o relacionamento específico da Contabilidade com a micro e a pequena empresa. É apresentado, ainda, como sugestão, um conjunto de três relatórios contábeis composto pelo Balanço Patrimonial, a Demonstração de Resultados e o Fluxo de Caixa, como contribuição da contabilidade para um modelo de sistema de informações contábeis que dê suporte à gestão da empresa apícola de pequeno porte.

  1. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the local immune response in azoxymethane-induced colon tumours in the BDIX inbred rat strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Agger, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    by four weekly subcutaneous azoxymethane injections in inbred rats of the BDIX/OrlIco strain in two separate studies. Azoxymethane-induced tumours show many similarities to spontaneously occurring human colon carcinomas with respect to histopathological appearance. In our studies, the overall inflammatory...

  2. A Dynamic Model of Heavy Ion 7Li Irradiation Mutagenesis Based on Maize Inbred Line Nutrition Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Shan; Geng, Jin-Peng; Li, Duo-Fang; Sui, Li; Zhan, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11735006, the Hebei Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No B2014209314, and the Hebei Science and Technology Research Project of Higher Education under Grant No ZD2017023.

  3. QTL mapping of combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits in rice backcross recombinant inbred lines and hybrid crosses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining ability effects are very effective genetic parameters in deciding the next phase of breeding programs. Although some breeding strategies on the basis of evaluating combining ability have been utilized extensively in hybrid breeding, little is known about the genetic basis of combining ability. Combining ability is a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes. With the advent and development of molecular markers, it is feasible to evaluate the genetic bases of combining ability and heterosis of elite rice hybrids through QTL analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we first developed a QTL-mapping method for dissecting combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits. With three testcross populations and a BCRIL population in rice, biometric and QTL analyses were conducted for ten agronomic traits. The significance of general combining ability and special combining ability for most of the traits indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive effects on expression levels. A large number of additive effect QTLs associated with performance per se of BCRIL and general combining ability, and dominant effect QTLs associated with special combining ability and heterosis were identified for the ten traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combining ability of agronomic traits could be analyzed by the QTL mapping method. The characteristics revealed by the QTLs for combining ability of agronomic traits were similar with those by multitudinous QTLs for agronomic traits with performance per se of BCRIL. Several QTLs (1-6 in this study were identified for each trait for combining ability. It demonstrated that some of the QTLs were pleiotropic or linked tightly with each other. The identification of QTLs responsible for combining ability and heterosis in the present study provides valuable information for dissecting genetic basis of combining ability.

  4. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays L.) and affecting the crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus ...

  5. Genome wide analysis of inbred mouse lines identifies a locus containing Ppar-gamma as contributing to enhanced malaria survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina E R Bopp

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic background of a patient determines in part if a person develops a mild form of malaria and recovers, or develops a severe form and dies. We have used a mouse model to detect genes involved in the resistance or susceptibility to Plasmodium berghei malaria infection. To this end we first characterized 32 different mouse strains infected with P. berghei and identified survival as the best trait to discriminate between the strains. We found a locus on chromosome 6 by linking the survival phenotypes of the mouse strains to their genetic variations using genome wide analyses such as haplotype associated mapping and the efficient mixed-model for association. This new locus involved in malaria resistance contains only two genes and confirms the importance of Ppar-gamma in malaria infection.

  6. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  7. Correlation between DNA repair of embryonic fibroblasts and different life span of 3 inbred mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenholz, V.

    1978-02-01

    Primary mouse fibroblast cultures were established from 10 day old embryos of 3 inbred strains with a genetically determined different life expectancy. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis following uv irradiation was studied in these cells at various passage levels of the in vitro ageing process. The mouse fibroblasts show considerable repair synthesis corresponding to the duration of exposure time. The capacity for induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was different in the cells of each strain and correlated to the natural life span of the animal. In each case, however, the ability to perform repair synthesis was subjected to an age-associated decline, although semiconservative DNA synthesis and proliferative potential of the cell was not changed until the cultures entered phase III passages.

  8. Genetic basis of resistance to trauma in inbred strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radojicic, C.; Andric, B.; Simovic, M.; Dujic, A.; Marinkovic, D.

    1990-01-01

    In this study the resistance to mechanical, thermal, and radiation trauma in four inbred strains of mice (AKR, BALB/c, CBA, and C57Bl/6) was compared with the degree of genetic resemblance, by analyzing the allozyme variabilities of these strains. It was shown that the highest degree of genetic resemblance was among CBA and AKR strains, which correlated with a similar degree of resistance to trauma. On the other hand, BALB/c and C57Bl/6 strains expressed significant differences, both genetically and with respect to the responses to trauma. The hypothesis is introduced that the genetic determination of the resistance to trauma is based on: (a) a polygenic control of general physiological homeostasis, with the possibility that (b) some specific genes or single loci may contribute more than others to such adaptations of the strains tested

  9. Electrophoretic variation in low molecular weight lens crystallins from inbred strains of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, M E; Skow, L C; Kunz, H W; Gill, T J

    1985-10-01

    Analysis of rat lens soluble proteins by analytical isoelectric focusing detected two inherited electrophoretic differences in low molecular weight (LM) crystallins from inbred strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus). The polymorphic lens crystallins were shown to be similar to a genetically variant LM crystallin, LEN-1, previously described in mice (Mus musculus) and encoded on chromosome 1, at a locus linked to Pep-3 (dipeptidase). Linkage analysis demonstrated that the rat crystallin locus was loosely linked to Pep-3 at a recombination distance of 38 +/- 4.5 U. These data suggest the conservation of a large chromosomal region during the evolution of Rodentia and support the hypothesis that the gamma-crystallins are evolving more rapidly than alpha- or beta-crystallins.

  10. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Temme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 have been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  11. Sistema contábil para gestão da ecoeficiência empresarial Accounting system for company eco-efficiency management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Luiz Vellani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Responsabilidade Social Corporativa e Sustentabilidade Empresarial são conceitos que convergem para o mesmo objetivo: integrar os aspectos econômicos, sociais e ecológicos dos negócios. Muitas empresas mantêm ações que visam à proteção ambiental. No entanto, para contribuir para a sustentabilidade do negócio essas atividades devem convergir para a ecoeficiência. Para isso, a ação ecológica empresarial deve atuar sobre os resíduos emitidos pelas operações da própria empresa e os gastos nelas incorridos devem resultar em benefícios econômico-financeiros ao negócio. Nesse contexto, este artigo identifica a seguinte pergunta de pesquisa: em termos contábeis, como podem ser categorizadas as ações ecológicas empresariais para fornecer informações sobre eventos relacionados com a ecoeficiência do negócio? Procura-se responder a essa pergunta por meio de uma Pesquisa Estudo (holístico de Casos Múltiplos (tipo 3 e com a seguinte proposição: as ações ecológicas empresariais (AEE foram classificadas de acordo com suas finalidades, ou seja, tratamento de resíduos próprios, decorrentes de ações internas e ações decorrentes de eventos externos como a preservação de áreas verdes, recuperação de áreas contaminadas, programas de educação ambiental da comunidade externa. Dessa forma, o gestor poderá ter condições para verificar a ecoeficiência do processo operacional propriamente (AEE internas e os aspectos relacionados à gestão ambiental global (AEE internas e externas. São analisados três tipos de materiais e identificam-se 608 exemplos de ações ecológicas mantidas por 181 empresas. A pesquisa empírica deste artigo revela que a proposta está alinhada com a prática e resulta num sistema contábil para a gestão da ecoeficiência das empresas.Sustainable Development, Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Sustainability are concepts that converge towards the same

  12. The CNS in inbred transgenic models of 4-repeat Tauopathy develops consistent tau seeding capacity yet focal and diverse patterns of protein deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari-Sedighi, Ghazaleh; Daude, Nathalie; Gapeshina, Hristina; Sanders, David W; Kamali-Jamil, Razieh; Yang, Jing; Shi, Beipei; Wille, Holger; Ghetti, Bernardino; Diamond, Marc I; Janus, Christopher; Westaway, David

    2017-10-04

    MAPT mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal dementia but, strikingly, patients with the same mutation may have different clinical phenotypes. Given heterogeneities observed in a transgenic (Tg) mouse line expressing low levels of human (2 N, 4R) P301L Tau, we backcrossed founder stocks of mice to C57BL/6Tac, 129/SvEvTac and FVB/NJ inbred backgrounds to discern the role of genetic versus environmental effects on disease-related phenotypes. Three inbred derivatives of a TgTau P301L founder line had similar quality and steady-state quantity of Tau production, accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated 64-68 kDa Tau species from 90 days of age onwards and neuronal loss in aged Tg mice. Variegation was not seen in the pattern of transgene expression and seeding properties in a fluorescence-based cellular assay indicated a single "strain" of misfolded Tau. However, in other regards, the aged Tg mice were heterogeneous; there was incomplete penetrance for Tau deposition despite maintained transgene expression in aged animals and, for animals with Tau deposits, distinctions were noted even within each subline. Three classes of rostral deposition in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum accounted for 75% of pathology-positive mice yet the mean ages of mice scored as class I, II or III were not significantly different and, hence, did not fit with a predictable progression from one class to another defined by chronological age. Two other patterns of Tau deposition designated as classes IV and V, occurred in caudal structures. Other pathology-positive Tg mice of similar age not falling within classes I-V presented with focal accumulations in additional caudal neuroanatomical areas including the locus coeruleus. Electron microscopy revealed that brains of Classes I, II and IV animals all exhibit straight filaments, but with coiled filaments and occasional twisted filaments apparent in Class I. Most strikingly, Class I, II and IV animals presented

  13. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  14. Grain Yield and Fusarium Ear Rot of Maize Hybrids Developed From Lines With Varying Levels of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium spp. is found in all U.S. maize growing regions. Affected grain often contains carcinogenic mycotoxins called fumonisins. We tested the hypothesis that inbred lines with greater resistance to fumonisin contamination would pro...

  15. Pheno2Geno - High-throughput generation of genetic markers and maps from molecular phenotypes for crosses between inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Konrad; Li, Yang; van der Velde, Joeri K; Joosen, Ronny V L; Ligterink, Wilco; Jansen, Ritsert C; Arends, Danny

    2015-02-19

    Genetic markers and maps are instrumental in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in segregating populations. The resolution of QTL localization depends on the number of informative recombinations in the population and how well they are tagged by markers. Larger populations and denser marker maps are better for detecting and locating QTLs. Marker maps that are initially too sparse can be saturated or derived de novo from high-throughput omics data, (e.g. gene expression, protein or metabolite abundance). If these molecular phenotypes are affected by genetic variation due to a major QTL they will show a clear multimodal distribution. Using this information, phenotypes can be converted into genetic markers. The Pheno2Geno tool uses mixture modeling to select phenotypes and transform them into genetic markers suitable for construction and/or saturation of a genetic map. Pheno2Geno excludes candidate genetic markers that show evidence for multiple possibly epistatically interacting QTL and/or interaction with the environment, in order to provide a set of robust markers for follow-up QTL mapping. We demonstrate the use of Pheno2Geno on gene expression data of 370,000 probes in 148 A. thaliana recombinant inbred lines. Pheno2Geno is able to saturate the existing genetic map, decreasing the average distance between markers from 7.1 cM to 0.89 cM, close to the theoretical limit of 0.68 cM (with 148 individuals we expect a recombination every 100/148=0.68 cM); this pinpointed almost all of the informative recombinations in the population. The Pheno2Geno package makes use of genome-wide molecular profiling and provides a tool for high-throughput de novo map construction and saturation of existing genetic maps. Processing of the showcase dataset takes less than 30 minutes on an average desktop PC. Pheno2Geno improves QTL mapping results at no additional laboratory cost and with minimum computational effort. Its results are formatted for direct use in R/qtl, the leading R

  16. Comparison of global brain gene expression profiles between inbred long-sleep and inbred short-sleep mice by high-density gene array hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Ehringer, M; Yang, F; Sikela, J M

    2001-06-01

    Inbred long-sleep (ILS) and short-sleep (ISS) mice show significant central nervous system-mediated differences in sleep time for sedative dose of ethanol and are frequently used as a rodent model for ethanol sensitivity. In this study, we have used complementary DNA (cDNA) array hybridization methodology to identify genes that are differentially expressed between the brains of ILS and ISS mice. To carry out this analysis, we used both the gene discovery array (GDA) and the Mouse GEM 1 Microarray. GDA consists of 18,378 nonredundant mouse cDNA clones on a single nylon filter. Complex probes were prepared from total brain mRNA of ILS or ISS mice by using reverse transcription and 33P labeling. The labeled probes were hybridized in parallel to the gene array filters. Data from GDA experiments were analyzed with SQL-Plus and Oracle 8. The GEM microarray includes 8,730 sequence-verified clones on a glass chip. Two fluorescently labeled probes were used to hybridize a microarray simultaneously. Data from GEM experiments were analyzed by using the GEMTools software package (Incyte). Differentially expressed genes identified from each method were confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 41 genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) display significant expression level differences between brains of ILS and ISS mice after GDA, GEM1 hybridization, and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation. Among them, 18 clones were expressed higher in ILS mice, and 23 clones were expressed higher in ISS mice. The individual gene or EST's function and mapping information have been analyzed. This study identified 41 genes that are differentially expressed between brains of ILS and ISS mice. Some of them may have biological relevance in mediation of phenotypic variation between ILS and ISS mice for ethanol sensitivity. This study also demonstrates that parallel gene expression comparison with high-density cDNA arrays is a rapid and

  17. Study of improvement of indices maize line to establish their position in hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana DIRZU-COCOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. crop that is grown on large areas - over 140 million hectares worldwide, and 400-500 thousand ha in Moldova due to production potential broad diversity of use as food for humans, animals, birds raw material for industrial processing. The upward trend in average yields achieved is largely attributed to the improvement of scientific programs. Select the line with the characters and traits that are transmitted hereditary hybrids and contribute to their performance, ensure progress in improvement. Therefore, the process of creating inbred lines associated with combining ability testing as a measure of productivity conferred hybrids, is significant research programs. Orientation purpose of improved maize hybrids to formulas and simple change to a superior capitalization heterosis effect and perfect uniformity of plant requires changes in methodology for the creation, evaluation and classification of inbred lines.

  18. A New Advanced Backcross Tomato Population Enables High Resolution Leaf QTL Mapping and Gene Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fulop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii. This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping.

  19. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lederle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ. We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach

  20. Temporal factors in the extinction of fear in inbred mouse strains differing in extinction efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Kathryn; Whittle, Nigel; Camp, Marguerite; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2013-07-05

    Various neuropsychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by deficient fear extinction, but individuals differ greatly in risk for these. While there is growing evidence that fear extinction is influenced by certain procedural variables, it is unclear how these influences might vary across individuals and subpopulations. To model individual differences in fear extinction, prior studies identified a strain of inbred mouse, 129S1/SvImJ (S1), which exhibits a profound deficit in fear extinction, as compared to other inbred strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6). Here, we assessed the effects of procedural variables on the impaired extinction phenotype of the S1 strain and, by comparison, the extinction-intact B6 strain. The variables studied were 1) the interval between conditioning and extinction, 2) the interval between cues during extinction training, 3) single-cue exposure before extinction training, and 4) extinction of a second-order conditioned cue. Conducting extinction training soon after ('immediately') conditioning attenuated fear retrieval in S1 mice and impaired extinction in B6 mice. Spacing cue presentations with long inter-trial intervals during extinction training augmented fear in S1 and B6 mice. The effect of spacing was lost with one-trial fear conditioning in B6, but not S1 mice. A single exposure to a conditioned cue before extinction training did not alter extinction retrieval, either in B6 or S1 mice. Both the S1 and B6 strains exhibited robust second-order fear conditioning, in which a cue associated with footshock was sufficient to serve as a conditioned exciter to condition a fear association to a second cue. B6 mice extinguished the fear response to the second-order conditioned cue, but S1 mice failed to do so. These data provide further evidence that fear extinction is strongly influenced by multiple procedural variables and is so in a highly strain-dependent manner. This suggests that the efficacy of

  1. Inbred Rats as a Model to Study Persistent Renal Leptospirosis and Associated Cellular Immune Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath E. Nally

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease with a global distribution affecting over one million people annually. Rats are regarded as one of the most significant reservoir hosts of infection for human disease, and in the absence of clinical signs of infection, excrete large numbers of organisms in their urine. A unique biological equilibrium exists between pathogenic leptospires and reservoir hosts of infection, but surprisingly, little is known concerning the host's cellular immune response that facilitates persistent renal colonization. To address this deficiency, we established and applied an immunocompetent inbred rat model of persistent renal colonization; leptospires were detected in urine of experimentally infected rats by 3 weeks post-infection and remained positive until 8 weeks post-infection. However, there was little, if any, evidence of inflammation in colonized renal tubules. At 8 weeks post-infection, a robust antibody response was detected against lipopolysaccharide and protein outer membrane (OM components. Purified B and T cells derived from the spleen of infected and non-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with 0.5 μg of OM fractions of Leptospira, including CD4+ T cells, which comprised 40% of proliferating cells, compared to 25% in non-infected controls. However, analysis of gene expression did not determine which immunoregulatory pathways were activated. Lymphocytes purified from the lymph node draining the site of colonization, the renal lymph node, also showed an increase in percentage of proliferating B and T cells. However, in contrast to a phenotype of 40% CD4+ T cells in the spleen, the phenotype of proliferating T cells in the renal lymph node comprised 65% CD4+ T cells. These results confirm that the renal lymph node, the local lymphoid organ, is a dominant site containing Leptospira reactive CD4+ T cells and highlight the need to consider the local, vs

  2. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederle, Lauren; Weber, Susanna; Wright, Tara; Feyder, Michael; Brigman, Jonathan L; Crombag, Hans S; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Holmes, Andrew

    2011-01-10

    The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ). We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press) response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs) associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press) response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior) by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded) reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach behavior (food

  3. TOMADA DE DECISÃO E TEORIA DOS PROSPECTOS EM AMBIENTE CONTÁBIL: UMA ANÁLISE COM FOCO NO EFEITO FRAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycia Scavello Barreto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Por conta da recente implantação no Brasil das normas internacionais de Contabilidade – IFRS, que possuem a filosofia básica da prevalência da essência sobre a forma, tornou-se mais necessário aos profissionais de Contabilidade o exercício do julgamento. Assim sendo, na busca por entender de que forma profissionais de Contabilidade estão analisando e produzindo informações, o presente estudo tem por objetivo mostrar de que forma a Teoria dos Prospectos, mas especificamente o Efeito Framing, pode interferir no processo de análise e produção de informação contábil. Para tanto, aplicou-se um questionário estruturado e não disfarçado a profissionais da área de Contabilidade, com o intuito de verificar de que forma o Efeito Framing poderia moldar uma tomada de decisão dentro do ambiente contábil. O questionário foi dividido em dois tipos (I e II, devido a necessidade de se testar a mesma pergunta nos campos dos ganhos e das perdas. Na análise dos resultados dos questionários utilizou-se a análise de frequência das alternativas de cada questão e aplicou-se testes de diferença de proporções. Dentre os resultados, pôde-se identificar a presença do Efeito Framing, visto que por meio da manipulação da forma como a informação é transmitida, constatou-se que, de maneira geral, os respondentes apresentaram uma atitude favorável ao ganho certo, ou mais provável, quando estavam no campo dos ganhos, mas no campo das perdas, apresentaram uma propensão ao risco escolhendo a opção mais arriscada. Cabe ressaltar que a maior contribuição desse estudo está em conscientizar os profissionais de Contabilidade de que seus julgamentos são passivos de desvios, por conta dos efeitos da Teoria da Racionalidade Limitada.  

  4. The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

  5. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n=16 and DBA/2J (n=15 and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1. Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P<0.05 in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone. It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD. While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property.

  7. Genetic analysis of resistance to radiation lymphomagenesis with recombinant inbred strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.

    1990-01-01

    Induction of lymphomas by radiation in mice is controlled by genetic factors. We analyzed the genetic control of radiation lymphomagenesis using the CXS series of recombinant inbred strains derived from two progenitor strains: one highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphoma [BALB/cHeA (C)] and one extremely resistant [STS/A (S)]. The best concordances between strain distribution patterns of genetic markers and resistance (or susceptibility) to radiation lymphomagenesis were observed in a region with the b and Ifa genes on chromosome 4. This indicates that one major locus controls the incidence of radiogenic lymphomas in mice. We designated this locus as the Lyr (lymphoma resistance) locus. Backcrosses of (CXS)F1 to the two progenitor strains showed an intermediate incidence of lymphomas between their parental mice and did not significantly differ from (CXS)F1 mice. This and previous observations that (CXS)F1 mice also showed an intermediate incidence, differing from both progenitor strains, indicate that more genes are involved in the resistance (or susceptibility) to lymphoma induced by irradiation

  8. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice: automated home cage observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-08-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129S2/Sv, on locomotor activity. Strains differed in circadian rhythmicity, novelty-induced activity and the time-course of specific behavioural elements. For instance, C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice showed a much faster decrease in activity over time than C3H and 129S2/Sv mice. Principal component analysis revealed two major factors within locomotor activity, which were defined as 'level of activity' and 'velocity/stops'. These factors were able to distinguish strains. Interestingly, mice that displayed high levels of activity in the initial phase of the home cage test were also highly active during an open-field test. Velocity and the number of stops during movement correlated positively with anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus maze. The use of an automated home cage observation system yields temporal changes in elements of locomotor activity with an advanced level of spatial resolution. Moreover, it avoids the confounding influence of human intervention and saves time-consuming human observations.

  9. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyuan Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  10. Livro digital bilíngue para crianças surdas: uma análise na perspectiva do design visual de interface em tela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Wohlmuth da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As tecnologias digitais facilitam e potencializam os mecanismos de informação e comunicação. No contexto do design do livro acessível, várias ferramentas podem ser utilizadas para auxiliar a educação de uma criança surda. Atualmente, a política de inclusão do governo brasileiro necessita de material bilíngue, língua de sinais e português, para contribuir com o processo de aprendizagem em sala de aula. No caso dos livros digitais, ainda não se estabeleceu critérios de qualidade e eficiência para utilizá-los. Assim, este estudo buscou, por meio de uma análise descritiva de dois eBooks para surdos, mostrar critérios e princípios de design visual de interface, especificamente o design de tela, que poderão contribuir para a produção de livros digitais com mais qualidade.

  11. -Estudando os falsos amigos e fazendo novos amigos: uma aproximação aos dicionários bilíngues espanhol/português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Francis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2012v9n14p13 Nesse texto se relatam experiências de trabalhos realizados no marco do ‘Programa de Formação e Ensino de Línguas – PROFEL’ e vinculados ao projeto ‘Observatório da Educação – núcleo de pesquisa/extensão: formação continuada em leitura, escrita e oralidade’ (CAPES / INEP. O objetivo principal da proposta foi elaborar e aplicar atividades didáticas que envolvessem o uso de dicionários bilíngues (DB para o estudo dos falsos amigos linguísticos na disciplina de Língua Espanhola, em ambiente escolar. Mediante o estudo de pressupostos teóricos quanto à Lexicografia Pedagógica, foram selecionados, elaborados, aplicados e divulgados, entre alunos e professores de escolas públicas, materiais didáticos destinados a incentivar o desenvolvimento de habilidades de consulta em DB. Essa proposta foi desenvolvida no período de agosto de 2011 a julho de 2012, obtendo-se como resultados a aproximação dos participantes ao DB, quanto gênero textual, promovendo um aproveitamento das informações que disponibiliza e, em consequência, propiciando uma melhoria no ensino e na aprendizagem da língua espanhola.

  12. Genome characterization of the selected long- and short-sleep mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Robin; Odell, Aaron; Richmond, Phillip; Malmer, Daniel; Halper-Stromberg, Eitan; Bennett, Beth; Larson, Colin; Leach, Sonia; Radcliffe, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    The Inbred Long- and Short-Sleep (ILS, ISS) mouse lines were selected for differences in acute ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting response (LORR) as the selection trait. The lines show an over tenfold difference in LORR and, along with a recombinant inbred panel derived from them (the LXS), have been widely used to dissect the genetic underpinnings of acute ethanol sensitivity. Here we have sequenced the genomes of the ILS and ISS to investigate the DNA variants that contribute to their sensitivity difference. We identified ~2.7 million high-confidence SNPs and small indels and ~7000 structural variants between the lines; variants were found to occur in 6382 annotated genes. Using a hidden Markov model, we were able to reconstruct the genome-wide ancestry patterns of the eight inbred progenitor strains from which the ILS and ISS were derived, and found that quantitative trait loci that have been mapped for LORR were slightly enriched for DNA variants. Finally, by mapping and quantifying RNA-seq reads from the ILS and ISS to their strain-specific genomes rather than to the reference genome, we found a substantial improvement in a differential expression analysis between the lines. This work will help in identifying and characterizing the DNA sequence variants that contribute to the difference in ethanol sensitivity between the ILS and ISS and will also aid in accurate quantification of RNA-seq data generated from the LXS RIs.

  13. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) representing in total 96% of the L. saligna genome, 15 introgressions were identified to contribute to this resistance at one to four tested lettuce developmental stages and ...

  14. Brachypodium distachyon line Bd3-1 resistance is elicited by the barley stripe mosaic virus triple gene block 1 movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.Y.; Yan, L.J.; Gorter, F.A.; Kim, B.Y.T.; Cui, Y.; Hu, Y.; Yuan, C.; Grindheim, J.; Ganesan, U.; Liu, Z.Y.; Han, C.G.; Yu, J.L.; Li, D.W.; Jackson, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus North Dakota 18 (ND18), Beijing (BJ), Xinjiang (Xi), Type (TY) and CV21 strains are unable to infect the Brachypodium distachyon Bd3-1 inbred line, which harbours a resistance gene designated Bsr1, but the Norwich (NW) strain is virulent on Bd3-1. Analysis of ND18 and NW

  15. Development of a Murine Model for Aerosolized Ebolavirus Infection Using a Panel of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research.  Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported.  A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies.  In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT or mouse-adapted (MA Ebola virus (EBOV.  Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6, and DBA/2 (D2 mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1 knock-out (KO mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe.  Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered.  In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN-γ KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2 recombinant inbred (RI and advanced RI (ARI mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains.  Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains.  Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in

  16. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

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    Maarten eLoos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field, and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1 and progressive ratio (PR2 schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.

  17. Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J; Fodor, Anthony A; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (approximately 8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity.

  18. Gene Expression in Accumbens GABA Neurons from Inbred Rats with Different Drug-Taking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, B.M.; Chen, H.; Gong, S.; Wu, X.; Liu, Z.; Hiler, K.; Taylor, W.L.; Matta, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Inbred Lewis and Fisher 344 rat strains differ greatly in drug self-administration; Lewis rats operantly self-administer drugs of abuse including nicotine, whereas Fisher self-administer poorly. As shown herein, operant food self-administration is similar. Based on their pivotal role in drug reward, we hypothesized that differences in basal gene expression in GABAergic neurons projecting from nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to ventral pallidum (VP) play a role in vulnerability to drug taking behavior. The transcriptomes of NAcc shell-VP GABAergic neurons from these two strains were analyzed in adolescents, using a multidisciplinary approach that combined stereotaxic ionotophoretic brain microinjections, laser-capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray measurement of transcripts. LCM enriched the gene transcripts detected in GABA neurons compared to the residual NAcc tissue: a ratio of neuron/residual > 1 and false discovery rate (FDR) 3 yielded 3,514. Strain-dependent differences in gene expression within GABA neurons were identified; 322 vs. 60 transcripts showed 1.5-fold vs. 2-fold differences in expression (FDR<5%). Classification by gene ontology showed these 322 transcripts were widely distributed, without categorical enrichment. This is most consistent with a global change in GABA neuron function. Literature-mining by Chilibot found 38 genes related to synaptic plasticity, signaling and gene transcription, all of which determine drug-abuse; 33 genes have no known association with addiction or nicotine. In Lewis rats, upregulation of Mint-1, Cask, CamkIIδ, Ncam1, Vsnl1, Hpcal1 and Car8 indicates these transcripts likely contribute to altered signaling and synaptic function in NAcc GABA projection neurons to VP. PMID:21745336

  19. Mapping genetic variants associated with beta-adrenergic responses in inbred mice.

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    Micha Hersch

    Full Text Available β-blockers and β-agonists are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Inter-individual variability in response to both drug classes is well recognized, yet the identity and relative contribution of the genetic players involved are poorly understood. This work is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS addressing the values and susceptibility of cardiovascular-related traits to a selective β(1-blocker, Atenolol (ate, and a β-agonist, Isoproterenol (iso. The phenotypic dataset consisted of 27 highly heritable traits, each measured across 22 inbred mouse strains and four pharmacological conditions. The genotypic panel comprised 79922 informative SNPs of the mouse HapMap resource. Associations were mapped by Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA, a method that corrects for the population structure and genetic relatedness of the various strains. A total of 205 separate genome-wide scans were analyzed. The most significant hits include three candidate loci related to cardiac and body weight, three loci for electrocardiographic (ECG values, two loci for the susceptibility of atrial weight index to iso, four loci for the susceptibility of systolic blood pressure (SBP to perturbations of the β-adrenergic system, and one locus for the responsiveness of QTc (p<10(-8. An additional 60 loci were suggestive for one or the other of the 27 traits, while 46 others were suggestive for one or the other drug effects (p<10(-6. Most hits tagged unexpected regions, yet at least two loci for the susceptibility of SBP to β-adrenergic drugs pointed at members of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Loci for cardiac-related traits were preferentially enriched in genes expressed in the heart, while 23% of the testable loci were replicated with datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD. Altogether these data and validation tests indicate that the mapped loci are relevant to the traits and responses studied.

  20. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

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    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  1. Inheritance of height and maturity in crosses between pearl millet landraces and inbred Tift 85DB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J P; Burton, G W; Bondari, K

    1990-11-01

    Over 300 landraces of pearl millet were collected in Burkina Faso and grown at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton/GA. At Tifton, these landraces are predominantly tall and late-maturing. The photoperiod requirements of these landraces hinder evaluation of their performance in the field and their use in breeding programs. A conversion program has been initiated to transfer genes for dwarf stature and early flowering into the tall, late-maturing landraces. The inbred Tift 85DB is being used as a donor of genes for the dwarf and early characteristics, and was crossed to nine randomly selected landraces from Burkina Faso. The parents, F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent were grown in the field and evaluated for plant height at anthesis and time in days from planting to anthesis. In general, plant height of F1s was taller than the tallest parent, and in all crosses the maturity of F1s was intermediate between the parents. Numbers of loci conferring height varied among crosses, ranging from 0 to 9.6, and averaged 1.6. Estimated numbers of loci conferring maturity ranged from 0 to 12.8 and averaged 3.4. Broad-sense heritability estimates for height and maturity averaged 60.2 and 65.7%, respectively. Corresponding narrow-sense estimates averaged 23.8 and 48.2%. Joint scaling tests revealed that additive-genetic effects were highly significant for both traits, but dominance and epistatic-genetic effects contributed to the inheritance of each trait in some crosses. The low gene numbers, high heritability estimates, and preponderance of additive-genetic effects suggest that selection for these traits should be effective.

  2. Oxidative stress gene expression profile in inbred mouse after ischemia/reperfusion small bowel injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoletto, Paulo Roberto; Ikejiri, Adauto Tsutomu; Somaio Neto, Frederico; Chaves, José Carlos; Teruya, Roberto; Bertoletto, Eduardo Rodrigues; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José

    2012-11-01

    To determine the profile of gene expressions associated with oxidative stress and thereby contribute to establish parameters about the role of enzyme clusters related to the ischemia/reperfusion intestinal injury. Twelve male inbred mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned: Control Group (CG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy and observed by 120 min; Ischemia/reperfusion Group (IRG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy, 60 min of small bowel ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. A pool of six samples was submitted to the qPCR-RT protocol (six clusters) for mouse oxidative stress and antioxidant defense pathways. On the 84 genes investigated, 64 (76.2%) had statistic significant expression and 20 (23.8%) showed no statistical difference to the control group. From these 64 significantly expressed genes, 60 (93.7%) were up-regulated and 04 (6.3%) were down-regulated. From the group with no statistical significantly expression, 12 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated. Surprisingly, 37 (44.04%) showed a higher than threefold up-regulation and then arbitrarily the values was considered as a very significant. Thus, 37 genes (44.04%) were expressed very significantly up-regulated. The remained 47 (55.9%) genes were up-regulated less than three folds (35 genes - 41.6%) or down-regulated less than three folds (12 genes - 14.3%). The intestinal ischemia and reperfusion promote a global hyper-expression profile of six different clusters genes related to antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.

  3. L’île de Bilāq dans le Kitāb Nuzhat al-Muštāq d’al-Idrīsī (XIIe siècle The island of Bilāq in al-Idrīsī’s Kitāb Nuzhat al-Muštāq (12th cent.. Genealogy of a confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Seignobos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La description de l’île de Bilāq chez le géographe al-Idrīsī, au xiie siècle, tranche nettement avec les récits de ses prédécesseurs et ne correspond que très partiellement à l’îlot de Philae auquel Bilāq est d’ordinaire identifiée. Alors qu’elle est normalement située légèrement en amont de la première cataracte, Bilāq devient chez Idrīsī une immense île localisée bien en amont de la Vallée, en plein pays nubien, au confluent du Nil et d’un fleuve provenant d’Éthiopie. Les commentateurs modernes s’accordent à reconnaître qu’il y a là un amalgame probable avec la région de l’interfluve Nil-Atbara, sans parvenir pour autant à en comprendre les raisons. Cet article s’efforce précisément d’examiner les sources et les méthodes mises en œuvre par le géographe de Sicile afin d’éclairer la généalogie de cette confusion. Celle-ci repose en dernier lieu sur la difficulté à adapter des informations hétérogènes, dont une partie au moins est issue d’entretiens oraux avec des voyageurs, au cadre ptoléméen dans lequel Idrīsī entend les fondre. L’île de Bilaq se superpose alors au souvenir rémanent de l’île de Méroé, figure majeure de la géographie ptoléméenne du Haut Nil.The 12th-century description of Bilāq Island by al-Idrisi contrasts with his predecessors’ accounts and only partly fits the small island of Philae with which Bilāq was usually identified. Bilāq, normally placed a little above the first cataract, became, for al-Idrīsī, a big island located much farther upstream in the land of Nubia, at a place where a river coming from Ethiopia flowed into the Nile. Modern commentators agree that this description probably came out of a confusion with the Nile-Atbara area but are unable to explain the reasons for this. This article inquires into al-Idrisi’s description, into both the sources and methods used by this geographer. It intends to shed light on the origins

  4. O impacto do sped na Contabilidade desafios e perspectivas do profissional contábil = Sped the impact of the accounting challenges and perspectives of the professional accountant

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    Marcia Erna Ruschel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O profissional contábil é considerado um dos pilares da contabilidade, pois é intermediador no que se refere à transmissão de informações ao fisco e para seus clientes. Este artigo propôs-se a avaliar o impacto do SPED – Sistema Público de Escrituração Digital – na contabilidade, demonstrandoquais os desafios e as perspectivas dos profissionais contábeis frente àquele sistema. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos, caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa e de campo, utilizando-se de levantamento de dados por meio de entrevista estruturada, aplicada aos profissionais contábeis. Mediante a aplicação destes métodos, foram coletadas e analisadas as opiniões de 41 profissionais contábeis, que atuam na sub-região do SINDICONT – Chapecó. Os resultados mostram que o SPED está influenciando direta e positivamente no trabalho dos profissionais contábeis. Constatou-se que o maior impacto do SPED para os contadores relaciona-se à fidedignidade e à qualidade dos dados, pois esperam que esta modificação proporcione agilidade e clareza nos dados apresentados, sendo possível, a partir desse momento, exercer sua verdadeira função, que é a de assessorar seus clientes. Observou-se ainda que há limitação de profissionais capacitados, aumento de trabalho na área contábil, que foi considerado como ponto positivo, porém ressaltam que é necessário possuir domínio sobre o assunto para se destacar no mercado de trabalho. The accounting professional is considered a pillar of accountancy; it is the intermediary in relation to reporting to tax authorities for their customers. This article aims to evaluate the impact of the Public System of Digital (SPED in accounting, which demonstrates the challenges and prospects facing the accounting professionals to SPED. Regarding methodological procedures characterized as a descriptive and quantitative approach and field, using data collection through

  5. AS PUBLICAÇÕES ACADÊMICAS DA PESQUISA CONTÁBIL NO BRASIL, NO ÂMBITO DAS ORGANIZAÇÕES DO TERCEIRO SETOR

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    PAULO ARNALDO OLAK

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As organizações privadas sem fins lucrativos, neste trabalho denominadas de Terceiro Setor, vêm desempenhando funções cada vez mais amplas e relevantes na sociedade moderna. Estas organizações desenvolvem atividades de caráter beneficente, filantrópico, caritativo, religioso, cultural, educacional, científico, artístico, literário, recreativo, de proteção ao meio ambiente, esportivo, além de outros serviços, objetivando sempre a consecução de fins sociais. Como conseqüência, o campo de estudos desse setor é, atualmente, uma das áreas que vêm despertando grande interesse de pesquisadores multidisciplinares das chamadas ciências sociais, incluindo áreas aplicadas como as das ciências econômicas, administrativas e contábeis. Nesse sentido, é oportuno questionar a evolução da produção acadêmica contábil no âmbito dessas organizações, sendo este o principal objetivo deste artigo. Para identificar e sistematizar as diferentes produções acadêmicas realizadas sobre essa temática, fez-se, preliminarmente, uma revisão da literatura sobre o Terceiro Setor e, em seguida, levantou-se a produção acadêmica no período de 2000 a 2006, a partir de bases de dados dos programas de doutorado e mestrado em Ciências Contábeis e Controladoria, congressos e revistas especializadas. Ficou evidente, a partir da análise dos resultados, que a produção tem origem, basicamente, em dois programas de mestrado, a disseminação é mais forte em congressos e é inexpressiva a publicação em revista.

  6. Lucro, Valor Contábil e Dividendos na avaliação do Patrimônio Líquido

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    James A Ohlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A contabilidade atribui uma importante função integrativa a demonstração das mudacoes do patrimônio liquido. A demonstração inclui os itens mais importantes do balanço e da demonstração de resultado do exercício – o valor do patrimônio liquido e lucro – e sua forma de apresentação exige que a alteração no valor do patrimônio liquido seja igual ao lucro menos os dividendos (líquidos das contribuições para aumento de capital. Referimo-nos a essa relação como senda a “relação de lucro limpo” pois, da forma como foi articulada, todas as alterações nos ativos e passivos que não estejam relacionadas com os dividendos devem passar pela demonstração de resultado de exercício. A teoria da contabilidade adota geralmente esse esquema sem relacioná-lo a perspectiva do usuário dos dados contábeis. Contudo, a idéia fundamental de que estoques (líquidos de valor são compatíveis com a criação e distribuição de valor levanta uma questão básica no contexto de avaliação do patrimônio liquido: é possível delinear uma teoria coesiva do valor de uma firma sustentada pela criação de lucro limpo, no intuito de se identificar um papel claro para cada uma das três variáveis, quais sejam: o lucro, o valor contábil do patrimônio liquido e os dividendos¿

  7. The SyBil-AA real-time fMRI neurofeedback study: protocol of a single-blind randomized controlled trial in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchen, Martin Fungisai; Kirsch, Martina; Bahs, Nathalie; Halli, Patrick; Gerhardt, Sarah; Schäfer, Axel; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Kiefer, Falk; Kirsch, Peter

    2018-01-17

    Alcohol Use Disorder is a highly prevalent mental disorder which puts a severe burden on individuals, families, and society. The treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder is challenging and novel and innovative treatment approaches are needed to expand treatment options. A promising neuroscience-based intervention method that allows targeting cortical as well as subcortical brain processes is real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback. However, the efficacy of this technique as an add-on treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in a clinical setting is hitherto unclear and will be assessed in the Systems Biology of Alcohol Addiction (SyBil-AA) neurofeedback study. N = 100 patients with Alcohol Use Disorder will be randomized to 5 parallel groups in a single-blind fashion and receive real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback while they are presented pictures of alcoholic beverages. The groups will either downregulate the ventral striatum, upregulate the right inferior frontal gyrus, negatively modulate the connectivity between these regions, upregulate, or downregulate the auditory cortex as a control region. After receiving 3 sessions of neurofeedback training within a maximum of 2 weeks, participants will be followed up monthly for a period of 3 months and relapse rates will be assessed as the primary outcome measure. The results of this study will provide insights into the efficacy of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback training in the treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder as well as in the involved brain systems. This might help to identify predictors of successful neurofeedback treatment which could potentially be useful in developing personalized treatment approaches. The study was retrospectively registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (trial identifier: DRKS00010253 ; WHO Universal Trial Number (UTN): U1111-1181-4218) on May 10th, 2016.

  8. A COMPETIÇÃO DO MERCADO, IMPACTO NOS COMPONENTES DO LUCRO CONTÁBIL E NO RETORNO DAS AÇÕES

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    William Brasil Rodrigues Sobrinho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A competição do mercado possui um efeito disciplinador para as firmas, podendo contribuir para melhoria da governança corporativa e redução dos custos de contratos. Em razão do aumento do fluxo das informações e possibilidade de uma maior comparação entre as firmas do mesmo setor, a competição pode limitar a discricionariedade do gestor, inclusive tendo impacto direto na qualidade da informação contábil. Partindo desse pressuposto o presente trabalho investiga a relação existente entre o ambiente competitivo, no qual a firma encontra-se inserida, e a persistência dos lucros e seus componentes (accruals e fluxo de caixa, na obtenção dos lucros e retornos das firmas em períodos seguintes. Foram utilizados como base, o modelo de Dechow (1994, Sloan (1996 e o modelo adaptado de Ali; Hwang; Trombley (2000. Como proxy para a competição foi utilizado o índice de Herfindahl-Hirschman. A amostra contempla as empresas de capital aberto listadas na BM&FBovespa durante o período compreendido entre 2006 e 2012. Os resultados de um modo geral indicam que para a amostra analisada a estrutura de mercado (nível de competição altera a relevância do fluxo de caixa e em setores mais concentrados (menos competitivos os lucros e retornos são superiores.

  9. Determinantes da qualidade da informação contábil em grandes companhias abertas listadas na BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne Dias de Moura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar os fatores que influenciam na qualidade da informação contábil das maiores empresas listadas na BM&Bovespa. Método: Pesquisa realizada em uma amostra composta por 100 companhias abertas. A qualidade da informação foi analisada por meio de um índice desenvolvido por Fathi (2013, composto por 78 itens e que contemplam informações obrigatórias e voluntárias. Os fatores determinantes observados foram governança corporativa, empresa de auditoria, existência de comitê de auditoria, concentração acionária, investidores institucionais e internacionalização da empresa. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram um índice médio de evidenciação equivalente a 78%. A maioria das companhias estavam listadas em níveis diferenciados de governança; eram auditadas por big four e possuíam Comitê de Auditoria. O percentual médio de concentração acionária foi 41,37%; em 44% delas havia investidores institucionais no quadro acionário; e apenas 19% negociavam ações em bolsa americana. Em relação aos fatores determinantes, verificou-se que o fato de a empresa ser auditada por big four; possuir Comitê de Auditoria; possuir participação acionária de investidores institucionais; e negociar ações em bolsa americana reflete-se em informações divulgadas de melhor qualidade. Contribuições: Os achados fornecem evidências adicionais para a literatura existente, além de serem relevantes para os diversos usuários das informações contábeis, tais como analistas e investidores.

  10. A importância da aprendizagem de Libras para a formação de professores bilíngues dentro de uma perspectiva inclusiva

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    Clévia Fernanda Sies Barboza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A legislação nacional que norteia ações educacionais para o alunado com sur-dez determina a obrigatoriedade de um atendimento diferenciado para esse público, uma vez que este possui como L1 a Libras e como L2 a língua oficial do país. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer uma discussão sobre ques-tões importantes envolvendo o ensino e a inclusão de alunos surdos em esco-las regulares, como a questão da Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras como língua materna, a cultura surda, as diferenças entre integração e inclusão, tendo por fim a descrição de um estudo de caso em que analisamos uma possível con-tribuição de professores bilíngues de uma escola municipal da cidade de Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, sem necessi-tar ter seu diálogo mediado por intér-pretes, no processo de inclusão desse alunado surdo, estabelecendo assim vínculos importantes com esses estu-dantes. Utilizamos referências reconhe-cidas na área e entrevistas semiestrutu-radas realizadas em Libras com esses alunos surdos, fazendo um levantamen-to dos aspectos importantes para sua inclusão em escolas regulares, enfocan-do ainda a necessidade do domínio da Libras pelo professor para um melhor desempenho curricular e convívio escolar desse público.

  11. Evaluation on reaction of late maturing maize hybrids and lines to Fusarium ear rot.

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    M. Haddadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In order to evaluate and determine resistance rates of different corn genotypes to Fusarium ear rot, 22 inbred lines and 19 late and medium maturity hybrids in 2009 and 17 inbred lines and 14 late and medium maturity hybrids were planted in Qarakheil Agricultural Research Station in 2010. Each line and hybrid were planted separately. For each experiment a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Plant ears were inoculated by Nail th Punch method at the 10 day after anthesis. When the disease symptoms were observed, evaluation of each line and genotype was done based on percentage and severity of the disease symptom. The result in 2009 showed that 14 hybrids were tolerant. Hybrids of K3640/3 X MO17, K166B X K18, K166B X K19/1 and K3547/4 X MO17 were resistant. One hybrid was susceptible. Pure lines of K18 and K LM77007/7-2-6-3-1-2-1 were resistant. 14 tolerance lines and 6 susceptible lines were shown. In 2010 hybrids of K166B X K18 and K3653/2 X K18 were resistant. The other hybrids were tolerant. Pure lines of K3547/3 and K18 were resistant. Five tolerance lines were also shown.

  12. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of disease tolerant lines of hotpepper by using radiation and interspecific hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Su; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul [Nongwoo Seed Co., Suwon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To obtain disease resistant mutant lines, 6 inbred lines were hotppepers were irradiated with 250Gy of gamma ray and crossed between cultivar and wild species. 1) 4500 M{sub 1} plants were cultivated for obtaining M{sub 2} seed in 6 inbred lines of hotpeppers irradiated with 250 Gy of gamma ray. 2) Crossability was not generally existed among interspecific crosses, crossability between C. annum and C. chacoense was successful except crosses between C. annum, C. pubescens and C. eximium. 3) The embryo disected 45 days after pollination was suitable for embryo culture. 4) Hybrid plants were obtained from the embryo culture of the combination between C. annum and C. chacoense, while abnormal hybrid plants occurred from the combination between C. annum and C. baccatum. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  13. Norepinephrine transporter: a candidate gene for initial ethanol sensitivity in inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Heather M; Kaiser, Alan L; Johnson, Thomas E; Bennett, Beth; Sikela, James M; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2005-10-01

    Altered noradrenergic neurotransmission is associated with depression and may contribute to drug abuse and alcoholism. Differential initial sensitivity to ethanol is an important predictor of risk for future alcoholism, making the inbred long-sleep (ILS) and inbred short-sleep (ISS) mice a useful model for identifying genes that may contribute to alcoholism. In this study, molecular biological, neurochemical, and behavioral approaches were used to test the hypothesis that the norepinephrine transporter (NET) contributes to the differences in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) in ILS and ISS mice. We used these mice to investigate the NET as a candidate gene contributing to this phenotype. The ILS and ISS mice carry different DNA haplotypes for NET, showing eight silent differences between allelic coding regions. Only the ILS haplotype is found in other mouse strains thus far sequenced. Brain regional analyses revealed that ILS mice have 30 to 50% lower [3H]NE uptake, NET binding, and NET mRNA levels than ISS mice. Maximal [3H]NE uptake and NET number were reduced, with no change in affinity, in the ILS mice. These neurobiological changes were associated with significant influences on the behavioral phenotype of these mice, as demonstrated by (1) a differential response in the duration of ethanol-induced LORR in ILS and ISS mice pretreated with a NET inhibitor and (2) increased ethanol-induced LORR in LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains, homozygous for ILS in the NET chromosomal region (44-47 cM), compared with ISS homozygous strains. This is the first report to suggest that the NET gene is one of many possible genetic factors influencing ethanol sensitivity in ILS, ISS, and LXS RI mouse strains.

  14. Outbred CD1 mice are as suitable as inbred C57BL/6J mice in performing social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lawrence S; Wen, John H; Miyares, Laura; Lombroso, Paul J; Bordey, Angélique

    2017-01-10

    Inbred mouse strains have been used preferentially for behavioral testing over outbred counterparts, even though outbred mice reflect the genetic diversity in the human population better. Here, we compare the sociability of widely available outbred CD1 mice with the commonly used inbred C57BL/6J (C57) mice in the one-chamber social interaction test and the three-chamber sociability test. In the one-chamber task, intra-strain pairs of juvenile, non-littermate, male CD1 or C57 mice display a series of social and aggressive behaviors. While CD1 and C57 pairs spend equal amount of time socializing, CD1 pairs spend significantly more time engaged in aggressive behaviors than C57 mice. In the three-chamber task, sociability of C57 mice was less dependent on acclimation paradigms than CD1 mice. Following acclimation to all three chambers, both groups of age-matched male mice spent more time in the chamber containing a stranger mouse than in the empty chamber, suggesting that CD1 mice are sociable like C57 mice. However, the observed power suggests that it is easier to achieve statistical significance with C57 than CD1 mice. Because the stranger mouse could be considered as a novel object, we assessed for a novelty effect by adding an object. CD1 mice spend more time in the chamber with a stranger mouse than that a novel object, suggesting that their preference is social in nature. Thus, outbred CD1 mice are as appropriate as inbred C57 mice for studying social behavior using either the single or the three-chamber test using a specific acclimation paradigm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability induced by spaceflight environment on high oil and normal maize lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaowei; Xu Li; Dong Xin; Jin Weiwei; Chen Shaojiang

    2011-01-01

    High oil inbred line BY815 and two normal inbred lines 1145 and F349 treated with spaceflight were used for variability analysis. Results showed that the mutation rate of BY815 was 21.61% in SP 1 , while the mutation rates of 1145 and F349 were 2.57% and 3.13% respectively. Only six mutants were found from these three materials in SP 2 , of which two mutants, HT-3 from BY815 exhibiting albino leaf color and HT-5 from 1145 exhibiting stripe-like spots leaves, were worthy of further study. Genetic analysis of the two mutants showed that the segregation ratio of normal and mutant phenotypes was 3 : 1, which was in accordance with Mendel's single gene inheritance law. Cytological observation of all the six mutants showed no chromosome abnormalities. By using SSR (simple sequence repeat) method, 130 pairs of primers were employed and only one mutant originated from inbred line 1145 showed polymorphic and the mutated loci rate of the genome in this mutant was 8.46%. (authors)

  16. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Genetic relationship between placental and fetal weights and markers of the metabolic syndrome in rat recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, M.; Zídek, Václav; Musilová, Alena; Šimáková, Miroslava; Fučíková, A.; Bílá, V.; Křen, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Di Nicolantonio, R.; Pravenec, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2006), s. 226-231 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390; GA MZd(CZ) NR8495 Grant - others:Sixth Framework Programme(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : genetic analysis * thrifty phenotype * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.789, year: 2006

  18. EVIDENCIAÇÃO CONTÁBIL EM FUNDAÇÕES PRIVADAS DE SAÚDE: UMA ANÁLISE DAS PRESTAÇÕES DE CONTAS DE ENTIDADES DO MUNICÍPIO DE BELO HORIZONTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Otávio Pacheco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo buscou-se conhecer a evidenciação contábil de fundações privadas de saúde do município de Belo Horizonte, a partir da análise das prestações de contas destas entidades, do período de 2007 a 2011, e analisar a utilização do SICAP como instrumento de accountability. Fez-se uso da investigação qualitativa para verificar o nível de evidenciação contábil das demonstrações contábeis obrigatórias nas prestações de contas das três fundações privadas selecionadas para o estudo, a partir de um modelo de investigação que comparou os documentos elaborados para as prestações de contas às exigências mínimas das Normas Brasileiras de Contabilidade para a elaboração e apresentação de demonstrações contábeis das entidades sem fins lucrativos. Pode-se concluir que as entidades não atendem adequadamente as normas contábeis na evidenciação de suas demonstrações contábeis obrigatórias, conduzindo a uma inadequada evidenciação contábil nas prestações de contas apresentadas ao Ministério Público. Concluiu-se também que o SICAP não pode por si só ser considerado um instrumento adequado de accountability, visto que apresenta necessidade de melhoria e compatibilização às exigências das normas contábeis.

  19. Valoración potenciométrica de una mezcla de ácido fuerte (HCl) y ácido débil (acético). Práctica interactiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Se simula la valoración potenciométrica de una mezcla de ácido fuerte (ácido clorhídrico) y ácido débil (ácido acético) con cálculo de los puntos característicos de la valoración. Estos se generan de forma aleatoria, al igual que los volúmenes en los puntos de equivalencia. El usuario deberá calcular e introducir en el sistema los valores encontrados que son comparados con los obtenidos por el propio archivo de acuerdo con los puntos de equivalencia potenciométricos.

  20. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  1. Whole exome sequencing of wild-derived inbred strains of mice improves power to link phenotype and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peter L; Kopania, Emily; Keeble, Sara; Sarver, Brice A J; Larson, Erica; Orth, Annie; Belkhir, Khalid; Boursot, Pierre; Bonhomme, François; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D

    2017-10-01

    The house mouse is a powerful model to dissect the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, and serves as a model to study human diseases. Despite a wealth of discoveries, most classical laboratory strains have captured only a small fraction of genetic variation known to segregate in their wild progenitors, and existing strains are often related to each other in complex ways. Inbred strains of mice independently derived from natural populations have the potential to increase power in genetic studies with the addition of novel genetic variation. Here, we perform exome-enrichment and high-throughput sequencing (~8× coverage) of 26 wild-derived strains known in the mouse research community as the "Montpellier strains." We identified 1.46 million SNPs in our dataset, approximately 19% of which have not been detected from other inbred strains. This novel genetic variation is expected to contribute to phenotypic variation, as they include 18,496 nonsynonymous variants and 262 early stop codons. Simulations demonstrate that the higher density of genetic variation in the Montpellier strains provides increased power for quantitative genetic studies. Inasmuch as the power to connect genotype to phenotype depends on genetic variation, it is important to incorporate these additional genetic strains into future research programs.

  2. Variable Suppression of Serum Thyroxine in Female Mice of Different Inbred Strains by Triiodothyronine Administered in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant-inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Because one genetic component contributing to this susceptibility is altered thyroid sensitivity to TSH receptor agonist stimulation, we wished to quantify thyroid responsiveness to TSH. For such studies, it is necessary to suppress endogenous TSH by administering L-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (L-T3), with the subsequent decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) reflecting endogenous TSH suppression. Our two objectives were to assess in different inbred strains of mice (i) the extent of serum T4 suppression after L-T3 administration and (ii) the magnitude of serum T4 increase induced by TSH. Methods Mice were tail-bled to establish baseline-serum T4 before L-T3 administration. We initially employed a protocol of L-T3-supplemented drinking water for 7 days. In subsequent experiments, we injected L-T3 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 3 days. Mice were then injected i.p. with bovine TSH (10 mU) and euthanized 5 hours later. Serum T4 was assayed before L-T3 administration, and before and after TSH injection. In some experiments, serum T3 and estradiol were measured in pooled sera. Results Oral L-T3 (3 or 5 μg/mL) suppressed serum T4 levels by 26%–64% in female BALB/c mice but >95% in males. T4 suppression in female B6 mice ranged from 0% to 90%. In C3H mice, L-T3 at 3 μg/mL was ineffective but 5 μg/mL achieved >80% serum T4 reduction. Unlike inbred mice, in outbred CF1 mice the same protocol was more effective: 83% in females and 100% suppression in males. The degree of T4 suppression was unrelated to baseline T4, T3, or estradiol, but was related to mouse weight and postmortem T3, with greater suppression in larger mice (outbred CF1 animals and inbred males). Among females with serum T4 suppression >80%, the increase in serum T4 after TSH injection was greater for BALB

  3. Ideais e realidade: uma aula reservada para crianças autistas bilíngües = Ideals and reality: a self-contained class for bilingual autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo abordou as experiências de crianças bilíngües, selecionadas com desordem do espectro autista em uma sala de aula de Educação Infantil Especial Bilíngüe. Os dados incluíram observação ao vivo, gravações em vídeo e entrevistas com os funcionários e pais. Apesar da dedicação dos professores, dos funcionários e da família, os desafios incluíram limitações lingüísticas de clínicos gerais, uso inconsistente de espanhol e/ou inglês, falta de compreensão dos pais sobre a natureza do autismo e demanda irreal de funcionários. O ambiente da barulhenta sala de aula, às vezes refletia aprendizagem, que freqüentemente significava transtorno. A preparação profissional de professores também era inadequada

  4. PARADIGMA ATUAL DA CIÊNCIA CONTÁBIL: PERCEPÇÃO DE DOCENTES DE UNIVERSIDADES NORTE-AMERICANAS EM RELAÇÃO À PESQUISA EM CONTABILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ALONSO BORBA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é identificar a percepção de docentes de universidades norte-americanas acerca do paradigma da pesquisa científica em Contabilidade. Para isso, elaborou-se um questionário eletrônico, o qual foi enviado para 1.671 professores provenientes de 92 universidades norte-americanas que possuíam Doutorado em Contabilidade. Um total de 150 docentes respondeu ao questionário de pesquisa. Os resultados evidenciam que: (i os docentes norte-americanos não acreditam que possuir graduação em Contabilidade seja essencial para torna-se um professor/pesquisador de sucesso na área; (ii a University of Texas possui o melhor curso de graduação em Contabilidade e a University of Chicago possui o melhor doutorado na área; (iii The Accounting Review (TAR é considerado o principal periódico de Contabilidade; (iv William Beaver é o principal pesquisador da área; (v temas emergentes na área contábil estão relacionados a governança corporativa, valuation e harmonização contábil. Finalmente, o presente trabalho busca contribuir para o desenvolvimento de futuras pesquisas no cenário nacional, na medida em que evidencia traços e características do principal pólo mundial da Contabilidade.

  5. The Role of the MHV Receptor and Related Glycoproteins in Murine Hepatitis Virus Infection of Murine Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-13

    vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase s y stem for e xpression of target genes . Mol . Cell . BioI . 7 : 2538-2544 . Gagneten , S ., Gout , 0 ., Dubois-Dalcq...glycoprotein. These results showed f or the first time that two murine CEA- related genes can be co-expressed in some cell lines from inbred mice...49 Southern Hybridization ................ . ............ 50 Subcloning of PCR Products and Gene Cloning ........ 51 Growth

  6. Quantitative studies of lymphoid organs, blood and lymph in inbred athymic and euthymic LEW rats under germfree and specified-pathogen-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1987-01-01

    Four groups of inbred male LEW rats were examined: A, germfree athymic; B, specified pathogen free (SPF) athymic; C, germfree euthymic; D, SPF euthymic. All animals were killed at 18 weeks and compared with respect to body weight, histological appearance and cell density of the lymphoid organs, h...

  7. The distribution of erythropoiesis over the various anatomical regions of the erythropoietic system in some inbred strains of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, J.; Hola, J.; Dungel, J.; Znojil, V.

    1982-10-01

    The extraction of /sup 59/Fe bound to the heme in the erythropoietic organs by means of acid ethylacetate was used to establish the proportion of erythropoiesis for which individual bones and the spleens of some inbred mouse strains are responsible. The proportion of splenic erythropoiesis differs from strain to strain, being in the range 9-42% of total erythropoiesis. In the strain BALB/c erythropoiesis is shifted in comparison with C57B1/10 strain towards the spine and away from the bones of the skull, the long bones of the limbs and the pelvis. Calculations of the erythroid cellularity and/or the intensity of erythropoiesis of the total bone marrow on the basis of a single bone should take into account both these interstrain differences in the participation of different regions and the possibility of various proportions of red and white blood cells and cells containing non-heme iron existing in different regions (bones).

  8. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Micaelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Lewis (LEW show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2 as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Kidney Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, inter-species and -individual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. We hypothesized that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, we observed inter-strain differences in TCE metabolite levels in the kidney. In addition, we found that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In sub-chronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and kidney toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ, but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, we show that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain-dependent. PMID:25424545

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Liver Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Uehara, Takeki; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent. Although TCE is classified as carcinogenic to humans, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of inter-individual variability in TCE metabolism and toxicity, especially in the liver. We tested a hypothesis that amounts of oxidative metabolites of TCE in mouse liver are associated with liver-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione] in serum and liver, and various liver toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, inter-strain variability in TCE metabolite amounts was observed in serum and liver. No induction of Cyp2e1 protein levels in liver was detected. Serum and liver levels of TCA and DCA were correlated with increased transcription of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, but not with degree of induction in hepatocellular proliferation. In sub-chronic study, serum and liver levels of oxidative metabolites gradually decreased over time despite continuous dosing. Liver protein levels of Cyp2e1, Adh and Aldh2 were unaffected by treatment with TCE. While the magnitude of induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes also declined, hepatocellular proliferation increased. This study offers a unique opportunity to provide a scientific data-driven rationale for some of the major assumptions in human health assessment of TCE. PMID:25424544

  11. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  12. Análise de confiabilidade do SICOGEA - sistema contábil gerencial e ambiental = Reliability analysis of SICOGEA - management and environmental accounting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Limongi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A área ambiental tem sido discutida por vários profissionais, porém pouco ainda se relata sobre a Contabilidade Ambiental. Assim, a fim de criar um sistema que pudesse fornecer dados ambientais e contabilizá-los, optou-se pela realização do SICOGEA - Sistema Contábil-Gerencial Ambiental. Antes, porém, fazia-se necessário realizar uma análise de confiabilidade. Entrevistas semiestruturadas foram realizadas com profissionais de diversas áreas. Foram enviados, via e-mail, 55 instrumentos de análise, dos quais 53 retornaram, em 30 dias. Na análise empreendida verificou-se, como vantagem inicial da gestão ambiental, o envolvimento da sociedade, pois, conhecendo a realidade local, as possibilidades de solução para as questões ambientais tornam-se mais exequíveis. Percebeu-se uma relação entre as respostas aos questionários e a atividade profissional e acadêmica dos inquiridos: aqueles envolvidos mais diretamente com a área ambiental não demonstraram preocupação com lucratividade, mas aqueles voltados à área econômica entenderam que a gestão ambiental somente terá sucesso quando trouxer vantagem econômica. Percebeuse, pois, entre estes últimos, uma clara preocupação com a sobrevivência no mercado. E é nesse contexto que se insere o SICOGEA, uma nova alternativa de gestão e Contabilidade Ambiental, pois é um sistema que pode ajudar a elucidar a problemática ambiental e possibilitar o uso de tecnologias simples e eficientes, visando à preservação, ao mesmo tempo em que atende às exigências da legislação vigente. Environment has been discussed by many experts but there is not much reported on Environmental Accounting. Thus, in order to obtain a system which is capable of furnishing environmental data and registering them, SICOGEAwas created. It is an Environmental Managing and Accounting System. Before that a reliability test was applied. Semi-structured interviews with different professionals were undertaken

  13. GGE Biplot projection in discriminating the efficiency of popcorn lines to use nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen is essential for sustaining life on the planet, and it is the most important nutrient for obtaining high agricultural production. However, their use leads to the release of nitrous oxide with a global warming potential 296 times higher than the CO2 molecule, making it a challenge to reduce their use in agriculture. The objective of this research was to identify efficient popcorn inbred lines and responsive nitrogen use and exhibit a good expansion volume. For this, 29 inbred lines from the Germplasm Collection of Darcy Ribeiro North Fluminense State University (UENF were evaluated at two contrasting levels of nitrogen availability (low and ideal at two representative locations in the north and northwest of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. These inbred lines were discriminated against efficient use of nitrogen by multivariate GGE Biplot. Selective accuracy was close to 1, showing that the genotypes were enough to provide contrasting success in selection procedures. The first two main components (PC retained 93.82% of the total variation, and PC1 furnished an information ratio (IR that was unaffected by noise. L77 was the most unstable line, while P7, P2, P6, P3, P5, P4, P9, P10, P8, P9, L70, L74, and L55 were efficient and responsive. The GGE biplot method is recommended for the reliable identification of popcorn lines that are efficient and responsive to the use of nitrogen.

  14. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  15. A UTILIDADE DA INFORMAÇÃO CONTÁBIL NO PROCESSO DE FISCALIZAÇÃO E CONTROLE DAS OPERADORAS DE PLANO DE SAÚDE PELA AGÊNCIA NACIONAL DE SAÚDE SUPLEMENTAR (ANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Santiago Magalhães

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo parte da premissa de que a informação contábil é um instrumento fundamental no processo de controle e fiscalização exercido pela Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar – ANS nas operadoras de planos de saúde. Nesse sentido fez-se necessário compreender os principais aspectos contábeis inerentes ao mercado de Saúde Suplementar que são avaliados pela ANS. A pesquisa buscou demonstrar o quão importante é a qualidade das informações contábeis para as operadoras de planos de saúde, já que as mesmas podem, por exemplo, determinar a sua continuidade. Na fundamentação teórica procurou-se abordar as principais exigências de caráter contábil realizadas pela ANS, visto que há aspectos específicos em relação à contabilidade do mercado de Saúde Suplementar. As informações contábeis produzem reflexos, por exemplo, no Índice de Desempenho da Saúde Suplementar – IDSS e podem contribuir no processo de instauração do regime especial de direção fiscal. Desta forma o presente trabalho teve como foco central entender a utilização e avaliação da informação contábil tanto sob a ótica da ANS quanto à ótica das operadoras de planos de saúde. Nesta pesquisa bibliográfica foram usados como fontes de pesquisa, livros, artigos e pronunciamentos oficiais da ANS. Em seguida, a análise de dados procura responder aos objetivos levantados inicialmente, apresentando também um estudo de caso para verificar a relação das informações contábeis refletidas no IDSS de 2010 com as operadoras que entraram em regime especial de direção fiscal em 2011. O resultado consistiu em demonstrar a contribuição das informações contábeis para processo de controle e fiscalização das operadoras, retratando o universo vasto que o tema alcança.

  16. Obtención del diagrama de distribución y de la curva de valoración de un ácido débil monoprotónico mediante hoja de cálculo.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Mediante una hoja de cálculo (Microsoft Excel) se dibuja el diagrama de distribución de un ácido débil monoprotónico (ácido acético) y la curva de valoración del mismo. En el caso de la curva de valoración, la combinación de balances de masas y carga del sistema conduce a una ecuación cúbica difícil de resolver con lo que se opta por obtener los valores de la variable principal (V de base añadida) a partir de valores de pH asignados a la disolución valorada. Se obtiene también la gráfica de v...

  17. O MERCADO ACADÊMICO CONTÁBIL BRASILEIRO: UMA ANÁLISE DO CENÁRIO A PARTIR DAS PRÁTICAS DE PUBLICAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO POR PARES

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Márcia Maria Santos Bortolocci; Azavedo, Sayuri Unoki; Trombelli, Renata Oliveira; Voese, Simone Bernardes

    2013-01-01

    O estudo tem como objetivo analisar o cenário acadêmico contábil brasileiro no que se refere às práticas de publicação e avaliação por pares, refletindo especificamente sobre como os eventos podem contribuir efetivamente para a eficiência do processo de qualificação da produção científica da área de Contabilidade, por meio da elaboração de uma proposta para a comunidade acadêmica. Esta pesquisa possui abordagem quantitativa e emerge a partir de três construtos: a conversão das publicações, a ...

  18. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Influência do Tamanho da Empresa na Informação Contábil: Evidências em Empresas Large Caps e Small Caps Listadas na BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Yukari Yokoyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investigou a relação de aspectos da informação contábil com o nível de capitalização das empresas listadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo, classificadas em Large Caps ou Small Caps, empresas de maior e menor capitalização, respectivamente, no período de 2010 a 2012. Foram abordadas três métricas da informação contábil: informatividade, conservadorismo e relevância, por meio da aplicação dos modelos da informatividade dos lucros de Easton e Harris (1991, o modelo de conservadorismo condicional de Basu (1997 e o modelo de value relevance , baseado em Ohlson (1995. Os resultados apontaram que embora as Large Caps apresentem maior grau de conservadorismo, seus números contábeis mostraram-se menos informativos e mais relevantes em comparação às Small Caps . Devido à maior produção de informação privada ( predisclosure em torno das empresas de maior porte, o mercado tenderia a responder com menos força ou surpresa à publicação das informações contábeis dessas empresas, ao passo que a própria escassez de informação antecipada, tornaria o efeito da divulgação desses números mais preponderante para as empresas de menor porte ( Small Caps .

  20. Analysis of the brain ACTH-immunoreactive peptide spectrum in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoseev, Yu.L.; Blednov, Yu.A.; Seredenin, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Mice of the BALB/c (C) and C57BL/6 (B6) strains, characterized by high and low emotionality respectively in open field tests, have been shown to differ considerably in both the initial level and the time course of changes in the plasma ACTH concentration after exposure to stress in an open field and after administration of a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. The ACTH concentration in the pituitary gland of animals of these lines also differs. The ACTH molecule is known to contain regions with neurotropic activity. It can therefore be postulated that differences in the level of this hormone and the products of its bioconversion in the brain are an essential factor in the mechanisms of formation of the hereditary features of emotional behavior. In this first stage of this investigation, represented in this paper and undertaken to test this hypothesis, spectra of ACTH-immunoreactive peptides were studied in chromatographic fractions of an acid brain extract as well as in the blood plasma of mice belonging to B6 and C lines and their hybrids. The peptides were determined by radioimmunoassay

  1. Quantitative trait loci for maysin synthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) lines selected for high silk maysin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D F; Snook, M E; Houchins, K E; Rector, B G; Widstrom, N W; McMullen, M D

    2007-06-01

    Maysin is a naturally occurring C-glycosyl flavone found in maize (Zea mays L.) silk tissue that confers resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea, Boddie). Recently, two new maize populations were derived for high silk maysin. The two populations were named the exotic populations of maize (EPM) and the southern inbreds of maize (SIM). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was employed to determine which loci were responsible for elevated maysin levels in inbred lines derived from the EPM and SIM populations. The candidate genes consistent with QTL position included the p (pericarp color), c2 (colorless2), whp1 (white pollen1) and in1 (intensifier1) loci. The role of these loci in controlling high maysin levels in silks was tested by expression analysis and use of the loci as genetic markers onto the QTL populations. These studies support p, c2 and whp1, but not in1, as loci controlling maysin. Through this study, we determined that the p locus regulates whp1 transcription and that increased maysin in these inbred lines was primarily due to alleles at both structural and regulatory loci promoting increased flux through the flavone pathway by increasing chalcone synthase activity.

  2. The little women of Loja--growth hormone-receptor deficiency in an inbred population of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, A L; Guevara Aguirre, J; Rosenfeld, R G; Fielder, P J

    1990-11-15

    Laron-type dwarfism, which is characterized by the clinical appearance of isolated growth hormone deficiency with elevated serum levels of growth hormone and decreased serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), has been described in approximately 50 patients. This condition is caused by a deficiency of the cellular receptor for growth hormone, and it is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, as indicated by an equal sex distribution and a high rate of consanguinity in affected families. We studied 20 patients (19 females and 1 male, 2 to 49 years of age), from an inbred Spanish population in southern Ecuador, who had the clinical features of Laron-type dwarfism. Seventeen patients were members of two large pedigrees. Among the 13 affected sibships, there were 19 affected and 24 unaffected female siblings and 1 affected and 21 unaffected male siblings. The patients' heights ranged from 10.0 to 6.7 SD below the normal mean height for age in the United States. In addition to the previously described features, 15 patients had limited elbow extensibility, all had blue scleras, affected adults had relatively short extremities, and all four affected women over 30 years of age had hip degeneration. Basal serum concentrations of growth hormone were elevated in all affected children (30 to 160 micrograms per liter) and normal to moderately elevated in the adults. The serum level of growth hormone-binding protein ranged from 1 to 30 percent of normal; IGF-I concentrations were low--less than or equal to 7 micrograms per liter in the children and less than or equal to 66 micrograms per liter in the adults (normal for Ecuadorean women, 98 to 238). Serum levels of IGF-II and growth hormone-dependent IGF-binding protein-3 were also low. We describe an inbred population with a high incidence of growth hormone-receptor deficiency resulting in a clinical picture resembling Laron-type dwarfism but differing principally in showing a marked predominance of affected

  3. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Walisundera MN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

  4. Genetics of the α 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoostelaere, L.; Potter, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice

  5. Differential response of inbred and F1 hybrid embryos of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. to x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shome, A.; Hazra, S.

    1988-01-01

    Radio-response of HS 4288, HS 7910 and two F 1 hybrid embryos of H. sabdariffa to X-ray doses (2-8 kR) was assessed. Reduction in shoot and root length and incidence of root injuries increased always with the increase of X-ray doses. LD 50 values of HS 4288, HS 7910, F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 428 were in between 5 and 6 kR, 2 and 4 kR, 6 and 8 kR, and 5 and 6 kR respectively. Judging by LD 50 values and 100 per cent seedling abnormality, relatively HS 4288 and F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 were resistant and HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 4288 were susceptible. Induction of macro-mutations was different in two inbreds and also in two F 1 hybrids. Role of cytoplasmic factors for the differential response are discussed. (author). 14 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Genetic Regulation of Hypothalamic Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) in BxD Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Brian W.; Li, Wei; Garlow, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptides are implicated in a wide range of behaviors including in the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants, feeding and energy balance and stress and anxiety responses. We conducted a complex trait analysis to examine natural variation in the regulation of CART transcript abundance (CARTta) in the hypothalamus. CART transcript abundance was measured in total hypothalamic RNA from 26 BxD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains and in the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains. The strain distribution pattern for CARTta was continuous across the RI panel, which is consistent with this being a quantitative trait. Marker regression and interval mapping revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on mouse chromosome 4 (around 58.2cM) and chromosome 11 (between 20–36cM) that influence CARTta and account for 31% of the between strain variance in this phenotype. There are numerous candidate genes and QTL in these chromosomal regions that may indicate shared genetic regulation between CART expression and other neurobiological processes referable to known actions of this neuropeptide. PMID:18199428

  7. Immunological aspects of Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris infections in inbred and outbred strains of laboratory mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, S J; Cox, F E

    1982-08-01

    The intestinal flagellates, Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris, cause similar infections in CBA mice as determined by trophozoite and cyst counts. Both parasites occur all along the small intestine with G. muris, being mainly present in the anterior part and S. muris towards the posterior. The early stages of infection are similar in all strains of mice examined and peak levels of both trophozoites and cysts occur 1-2 weeks after infection. All strains of mice overcome the infection but the rate of recovery varies considerably between strains, being most rapid in BALB/c and slowest in A and C57BL.B10. Outbred mice are more variable in their recovery than inbred mice. After recovery, mice are partially resistant to reinfection with the homologous but not the heterologous parasite. Resistance to reinfection with S. muris is greatest in those strains that eliminate the primary infection most rapidly. Giardia muris and S. muris cause similar changes in the mucosa of the small intestine of BALB/c mice with increased intra-epithelial lymphocyte counts from 3 weeks onwards corresponding with the start of the elimination of the parasites from the gut. A reduction in villus height and increase in crypt depth is also characteristic of these infections.

  8. The effects of brassinosteroids on photosynthetic parameter in leaves of two field-grown maize inbred lines and their F1 hybrid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočová, M.; Rothová, O.; Holá, D.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Kohout, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 785-788 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : brassinosteroids * carotenoids * chlorophylls * heterosis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  9. Crop characteristics and weed Interactions of diverse Rrecurrent Inbred Lines (RILs) from a weed-suppressive x non-suppressive rice mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ndica rice genotypes with enhanced weed suppression traits have been previously identified as potentially useful in supplementing weed control efforts in drill-seeded systems in the southern USA. A particularly weed-suppressive indica genotype (PI 312777) that was also high tillering and high yield...

  10. QTL for the thermotolerance effect of heat hardening, knowckdown resistance to heat and chill-coma recovery in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norry, Fabian M.; Scannapieco, Alejandra C.; Sambucetti, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    The thermotolerance effect of heat hardening (also called short-term acclimation), knockdown resistance to high temperature (KRHT) with and without heat hardening and chill-coma recovery (CCR) are important phenotypes of thermal adaptation in insects and other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster...

  11. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore...... neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were...... identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified. ed in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields...

  12. Ultrastructure and Dimensions of Chloroplasts in Leaves of Three Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines and their F1 Hybrids Grown Under Moderate Chilling Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutík, J.; Holá, D.; Kočová, M.; Rothová, O.; Haisel, Daniel; Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Tichá, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2004), s. 447-455 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/01/0846 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : bundle sheath cells * electron microscopy * genotypes Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  13. Analysis of natural allelic variation of Arabidopsis seed germination and seed longevity traits between the accessions Landberg erecta and Shakdara, using a new recombinant inbred line population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerkx, E.J.M.; El-Lithy, M.E.M.; Vierling, E.; Ruijs, G.J.; Vries, de M.H.C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Koornneef, M.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling various aspects of seed longevity during storage and germination. Similar locations for QTLs controlling different traits might be an indication for a common genetic control of such traits. For this analysis we used a new

  14. Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but do not predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Page, Kathryn E; Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alex; Valore, Erika; Hui, Simon T; Jung, Grace; Zhou, Jie; Lusis, Aldons J; Fuqua, Brie; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Vulpe, Chris D

    2017-11-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex- and strain-dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin and reported conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin ( Hamp1 ) mRNA levels and iron status. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex, and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron, and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in 14 inbred strains on a control diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes and iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen in males were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron-sufficient or high-iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). However, liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice fed iron-sufficient or high-iron diets, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males. We also measured plasma erythroferrone, performed RNA-sequencing analysis of liver samples from six inbred strains fed the iron-sufficient, low-iron, or high-iron diets, and explored differences in gene expression between the strains with the highest and lowest hepcidin levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). Liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least

  15. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  16. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  17. Crianças bilíngües Alemão-Português: erros na escrita e características do ambiente familiar Bilingual German-Portuguese children: handwriting mistakes and characteristics of the familiar environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Raquel Sbrissa Moura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relacionar erros na escrita em português, características do ambiente familiar, idade e sexo de crianças bilíngües Alemão-Português. MÉTODOS: Vinte crianças bilíngües alemão/português realizaram ditado balanceado, e seus pais responderam a um questionário. Os tipos de erros na escrita em Português foram classificados e quantificados, e posteriormente relacionados às respostas dos pais no questionário aplicado. RESULTADOS: Houve menos erros relacionados à troca, substituição aleatória, inversão, transposição, omissão e adição de grafemas, e mais erros relacionados às irregularidades da língua portuguesa. A maioria dos pais possuía material escrito em casa; quando mais de uma pessoa lia em casa e quanto maior a escolaridade paterna, maior o número de crianças com menos erros na escrita; quanto menor a escolaridade materna, maior o número de estudantes com mais erros na escrita. Quanto mais novas as crianças, mais erros de todos os tipos. Os meninos apresentaram mais erros na escrita do que as meninas. CONCLUSÕES: Mesmo sendo os participantes deste estudo todos bilíngües, a maioria dos achados foi compatível com os encontrados em outras pesquisas com crianças monolíngües do Português Brasileiro.PURPOSE: To relate mistakes in Portuguese writing, characteristics of the familiar environment, age and gender of bilingual German-Portuguese children. METHODS: Twenty bilingual children were submitted to balanced dictation, and their parents answered a questionnaire. The analysis classified and quantified the types of errors in Portuguese writing, which was later related to their parents' answers on the questionnaire. RESULTS: There were fewer errors related to change, random substitution, inversion, transposition, omission and adding of graphemes, and more errors associated with Portuguese irregularities. Most parents had written material at home; when more than one person used to read at home and the

  18. Genotype × environment interactions of yield traits in backcross introgression lines derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna /Oryza nivara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Balakrishnan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross introgression lines (BILs developed from crosses of Oryza sativa var. Swarna/O. nivara accessions were grown and evaluated for yield and related traits. Trials were conducted for consecutive three seasons in field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield traits under irrigated conditions were analyzed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI, Genotype and Genotype × Environment Interaction (GGE and modified rank-sum statistic (YSi for yield stability. BILs viz., G3 (14S and G6 (166S showed yield stability across the seasons along with high mean yield performance. G3 is early in flowering with high yield and has good grain quality and medium height, hence could be recommended for most of the irrigated locations. G6 is a late duration genotype, with strong culm strength, high grain number and panicle weight. G6 has higher yield and stability than Swarna but has Swarna grain type. Among the varieties tested DRRDhan 40 and recurrent parent Swarna showed stability for yield traits across the seasons. The component traits thousand grain weight, panicle weight, panicle length, grain number and plant height explained highest genotypic percentage over environment and interaction factors and can be prioritized to dissect stable QTLs/ genes. These lines were genotyped using microsatellite markers covering the entire rice genome and also using a set of markers linked to previously reported yield QTLs. It was observed that wild derived lines with more than 70% of recurrent parent genome were stable and showed enhanced yield levels compared to genotypes with higher donor genome introgressions.

  19. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  20. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika [Kumamoto University, Faculty of Education, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Biochemistry Section, Kumamoto (Japan); Waalkes, Michael P. [National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Inorganic Carcinogenesis Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Imamura, Yorishige [Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl{sub 2}, sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. (orig.)

  1. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  2. Uma proposta de vocabulário bilíngue inglês/português para o Turismo de Negócios e Eventos direcionada pelo corpus: da teoria à prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Alves Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem o objetivo de evidenciar as etapas de construção de um vocabulário bilíngue direcionado pelo corpus. Mas antes mesmo de demonstrar esta sequência de etapas metodológicas, vamos abordar, ainda que rapidamente, as bases teóricas que orientam a produção desta obra terminológica, como: a Teoria Comunicativa da Terminologia de Cabré (1995; a tipologia das obras lexicais e definição de campo de Barbosa (2007; os estudos de Krieger e Finatto (2010 sobre Terminologia; a tese de Fromm (2009 que trabalha a construção de vocabulários eletrônicos para aprendizes de tradução e os pressupostos teóricos da Linguística de Corpus de Parodi (2008 e Teixeira (2008. Depois de realizada uma breve compreensão teórica, as etapas metodológicas são descritas, e são elas: a criação da árvore de domínio do turismo – esta elaborada a partir da realidade brasileira e de base motivacional; a Linguística de Corpus enquanto metodologia para a coleta e tratamento de dados via suíte WordSmith Tools, e a inserção de dados nas fichas terminológicas da plataforma Votec, que trabalha com a gestão terminológica online e também é fonte de inspiração deste trabalho (http://www.pos.voteconline.com.br/; FROMM, 2007 , para a construção das definições. Assim, acreditamos que estas informações possam ajudar os iniciantes em Terminologia com foco em construção vocabulários, além de contribuir com estudos científicos relacionados à área. Palavras-chave: Vocabulário Bilíngue. Linguística de Corpus. Turismo de Negócios e Eventos.

  3. PERFIL DO PROFISSIONAL CONTÁBIL: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE AS EXIGÊNCIAS DO MERCADO DE TRABALHO E A FORMAÇÃO OFERECIDA PELAS INSTITUIÇÕES DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelli Simon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou demonstrar o perfil do profissional contábil formado pelas principais instituições de ensino superior do estado de Mato Grosso, verificando se atende às perspectivas do mercado de trabalho atual, baseado nas ofertas de emprego oferecidas em um jornal de circulação estadual –A Gazeta, no site do Conselho Regional de Contabilidade e também em outro site renomado em divulgar vagas- Catho. Dentre os objetivos procurou-se levantar o perfil que os profissionais contábeis devem ter no mercado de trabalho no Estado atualmente, analisar as matrizes curriculares das principais instituições de ensino superior que oferecem o curso de ciências contábeis em Mato Grosso, comparar o perfil de profissional que é desejado pelo mercado de trabalho e o que está sendo oferecido pelas instituições de ensino superior. Os resultados obtidos referem-se de um período de apuração de dados de janeiro a setembro de 2012. Os dados foram tabulados em planilhas dinâmicas do Excel – aplicativo da Microsoft Office pelo método de pesquisa descritiva, o procedimento adotado é o documental com abordagem qualitativa e por método de conveniência. Os resultados apresentados referentes ao mercado de trabalho demonstraram que a experiência profissional ainda é o que mais se espera de um profissional mesmo que não seja formado, o setor que mais emprega ainda são os escritórios e o ramo agrícola, característico do estado, geralmente as vagas ofertadas são para analistas e assistentes com salário em torno de R$1.500,00, ao avaliar as matrizes curriculares dos cursos e confrontá-las com as exigências do mercado de trabalho se percebe que o que mais se procura são profissionais experientes na área contábil e fiscal, além de conhecimentos em áreas afins e visão gerencial. 

  4. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias; Herzog, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners.

  5. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners. PMID:29200436

  6. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  7. Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D R; Goldsmith, M R

    2000-04-01

    Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.

  8. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  9. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  10. Accelerated Generation of Selfed Pure Line Plants for Gene Identification and Crop Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of pure lines is an important step in biological studies and breeding of many crop plants. The major types of pure lines for biological studies and breeding include doubled haploid (DH lines, recombinant inbred lines (RILs, and near isogenic lines (NILs. DH lines can be produced through microspore and megaspore culture followed by chromosome doubling while RILs and NILs can be produced through introgressions or repeated selfing of hybrids. DH approach was developed as a quicker method than conventional method to produce pure lines. However, its drawbacks of genotype-dependency and only a single chance of recombination limited its wider application. A recently developed fast generation cycling system (FGCS achieved similar times to those of DH for the production of selfed pure lines but is more versatile as it is much less genotype-dependent than DH technology and does not restrict recombination to a single event. The advantages and disadvantages of the technologies and their produced pure line populations for different purposes of biological research and breeding are discussed. The development of a concept of complete in vitro meiosis and mitosis system is also proposed. This could integrate with the recently developed technologies of single cell genomic sequencing and genome wide selection, leading to a complete laboratory based pre-breeding scheme.

  11. Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent Populations with the Collaborative Cross as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Xiong, Sican; Sun, Wei; Zou, Fei

    2018-02-02

    Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. In mice, the collaborative cross (CC) is one of the most popular MPP and is derived from eight genetically diverse inbred founder strains. The strategy of generating RI intercrosses (RIX) from MPP in general and from the CC in particular can produce a large number of completely reproducible heterozygote genomes that better represent the (outbred) human population. Since both maternal and paternal haplotypes of each RIX are readily available, RIX is a powerful resource for studying both standing genetic and epigenetic variations of complex traits, in particular, the parent-of-origin (PoO) effects, which are important contributors to many complex traits. Furthermore, most complex traits are affected by >1 genes, where multiple quantitative trait locus mapping could be more advantageous. In this paper, for MPP-RIX data but taking CC-RIX as a working example, we propose a general Bayesian variable selection procedure to simultaneously search for multiple genes with founder allelic effects and PoO effects. The proposed model respects the complex relationship among RIX samples, and the performance of the proposed method is examined by extensive simulations. Copyright © 2018 Liu et al.

  12. BXD recombinant inbred strains participate in social preference, anxiety and depression behaviors along sex-differences in cytokines and tactile allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Antunes Dos Santos, Alessandra; Ferrer, Beatriz; Culbreth, Megan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Barrasa, Angel; Gulinello, Maria; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a major public health concern. Dysregulation of oxidative and inflammatory systems may be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Due to the need to find appropriate animal models to the understanding of such disorders, we queried whether 2 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice strains (BXD21/TyJ RI and BXD84/RwwJ RI mice) and C57BL/6 wild-type mice show differential performance in depression and anxiety related behaviors and biomarkers. Specifically, we assessed social preference, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and Von Frey tests at 3-4 months-of-age, as well as activation of cytokines and antioxidant mRNA levels in the cortex at 7 months-of-age. We report that (1) the BXD84/RwwJ RI strain exhibits anxiety disorder and social avoidance-like behavior (2) BXD21/TyJ RI strain shows a resistance to depression illness, and (3) sex-dependent cytokine profiles and allodynia with elevated inflammatory activity were inherent to male BXD21/TyJ RI mice. In conclusion, we provide novel data in favor of the use of BXD recombinant inbred mice to further understand anxiety and depression disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac after a long-term period of stable social hierarchy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Gutorova, N V; Kleshchev, M A

    2014-04-01

    Social dominance can alter testicular testosterone production, although there is pronounced variability in the relationship between social status and pattern of the testosterone response. The study designed to investigate how a long-term period of stable social hierarchy effects on testicular testosterone production in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac. Paired males of different genotypes were housed together for 32 days beginning 38 day of age. Dyadic interactions of males generated dominance-subordination relationships during the first day after a social group has been produced and the social rank of each opponent was assessed by asymmetry in agonistic behaviour. Serum level of testosterone and its testicular content were evaluated in male mice of both inbred strains at 70 day of age after pair housing. Control animals were age- and genotype-matched single males that were housed in conventional cages. After a long-term period of pair housing, the serum testosterone level and its testicular content in males of both PT and CBA/Lac strains were not significantly different from the control. There were no significant differences in androgenic parameters between social ranks in male mice of both strains. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of testicular testosterone response to social hierarchy determined by a social situation, for example, a stability of social interactions, when the importance of aggressive competition for rank is minimal.

  16. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability in CXS series of recombinant inbred mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Mori, N.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.; Takamori, Y.; Yagasaki, O.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas differs remarkably among various mouse strains. BALB/cHeA (C) mice are highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphomas, while STS/A (S) mice are resistant. Thus, the induction of the disease is controlled by some genetic factors. To examine an involvement of radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells in lymphomagenesis, we have compared genetic control of the radiosensitivity for antibody-forming ability with that of lymphoma development in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, (CXS)F 1 hybrids and CXS series of recombinant inbred strains. Decrease of number of splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) in Jerne's method by 3 Gy of X-irradiation for BALB/cHeA mice was larger than that for STS/A mice by more than one order of magnitude. (CXS)F 1 hybrid mice showed small number of decrease of PFC similar to STS/A mice suggesting that phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The best concordance between genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody-forming ability in recombinant inbred strains was observed in a region containing Igh locus on chromosome 12. The results show that one locus controlling the radioresistance of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability might exist in the region containing Igh locus, and that this region clearly differ from a region with Ifa locus on chromosome 4 which regulate the susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. (author)

  17. Genotype Modulates Age-Related Alterations in Sensitivity to the Aversive Effects of Ethanol: An 8 Inbred Strain Analysis of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen M.; Forrest, Robert D.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Thus far there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in 8 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25, 3g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72h intervals for a total of 5 CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

  18. Genotype modulates age-related alterations in sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol: an eight inbred strain analysis of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E M; Forrest, R D; Boehm, S L

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Currently there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in eight inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T(+) tf/J, C3H/HeJ and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1 h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72 h intervals for a total of five CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Characterization of Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses After IBV Infection in Chicken Lines Differing in MBL Serum Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    Chickens from two inbred lines selected for high (L10H) or low (L10L) mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentrations were infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and innate as well as adaptive immunological parameters were measured throughout the experimental period. Chickens with high...... MBL serum concentrations were found to have less viral load in the trachea than chickens with low MBL serum concentrations indicating that these chickens were less severely affected by the infection. This study is the first to show that MBL expression is present in the lungs of healthy chickens...

  20. Cytokine response to the RSV antigen delivered by dendritic cell-directed vaccination in congenic chicken lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mucksová, J.; Plachý, Jiří; Staněk, Ondřej; Hejnar, Jiří; Kalina, J.; Benešová, B.; Trefil, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 18 (2017), č. článku 18. ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1210041 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * natural-killer-cells * rous-sarcoma-virus * class-i molecule * c-type lectin * induced tumors * inbred lines * b-nk * mycobacterium-tuberculosis * receptor dec-205 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2016

  1. Disponibilidade de nitrogênio pela oxidação do carbono lábil com permanganato de potássio Availability of nitrogen by the oxidation of the labile carbon with potassium permanganate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsemy E. Maia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a liberação do nitrogênio associado ao carbono lábil oxidado com KMnO4 333 mmol L-1 e verificar a capacidade supridora de nitrogênio pela sua correlação com o nitrogênio absorvido pelas plantas. O solo utilizado foi proveniente de um experimento com milho em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com milho desde 1984, cuja produtividade vem sendo avaliada em função das doses de 0 e 40 m³ ha-1 ano-1 de composto orgânico (palha de soja e feijão com esterco bovino combinadas com 0, 250 e 500 kg ha-1 ano-1 da fórmula 4-14-8 aplicados no plantio, e 0, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de sulfato de amônio em cobertura. Os resultados mostraram que o uso da matéria orgânica contribuiu para uma quantidade maior de nitrogênio solúvel em KMnO4 333 mmol L-1; o teor de nitrogênio solúvel em KMnO4 333 mmol L-1 foi superior ao obtido pelo método anaeróbico e se correlacionou significativamente com o carbono total, carbono lábil, nitrogênio total, teor de amônio e nitrato e com o nitrogênio biodisponível.The present work had the objective of evaluating the liberation of the nitrogen associated to the labile carbon oxidized with KMnO4 (333 mmol L-1 and to verify the supply capacity of nitrogen by its correlation with the nitrogen absorbed by the plants. The soil used belongs to a Cambic Yellow Red Podzol, cultivated with corn since 1984, and its productivity is being evaluated as a function of the doses of 0 and 40 m³ ha-1 year-1 of organic compost (beans and soybean straw with manure, combined with 0, 250 and 500 kg ha-1 year-1 of the formula 4-14-8 applied at planting and 0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 year-1 of ammonium sulphate as top dressing. The results showed that the use of the organic material contributed to a higher amount of nitrogen soluble in KMnO4 (333 mmol L-1. The content of soluble nitrogen in KMnO4 (333 mmol L-1 was found to be superior than that obtained by the anaerobic method and

  2. A proposta bilíngue na educação de surdos: práticas pedagógicas no processo de alfabetização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Florencio Fernandes Moret

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available O ensino e uso da Língua Brasileira de Sinais – LIBRAS, na educação dos surdos, são imprescindíveis para o seu desenvolvimento, construção da sua identidade, autonomia, relações interpessoais, além da comunicação com o mundo. A aquisição da língua portuguesa faz parte do currículo das escolas regulares, e o domínio dela estabelece uma relação entre a língua e a sociedade, que se constitui pela maioria, sendo ouvintes e usuárias da mesma. Existe uma preocupação voltada para a educação dos surdos, principalmente na etapa da alfabetização, que consequentemente se estende por todo o ensino regular, onde a maioria dos alunos surdos estão concluído o ensino médio sem saber ler e/ou produzir na língua portuguesa. Essa problemática afeta o desenvolvimento social desses sujeitos, uma vez que a língua portuguesa ainda é cobrada como se fosse a língua materna do surdo, não respeitando sua cultura, que tem como primeira língua a LIBRAS. O objetivo dessa pesquisa tem como finalidade verificar os métodos e técnicas no processo de alfabetização de surdos e buscar outros modelos, baseados na teoria bilíngue, garantindo a aquisição da LIBRAS como uma língua natural e o ensino da língua portuguesa numa metodologia de segunda língua, para que de fato a aquisição da leitura e escrita se concretize.

  3. A PARTICIPAÇÃO DE ENTES INTERNACIONAIS NO PROCESSO DE CONSULTA PÚBLICA DA NORMA CONTÁBIL PÚBLICA INTERNACIONAL SOBRE ATIVOS INTANGÍVEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner Ribeiro Salaroli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A contabilidade pública segue na direção da contabilidade financeira buscando a convergência aos padrões internacionais, sendo a IFAC o organismo responsável pela emissão de normas internacionais de contabilidade pública. Nesse contexto, este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o processo de criação da norma contábil internacional sobre ativos intangíveis públicos. A análise foi realizada com base nas sugestões presentes em cartas-comentário enviadas no processo de consulta pública. Como base teórica usou-se a Teoria Tridimensional do Direito de Miguel Reale, em que fato, valor e norma estão sempre presentes e correlacionados no processo de criação de normas. A população da pesquisa refere-se às sugestões das 19 cartas enviadas, todavia, a amostra final foi de 117 sugestões contidas em 18 documentos, que sofreram análise de conteúdo. Das 117 sugestões levantadas, 51 contribuições (44% foram de alguma maneira consideradas para elaboração da versão final da norma. Ressalta-se a participação da Accounting Standards Board (África do Sul e da KPMG como os entes que mais forneceram contribuições. As evidências sugerem que a participação tanto de organismos públicos como de entidades privadas no processo de consulta pública pode contribuir para emissão de uma norma moldada de forma a ser implementada por diferentes países.

  4. Estudo anatômico das vias bilíferas em búfalos: comportamento do ductus choledocus, ductus cysticus e vesica fellea. Sistematização do ductus biliferus principalis dexter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Machado de Souza

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram o comportamento do ductus choledocus, ductus cysticus e vesica fellea e a constituição do ductus biliferus principalis dexter, parte das vias bilíferas em 40 búfalas da raça Jaffarabadi, adultas. Os fígados tiveram suas vias biliares injetadas com látex Neoprene 650 e celobar, e o procedimento utilizado pelos autores para evidenciação dos componentes estudados foram a dissecação e radiografias. Nos 40 órgãos analisados constatou-se que o ductus choledocus na maioria (97,5% sem tributários, acolhe num caso isolado (2,5% afluente inominado do lobus quadratus. Este ductus apresenta-se formado pela confluência dos ductus biliferus principalis dexter e do sinister (75%, pela confluência das raízes dorsomedial e ventrolateral mais o ductus biliferus principalis sinister (22,5%, e pela junção do ductus hepaticus e ductus cysticus (2,5%. O ductus cysticus, componente constante do ductus biliferus principalis dexter, associa-se ao ductus biliferus lateralis lobi dextri (67,5%, endereçando-se nas outras glândulas (32,5% a troncos diversos. A vesica fellea em 87,5% das peças mostra-se livre de afluentes, enquanto nas demais dessecações (12,5% recebe duetos hepaticocísticos oriundos apenas do lobus quadratus (5%, simultaneamente do lobus dexter e do lobus quadratus (5%, e unicamente do território lateral do lobus dexter (5%. O ductus biliferus principalis dexter é formado pelo ductus lateralis lobi dextri e ductus cysticus (100% e pelo ductus medialis lobi dextri, ductus dorsalis lobi dextri e ductus processi caudati (92,5%.

  5. SRAP analysis for space induced mutant line of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Wenping; Yu Guirong; Song Jun; Xu Liyuan

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect the effects of space mutation on maize, 16 SRAP primers were applied for the discrimination of the maize inbred line '968' and its 93 mutant materials, 154 polymorphic fragments were amplified. The average of polymorphic bands detected by per SRAP primer combination was 9.6 with a range from 5 to 18. Genetic similarities among the 94 materials ranged from 0.481 to 1.000 with an average of 0.903, and the largest genetic distance was found between mutant line 37 and control. The 94 materials were divided into six groups with the similarity coefficient of 0.732. The phylogenetic analysis showed distinct variation among the mutants. The results indicated that SRAP markers could be used for analyzing genetic variation of mutants. (authors)

  6. Late biological effects in the lung of C3H inbred mice following exposure to fast neutrons and 60Co-γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdon, E.

    1980-01-01

    Histological changes in the lung tissue following local irradiation of the thorax of C 3 H inbred mice were analyzed. The investigation was continued up to 500 d following irradiation with 2 - 8 Gy neutrons and 4 - 30 Gy 60 Co γ-rays, respectively. The study revealed a clear dose dependence and higher effectivity of fast neutrons as to the late effects of the lungs. An increase of the portion of affected connective tissue in the lung was demonstrable already after a dose of 2.5 Gy neutrons and 5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays, respectively. The RBE of fast neutrons for late biological effects on the lung is discussed in connection with previous findings for the RBE of acute effects on tumor and normal tissue. (author)

  7. SEE locomotor behavior test discriminates C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mouse inbred strains across laboratories and protocol conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Lipkind, Dina; Benjamini, Yoav; Mayo, Cheryl L; Elmer, Gregory I; Golani, Ilan

    2003-06-01

    Conventional tests of behavioral phenotyping frequently have difficulties differentiating certain genotypes and replicating these differences across laboratories and protocol conditions. This study explores the hypothesis that automated tests can be designed to quantify ethologically relevant behavior patterns that more readily characterize heritable and replicable phenotypes. It used SEE (Strategy for the Exploration of Exploration) to phenotype the locomotor behavior of the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse inbred strains across 3 laboratories. The 2 genotypes differed in 15 different measures of behavior, none of which had a significant genotype-laboratory interaction. Within the same laboratory, most of these differences were replicated in additional experiments despite the test photoperiod phase being changed and saline being injected. Results suggest that well-designed tests may considerably enhance replicability across laboratories.

  8. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  9. Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Theodore M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally measured consumption, which can be confounded by post-ingestive effects. Here, we used a taste-salient brief-access procedure to measure taste sensitivity to eight stimuli characterized as bitter or aversive in C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 mice. Results B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP, and MgCl2. D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA. These strains did not differ in sensitivity to cycloheximide (CYX, denatonium benzoate (DB, KCl or HCl. Conclusion B6-D2 taste sensitivity differences indicate that differences in consumption of QHCl, PROP, MgCl2 and RUA are based on immediate orosensory cues, not post-ingestive effects. The absence of a strain difference for CYX suggests that polymorphisms in a T2R-type taste receptor shown to be differentially sensitive to CYX in vitro are unlikely to differentially contribute to the CYX behavioral response in vivo. The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for investigation into the genetic mechanisms of taste.

  10. Molecular mapping of the novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm36 introgressed from Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, A; Cenci, A; Carluccio, A V; Abdelbacki, A M M; Simeone, R

    2008-06-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides (2n=4x=AABB), the progenitor of cultivated wheats, shows particular promises as a donor of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances. The wild emmer accession MG29896, resistant to powdery mildew, was backcrossed to the susceptible durum wheat cultivar Latino, and a set of backcross inbred lines (BC(5)F(5)) was produced. Genetic analysis of F(3) populations from two resistant introgression lines (5BIL-29 x Latino and 5BIL-42 x Latino) indicated that the powdery mildew resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Molecular markers and the bulked segregant analysis were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance. Five AFLP markers (XP43M32((250)), XP46M31((410)), XP41M37((100)), XP41M39((250)), XP39M32((120))), three genomic SSR markers (Xcfd07, Xwmc75, Xgwm408) and one EST-derived SSR marker (BJ261635) were found to be linked to the resistance gene in 5BIL-29 and only the BJ261635 marker in 5BIL-42. By means of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome bin 5BL6-0.29-0.76. These results indicated that the two lines had the same resistance gene and that the introgressed dicoccoides chromosome segment was longer (35.5 cM) in 5BIL-29 than that introgressed in 5BIL-42 (less than 1.5 cM). As no powdery mildew resistance gene has been reported on chromosome arm 5BL, the novel resistance gene derived from var. dicoccoides was designated Pm36. The 244 bp allele of BJ261635 in 5BIL-42 can be used for marker-assisted selection during the wheat resistance breeding process for facilitating gene pyramiding.

  11. Demonstração dos fluxos de caixa: uma contribuição para a evidenciação contábil Statement of cash flows: a contribution to accounting disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Amaral

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma tendência mundial visando a padronização de procedimentos contábeis, no intuito de possibilitar uma maior interação das empresas, dos investidores e do mercado de capitais em função do fenômeno da globalização. Para tanto, serão necessárias as harmonizações das normas contábeis, bem como o estudo de quais Demonstrativos são realmente importantes para o processo de evidenciação. Uma dessas tendências é a substituição da demonstração das origens e aplicações de recursos (DOAR pela demonstração dos fluxos de caixa (DFC. Essa substituição, via de regra, deve-se à dificuldade que usuários menos afeitos à Contabilidade têm em entender aquela demonstração. No Brasil, já existe um anteprojeto de lei tramitando no Congresso Nacional, que propõe a substituição da DOAR pela DFC, a partir da reformulação da Lei n. 6.404/76 - Lei das Sociedades Anônimas. Dessa maneira, procura-se com este estudo verificar as contribuições que a elaboração e divulgação da DFC pode trazer para a evidenciação contábil.There is a worldwide tendency aiming to standardise accounting procedures in order to make bigger companies, investors and capital market interaction possible in the entire world according to the globalisation phenomenon. For that, the harmonisation of Accounting Standards, as well as the study of which Statements are really important for the process of disclosure will be necessary. One of these tendencies is the substitution of the Statement of Changes in Financial Position by the Statement of Cash Flows. This substitution, as a rule, is due to the difficulty that some groups of users have to understand that statement. In Brazil, there's already a pre-project of law in course at the National Congress, which proposes the substitution of Statement of Changes in Financial Position by Statement of Cash Flows from the revision of the law n. 6 404/74 - the Incorporated Company Law. In this way, this study

  12. Penetración eólica con diferentes tecnologías de aerogeneradores en presencia de una red débil; Wind Penetration with different wind turbine technologies in a weak grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Santos Fuentefria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La integración de la energía eólica en los sistemas eléctricos puede ocasionar problemas de estabilidad ligados fundamentalmente a la variación aleatoria del viento, lo que provoca que la tensión en el nodo de conexión varíe. Si el sistema al que se conecta es débil esta variación tiene una mayor influencia. Otro factor importante es el tipo de tecnología utilizada, ya que losaerogeneradores de velocidad fija conectados directamente a la red tienen un gran consumo de potencia reactiva, esta puede ser compensada utilizando diferentes dispositivos (banco de condensadores, SVC o STATCOM. Los aerogeneradores de velocidad variable poseen un convertidor que controla el consumo de reactivo para mantener la tensión en el nodo de conexión lomás estable posible. En este trabajo se hace una comparación entre los diferentes tipos de tecnologías de aerogeneradores utilizadas y su impacto en el límite de generación eólica cuando el sistema se va debilitando. The insertion of wind energy into electric network may provoke stability problems due to stochastic character of wind. The variation in the wind causes voltage variation in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC. In a weakest system that variation is high. Another important factor is wind turbine technology. The use of grid-connected fixed speed wind generator introduces a great consumption of reactive power that can be compensated using different devices as capacitors bank or static var compensator (SVC or STATCOM. In the other hand the variable speed wind turbine have anelectronic converter to control the reactive consumption to maintain the PCC voltage more stable. In this paper a comparison between the different types of wind turbines technology is show. It’s analyzing the impact in wind power limit for different wind turbine technologies in a weak system.

  13. PODER RELATIVO DO LUCRO CONTÁBIL E DO FLUXO DE CAIXA DAS OPERAÇÕES PARA PREVER FLUXOS DE CAIXA FUTUROS: UM ESTUDO EMPÍRICO NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. PAULO ROBERTO B. LUSTOSA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo avalia a eficácia da previsão de fluxos futuros, para um e dois anos à frente, de quatro medidas de desempenho da empresa, sendo duas de fluxo de caixa e duas de lucro, a partir de medidas ex post do Fluxo de Caixa das Operações (FCO, isolado e em conjunto com a variação das alocações (accruals de curto prazo (?AcBcpB, e do Lucro Líquido contábil (LL. A metodologia de previsão é do tipo externo à amostra. São feitas várias previsões anuais e bianuais transversais para as 92 empresas que compõem a amostra, ao longo dos anos de 1996 a 2004. Os desvios (erros médios absolutos de previsão, a Mediana dos erros e as correlações médias entre os valores reais e projetados das variáveis são apurados e comparados entre si para fins de verificação da eficácia de previsão dos fluxos futuros de cada um dos três modelos. Os resultados revelam que: (1 LL é superior ao FCO para prever o Lucro Líquido do ano seguinte, mas, ao contrário, FCO é superior ao LL para prever o Lucro Líquido dois anos à frente; (2 a combinação das alocações de curto prazo (?AcBcpB com o FCO não melhora as previsões que são feitas apenas com o FCO, indicando que o Fluxo de Caixa das Operações é mais eficaz para prever fluxos futuros de caixa e de lucro do que o capital circulante líquido; e (3 o Lucro Operacional (LO, como é definido na legislação societária brasileira, é de difícil previsão.

  14. El empobrecimiento de los trabajadores como fuente de excedente en economías con débil dinámica productiva: Argentina desde mediados del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Kennedy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar el desempeño de la economía argentina desde mediados del siglo XX, recurriendo al análisis de la distribución funcional del ingreso y sus componentes –salario real y la productividad–, tanto para la economía agregada como para el sector industrial.A partir de la comparación con un conjunto de países desarrollados (Estados Unidos, Francia, Italia, Japón y España, encontramos que dichas variables presentan desde mediados de la década del setenta una evolución particularmente llamativa: la productividad crece a un ritmo inferior –incluso con momentos de caída o estancamiento– y el salario real retrocede marcadamente.En este marco, discutimos la explicación según la cual el empobrecimiento de los trabajadores argentinos es el resultado del proceso de desindustrialización sufrido –aunque sus indicadores se verifican con similar intensidad en aquellos países–, cambiando el eje hacia el débil desempeño de la productividad -y la consecuente ampliación de su brecha relativa–, que implica mayores costos para las empresas, que deben ser compensados con fuentes extraordinarias de ganancia. Una de ellas es, claro está, el salario real, de modo que el empobrecimiento de los trabajadores en Argentina resulta una pieza necesaria en el marco de la forma que adopta el proceso económico.This paper analyses the performance of the Argentine economy since the 1950s, through the analysis of the functional distribution of income and its components –real wage and productivity– for the economy and especially the manufacturing sector.Through comparisons with a group of developed countries (France, Italy, Japan and Spain, USA, we find that those variables have a striking evolution: the productivity grows at an inferior rate –including periods of stagnation– and the real wage falls dramatically.We then challenge the existing explanation of the impoverishment of the Argentine working class: the

  15. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  16. Labile carbon pools and biological activity in volcanic soils of the Canary Islands Fracciones de carbono orgánico lábil y actividad biológica en suelos de origen volcánico de las Islas Canarias Frações de carbono orgânico lábil e actividade biológica em solos de origem vulcânica das Ilhas Canárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia María Armas Herrera

    2013-03-01

    (0.77 g kg-1, which represents an SOC pool of low bioavailability, was protected by its adsorption to allophane in silandic Andosols.La medida de la susceptibilidad del carbono orgánico del suelo (SOC a la mineralización es esencial para predecir la respuesta a corto plazo de los reservorios biosféricos de carbono a los cambios en las condiciones ambientales. En este trabajo abordamos el estudio del SOC lábil (fácilmente mineralizable en suelos volcánicos, donde la biodisponibilidad del SOC se ve característicamente afectada por mecanismos de estabilización físico-química propios de estos suelos. Con este fin seleccionamos diez suelos representativos (sobre todo Andosoles de los principales hábitats naturales (matorral xerofítico, monteverde y pinar en las Islas Canarias, un archipiélago de origen volcánico. Durante dos años medimos diversas fracciones de SOC a las que se atribuye un distinto grado de biodisponibilidad: carbono soluble en agua en muestras frescas de suelo (WSC y en el extracto saturado (WSCse, carbono extraíble en agua caliente (HWC, carbono extraíble con sulfato potásico (PSC, carbono ligado a la biomasa microbiana (MBC, carbono orgánico particulado (POC, carbono de sustancias húmicas (HSC, y carbono orgánico total (TOC, y realizamos ensayos de incubación de las emisiones de CO2. Relacionamos estas medidas con los posibles aportes de carbono procedentes de la hojarasca y las raíces, y la actividad de enzimas hidrolíticas (CM-celulasa, ?-D-glucosidasa, y deshidrogenasa implicadas en el ciclado del carbono. La medida in vitro de la mineralización en ensayos cortos (10 días se ajustó a un modelo cinético simple de primer orden, un procedimiento sencillo que nos permitió obtener no sólo una estimación del SOC más inmediatamente mineralizable, sino también de la heterogeneidad de los sustratos consumidos durante la incubación. Los suelos volcánicos investigados mostraron una gran riqueza de SOC lábil, en los que

  17. BilBooking CarAdmin

    OpenAIRE

    Ensrud, Marius; Gjerde, Ketil; Solberg, Yngve

    2005-01-01

    ETC CarAdmin er en biladministreringsløsning utviklet for å effektivisere og lette kostnadene ved den interne biladministrasjonen i kommuner og bedrifter. Det var her to hovedoppdrag vi fikk av oppdragsgiver. Det ene var å bruke Microsoft Outlook sin kalender mot Microsoft Exchange, som har mulighet for ressursreservering, til å gi brukere av CarAdmin-løsningen mulighet til å reservere biler. Oppdrag to, var å bygge opp en webside som kunne gi en kalender visning til bruker og også gi m...

  18. Perícia contábil: análise das condições de ensino em cursos de ciências contábeis da região metropolitana de São Paulo Forensic accounting: analysis of teaching conditions in accountancy bachelor courses in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivam Ricardo Peleias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A Perícia Contábil é uma opção de atuação profissional para os futuros contadores. A legislação sobre o ensino superior da Contabilidade no Brasil, promulgada a partir dos anos 1990, voltou a determinar a oferta de Perícia Contábil, o que permitiu que os futuros bacharéis em Ciências Contábeis que optarem por atuar como peritos contábeis sejam preparados para atender as demandas profissionais que lhes forem impostas. O objetivo geral do trabalho é identificar e analisar as condições de ensino da disciplina Perícia Contábil em cursos de Ciências Contábeis na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. É uma pesquisa descritiva e de caráter qualitativo, que requereu um levantamento de campo de natureza documental. Foram obtidos e analisados os planos de ensino da disciplina Perícia Contábil em dois grupos de cursos: o primeiro com sete classificados pelo Enade de 2006; o segundo com dez, escolhidos por acessibilidade. A análise documental revelou a evolução histórica no ensino de Perícia Contábil na legislação sobre o ensino da Contabilidade no Brasil. Constatou-se que a oferta de conteúdos para disciplinas correlatas na América do Norte é estimulada pela sociedade e pelo mercado de trabalho, ao contrário do Brasil, cujo comando é a lei. A análise documental dos planos de ensino, realizada por meio da análise de conteúdo, apontou que os cursos classificados pelo Enade possuem melhores condições de ensino, revelando maiores preocupações e cuidados com: estratificação dos grupos de conteúdos oferecidos, completude dos planos de ensino, variação nas estratégias de ensino, ênfase em determinados grupos de conteúdos e variedade nos critérios de avaliação.Forensic Accounting is an option of professional career for future accountants. The Brazilian legislation concerning the teaching of Accountancy in Brazil, promulgated in the 1990s, is considering Forensic Accounting again, so as to allow future

  19. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  20. Myeloid leukemias and virally induced lymphomas in miniature inbred swine; development of a large animal tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMON eDURAN-STRUUCK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the MGH miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in MHC characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  1. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  2. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  3. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  4. Balanço contábil das nações: reflexões sobre os cenários de mudanças climáticas globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Kassai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é elaborar o balanço patrimonial de países com base nos cenários de mudanças climáticas e de aquecimento global apontados pelo Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU. O estudo leva em consideração o estoque de recursos florestais e o saldo residual entre as emissões e capturas de carbono ou Greenhouse gas (GHG estimadas para cada país, em 2020 e em 2050, de acordo com os relatórios Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES A1B1 e A2B2. A pesquisa foi conduzida de forma multidisciplinar, envolvendo conceitos das áreas de biologia das mudanças climáticas, de energia, de geociência, de economia e da contabilidade. Esta última que foi utilizada para delimitar o objeto da pesquisa e servir de método, por meio da técnica Inquired Balance Sheet, para mensuração e classificação dos ativos, dos passivos e dos patrimônios líquidos ambientais. Selecionou-se uma amostra de sete países representantes do BRIC (Brasil, Rússia, Índia e China e de países desenvolvidos da América, Europa e Ásia (EUA, Alemanha e Japão. Os balanços contábeis de cada país foram avaliados em unidades equivalentes de produto interno bruto (PIB, ajustados pelo consumo de energia per capita em toneladas equivalente de petróleo (TEP e em mega toneladas de carbono (MtonC, precificadas pelo custo (US$ de captura de carbono sugeridos pela ONU. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que os países desenvolvidos estão consumindo recursos de outras nações e de gerações futuras e, apesar de Brasil e Rússia apresentarem superávits ambientais, o balanço consolidado do planeta no cenário de 2050 aponta para uma situação deficitária ou falimentar, com "passivo a descoberto" ou patrimônio líquido negativo equivalente a US$ 2,3 mil anuais para cada um dos atuais 6,6 bilhões de habitantes (2008 e um passivo ambiental equivalente a um quarto do PIB mundial. Este relatório contábil

  5. Índice de informação contábil pública: um estudo nos municípios brasileiros = Public Accounting Information Index: a study in the brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Jaiany Viana de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de avaliar os índices de divulgação de informação contábil pública dos municípios brasileiros. A pesquisa pode ser classificada como qualitativa, descritiva e documental. Os resultados revelaram que São Paulo foi aquele com maior pontuação para o índice analisado, com 67,86% dos itens divulgados em seu sitio, seguido por Vitória (64,29%, Londrina e Porto Alegre com (60,71%, Rio de Janeiro (53,57%, Cuiabá e Curitiba com (50% das práticas observadas nos sítios. Além disso, identificou-se Belford Roxo como o município com o menor índice (7,14% de divulgação de informações contábeis, seguido por Juazeiro do Norte (10,71% e Boa Vista (14,30%. Conclui-se que os municípios não estão evidenciando em seus portais eletrônicos informações que permitam aos cidadãos conhecer a gestão financeira de seus municípios, uma vez que foi observada a existência de entes municipais que não divulgam nenhum dos demonstrativos contábeis exigidos pela legislação vigente e que não foi possível perceber nos sítios um estímulo a sociedade participar da gestão municipal.This research aimed at evaluating the levels of disclosure of public financial information from Brazilian municipalities. The methodology consisted qualitative, descriptive and documentary research. The sample selection technique was performed by convenience and corresponded to the 100 most populous municipalities in Brazil, because these municipalities concentrate the largest share of the population (approximately 45% of the total population. The results revealed that São Paulo was the one with the highest score for the analyzed index, with 67,86% of the items published in its site, followed by Victoria (64,29%, Londrina and Porto Alegre (60,71%, Rio de Janeiro (53,57%, Cuiabá and Curitiba (50% of the practices observed on their sites. In addition, it was identified Belford Roxo as the municipality with the lowest index (7,14% to

  6. Several classical mouse inbred strains, including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, carry a putative loss-of-function allele of Gpr84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Carlos J; Dumas, Aline; Vallières, Luc; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in the mouse family tree and found that 14 strains are homozygous for the deletion. Some of these strains are DBA/1J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, LG/J, MRL/MpJ, NOD/LtJ, and SJL/J. However, the deletion was not found in any of the wild-derived inbred strains analyzed. Haplotype analysis suggested that the deletion originates from a unique mutation event that occurred more than 100 years ago, preceding the development of the first inbred strain (DBA), from a Mus musculus domesticus source. As GPR84 ostensibly plays a role in the biology of myeloid cells, it could be relevant 1) to consider the existence of this Gpr84 nonsense mutation in several mouse strains when choosing a mouse model to study immune processes and 2) to consider reevaluating data obtained using such strains.

  7. Infection of inbred rat strains with Rift Valley fever virus: development of a congenic resistant strain and observations on age-dependence of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G W; Rosebrock, J A; Johnson, A J; Jennings, G B; Peters, C J

    1991-05-01

    A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of resistance to Rift Valley fever virus governed by the dominant Mendelian gene.

  8. A missense mutation in ALDH1A3 causes isolated microphthalmia/anophthalmia in nine individuals from an inbred Muslim kindred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mory, Adi; Ruiz, Francesc X; Dagan, Efrat; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A; Kurolap, Alina; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Nine affected individuals with isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia from a large Muslim-inbred kindred were investigated. Assuming autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance, whole-genome linkage analysis, on DNA samples from four affected individuals, was undertaken. Homozygosity mapping techniques were employed and a 1.5-Mbp region, homozygous in all affected individuals, was delineated. The region contained nine genes, one of which, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3), was a clear candidate. This gene seems to encode a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic-acid gradient along the dorsoventral axis during an early eye development and the development of the olfactory system. Sanger sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation, causing a substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) at position 71. Analyzing the p.Val71Met missense mutation using standard open access software (MutationTaster online, PolyPhen, SIFT/PROVEAN) predicts this variant to be damaging. Enzymatic activity, studied in vitro, showed no changes between the mutated and the wild-type ALDH1A3 protein.

  9. A comparison of the survival (LD/sub 50/30/) of a number of inbred mouse strains after X and 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacha, J.; Znojil, V.; Hola, J.; Sikulova, J.

    1984-01-01

    The value of LD/sub 50/30/ for X and 60 Co gamma radiation was ascertained for several inbred mouse strains and the significance of interstrain differences in these parameters determined. The rank order of strains according to LD/sub 50/30/ differs as between the two types of radiation with the exception of the strains BALB/c and B10.LP/Ph, which are the least resistant to radiation-induced lethality with both types of radiation. The strain C57BL/10ScSnPh is highly resistant to X irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness of 60 Co gamma radiation as compared with X-radiation from the point of view of lethality fluctuates between 0.748 and 0.952 in individual strains, with a mean value of 0.866 +- 0.033. The RBE values do not correlate with the radiosensitivity of the strain, but they do correlate with the relative contribution to erythropoiesis of the spleen. (author)

  10. The effect of partial reinforcement on instrumental successive negative contrast in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low- (RLA-I) Avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C

    2012-03-20

    Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Mixed Bartter-Gitelman syndrome: an inbred family with a heterogeneous phenotype expression of a novel variant in the CLCNKB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shibli, Amar; Yusuf, Madinah; Abounajab, Issam; Willems, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with renal diseases associated with salt-losing tubulopathies categorized as Gitelman and classic form of Bartter syndrome have undergone genetic screening for possible mutation capture in two different genes: SLC12A3 and CLCNKB. Clinical symptoms of these two diseases may overlap. Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome are autosomal recessive salt-losing tubulopathies with hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, hyperaldosteronism, and, in some patients, hypomagnesemia. Here we describe four patients from an inbred family with a novel missense variant in the CLCNKB gene. All of patients are asymptomatic; yet they have the typical metabolic abnormality of salt losing tubulopathies. One of those patients had hypomagnesaemia while others not. Clinical and laboratory data of all patients was described. All 4 patients have a homozygous c.490G > T missense variant in exon 5 of the CLCNKB gene. This variant alters a glycine into a cysteine on amino acid position 164 of the resulting protein (p.Gly164Cys). The c.490G > T variant is a novel variant not previously described in other patients nor controls. Polyphen analysis predicts the variation to be possibly damaging. Analysis of SLC12A3 was normal. Here in we are describing a novel homozygous c.490G > T missense variation was identified in exon 5 of the CLCNKB gene was identified in an Emirati patients with a mild manifestation of Bartter - Gitelman syndrome.

  12. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda; Lodahl, Marianne; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Cesur, Yasar; Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Akgun, Cihangir; Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome, also named "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is an inherited association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as key diagnostic criteria. Renal tract abnormalities and neurodegenerative disorder may occur in the third and fourth decade. The wolframin gene, WFS1, associated with this syndrome, is located on chromosome 4p16.1. Many mutations have been described since the identification of WFS1 as the cause of Wolfram syndrome. We identified a new homozygous WFS1 mutation (c.1532T>C; p.Leu511Pro) causing Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels of protein expression compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly supporting that this mutation is disease-causing. The mutation showed perfect segregation with disease in the family, characterized by early and severe clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the survival (LD/sub 50/30/) of a number of inbred mouse strains after X and /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, J.; Znojil, V.; Hola, J.; Sikulova, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav)

    1984-01-01

    The value of LD/sub 50/30/ for X and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was ascertained for several inbred mouse strains and the significance of interstrain differences in these parameters determined. The rank order of strains according to LD/sub 50/30/ differs as between the two types of radiation with the exception of the strains BALB/c and B10.LP/Ph, which are the least resistant to radiation-induced lethality with both types of radiation. The strain C57BL/10ScSnPh is highly resistant to X irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation as compared with X-radiation from the point of view of lethality fluctuates between 0.748 and 0.952 in individual strains, with a mean value of 0.866 +- 0.033. The RBE values do not correlate with the radiosensitivity of the strain, but they do correlate with the relative contribution to erythropoiesis of the spleen.

  14. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, Elizabeth M [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique (α < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (ToG), narrower range of gelatinization (RG), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHG). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower ToG, wider RG, and lower ΔHG. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were

  15. Educação superior bilíngue para surdos: o sentido da política inclusiva como espaço da liberdade: primeiras aproximações Bilingual university level education for the deaf: understanding inclusive policies as a space for freedom: first approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar um ensaio acerca da experiência em curso do Instituto Nacional de Surdos (INES, na implantação do Instituto Superior Bilíngue de Educação (ISBE. O diálogo com Hannah Arendt e a concepção de política como espaço da liberdade consubstanciam esta reflexão. Inicialmente, o recente contexto educacional dos surdos, com a aprovação do Decreto n.º 5.626/2005, que regulamenta a Lei n.º 10.436/2002, que oficializa a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS, é colocado em cena. Em seguida, traçam-se os elementos constitutivos básicos da recente construção da experiência de ensino superior bilíngue no INES/ISBE, com o curso de Pedagogia e os principais entraves a sua implantação. À guisa de reflexões finais, pretende-se indicar o sentido da política inclusiva no contexto de uma Política Cultural Bilíngue, enquanto abertura histórica de sentido possa representar um ensaio à liberdade.This study aims to present an essay about the current experience of implanting the Bilingual Higher Education Institute - ISBE at the National Institute for the Education of the Deaf - INES. Two factors substantiate this reflection: the dialogue with Hanna Arendt and the conception of politics as a space for freedom. Initially, the scene is set by the current context for deaf education, after the Decree number 5626/2005, that regulates federal law number 10436, which rules on Brazilian Sign Language - LIBRAS. Next, we trace the basic elements that have constituted the recent construction of bilingual teaching experience at INES/ISBE, with the Bachelor in Education and the main barriers that have been faced. In our closing reflections, we intend to discuss the meaning of inclusive policies within the context of Bilingual Cultural Policies, whereby the historical opening of this course may represent an attempt at greater freedom.

  16. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  17. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  18. Audição e linguagem em crianças deficientes auditivas implantadas inseridas em ambiente bilíngue: um estudo de casos Auditory and language abilities in children with cochlear implants who live in bilingual homes: a cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mendes de Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O implante coclear (IC tem sido indicado para crianças deficientes auditivas de grau severo e/ou profundo que não tem benefício com o aparelho de amplificação sonora individual (AASI, e que apresentem família adequada e motivada para o uso do dispositivo, bem como condições adequadas de reabilitação na cidade de origem. Atualmente, a procura pelo IC também ocorre por pais surdos, fluentes na Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS, que recorrem a este tratamento para oferecer outra realidade para seus filhos. O ambiente destas crianças é bilíngue, dado pela LIBRAS dos pais e pela linguagem oral dos familiares próximos, do fonoaudiólogo e da escola. Neste sentido, o presente estudo visou acompanhar quatro crianças deficientes auditivas implantadas, sendo duas crianças filhas de pais deficientes auditivos fluentes na LIBRAS (expostas a ambiente bilíngue e duas crianças filhas de pais sem alterações auditivas (expostas a ambiente oral. Para tanto, as habilidades de audição e de aquisição da linguagem oral foram comparadas nas quatro crianças implantadas. Foi possível observar que as quatro crianças apresentaram habilidades auditivas e de linguagem semelhantes ao longo do primeiro ano de uso do IC. Contudo, a partir disto, as crianças inseridas em ambiente bilíngue apresentaram melhor desempenho auditivo e linguístico, comparado ao desenvolvimento das outras crianças. As crianças inseridas em ambiente bilíngue podem se beneficiar do IC, desenvolvendo habilidades auditivas e de linguagem similares às das crianças inseridas em ambiente oral. Ressalta-se que os benefícios do dispositivo são obtidos a partir de aspectos multifatoriais, e estudos mais aprofundados são necessários.The cochlear implant (CI has been indicated for children with severe and/or profound bilateral hearing loss who do not benefit from hearing aids and have adequate and motivated family for the use of the device, as well as adequate

  19. HÉNAUX, Victor. De l’amour des femmes pour les sots / Queda que as mulheres têm para os tolos. Tradução de Machado de Assis. Edição Bilíngue. Organização: Ana Cláudia Suriani da Silva e Eliane Fernanda Cunha Ferreira. Campinas: Editora Unicamp. 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kall Lyws Barroso Sales

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2015v35n1p313   Em 2008, em comemoração ao centenário de Machado, as professoras Ana Cláudia Suriani da Silva e Eliane Fernanda Cunha Ferreira retomam as discussões sobre autoria, plágio e tradução, propondo uma edição bilíngue na qual cotejam a obra de Hénaux, De l'amour des femmes pour les sots de 1858 e a tradução de Machado Queda que as mulheres têm para os tolos de 1861. Assim, esta resenha analisa a tradução de Machado de Assis, cuja autoria da obra, durante muito tempo, foi atríbuida ao escritor brasileiro.

  20. HÉNAUX, Victor. De l’amour des femmes pour les sots / Queda que as mulheres têm para os tolos. Tradução de Machado de Assis. Edição Bilíngue. Organização: Ana Cláudia Suriani da Silva e Eliane Fernanda Cunha Ferreira. Campinas: Editora Unicamp. 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kall Lyws Barroso Sales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 2008, em comemoração ao centenário de Machado, as professoras Ana Cláudia Suriani da Silva e Eliane Fernanda Cunha Ferreira retomam as discussões sobre autoria, plágio e tradução, propondo uma edição bilíngue na qual cotejam a obra de Hénaux, De l'amour des femmes pour les sots de 1858 e a tradução de Machado Queda que as mulheres têm para os tolos de 1861. Assim, esta resenha analisa a tradução de Machado de Assis, cuja autoria da obra, durante muito tempo, foi atríbuida ao escritor brasileiro.

  1. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  2. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  3. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  4. Codominant expression of genes coding for different sets of inducible salivary polypeptides associated with parotid hypertrophy in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Solís, Remigio O; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2005-05-01

    Experimental mouse parotid hypertrophy has been associated with the expression of a number of isoproterenol-induced salivary proline-rich polypeptides (IISPs). Mouse salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) have been mapped both to chromosomes 6 and 8. Recently, mice of two inbred strains (A/Snell and A. Swiss) have been found to differ drastically in the IISPs. In this study, mice of both strains were used for cross-breeding experiments addressed to define the pattern of inheritance of the IISP phenotype and to establish whether the IISPs are coded on a single or on several chromosomes. The IISP phenotype of individual mice was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole saliva collected after three daily stimulations by isoproterenol. Parental A/Snell and A. Swiss mice were homogeneous for distinctive strain-associated IISP-patterns. First filial generation (F1) mice obtained from the cross of A/Snell with A. Swiss mice expressed with no exception both the A/Snell and A. Swiss IISPs (coexpression). In the second filial generation (F2) both parental IISP phenotypes reappeared together with a majority of mice expressing the F1-hybrid phenotype (1:2:1 ratio). Backcrosses of F1 x A/Snell and F1 x A. Swiss produced offsprings displaying the F1 and the corresponding parental phenotypes with a 1:1 ratio. No recombinants were observed among F2 mice or among mice resulting from backcrosses. Thus, genes coding for the IISPs that are expressed differentially in both mouse strains are located on the same chromosome, probably at the same locus (alleles) or at quite closely linked loci (nonalleles). 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  5. Private selective sweeps identified from next-generation pool-sequencing reveal convergent pathways under selection in two inbred Schistosoma mansoni strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A J Clément

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and copy number variations (CNV. In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (π = 2 × 10(-4 within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst = 0.73 between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions. Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection.

  6. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  7. Incentive loss and hippocampal gene expression in inbred Roman high- (RHA-I) and Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Marta; Morón, Ignacio; Gómez, M José; Donaire, Rocío; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Martínez-Conejero, José A; Esteban, Francisco J; Torres, Carmen

    2013-11-15

    Two recent microarray and qRT-PCR studies showed that inbred Roman high- (RHA-I, low anxiety and frustration vulnerability) and low-avoidance (RLA-I, high anxiety and frustration vulnerability) rats, psychogenetically selected on the basis of their divergence in two-way avoidance performance, differed in basal whole-brain and hippocampal expression of genes related to neurotransmission, emotion, stress, aversive learning, and drug seeking behavior. We have extended these studies by analyzing strain differences in hippocampal gene expression following a frustrative experience involving reward downshift, i.e. instrumental successive negative contrast (iSNC), a phenomenon in which the sudden reduction of an expected reward induces frustration/anxiety. Food-deprived male Roman rats were exposed to a reduction in the amount of solid food presented in the goal of a straight alley (from 12 pellets in "training" trials - i.e. preshift trials- to 2 pellets in "frustration testing" trials - i.e. postshift trials-). The iSNC effect, as measured by response latencies in the "postshift" trials, appeared only in RLA-I rats (i.e. higher response latencies in the 12-2 RLA-I group as compared to the 2-2 RLA-I control group in postshift trials). Two and a half hours after the "postshift" behavioral test, hippocampi were removed and stored (-80°C) until analysis. Microarray analysis of these hippocampi showed that four differentially-expressed, and qRT-PCR-validated genes (TAAR2, THAP1, PKD2L1, NANOS), have relevance for brain function and behavior, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and drug addiction, thus showing the usefulness of Roman strains as a genetic model for research on the neurogenetic basis of frustration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future.

  9. Induction of influenza-specific local CD8 T-cells in the respiratory tract after aerosol delivery of vaccine antigen or virus in the Babraham inbred pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sophie B.; Attaf, Meriem; Szomolay, Barbara; Miles, John J.; Townsend, Alain; Bailey, Mick; Charleston, Bryan; Tchilian, Elma

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume. It may also be an important vector in the birds to human infection cycle. A major drawback of the current pig model is the inability to analyze antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, which are critical to respiratory immunity. Here we address this knowledge gap using an established in-bred pig model with a high degree of genetic identity between individuals, including the MHC (Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)) locus. We developed a toolset that included long-term in vitro pig T-cell culture and cloning and identification of novel immunodominant influenza-derived T-cell epitopes. We also generated structures of the two SLA class I molecules found in these animals presenting the immunodominant epitopes. These structures allowed definition of the primary anchor points for epitopes in the SLA binding groove and established SLA binding motifs that were used to successfully predict other influenza-derived peptide sequences capable of stimulating T-cells. Peptide-SLA tetramers were constructed and used to track influenza-specific T-cells ex vivo in blood, the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Aerosol immunization with attenuated single cycle influenza viruses (S-FLU) induced large numbers of CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved NP peptides in the respiratory tract. Collectively, these data substantially increase the utility of pigs as an effective model for studying protective local cellular immunity against respiratory

  10. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in a father and daughter from a large highly inbred family: a 16-year follow-up of 59 living members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shyamal Kumar; Kaul, Kanwar K; Hussein, Akhtar; Wilroy, Robert S; Agarwal, Kisan; Sohel, Saira

    2013-08-01

    To report the autosomal dominant inheritance of the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in a highly inbred family, the initiation of Torsades de Pointes, and the natural history of the syndrome based on a 16-year follow-up of the kindred. A family tree was constructed that included 66 blood relatives from three successive generations. Electrocardiograms were obtained from 59 living members including the proband, four members from a nuclear family, and 54 from the extended family. Evoked response audiometry was recorded for the proband and the nuclear family. All 59 family members were followed up regularly for 16 years. A total of 24 living members were affected--QTc: 480-680 ms. The proband had long QTc, bilateral high-tone sensorineural deafness, recurrent syncope, and Torsades de Pointes. The asymptomatic father had long QTc and unilateral high-tone sensorineural deafness that involved specifically the left ear. One asymptomatic sibling of the proband had long QTc and normal hearing. The mother and another sibling were asymptomatic; QTc and hearing were normal in both. A total of 21 affected members from the extended family had only long QTc, and all were asymptomatic. There were three congenitally deaf first cousins who had recurrent syncope and adrenergic-triggered sudden death. In all, seven of 10 parents had consanguineous marriage to a first cousin. Each affected offspring had at least one affected parent. The severely symptomatic proband who received only β-blocker therapy and the 23 affected members without antiadrenergic therapy, all remained asymptomatic throughout the 16-year follow-up period. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome was inherited as autosomal dominant in this kindred. The majority of the affected members had a mild phenotype. The severity of auditory and cardiac phenotypes corresponded.

  11. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Beauchemin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.

  12. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, Kyle J; Wells, Julie M; Kho, Alvin T; Philip, Vivek M; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H; Bult, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS). Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular) defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) archive (GSE74243). Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org).

  13. Genome-Wide Search for Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Important Plant and Flower Traits in Petunia Using an Interspecific Recombinant Inbred Population of Petunia axillaris and Petunia exserta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Guo, Yufang; Yang, Qian; He, Yanhong; Fetouh, Mohammed; Warner, Ryan M; Deng, Zhanao

    2018-05-15

    A major bottleneck in plant breeding has been the much limited genetic base and much reduced genetic diversity in domesticated, cultivated germplasm. Identification and utilization of favorable gene loci or alleles from wild or progenitor species can serve as an effective approach to increasing genetic diversity and breaking this bottleneck in plant breeding. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wild or progenitor petunia species that can be used to improve important horticultural traits in garden petunia. An F 7 recombinant inbred population derived between Petunia axillaris and P. exserta was phenotyped for plant height, plant spread, plant size, flower counts, flower diameter, flower length, and days to anthesis, in Florida in two consecutive years. Transgressive segregation was observed for all seven traits in both years. The broad-sense heritability estimates for the traits ranged from 0.20 (days to anthesis) to 0.62 (flower length). A genome-wide genetic linkage map consisting 368 single nucleotide polymorphism bins and extending over 277 cM was searched to identify QTL for these traits. Nineteen QTL were identified and localized to five linkage groups. Eleven of the loci were identified consistently in both years; several loci explained up to 34.0% and 24.1% of the phenotypic variance for flower length and flower diameter, respectively. Multiple loci controlling different traits are co-localized in four intervals in four linkage groups. These intervals contain desirable alleles that can be introgressed into commercial petunia germplasm to expand the genetic base and improve plant performance and flower characteristics in petunia. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  14. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus in the cucumber line TMG-1: tissue-specific expression and relationship to zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, T; Grumet, R

    1995-09-01

    The inbred cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line TMG-1 is resistant to three potyviruses:zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). The genetics of resistance to WMV and the relationship of WMV resistance to ZYMV resistance were examined. TMG-1 was crossed with WI-2757, a susceptible inbred line. F1, F2 and backcross progeny populations were screened for resistance to WMV and/or ZYMV. Two independently assorting factors conferred resistance to WMV. One resistance was conferred by a single recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-2). The second resistance was conferred by an epistatic interaction between a second recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-3) and either a dominant gene from WI-2757 (Wmv-4) or a third recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-4) located 20-30 cM from wmv-3. The two resistances exhibited tissue-specific expression. Resistance conferred by wmv-2 was expressed in the cotyledons and throughout the plant. Resistance conferred by wmv-3 + Wmv-4 (or wmv-4) was expressed only in true leaves. The gene conferring resistance to ZYMV appeared to be the same as, or tightly linked to one of the WMV resistance genes, wmv-3.

  15. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...... (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used...

  16. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  17. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  18. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  19. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  20. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  1. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  2. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  3. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Several Classical Mouse Inbred Strains, Including DBA/2, NOD/Lt, FVB/N, and SJL/J, Carry a Putative Loss-of-Function Allele of Gpr84

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Carlos J.; Dumas, Aline; Vallières, Luc; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a 7-transmembrane protein expressed on myeloid cells that can bind to medium-chain free fatty acids in vitro. Here, we report the discovery of a 2-bp frameshift deletion in the second exon of the Gpr84 gene in several classical mouse inbred strains. This deletion generates a premature stop codon predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the transmembrane domains 4-7. We sequenced Gpr84 exon 2 from 58 strains representing different groups in th...

  5. Coalescence of DNA Double Strand Breaks Induced by Galactic Cosmic Radiation is Modulated by Genetics in 15 Inbred Strains of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Sebastien; Ray, Shayoni; Staatz, Kevin; Degorre, Charlotte; Guiet, Elodie; Viger, Louise; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Karpen, Gary; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript we address the challenges associated with the ability to predict radiation sensitivity associated with exposure to either cosmic radiation or X-rays in a population study, by monitoring DNA damage sensing protein 53BP1 forming small nuclear radiation-induced foci (RIF) as a surrogate biomarker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). 76 primary skin fibroblasts were isolated from 10 collaborative cross strains and five reference inbred mice (C57Bl/6, BALB/CByJ, B6C3, C3H and CBA/CaJ) and exposed to three different charged nuclei of increasing LET (350 MeV/n Si, 350 MeV/n Ar and 600 MeV/n Fe) and X-ray. Our data brings strong evidence against the classic "contact-first" model where DSBs are assumed to be immobile and repaired at the lesion site. In contrast, our model suggests nearby DSBs move into single repair unit characterized by large RIF before the repair machinery kicks in. Such model has the advantage of being much more efficient molecularly but is poorly suited to deal with cosmic radiation, where energy is concentrated along the particle trajectory, inducing a large density of DSBs along each particle track. In accordance with this model, RIF quantification after X-ray exposition showed a saturated dose response for early time points post-irradiation for all strains. Similarly, the high-LET response showed that RIF number matched the number of track per cell, not the number of expected DSB per cell (1). At the temporal level, we noted that the percentage of unrepaired high-LET tracks over a 48 hour time-course increased with LET, confirming that the DNA repair process becomes more difficult as more DSB coalesce into single RIF. There was also good agreement between persistent RIF levels measured in-vitro in the primary skin cultures and survival levels of T-cells and B-cells collected in blood samples from 10 CC strains 24 hours after 0.1 Gy whole-body dose of X-ray. This suggests that persistent RIF 24 hour post-IR is a good surrogate in

  6. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  7. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  8. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  9. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  10. Uma Discussão sobre o Tratamento Contábil das Compensações Financeiras Decorrentes da Exploração de Petróleo e Gás Natural no Setor Público Brasileiro = A Discussion on the Accounting Treatment of Financial Compensation Resulting from oil and Natural Gas Exploration in the Public Sector Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geverson Dourado Brito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma discussão sobre o tratamento contábil das compensações financeiras decorrentes da exploração de petróleo e gás natural no âmbito do Setor Público brasileiro, de modo a refletir sua essência e impacto no patrimônio dos entes federados e não meramente a cumprir os aspectos legais e formais. Para tratar a questão de pesquisa, foi efetuado estudo de caso em um Município de pequeno porte localizado no Estado do Espírito Santo, a partir de dados extraídos dos balanços contábeis relativos aos exercícios de 2011, 2012 e 2013 disponibilizados pela Prefeitura. Os achados do estudo mostram que atualmente vem sendo mantido processo apto de registro para sustentar o disposto legal do regime da receita orçamentária. Os lançamentos contábeis são efetuados no momento do ingresso dos recursos, mas o mesmo não acontece do ponto de vista patrimonial, uma vez que não se verifica o registro contábil das compensações financeiras no momento da ocorrência do fato gerador. Uma proposta de tratamento contábil é então apresentada, recomendando que um ativo seja reconhecido sob a forma de direito a receber no mês de produção do petróleo ou gás natural.This study aims to present a discussion of the accounting treatment of financial compensation resulting from the oil and gas exploration within the Brazilian public sector, to reflect its essence and impact on the heritage of federal entities and not merely fulfill aspects legal and formal. To address the issue of research, case study was made on a small municipality located in the state of Espirito Santo, from data extracted in the accounting balance sheets for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 provided by the city. The study findings show that is currently being kept fit registration process to support the provisions cool budget revenues regime, the accounting entries being made at the inflow of funds, but the same is not true of the

  11. Estudo anatômico das vias bilíferas extra-hepáticas no suíno. Comparação entre a dissecção convencional e por videolaparoscopia Anatomic study of the extrahepatic biliary ducts in the suine. Comparition betwenn conventional and videolaparascopic dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan Escalante Hurtado

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho, através de dissecção de peças anatômicas constituidas de fígado e duodeno, a morfologia das vias bilíferas do suíno. Os animais foram separados em dois grupos iguais, sendo que o primeiro foi submetido a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica. O segundo grupo era constituído de suínos abatidos para consumo. Os animais do grupo da colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eram observados por um período curto de pós-operatório e depois abatidos para retirada de peças anatômicas, tendo sido realizado o estudo das vias bilíferas extra-hepáticas. No segundo grupo eram as peças retiradas após o abate dos animais, estas eram dissecadas, coradas com tinta guache e posteriormente submetidas a estudo radiológico com a injeção de Bário. Os dados obtidos foram analizados utilizando-se o teste de FISHER. Verificou-se que o ductus choledocus é constituído pela união do ductus cysticus e ductus hepaticus na grande maioria dos casos (84.3%. Verificou-se também que o ductus hepaticus é formado, em grande número dos casos, pela confluência do ductus principalis sinister e ductus principalis dexter. Os resultados encontrados permitem concluir que não existem diferenças significantes, no que se refere à conformação das vias bilíferas extra-hepáticas em ambos os grupos.The morphology of the biliary extrahepatic ducts of 32 Landrace pigs were studied through the dissection of anatomical specimens composed by liver and duodenum. The pigs were separated in two groups of 16 animals each. The first group was initially submited to a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, than observed during a brief postoperative period, and eventually killed for attainment of the anatomical specimens; while the second group was destined to slaughter and the anatomical specimens obtained after their death. The study of the anatomical specimens was performed by the dissection of the bilary extrahepatic ducts when they were painted with

  12. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  13. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  14. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  15. Variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and macropolymers in wheat grains of a recombinant inbred lines population and in two contrasting eco-sites in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    to be significantly correlated with the GMP concentration. CONCLUSION: Concentrations of HMW-GS andGMPare largely affected by the eco-sites and the composition ofHMW-GS, whilst not by the presence of 6 VS·6AL chromosome segment translocation. The 6 VS·6AL translocation is suggested as potential donor for breeding...... wheat cultivars for high resistence to powdery mildew and yellow rust with less risk of undesirable effects on grain quality. c 2012 Society of Chemical Industry Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article....

  16. Evolução do conhecimento contábil nos artigos científicos da revista de contabilidade e finanças sob a visão epistemológica de Ludwik Fleck = Accounting knowledge evolution in scientific article from financial accountancy magazine under an epistemological vision of Ludwik Fleck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antonio Bezerra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar a evolução da pesquisa contábil segundo a visão epistemológica de Ludwik Fleck buscando identificar os momentos nos quais as “pressões sociais” indicam a necessidade de “evolução do conhecimento” da teoria normativa para a positiva. Foi realizado um estudo bibliográfico com abordagem qualitativa. Identificou-se um “coletivo de pensamento”, em relação aos pesquisadores e seus orientadores. Num primeiro período verificou-se que as pesquisas são predominantemente normativas e, num segundo período, positivas. Entre esses períodos de pesquisas positivas ou normativas são desenvolvidos estudos classificados em outras teorias. Conclui-se que para o desenvolvimento de estudos na área contábil os pesquisadores são pouco influenciados pelas teorias de seus orientadores de pós-graduação stricto sensu, no entanto, ocorre uma maior influência dos eventos sociais nas pesquisas, que acabam direcionando as pesquisas científicas.The objective of this research is to analyze the evolution of the accounting research according to Ludwik Fleck’s epistemological view looking for to identify the moments in which the “social pressures” indicate the need of “evolution of the knowledge” from the normative to the positive theory. A bibliographical study was accomplished with qualitative approach. It identified a “collective of thoughts”, in relation to the researchers and their advisors. In a first period it was verified that the researches are predominantly normative and, in a second period, they are positive. Between those periods of researches positive or normative, studies are developed classified in other theories. It is concluded that, for the development of studies in the accounting area, the researchers are little influenced by their advisors' of masters degree stricto sensu theories. However, there is a larger influence of the social events in the researches, which end up

  17. The Development of Quality Control Genotyping Approaches: A Case Study Using Elite Maize Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafa Chen

    Full Text Available Quality control (QC of germplasm identity and purity is a critical component of breeding and conservation activities. SNP genotyping technologies and increased availability of markers provide the opportunity to employ genotyping as a low-cost and robust component of this QC. In the public sector available low-cost SNP QC genotyping methods have been developed from a very limited panel of markers of 1,000 to 1,500 markers without broad selection of the most informative SNPs. Selection of optimal SNPs and definition of appropriate germplasm sampling in addition to platform section impact on logistical and resource-use considerations for breeding and conservation applications when mainstreaming QC. In order to address these issues, we evaluated the selection and use of SNPs for QC applications from large DArTSeq data sets generated from CIMMYT maize inbred lines (CMLs. Two QC genotyping strategies were developed, the first is a "rapid QC", employing a small number of SNPs to identify potential mislabeling of seed packages or plots, the second is a "broad QC", employing a larger number of SNP, used to identify each germplasm entry and to measure heterogeneity. The optimal marker selection strategies combined the selection of markers with high minor allele frequency, sampling of clustered SNP in proportion to marker cluster distance and selecting markers that maintain a uniform genomic distribution. The rapid and broad QC SNP panels selected using this approach were further validated using blind test assessments of related re-generation samples. The influence of sampling within each line was evaluated. Sampling 192 individuals would result in close to 100% possibility of detecting a 5% contamination in the entry, and approximately a 98% probability to detect a 2% contamination of the line. These results provide a framework for the establishment of QC genotyping. A comparison of financial and time costs for use of these approaches across different

  18. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...

  19. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  20. K-line photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)

  1. SAF line pellet gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  2. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  3. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  4. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  5. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  6. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  7. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  8. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  9. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  10. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  11. Building with a Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  12. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  13. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined

  14. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  15. Production of antihypertensive peptides by enzymatic zein hydrolysate from maize-zea mays ssp. mexicana introgression line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Qu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Teosintes are essential gene reservoir for maize breeding improvement, among which Zea mays ssp. mexicana has many valuable traits deserved to be transferred into maize genetic background. In this study, one maize-teosinte introgression line SD00100 was selected from the population of Zea mays ssp. mexicana as wild parent. This introgression line manifested the outstanding agricultural traits similar to maize parent Ye 515 and alien genetic material was identified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). To produce bioactive peptides with potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, zein extracted from endosperm meal was then undergone enzymatic hydrolysis with thermolysin and the hydrolysate was then filtered through a 3 kDa cut-off membrane. ACE inhibitory activity of permeate from Ye 515 and SD00100 was evaluated by RP-HPLC. The IC50 values of the peptides obtained from maize parent and the introgression line were 96.9 micro g/ml and 22.9 micro g/ml, respectively, with significant difference between them. Our results showed that an outstanding inbred maize line was obtained for production of antihypertensive peptides as well as for further development of functional food. (author)

  16. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  17. The last line effect explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M. (Moritz); Zaidman, A. (Andy); Karpov, A. (Andrey); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMicro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or

  18. The last line effect explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Karpov, Andrey; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    Micro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or statements. We do

  19. Contact Line Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  20. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  1. Limit lines for risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  2. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...

  3. SLIA beam line design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petillo, J.; Chernin, D.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA) is a multi-kiloampere compact electron accelerator. It uses linear induction accelerator modules on the straight sections of a racetrack spiral, with strong-focusing bends to recirculate the electrons. The strong focusing is provided by stellarator windings on the bends. Stellarator coils are used to provide the strong focusing on the bends. The matching of the electron beam from a diode through a series of accelerator modules and stellarator bends is a major issue in the design of this accelerator. The beam line design for a proof-of-concept SLIA experiment (10 kA, 7 MeV) to be carried out at Pulse Sciences, Inc. will be presented. The design will demonstrate beam matching from element to element in the focusing system, the design of an achromatic bend, and the requirements for avoiding collective instabilities

  4. Remote mechanical C line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, K.R.; Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a desk-top simulation based training program on the operation of the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line process in the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Simulations display aod contioually update current values of system parameters on computer graphics of RMC line equipment. Students are able to operate a variety of controllers to maintain proper system status. Programmed faults, selectable by the course instructor, can be used to test student responses to off-normal events. Prior to operation of the simulation, students are given computer-based tutorials on the function, processes, operation, and error conditions associated with individual components. By including the capability of operating each individual component - valves, heaters, agitators, etc. - the computer-based training (CBT) lessons become an interactive training manual. From one perspective RMC represents one step in the diffusion of the well-known and well-documented simulator training activities for nuclear reactor operators to other training programs, equally critical, perhaps, but less well scrutinized in the past. Because of the slowly responding nature of the actual process, RMC can retain many of the capabilities of practice and testing in a simulated work environment while avoiding the cost of a full scale simulator and the exposure and waste developed by practice runs of the RMC line. From another perspective RMC suggests training advances even beyond the most faithful simulators. For example, by integrating CBT lessons with the simulation, RMC permits students to focus in on specific processes occurring inside chosen components. In effect, the interactive training manual is available on-line with the simulation itself. Cost are also discussed

  5. Pink-line syndrome

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran J.; Raghukumar, C.; Manikandan, B.

    , a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Marine biology 149: 347-356 7. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2006a) Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome. Current science... handbook: guidelines for assessment and monitoring. Currie Communications, Melbourne, Australia, 94p+App 10. Vargas-Angel B, Wheeler B (2009) Coral health and disease assessment in the US Pacific territories and affiliated states. Proc. 11th Coral Reef...

  6. Análise epistemológica da valoração como constructo para decisões estratégicas: óticas contábil e econômica = Epistemologic analyses of valuation’ contribute for strategy decisions: an accounting and economics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz da Costa Laurencel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversas abordagens teóricas nas áreas contábil e econômica procuram determinar a melhor forma de emprego do conceito “valor” na atividade empresarial. Neste trabalho, dimensionam-se algumas questões associadas à aplicação desse conceito na Contabilidade, já que o tema tem proporcionado interpretações e visões díspares por parte da academia e dos usuários. Este ensaio teórico traz à tona diferenças na atribuição de valor de custo entre a Contabilidade e a Economia. Para isso, analisam-se algumas das principais implicações e aspectos relativos ao emprego do conceito de custos na teoria econômica e na teoria contábil, já que não estão claras as razões porque as empresas preferem não utilizar as perspectivas de valoração formuladas pela teoria econômica no processo de mensuração do resultado. As contestações quanto aos fundamentos que embasam os modelos econômicos na atribuição de valor de custo parecem dever-se ao fato destes se mostrarem fora da realidade das empresas. Esta divergência entre a teoria e a prática estimula a convicção de que existe conflito entre as perspectivas contábil e econômica sobre o conceito de custo. Algumas tentativas de conciliação vêm sendo formuladas pelos acadêmicos da área contábil; a mais recente delas, a aplicação do denominado valor justo (fair value. Com as transformações ocorridas no processo de gestão das empresas, a discussão sobre a eficácia e efetividade desse critério de valoração torna-se uma das mais relevantes questões relacionadas ao controle gerencial, tendo em vista a crescente importância da tomada de decisão baseada nas informações contábeis das empresas.The main objective of this paper is to throw light over some questions concerning value concept in Accounting, since the subject has led to different interpretations and approaches which, in turn, conducted researchers and stakeholders to view accounting information as no common

  7. LA AUTONOMÍA DE LA VOLUNTAD Y PROTECCIÓN DEL CÓNYUGE MÁS DÉBIL EN LA DETERMINACIÓN Y FORMAS DE PAGO DE LA COMPENSACIÓN ECONÓMICA Autonomy of will and protection of the weaker spouse in the determination and form of payment of economic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Lepín Molina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar cómo operan los principios de protección del cónyuge más débil y de autonomía de la voluntad, en dos aspectos específicos del derecho a compensación económica consagrado en los artículos 61 a 66 de la Nueva Ley de Matrimonio Civil, como son la determinación del derecho, ya sea por acuerdo entre los cónyuges o por determinación judicial, y también en un aspecto que ha cobrado relevancia en los últimos años como son las distintas formas de pago de la prestación compensatoria.This paper examines how the principles of protection of weaker spouse and autonomy of will operate in two specific aspects of the right to compensation as set out in Articles 61 to 66 of the New Civil Marriage Act, such as the determination of right, either by agreement between the spouses or by court order, and also the different ways of payment of the compensatory allowance, an area that has gained importance in recent years.

  8. Line managers as marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  9. Análise do processo da comunicação contábil: uma contribuição para a solução de problemas semânticos, utilizando conceitos da teoria da comunicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Dias Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que a compreensibilidade das informações contábeis é um dos atributos necessários para que a Contabilidade possa servir ao processo decisório, o presente trabalho procura discutir até que ponto os usuários de tais informações conseguem compreender a terminologia empregada na evidenciação contábil. A literatura revela que a preocupação com o aspecto da compreensibilidade na área contábil não é nova, mas nota-se que ela vem aumentando na medida em que o leque de usuários das informações contábeis se amplia, quer seja impulsionado pelo fenômeno da globalização de mercados, quer pelo progresso das tecnologias da informação. Além disso, observa-se que os usuários mais tradicionais, tais como fornecedores, clientes e investidores, tornam-se mais exigentes em relação à quantidade e à qualidade das informações que lhes são oferecidas. Tomando-se por base a literatura corrente e alguns resultados de pesquisas, levanta-se a hipótese de que muitos termos empregados nas demonstrações contábeis não são compreendidos por seus destinatários ou são interpretados de maneira diferente da que se pretendia. Alega-se que uma das prováveis causas desse desencontro entre significados pretendidos e alcançados não reside apenas no uso de termos eminentemente técnicos, mas também no hábito de os contadores atribuírem significados técnicos a palavras que são utilizadas com sentido diferente na linguagem comum. A título de exemplo, cite-se que o usuário tanto pode ignorar o significado contábil de um termo como goodwill, como também atribuir um significado diferente do desejado ao termo depreciação. Se isso pode ocorrer com usuários mais familiarizados com a terminologia contábil, a exemplo de investidores, credores e outros semelhantes, o que pode ser dito em relação aos menos tradicionais, tais como entidades de proteção ambiental, organizações não governamentais voltadas para a defesa

  10. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  11. α-line systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caurier, E.; Zuker, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the α-line, defined as a set of differences (D α ) characterized binding energies of (N,Z) nuclei, is presented. The 2p2n-separation energies for even-even nuclei, odd-odd nuclei, even(Z)-odd(N) nuclei, odd(Z)-even(N) nuclei are presented. Trends and details in even-even nuclei, magic numbers of even-even and odd-odd nuclei are discussed. (G.P.) 1 ref.; 8 figs

  12. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  13. The innominate line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.A.; Myung, K.H.; Bergeron, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The innominate line continues to be of value in evaluating the integrity of the sphenoid bone since plain skull radiographs remain a primary screening tool for metastatic disease, seizure disorder and headache. The detection of lesions involving the sphenoid bone can be difficult. The accuracy of the radionulcide scan is reduced because of confusion caused by uptake in the adjacent nasal and sinus mucosa. On computed tomography, the sections through the base of the skull and orbit can contain many artifictual densities caused by a combination of bone, soft tissue and sinus air interfaces. In addition, routine settings of window width and level on CT scan are designed to best demonstrate the soft tissues, and bony lesions can easily be missed. Thus, disruption of the ''integrity'' of this line on plain films, particularly the Caldwell projection, can be a sensitive first indicator of disease involving the sphenoid bone. Such a determination on plain film leads to more accurate CT scanning, in that attention will be given to the skull base and scans will be imaged with both soft tissue and bone windows. (orig./MG)

  14. Radiation resistant lining material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)

  15. Strategic production line synchronisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattingh, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at the sole global producer of suspension struts for a particular vehicle manufacturer. This supplier is currently able to meet customer demand. However, it does so because of a large finished goods and work-in-progress (WIP inventory. The plant operates two production processes that are separated by a large buffer of WIP, which essentially decouples the production processes. This study aimed to reduce this WIP buffer; this would require the processes to become synchronised, bearing in mind that the reliability of delivery should not decrease. A tool that considers time, quality, and machine capacity was developed to assess the impact of line synchronisation on company performance figures. It was found that line synchronisation produced several benefits for the supplier, including batch size reduction, lower inventory levels, and associated shorter lead times. This further allowed the supplier to improve flow in the plant by introducing a pull system. Improved visual oversight could lead to further improved problem-solving and innovation.

  16. China's Bilateral Currency Swap Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitao, Lin; Wenjie, Zhan; Cheung, Yin-Wong

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of China’s bilateral local currency swap lines that were established since the recent global finance crisis. It is found that economic factors, political considerations, and institutional characteristics including trade intensity, economic size, strategic partnership, free trade agreement, corruption, and stability affect the decision of signing a swap line agreement. Once a swap line agreement decision is made, the size of the swap line is then mainly affected by tr...

  17. Mjollnir Rotational Line Scan Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-19

    using long cavity. M8 Removable Pellicle Beam Splitter for He-Ne Lineup Beam. Removed before HF or DF laser is turned on. 27 A 27 * A r of the chopper...three probe laser lines, however three lines were sequentially measured to verify the diagnostic equipment. Two of the three lines have been monitored

  18. CLO : The cell line ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  19. Parallel plate transmission line transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, S.J.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A Transmission Line Transformer (TLT) can be used to transform high-voltage nanosecond pulses. These transformers rely on the fact that the length of the pulse is shorter than the transmission lines used. This allows connecting the transmission lines in parallel at the input and in series at the

  20. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.